Sie sind auf Seite 1von 185

STAAD.

Pro 2007
INTERNATIONAL DESIGN CODES
DAA037810-1/0001
A Bentley Solutions Center
www.reiworld.com
www.bentley.com/staad
Indian Codes
9-1
Concrete Design Per IS456
9A.1 Design Operations
STAAD has the capabilities of performing concrete design based
on limit state method of IS: 456 (2000).
9A.2 Section Types for Concrete Design
The following types of cross sections for concrete members can be
designed.
For Beams Prismatic (Rectangular & Square), T-Beams and
L-shapes
For Columns Prismatic (Rectangular, Square and Circular)
9A.3 Member Dimensions
Concrete members which will be designed by the program must
have certain section properties input under the MEMBER
PROPERTY command. The following example shows the required
input:
Section
9A
Concrete Design Per IS456
Section 9A 9-2
UNIT MM
MEMBER PROPERTY
1 3 TO 7 9 PRISM YD 450. ZD 250.
11 13 PR YD 350.
14 TO 16 PRIS YD 400. ZD 750. YB 300. ZB 200.
will be done accordingly. In the above input, the first set of
members are rectangular (450 mm depth and 250mm width) and
the second set of members, with only depth and no width provided,
will be assumed to be circular with 350 mm diameter. The third set
numbers in the above example represents a T-shape with 750 mm
flange width, 200 width, 400 mm overall depth and 100 mm flange
depth (See section 6.20.2). The program will determine whether
the section is rectangular, flanged or circular and the beam or
column design
9A.4 Design Parameters
The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to
perform design as per IS:456(2000). Default parameter values
have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for
conventional design requirements. These values may be changed to
suit the particular design being performed. Table 8A.1 of this
manual contains a complete list of the available parameters and
their default values. It is necessary to declare length and force
units as Millimeter and Newton before performing the concrete
design.
9A.5 Slenderness Effects and Analysis
Consideration
Slenderness effects are extremely important in designing
compression members. The IS:456 code specifies two options by
which the slenderness effect can be accommodated (Clause 39.7).
Section 9A 9-3
One option is to perform an exact analysis which will take into
account the influence of axial loads and variable moment of inertia
on member stiffness and fixed end moments, the effect of
deflections on moment and forces and the effect of the duration of
loads. Another option is to approximately magnify design
moments.
STAAD has been written to allow the use of the first options. To
perform this type of analysis, use the command PDELTA
ANALYSIS instead of PERFORM ANALYSIS. The PDELTA
ANALYSIS will accommodate all requirements of the second-
order analysis described by IS:456, except for the effects of the
duration of the loads. It is felt that this effect may be safely
ignored because experts believe that the effects of the duration of
loads are negligible in a normal structural configuration.
Although ignoring load duration effects is somewhat of an
approximation, it must be realized that the approximate evaluation
of slenderness effects is also an approximate method. In this
method, additional moments are calculated based on empirical
formula and assumptions on sidesway
(Clause 39.7.1 and 39.7.1.1,IS: 456 - 2000).
Considering all these information, a PDELTA ANALYSIS, as
performed by STAAD may be used for the design of concrete
members. However the user must note, to take advantage of this
analysis, all the combinations of loading must be provided as
primary load cases and not as load combinations. This is due to the
fact that load combinations are just algebraic combinations of
forces and moments, whereas a primary load case is revised during
the P-delta analysis based on the deflections. Also note that the
proper factored loads (like 1.5 for dead load etc.) should be
provided by user. STAAD does not factor the loads automatically.
9A.6 Beam Design
Beams are designed for flexure, shear and torsion. If required the
effect the axial force may be taken into consideration. For all
Concrete Design Per IS456
Section 9A

9-4
these forces, all active beam loadings are prescanned to identify
the critical load cases at different sections of the beams. The total
number of sections considered is 13( e.g. 0.,.1,.2,.25,.3,.4,.5,.6,.7,.
75,.8,.9 and 1). All of these sections are scanned to determine the
design force envelopes.

Design for Flexure
Maximum sagging (creating tensile stress at the bottom face of the
beam) and hogging (creating tensile stress at the top face)
moments are calculated for all active load cases at each of the
above mentioned sections. Each of these sections is designed to
resist both of these critical sagging and hogging moments. Where
ever the rectangular section is inadequate as singly reinforced
section, doubly reinforced section is tried. However, presently the
flanged section is designed only as singly reinforced section under
sagging moment. It may also be noted all flanged sections are
automatically designed as rectangular section under hogging
moment as the flange of the beam is ineffective under hogging
moment. Flexural design of beams is performed in two passes. In
the first pass, effective depths of the sections are determined with
the assumption of single layer of assumed reinforcement and
reinforcement requirements are calculated. After the preliminary
design, reinforcing bars are chosen from the internal database in
single or multiple layers. The entire flexure design is per formed
again in a second pass taking into account of the changed effective
depths of sections calculated on the basis of reinforcement provide
after the preliminary design. Final provisions of flexural
reinforcements are made then. Efforts have been made t o meet the
guideline for the curtailment of reinforcements as per IS:456-2000
(Clause 26.2.3). Although exact curtailment lengths are not
mentioned explicitly in the design output (finally which will be
more or less guided by the detailer taking into account of other
practical consideration), user has the choice of printing
reinforcements provided by STAAD at 11 equally spaced sections
from which the final detail drawing can be prepared.





