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RF Engineering Training

Introduction: GSM is a mature technology rich in features, capabilities, and options intended to solve a host of specific problems. This course in our series of courses on GSM and WCDMA examines these advanced features and offers practical strategies for exploiting them to optimize todays networks. Audience: Intending and Engineers new to the field of RF engineering, managers, or other personnel responsible for RF systems whether wireless, cellular/mobile, microwave, or other, will benefit from a comprehensive understanding of RF optimization, spectrum utilization, spectrum planning and capacity and quality of service management for RF systems. An electrical engineering degree or equivalent background is desired, but not required.

Course Outline 1. RF Overview

Performance characteristics RF engineering principles Testing & measurement Drive testing Performance counters and key performance indicators (KPIs) Data collection and post processing of data Root Cause Analysis (RCA) Spectrum utilization Dropped calls Poor coverage Hard hand over failures Soft hand over failures Overview of optimization process for FFR modulation technologies Overview of optimization process for CDMA modulation technologies

2. RF Operating Environment

Propagation models Link budget analysis Path loss Reflection Okamura/HATA Noise & interference Polarization distortion Diversity Raleyigh effect Detection of co-channel interference Coverage maps Site acquisition process in RF engineering Cell splitting process


RF Engineering Training 3.


Diversity Bandwidth Radiation patterns Antenna materials Azimuth & downtilt

3. b. Antenna types

Omni-directional Dipoles & monopoles

3. c. Smart Antennas

Operation Basic components of What is the trade offs of using smart antennas? MIMO

4. FFR modulation technologies

Frequency planning Interference matrices Neighbor planning GSM logical channels (BCCH, FCH, SCH, SACCH, TCH, RACH) Frequency hopping Congestion In building coverage Throughput measurements Impact of retransmissions on throughput LAC/RAC boundaries RF Optimization Process


a. Setting the optimization criteria b. Optimization in CDMA networks (including W-CDMA)

Sources of information Parameter investigation Analysis of the existing RF plan Performance of cell site audit Multi carrier and multi mode optimization Post processing and analysis of data Corrective actions


RF Engineering Training c. Optimization in fractional frequency reuse networks

Sources of information Interference matrices Frequency reuse plan Parameter investigation Analysis of the existing RF plan Performance of cell site audit Post processing and analysis of data Corrective actions

d. Correlation of customer complaints to possible root cause (RCA)

Capacity and loading examples Dropped call, poor coverage Dropped call, system resources Dropped call, other

e. Mobile drive testing and data collection

Tools available Post processing, what does it mean Root cause analysis Tracking and benchmarking PN scanners and their capabilities

6. Workshop GSM/GPRS

Performance analysis Optimization process BCCH parameter optimization Cell selection & reselection Interference analysis GPRS Attach Routing area updates Measuring throughput Root cause analysis (RCA) Final recommendations