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Maths Methods Exam Cheat Sheet

Simultaneous Equations
Substitution method
Substitute either the x value or y value in to one of the equations then solve algebraically.
Elimination method







Linear graphs
Parallel lines
If both gradients are the same, they are parallel
Perpendicular lines
If m
1
m
2
= -1 then it is perpendicular
Finding equation of straight line
m=
y2-y1
Work out gradient
x2-x1
then substitute it into the equation along with the x and y values given to work out c
Tangent of angle of slope
Angle = tan
-1
m Basically multiply the gradient by inverse tan. If the angle is negative add it to 180 degrees.
Distance between two points
AB=(x
2-
x
1
)
2
+ (y y
1
)
2
2-

Midpoint
( x =
x
1
+x
2
2
,
1
+
2
y =

2
)
Angle between intersecting lines
o = 0
2
-0
1
Basically find the tangent angle of slope for both equations and subtract from each other.

Quadratics
Finding Turning Points
There a two very simple methods to finding the TPs. The first one is to change the formula into the turning point form:
y = a(x - b)
2
+ c
The other method is to find the x intercepts, then to find the x-value of the TP, you add the x-intercepts together and
halve it. Then to find the y-intercept, substitute the x-value TP into the equation.
Discriminant
If: *discriminant > 0 = two solutions (x intercepts)
*discriminant = 0 = 1 solution (x intercepts)
*discriminant < 0 = no solutions (x intercepts)
Quadratic formula in different forms:
y = ax
2
+bx+c < use when given y-int and a point
y = ax(x-b) < use when given one x-int and a point
y = (x-a)(x-b) < use when give two x-ints
y = a(x-b)
2
+c < use when given TP
y = ax
2
+c < use when give a y and x-int
Inequations
If you divide or multiply negative values across, the > sign will change to < and vice versa

Gallery of graphs
Hyperbola
y =
u
x+h
+ k
a represents dilation factor
h represents translation in the x-axis (positive moves left, negative moves right)
k represents translation in the y-axis (positive moves up, negative moves down)




Maths Methods Exam Cheat Sheet
u
(x+h)
2
Truncus
y = + k
a represents dilation factor
h represents translation in the x-axis (positive moves left, negative moves right)
k represents translation in the y-axis (positive moves up, negative moves down)

Square root function
y = ax -b + k
a represents dilation factor
if a>1, the graph become straighter vertically
0<a<1, the graph becomes straighter horizontally
h represents translation in the x-axis (positive moves left, negative moves right)
k represents translation in the y-axis (positive moves left, negative moves right)
If the x term is negative, than the graph becomes reflected horizontally, if the entire
equation is negative, then the graph become reflected vertically. If the equation is
negative as well as the x term, the graph becomes inverted both horizontally and
vertically.

Circles
(x-h)
2
+ (y-k)
2
= r
2

The centre of the circle is the point (h, k) and the radius is r.







Semicircles


To get it back into the normal form, complete the square.