Section 9A

9-5
Design for Shear
Shear reinforcement is calculated to resist both shear forces and
torsional moments. Shear design are performed at 11 equally
spaced sections (0.to 1.) for the maximum shear forces amongst
the active load cases and the associated torsional moments. Shear
capacity calculation at different sections without the shear
reinforcement is based on the actual tensile reinforcement
provided by STAAD program. Two-legged stirrups are provided to
take care of the balance shear forces acting on these sections.

As per Clause 40.5 of IS:456-2000 shear strength of sections (< 2d
where d is the effective depth) close to support has been enhanced,
subjected to a maximum value of t
cmax
.

Beam Design Output

The default design output of the beam contains flexural and shear
reinforcement provided at 5 equally spaced (0,.25,.5,.75 and 1.)
sections along the length of the beam. User has option to get a
more detail output. All beam design outputs are given in IS units.
An example of rectangular beam design output with the default
output option (TRACK 0.0) is presented below:
Concrete Design Per IS456
Section 9A

9-6

============================================================================
B E A M N O. 12 D E S I G N R E S U L T S

M20 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.)

LENGTH: 4000.0 mm SIZE: 250.0 mm X 350.0 mm COVER: 30.0 mm


DESIGN LOAD SUMMARY (KN MET)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
SECTION |FLEXTURE (Maxm. Sagging/Hogging moments)| SHEAR
(in mm) | P MZ MX Load Case | VY MX Load Case
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
0.0 | 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 | 29.64 1.23 4
| 0.00 -25.68 1.23 4 |
400.0 | 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 | 27.97 1.23 4
| 0.00 -16.05 1.23 4 |
800.0 | 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 | 25.12 1.23 4
| 0.00 -7.17 1.23 4 |
1200.0 | 0.00 0.97 0.49 5 | 21.11 1.23 4
| 0.00 -0.14 1.32 6 |
1600.0 | 0.00 6.77 1.23 4 | 15.93 1.23 4
| 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 |
2000.0 | 0.00 11.06 1.23 4 | 9.59 1.23 4
| 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 |
2400.0 | 0.00 13.04 1.23 4 | 2.08 1.23 4
| 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 |
2800.0 | 0.00 12.45 1.23 4 | -5.43 1.23 4
| 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 |
3200.0 | 0.00 9.55 1.23 4 | -11.77 1.23 4
| 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 |
3600.0 | 0.00 4.73 1.23 4 | -16.95 1.23 4
| 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 |
4000.0 | 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 | -25.48 1.23 4
| 0.00 -17.36 1.23 4 |
----------------------------------------------------------------------------


SUMMARY OF REINF. AREA (Sq.mm)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
SECTION 0.0 mm 1000.0 mm 2000.0 mm 3000.0 mm 4000.0 mm
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOP 259.04 161.29 0.00 0.00 176.31
REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm)

BOTTOM 0.00 160.78 160.78 160.78 0.00
REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------


SUMMARY OF PROVIDED REINF. AREA
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
SECTION 0.0 mm 1000.0 mm 2000.0 mm 3000.0 mm 4000.0 mm
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOP 4-10 3-10 2-10 2-10 3-10
REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s)

BOTTOM 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-12
REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s)

SHEAR 2 legged 8 2 legged 8 2 legged 8 2 legged 8 2 legged 8
REINF. @ 100 mm c/c @ 100 mm c/c @ 100 mm c/c @ 100 mm c/c @ 100 mm c/c
----------------------------------------------------------------------------

============================================================================

Section 9A

9-7
9A.7 Column Design
Columns are designed for axial forces and biaxial moments at the
ends. All active load cases are tested to calculate reinforcement.
The loading which yield maximum reinforcement is called the
critical load. Column design is done for square, rectangular and
circular sections. By default, square and rectangular columns and
designed with reinforcement distributed on each side equally for
the sections under biaxial moments and with reinforcement
distributed equally in two faces for sections under uniaxial
moment. User may change the default arrangement of the
reinforcement with the help of the parameter RFACE (see Table
8A.1). Depending upon the member lengths, section dimensions
and effective length coefficients specified by the user STAAD
automatically determine the criterion (short or long) of the column
design. All major criteria for selecting longitudinal and transverse
reinforcement as stipulated by IS:456 have been taken care of in
the column design of STAAD. Default clear spacing between main
reinforcing bars is taken to be 25 mm while arrangement of
longitudinal bars.

Column Design Output

Default column design output (TRACK 0.0) contains the
reinforcement provided by STAAD and the capacity of the section.
With the option TRACK 1.0, the output contains intermediate
results such as the design forces, effective length coefficients,
additional moments etc. A special output TRACK 9.0 is introduced
to obtain the details of section capacity calculations. All design
output is given in SI units. An exampl e of a long column design
(Ref.Example9 of SP:16, Design Aids For Reinforced Concrete to
IS:456-1978) output (with option TRACK 1.0) is given below.
Concrete Design Per IS456
Section 9A

9-8

============================================================================
C O L U M N N O. 1 D E S I G N R E S U L T S

M20 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.)

