Sie sind auf Seite 1von 21

Chapter 10 Foundations ACI 376-10

Supporting Concrete Structures Containing Refrigerated Liquefied Gases

Foundation Types
Shallow Foundations
Annular Rings and Mats Deep Foundations Driven or Drilled Piles

Performance Issues
Support Live and Dead Loads Control Settlement
Initial, Long term, & Differential

Survive Extreme Events


Floods, Storms, Earthquakes, Fire

GeotechnicalInvestigation
.andwecansave700lirabynot doingasoilsinvestigation.

GeotechnicalEngineer
ComprehensiveInvestigation
RegionalInformation Publishedwork RemoteSensing AerialorSatellite Geophysics Seismic,Electromagnetic FieldTests ConePenetrometer,Drilling LaboratoryTests

SoilsPropertiesNecessary
ArealandVerticalDistributionofSoilUnits ThicknessofindividualSoilUnits UnitSoilProperties
Compressibility Initialandlongterm ShearStrength Shearmodulus ThermalandElectricalConductivity Drainageproperties

BasicInformation
StructuralEngineertoGeotechnicalEngineer TankandFoundationConfiguration GravityLoads,Wind&Seismicforces TensionUpliftForces PermissibleSettlementLimits TypesofFoundationstobeconsidered

Boreholes&ConePentrometers
OneatCenter&ThreeonPerimeter Greaterthan100ft,oneadditionalforeach 10,000sqftoftankarea. Depthtobelowsignificantinfluence<10%or tocompetentstratum PushCPTstorefusal(25ton) Centerto1.5D,perimeterto0.85Dmin.

EarthquakeGeotechnics
SiteSpecificSeismicHazardAssessment
GroundAccelerations,Velocities,&Displacements Usedtocalculateseismicresponseofstructure SoilStructureInteraction(NotonSiteClassA&B) SoilLiquefactionandSpreading(SSE&OBE) Mitigationmethodsandpotential

ShallowFoundationDesign
AllowableBearingPressure(lesserof)
PermissibleTotal&DifferentialSettlement UltimateBearingPressure/Min.FactorofSafety MinimumFactorofSafety Table10.1 EdgeshearandBaseshear

Overturning&Anchorage SlidingResistanceMin.FactorofSafety
1.5forWind&OBE 1.2SSE

SETTLEMENT
Uniformpermittedifstructureaccommodates DifferentialorUniform(Planar)tiltinglimited to1/500 Dishingonradiallines(max.3/81/300) Footingaroundperimeterlesserof
1/500ormaximumcalculatedforuniformtilting

Consideradjacenttanks,soilstiffness,etc.

DeepFoundations
Numerousindividualcomponentsadditive Driven&CastInPlacePiles PileSelectionStudy(Availability&COST) PileTestingProgram(EarliertheBetter) PileDrivingEffects Settlement DownDrag&NegativeSkin Friction

DeepFoundationDesign
AllowablePileCapacity(lesserof)
PermissibleTotal&DifferentialSettlement UltimatePileCapacity/Min.FactorofSafety MinimumFactorofSafety Table10.2 StructuralStrengthofPile

Overturning&Uplift LateralLoadResistance

GroundImprovement
Removeandreplacew/bettermaterial Soildensityimprovement Vibratingpiledriverspud(Vibrocompaction) Dynamiccompaction(40to100tonweightdrop) Wickdrainstoenhancesettlement Preloadwithexcessoverburden(20+meters) Deepsoilmixingw/cementetc.

FoundationDetails
Groundwater bottomoftankalwaysabove Drainage awayfromtanktosump Foundationheating controlfrostheave
Heatingcables Ventilatedfoundation(airgap) Welldrainedgranularsoilwithdeepwatertable

FoundationMonitoring
Settlement
Min.8permanentsurveypoints(divisibleby4) Spacednomorethan33ftaroundperimeter

Inclinometerstomeasuredishing Thermalsystemtocoverbottomarea Seismicw/accelerometersonfoundation,roof andfreefieldreferencepoint(total3)

MonitoringFrequency
Settlement duringconstruction, hydrotesting,commissioningandannually Inclinometers withinaweekofsettlement Thermal cooldown,inservice commissioningandatleastweekly Seismic continuousw/regularmaintenance Corrosion twiceayear

Inspection&Testing
Codeprovidesforminimumrequirementsfor testingofmaterialsandinstallation Codealsoprovidesforminimumqualifications ofwelders,inspectorsandtechnicians Codeprovidesforminimumdocumentationto beretainedandfurnishedtotheowner

Communication&Cooperation

Questions?

FinalThoughts
DirtAint Cheap!!
MotherEarthisverytricky!! Likesurgeons,Geotechs burytheirmistakes andyoustillowethebill. Themoreyouknow,thelowerthesafety factorrequired! Thesooneryouknowit,thelessitcosts