LENGTH: 3000.0 mm CROSS SECTION: 250.0 mm dia. COVER: 40.0 mm

** GUIDING LOAD CASE: 5 BRACED LONG COLUMN


DESIGN FORCES (KNS-MET)
-----------------------
DESIGN AXIAL FORCE (Pu) : 62.0

About Z About Y
INITIAL MOMENTS : 2.21 32.29
MOMENTS DUE TO MINIMUM ECC. : 1.24 1.24

SLENDERNESS RATIOS : 12.00 12.00
MOMENTS DUE TO SLENDERNESS EFFECT : 1.12 1.12
MOMENT REDUCTION FACTORS : 1.00 1.00
ADDITION MOMENTS (Maz and May) : 1.12 1.12

TOTAL DESIGN MOMENTS : 3.32 33.40

REQD. STEEL AREA : 1822.71 Sq.mm.
MAIN REINFORCEMENT : Provide 17 - 12 dia. (3.92%, 1922.65 Sq.mm.)
(Equally distributed)
TIE REINFORCEMENT : Provide 8 mm dia. rectangular ties @ 190 mm c/c

SECTION CAPACITY (KNS-MET)
--------------------------
Puz : 992.70 Muz1 : 36.87 Muy1 : 36.87

INTERACTION RATIO: 1.00 (as per Cl. 38.6, IS456)

============================================================================

Section 9A

9-9

Table 9A.1 Indian Concrete Design IS456 Parameters
Parameter Default Description
Name Value
FYMAIN 415 N/mm
2
Yield Stress for main reinforcing
steel.
FYSEC 415 N/mm
2
Yield Stress for secondary
reinforcing steel.
FC 30 N/mm
2
Concrete Yield Stress.
CLEAR 25 mm
40 mm
For beam members.
For column members
MINMAIN 10 mm Minimum main reinforcement
bar size.
MAXMAIN 60 mm Maximum main reinforcement
bar size.
MINSEC 8 mm Minimum secondary
reinforcement bar size.
MAXSEC 12 mm Maximum secondary
reinforcement bar size.
BRACING 0.0 BEAM DESIGN
A value of 1.0 means the effect
of axial force will be taken into
account for beam design.
COLUMN DESIGN
A value of 1.0 means the column
is unbraced about major axis.
A value of 2.0 means the column
is unbraced about minor axis.
A value of 3.0 means the column
is unbraced about both axis.
RATIO 4.0 Maximum percentage of
longitudinal reinforcement in
columns.
Concrete Design Per IS456
Section 9A

9-10

Table 9A.1 Indian Concrete Design IS456 Parameters
Parameter Default Description
Name Value
RFACE 4.0 A value of 4.0 means longitudinal
reinforcement in column is arranged
equally along 4 faces.
A value of 2.0 invokes 2 faced
distribution about major axis.
A value of 3.0 invokes 2 faced
distribution about minor axis.
WIDTH ZD Width to be used for design. This value
defaults to ZD as provided under
MEMBER PROPERTIES.
DEPTH YD Total depth to be used for design. This
value defaults to YD as provided under
MEMBER PROPERTIES.
TRACK 0.0 BEAM DESIGN:
For TRACK = 0.0, output consists of
reinforcement details at START, MIDDLE
and END.
For TRACK = 1.0, critical moments are
printed in addition to TRACK 0.0 output.
For TRACK = 2.0, required steel for
intermediate sections defined by
NSECTION are printed in addition to
TRACK 1.0 output.
COLUMN DESIGN:
With TRACK = 0.0, reinforcement details
are printed.
With TRACK = 1.0, column interaction
analysis results are printed in addition to
TRACK 0.0 output.
With TRACK = 2.0, a schematic
interaction diagram and intermediate
interaction values are printed in addition
to TRACK 1.0 output.
With TRACK = 9.0, the details of
section capacity calculations are
printed.
REINF 0.0 Tied column. A value of 1.0 will mean
spiral reinforcement.

Section 9A

9-11

Table 9A.1 Indian Concrete Design IS456 Parameters
Parameter Default Description
Name Value
ELZ 1.0 Ratio of effective length to actual length of
column about major axis.
ELY 1.0 Ratio of effective length to actual length of
column about minor axis.
ULY 1.0 Ratio of unsupported length to actual
length of column about minor axis.
ULZ 1.0 Ratio of unsupported length to actual
length of column about major axis.
TORSION 0.0 A value of 0.0 means torsion to be
considered in beam design.

A value of 1.0 means torsion to be
neglected in beam design.
SPSMAIN 25 mm Minimum clear distance between main
reinforcing bars in beam and column. For
column centre to centre distance between
main bars cannot exceed 300mm.
SFACE 0.0 Face of support location at start of beam. It
is used to check against shear at the face
of the support in beam design. The
parameter can also be used to check
against shear at any point from the start of
the member.
EFACE 0.0 Face of support location at end of beam.
The parameter can also be used to check
against shear at any point from the end of
the member. (Note: Both SFACE and
EFACE are input as positive numbers).
Concrete Design Per IS456
Section 9A

9-12
Table 9A.1 Indian Concrete Design IS456 Parameters
Parameter Default Description
Name Value
ENSH 0.0 Perform shear check against enhanced
shear strength as per Cl. 40.5 of
IS456:2000.

ENSH = 1.0 means ordinary shear check to
be performed ( no enhancement of shear
strength at sections close to support)

For ENSH = a positive value(say x ), shear
strength will be enhanced up to a distance
x from the start of the member. This is used
only when a span of a beam is subdivided
into two or more parts. (Refer note )
For ENSH = a negative value(say y),
shear strength will be enhanced up to a
distance y from the end of the member.
This is used only when a span of a beam is
subdivided into two or more parts.(Refer
note)
If default value (0.0) is used the program
will calculate Length to Overall Depth ratio.
If this ratio is greater than 2.5, shear
strength will be enhanced at sections (<2d)
close to support otherwise ordinary shear
check will be performed.
RENSH 0.0 Distance of the start or end point of the
member from its nearest support. This
parameter is used only when a span of a
beam is subdivided into two or more parts.
(Refer note)
Bar combination has been introduced for detailing. Please refer section 8A.8 for
details.
Notes: Value of ENSH parameter (other than 0.0 and 1.0) is used only
when the span of a beam is subdivided into two or more parts. When this
condition is aroused RENSH parameter is also to be used.
Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified
number till it is specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all
codes.

Section 9A

9-13
The span of the beam is subdivided four parts, each of length L
metre. The shear strength will be enhanced up to X metre from
both supports. The input should be the following:

Steps:

ENSH L MEMB 1 => Shear strength will be enhanced
throughout the length of the member 1,
positive sign indicates length
measured from start of the member

ENSH (X-L) MEMB 2 => Shear strength will be enhanced up to
a length (X-L) of the member 2, length
measured from the start of the member

ENSH L MEMB 4 => Shear strength will be enhanced
throughout the length of the member 4,
negative sign indicates length
measured from end of the member

ENSH (X-L) MEMB 3 => Shear strength will be enhanced up to
a length (X-L) of the member 3, length
measured from the end of the member

RENSH L MEMB 2 3 => Nearest support lies at a distance L
from both the members 2 and 3.

DESIGN BEAM 1 TO 4=> This will enhance the shear strength
up to length X from both ends of the
beam consisting of members 1 to 4 and
gives spacing accordingly.
Concrete Design Per IS456
Section 9A

9-14
At section = y1 from start of member 1 av = y1
At section = y2 from the start of member 2 av = y2+L
At section = y3 from the end of member 3 av = y3+L
At section = y4 from end of member 4 av = y4
where tc, enhanced = 2dtc/av

At section 0.0, av becomes zero. Thus enhanced shear strength will
become infinity. However for any section shear stress cannot
exceed tc, max. Hence enhanced shear strength is limited to a
maximum value of tc, max.
9A.8 Bar Combination
Initially the program selects only one bar to calculate the number
of bars required and area of steel provided at each section along
the length of the beam. Now, two bar diameters can be specified to
calculate a combination of each bar to be provided at each section.
The syntax for bar combination is given below.

START BAR COMBINATION
MD1 <bar diameter> MEMB <member list>
MD2 <bar diameter> MEMB <member list>
END BAR COMBINATION


Section 9A

9-15
MD2 bar diameter should be greater than MD1 bar diameter. The typical
output for bar combination is shown below:

OUTPUT FOR BAR COMBINATION

--------------------------------------------------------------

| M A I N R E I N F O R C E M E N T |

--------------------------------------------------------------
SECTION | 0.0- 2166.7 | 2166.7- 6500.0 | 6500.0- 8666.7 |
| mm | mm | mm |
--------------------------------------------------------------
TOP | 6-20 + 1-25| 2-20 + 1-25 | 2-20 |
| in 2 layer(s)| in 1 layer(s) | in 1 layer(s) |
Ast Reqd| 2330.22 | 1029.90 | 582.55 |
Prov| 2376.79 | 1119.64 | 628.57 |
Ld (mm) | 940.2 | 940.2 | 940.2 |
--------------------------------------------------------------
BOTTOM | 4-20 | 2-20 | 2-20 |
|in 1 layer(s) | in 1 layer(s) | in 1 layer(s) |
Ast Reqd| 1165.11 | 582.55 | 582.55 |
Prov| 1257.14 | 628.57 | 628.57 |
Ld (mm) | 940.2 | 940.2 | 940.2 |
-------------------------------------------------------------


The beam length is divided into three parts, two at its ends and one at span.
Ld gives the development length to be provided at the two ends of each
section.
9A.9 Wall Design in accordance with IS 456-2000
Design of walls in accordance with IS 456-2000 is available in
STAAD.Pro.

Design is performed for in-plane shear, in-plane and out-of-plane
bending and out-of-plane shear. The wall has to be modeled using
STAADs Surface elements. The use of the Surface element
enables the designer to treat the entire wall as one entity. It greatly
simplifies the modeling of the wall and adds clarity to the analysis
and design output. The results are presented in the context of the
entire wall rather than individual finite elements thereby allowing
users to quickly locate required information.

Concrete Design Per IS456
Section 9A

9-16
The program reports shear wall design results for each load
case/combination for user specified number of sections given by
SURFACE DIVISION (default value is 10) command. The shear
wall is designed at these horizontal sections. The output includes
the required horizontal and vertical distributed reinforcing, the
concentrated (in-plane bending) edge reinforcing and the link
required for out-of-plane shear.

General format:

START SHEARWALL DESIGN
CODE INDIAN
FYMAIN f1
FC f2
HMIN f3
HMAX f4
VMIN f5
VMAX f6
EMIN f7
EMAX f8
LMIN f9
LMAX f10
CLEAR f11
TWOLAYERED f12
KSLENDER f13
DESIGN SHEARWALL LIST shearwall-list
END



Section 9A

9-17
The following table explains the parameters used in the shear wall
design. Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at
that specified number till it is specified again. This is the way
STAAD works for all codes.

SHEAR WALL DESIGN PARAMETERS
Parameter Name Default
Value
Description
FYMAIN 415 Mpa
Yield strength of steel, in current units.
FC 30 Mpa
Compressive strength of concrete, in current
units.
HMIN 8
Minimum size of horizontal reinforcing bars
(range 6 mm 36 mm). If input is 6 (integer
number) the program will assume 6 mm diameter
bar.
HMAX 36 Maximum size of horizontal reinforcing bars
(range 6 mm 36 mm). If input is 6 (integer
number) the program will assume 6 mm diameter
bar.
VMIN 8 Minimum size of vertical reinforcing bars (range
6mm 36mm). If input is 6 (integer number) the
program will assume 6 mm diameter bar.
VMAX 36 Maximum size of vertical reinforcing bars (range
6mm 36mm). If input is 6 (integer number) the
program will assume 6 mm diameter bar.
EMIN 8 Minimum size of vertical reinforcing bars located
in edge zones (range 6mm 36mm). If input is 6
(integer number) the program will assume 6 mm
diameter bar.
EMAX 36 Maximum size of vertical reinforcing bars located
in edge zones (range 6mm 36mm). If input is 6
(integer number) the program will assume 6 mm
diameter bar.
LMIN 6 Minimum size of links (range 6mm 16mm). If
input is 6 (integer number) the program will
assume 6 mm diameter bar.
Concrete Design Per IS456
Section 9A

9-18
SHEAR WALL DESIGN PARAMETERS
Parameter Name Default
Value
Description
LMAX 16 Maximum size of links (range 6mm 16mm). If
input is 6 (integer number) the program will
assume 6 mm diameter bar.
CLEAR 25 mm Clear concrete cover, in current units.
TWOLAYERED 0 Reinforcement placement mode:
0 - single layer, each direction
1 - two layers, each direction
KSLENDER 1.0 Slenderness factor for finding effective height.
Table 6

The following example illustrates the input for the definition of
shear wall and design of the wall.

Example

.
.
SET DIVISION 12

SURFACE INCIDENCES
2 5 37 34 SUR 1
19 16 65 68 SUR 2
11 15 186 165 SUR 3
10 6 138 159 SUR 4
.
.
.
SURFACE PROPERTY
1 TO 4 THI 18

SUPPORTS
1 7 14 20 PINNED
2 TO 5 GEN PIN
6 TO 10 GEN PIN

Section 9A

9-19

11 TO 15 GEN PIN
19 TO 16 GEN PIN
.
.
.
SURFACE CONSTANTS
E 2.17185e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1e-005
.
.
START SHEARWALL DES
CODE INDIAN
UNIT NEW MMS
FC 25
FYMAIN 415
TWO 1
VMIN 12
HMIN 12
EMIN 12
DESIGN SHEA LIST 1 TO 4
END

Notes

1. Command SET DIVISION 12 indicates that the surface
boundary node-to-node segments will be subdivided into 12
fragments prior to finite element mesh generation.
2. Four surfaces are defined by the SURFACE INCIDENCES
command.
3. The SUPPORTS command includes the new support
generation routine. For instance, the line 2 TO 5 GEN PIN
assigns pinned supports to all nodes between nodes 2 and 5.
As the node-to-node distances were previously subdivided
by the SET DIVISION 12 command, there will be an
Concrete Design Per IS456
Section 9A

9-20
additional 11 nodes between nodes 2 and 5. As a result, all
13 nodes will be assigned pinned supports. Please note that
the additional 11 nodes are not individually accessible to the
user. They are created by the program to enable the finite
element mesh generation and to allow application of
boundary constraints.
4. Surface thickness and material constants are specified by the
SURFACE PROPERTY and SURFACE CONSTANTS,
respectively.
5. The shear wall design commands are listed between lines
START SHEARWALL DES and END. The CODE
command selects the design code that will be the basis for
the design. For Indian code the parameter is INDIAN. The
DESIGN SHEARWALL LIST command is followed by a
list of previously defined Surface elements intended as shear
walls and/or shear wall components.

Technical Overview

The program implements provisions of section 32 of IS 456-2000
and relevant provisions as referenced therein, for all active load
cases. The following steps are performed for each of the horizontal
sections of the wall.

Checking of slenderness limit

The slenderness checking is done as per clause no. 32.2.3. The
default effective height is the height of the wall. User can change
the effective height. The limit for slenderness is taken as 30.

Design for in-plane bending and vertical load (denoted by Mz
& Fy in the shear wall force output)

Walls when subjected to combined in-plane horizontal and vertical
forces produce in-plane bending in conjunction with vertical load.
According to clause no. 32.3.1, in-plane bending may be neglected
in case a horizontal cross section of the wall is always under
compression due combined effect of horizontal and vertical loads.
Otherwise, the section is checked for combined vertical load and

Section 9A

9-21
in-plane moment as column with axial load and uni -axial bending.
For this purpose, the depth is taken as 0.8 x horizontal length of
wall and breadth is the thickness of the wall. The reinforcement is
concentrated at both ends (edges) of the wall. The edge
reinforcement is assumed to be distributed over a length of 0.2
times horizontal length on each side. Minimum reinforcements are
according to clause no. 32.5.(a). Maximum 4% reinforcement is
allowed.

Design for in-plane shear (denoted by Fxy in the shear wall
force output)

By default, the program does not design only at the critical section
but at all the horizontal sections. By suitable use of the surface
division command, design at critical section as per clause no.
32.4.1 can be performed.

The design for in-plane shear is done as per clause no. 32.4. The
nominal shear stress is calculated as per clause no. 32.4.2 and it is
checked with the maximum allowable shear stress as per clause no.
32.4.2.1. The design shear strength of concrete is calculated as per
clause no. 32.4.3. Design of shear reinforcement is done as per
clause no. 32.4.4. Minimum reinforcements are as per clause no.
32.5.

Design for vertical load and out-of-plane vertical bending
(denoted by Fy and My respectively in the shear wall force
output)

Apart from the in-plane bending and horizontal shear force, the
wall is also subjected to out -of-plane bending in the vertical and
horizontal directions. The part of the wall which is not having
edge reinforcements (i.e. a zone of depth 0.6 x Length of the wall),
is designed again as column under axial load (i.e. vertical load)
and out-of-plane vertical bending. The minimum reinforcements
and maximum allowable spacings of reinforcements are as per
clause no. 32.5

Concrete Design Per IS456
Section 9A

9-22
Design for out-of-plane horizontal bending (denoted by Mx in
the shear wall force output)

The horizontal reinforcement which is already provided for in-
plane shear is checked against out -of-plane horizontal bending.
The wall is assumed as a slab for this purpose.

Design for out-of-plane shears (denoted by Qx and Qy in the
shear wall force output)

The out-of-plane shear arises from out -of-plane loading. The
nominal shear stresses are calculated as per clause no. 40.1.
Maximum allowable shear stresses are as per table 20. For shear
force in the vertical direction, shear strength of concrete section is
calculated as per section 4.1 of SP 16 : 1980 considering vertical
reinforcement as tension reinforcement. Similarly, for shear force
in the horizontal direction, shear strength of concrete section is
calculated considering horizontal reinforcement as tension
reinforcement. Shear reinforcements in the form of links are
computed as per the provisions of clause no. 40.4.

Shear Wall Design With Opening

The Surface element has been enhanced to allow design of shear
walls with rectangular openings. The automatic meshing algorithm
has been improved to allow variable divisions along wall and
opening(s) edges. Design and output are available for user selected
locations.

Description

Shear walls modeled in STAAD.Pro may include an unlimited
number of openings. Due to the presence of openings, the wall
may comprise up with different wall panels.

Section 9A

9-23
1. Shear wall set-up

Definition of a shear wall starts with a specification of the surface
element perimeter nodes, meshing divisions along node-to-node
segments, opening(s) corner coordinates, and meshing divisions of
four edges of the opening(s).

SURFACE INCIDENCE n1, ..., ni SURFACE s DIVISION sd1, ...,
sdj -
RECOPENING x1 y1 z1 x2 y2 z2 x3 y3 z3 x4 y4 z4 DIVISION
od1, ..., odk

where,

n1, ..., ni - node numbers on the perimeter of the shear wall,
s - surface ordinal number,
sd1, ..., sdj - number of divisions for each of the node-to-node
distance on the surface perimeter,
x1 y1 z1 (...) - coordinates of the corners of the opening,
od1, ..., odk - divisions along edges of the opening.

Note:

If the sd1, ..., sdj or the od1, ..., odk list does not include all node-
to-node segments, or if any of the numbers listed equals zero, then
the corresponding division number is set to the default value (=10,
or as previously input by the SET DIVISION command).

Default locations for stress/force output, design, and design output
are set as follows:

SURFACE DIVISION X xd
SURFACE DIVISION Y yd

Concrete Design Per IS456
Section 9A

9-24
where,

xd - number of divisions along X axis,
yd - number of divisions along Y axis.

Note:

xd and yd represent default numbers of divisions for each edge of
the surface where output is requested. The output is provided for
sections located between division segments. For example, if the
number of divisions = 2, then the output will be produced for only
one section (at the center of the edge).

2. Stress/force output printing

Values of internal forces may be printed out for any user -defined
section of the wall. The general format of the command is as
follows:

PRINT SURFACE FORCE (ALONG ) (AT a) (BETWEEN d1, d2)
LIST s1, ...,si

where,

- local axis of the surface element (X or Y),
a - distance along the axis from start of the member
to the full cross-section of the wall,
d1, d2 - coordinates in the direction orthogonal to ,
delineating a fragment of the full cross-section for
which the output is desired. **
s1, ...,si - list of surfaces for output generation

** The range currently is taken in terms of local axis. If the local
axis is directed away from the surface, the negative range is to be
entered.


Section 9A

9-25
Note:

If command ALONG is omitted, direction Y (default) is assumed.
If command AT is omitted, output is provided for all sections
along the specified (or default) edge. Number of sections will be
determined from the SURFACE DIVISION X or SURFACE
DIVISION Y input values. If the BETWEEN command is
omitted, the output is generated based on full cross-section width.

3. Definition of wall panels

Input syntax for panel definition is as follows:

START PANEL DEFINITION
SURFACE i PANEL j ptype x1 y1 z1 x2 y2 z2 x3 y3 z3 x4 y4 z4
END PANEL DEFINITION

where,

i - ordinal surface number,
j - ordinal panel number,
ptype - panel type, one of: WALL, COLUMN, BEAM
x1 y1 z1 (...) - coordinates of the corners of the panel,

4. Shear wall design

The program implements different provisions of design of walls as
per code BS 8110. General syntax of the design command is as
follows:

START SHEARWALL DESIGN
(...)
DESIGN SHEARWALL (AT c) LIST s
END SHEARWALL DESIGN

Concrete Design Per IS456
Section 9A

9-26
Note:

If the command AT is omitted, the design proceeds for all cross
sections of the wall or panels, as applicable, defined by the
SURFACE DIVISION X or SURFACE DIVISION Y input
values.

a. No panel definition.

Design is performed for the specified horizontal full cross-section,
located at a distance c from the origin of the local coordinates
system. If opening is found then reinforcement is provided along
sides of openings. The area of horizontal and vertical bars
provided along edges of openings is equal to that of the respective
interrupted bars.

b. Panels have been defined.

Only wall panel design is supported in Indian code.




9-27


Concrete Design Per IS13920



9A1.1 Design Operations
Earthquake motion often induces force large enough to cause
inelastic deformations in the structure. If the structure is brittle,
sudden failure could occur. But if the structure is made to behave
ductile, it will be able to sustain the earthquake effects better with
some deflection larger than the yield deflection by absorption of
energy. Therefore ductility is also required as an essential element
for safety from sudden collapse during severe shocks.

STAAD has the capabilities of performing concrete design as per
IS 13920. While designing it satisfies all provisions of IS 456
2000 and IS 13920 for beams and columns.
9A1.2 Section Types for Concrete Design
The following types of cross sections for concrete members can be
designed.

For Beams Prismatic (Rectangular & Square) & T-shape

For Columns Prismatic (Rectangular, Square and Circular)
Section
9A1

Concrete Design Per IS13920
Section 9A1

9-28
9A1.3 Design Parameters
The program contains a number of parameters that are needed to
perform design as per IS 13920. It accepts all parameters that are
needed to perform design as per IS:456. Over and above it has
some other parameters that are required only when designed is
performed as per IS:13920. Default parameter values have been
selected such that they are frequently used numbers for
conventional design requirements. These values may be changed to
suit the particular design being performed. Table 8A1.1 of this
manual contains a complete list of the available parameters and
their default values. It is necessary to declare length and force
units as Millimeter and Newton before performing the concrete
design.
9A1.4 Beam Design
Beams are designed for flexure, shear and torsion. If required the
effect of the axial force may be taken into consideration. For all
these forces, all active beam loadings are prescanned to identify
the critical load cases at different sections of the beams. The total
number of sections considered is 13. All of these sections are
scanned to determine the design force envelopes.

For design to be performed as per IS:13920 the width of the
member shall not be less than 200mm(Clause 6.1.3). Also the
member shall preferably have a width-to depth ratio of more than
0.3 (Clause 6.1.2).

The factored axial stress on the member should not exceed 0.1fck
(Clause 6.1.1) for all active load cases. If it exceeds allowable
axial stress no design will be performed.


Section 9A1

9-29
Design for Flexure
Design procedure is same as that for IS 456. However while
designing following criteria are satisfied as per IS-13920:

1. The minimum grade of concrete shall preferably be M20. (Clause
5.2)

2. Steel reinforcements of grade Fe415 or less only shall be used.
(Clause 5.3)

3. The minimum tension steel ratio on any face, at any section, is
given by

min
= 0.24\fck/fy (Clause 6.2.1b)

The maximum steel ratio on any face, at any section, is given by

max
= 0.025 (Clause 6.2.2)

4. The positive steel ratio at a joint face must be at least equal to half
the negative steel at that face. (Clause 6.2.3)

5. The steel provided at each of the top and bottom face, at any
section, shall at least be equal to one-fourth of the maximum
negative moment steel provided at the face of either joint. (Clause
6.2.4)

Design for Shear

The shear force to be resisted by vertical hoops is guided by the
Clause 6.3.3 of IS 13920:1993 revision. Elastic sagging and
hogging moments of resistance of the beam section at ends are
considered while calculating shear force. Plastic sagging and
hogging moments of resistance can also be considered for shear
design if PLASTIC parameter is mentioned in the input file. (Refer
Table 8A1.1)

Shear reinforcement is calculated to resist both shear forces and
torsional moments. Procedure is same as that of IS 456.

Concrete Design Per IS13920
Section 9A1

9-30
The following criteria are satisfied while performing design for
shear as per Cl. 6.3.5 of IS-13920:

The spacing of vertical hoops over a length of 2d at either end of
the beam shall not exceed

a) d/4

b) 8 times the diameter of the longitudinal bars

In no case this spacing is less than 100 mm.

The spacing calculated from above, if less than that calculated
from IS 456 consideration is provided.

Beam Design Output

The default design output of the beam contains flexural and shear
reinforcement provided at 5 equally spaced sections along the
length of the beam. User has option to get a more detail output. All
beam design outputs are given in IS units. An example of
rectangular beam design output with the default output option
(TRACK 1.0) is presented below:

Section 9A1

9-31
============================================================================
B E A M N O. 11 D E S I G N R E S U L T S

M20 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.)

LENGTH: 3500.0 mm SIZE: 250.0 mm X 350.0 mm COVER: 30.0 mm


DESIGN LOAD SUMMARY (KN MET)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
SECTION |FLEXTURE (Maxm. Sagging/Hogging moments)| SHEAR
(in mm) | P MZ MX Load Case | VY MX Load Case
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
0.0 | 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 | 17.67 0.00 4
| 0.00 -2.74 0.00 5 |
291.7 | 0.00 1.15 0.00 5 | 16.26 0.00 4
| 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 |
583.3 | 0.00 4.61 0.00 5 | 13.97 0.00 4
| 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 |
875.0 | 0.00 7.44 0.00 5 | 10.78 0.00 4
| 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 |
1166.7 | 0.00 9.41 0.00 5 | 6.69 0.00 4
| 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 |
1458.3 | 0.00 10.33 0.00 5 | 1.10 0.00 5
| 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 |
1750.0 | 0.00 9.98 0.00 5 | -3.60 0.00 5
| 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 |
2041.7 | 0.00 8.23 0.00 5 | -10.02 0.00 4
| 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 |
2333.3 | 0.00 5.21 0.00 5 | -15.00 0.00 4
| 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 |
2625.0 | 0.00 1.14 0.00 5 | -19.08 0.00 4
| 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 |
2916.7 | 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 | -22.27 0.00 4
| 0.00 -3.79 0.00 5 |
3208.3 | 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 | -24.57 0.00 4
| 0.00 -9.35 0.00 5 |
3500.0 | 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 | -25.97 0.00 4
| 0.00 -15.34 0.00 5 |

*** DESIGN SHEAR FORCE AT SECTION 0.0 IS 68.60 KN.
- CLAUSE 6.3.3 OF IS-
13920
*** DESIGN SHEAR FORCE AT SECTION 3500.0 IS 75.24 KN.
- CLAUSE 6.3.3 OF IS-
13920
----------------------------------------------------------------------------



SUMMARY OF REINF. AREA (Sq.mm)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
SECTION 0.0 mm 875.0 mm 1750.0 mm 2625.0 mm 3500.0 mm
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOP 226.30 0.00 0.00 0.00 226.30
REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm)

BOTTOM 0.00 203.02 203.02 203.02 0.00
REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY OF PROVIDED REINF. AREA
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
SECTION 0.0 mm 875.0 mm 1750.0 mm 2625.0 mm 3500.0 mm
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOP 3-10 2-10 2-10 2-10 3-10
REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s)

BOTTOM 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-12 2-12
REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s)

SHEAR 2 legged 8 2 legged 8 2 legged 8 2 legged 8 2 legged 8
REINF. @ 100 mm c/c @ 150 mm c/c @ 150 mm c/c @ 150 mm c/c @ 100 mm c/c
----------------------------------------------------------------------------

============================================================================
Concrete Design Per IS13920
Section 9A1

9-32
9A1.5 Column Design
Columns are designed for axial forces and biaxial moments per IS
456:2000. Columns are also designed for shear forces as per
Clause 7.3.4. All major criteria for selecting longitudinal and
transverse reinforcement as stipulated by IS:456 have been taken
care of in the column design of STAAD. However following
clauses have been satisfied to incorporate provisions of IS 13920:

1. The minimum grade of concrete shall preferably be M20.
(Clause 5.2)
2. Steel reinforcements of grade Fe415 or less only shall be used.
(Clause 5.3)
3. The minimum dimension of column member shall not be less
than 200 mm. For columns having unsupported length
exceeding 4m, the shortest dimension of column shall not be
less than 300 mm. (Clause 7.1.2)
4. The ratio of the shortest cross-sectional dimension to the
perpendicular dimension shall preferably be not less than 0.4.
(Clause 7.1.3)
5. The spacing of hoops shall not exceed half the least lateral
dimension of the column, except where special confining
reinforcement is provided. (Clause 7.3.3)
6. Special confining reinforcement shall be provided over a
length l
o
from each joint face, towards mid span, and on either
side of any section, where flexural yielding may occur. The
length l
o
shall not be less than a) larger lateral dimension of
the member at the section where yielding occurs, b) 1/6 of
clear span of the member, and c) 450 mm. (Clause 7.4.1)
7. The spacing of hoops used as special confining reinforcement
shall not exceed of minimum member dimension but need
not be less than 75 mm nor more than 100 mm. (Clause 7.4.6)

Section 9A1

9-33
8. The area of cross-section of hoops provided are checked
against the provisions for minimum area of cross-section of
the bar forming rectangular, circular or spiral hoops, to be
used as special confining reinforcement. (Clause 7.4.7 and
7.4.8)
Column Design Output

Default column design output (TRACK 0.0) contains the
reinforcement provided by STAAD and the capacity of the section.
With the option TRACK 1.0, the output contains intermediate
results such as the design forces, effective length coefficients,
additional moments etc. A special output TRACK 9.0 is introduced
to obtain the details of section capacity calculations. All design
output is given in SI units. An example of a column design output
(with option TRACK 1.0) is given below.

============================================================================

C O L U M N N O. 3 D E S I G N R E S U L T S

M20 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.)

LENGTH: 3000.0 mm CROSS SECTION: 350.0 mm X 400.0 mm COVER: 40.0 mm

** GUIDING LOAD CASE: 5 END JOINT: 2 SHORT COLUMN

DESIGN FORCES (KNS-MET)
-----------------------
DESIGN AXIAL FORCE (Pu) : 226.7
About Z About Y
INITIAL MOMENTS : 0.64 146.28
MOMENTS DUE TO MINIMUM ECC. : 4.53 4.53

SLENDERNESS RATIOS : - -
MOMENTS DUE TO SLENDERNESS EFFECT : - -
MOMENT REDUCTION FACTORS : - -
ADDITION MOMENTS (Maz and May) : - -

TOTAL DESIGN MOMENTS : 4.53 146.28

** GUIDING LOAD CASE: 5
Along Z Along Y
DESIGN SHEAR FORCES : 43.31 76.08


REQD. STEEL AREA : 3313.56 Sq.mm.
MAIN REINFORCEMENT : Provide 12 - 20 dia. (2.69%, 3769.91 Sq.mm.)
(Equally distributed)
CONFINING REINFORCEMENT : Provide 10 mm dia. rectangular ties @ 85 mm c/c
over a length 500.0 mm from each joint face towards
midspan as per Cl. 7.4.6 of IS-13920.
TIE REINFORCEMENT : Provide 10 mm dia. rectangular ties @ 175 mm c/c

SECTION CAPACITY (KNS-MET)
--------------------------
Puz : 2261.52 Muz1 : 178.71 Muy1 : 150.75

INTERACTION RATIO: 1.00 (as per Cl. 39.6, IS456:2000)
============================================================================

********************END OF COLUMN DESIGN RESULTS********************
Concrete Design Per IS13920
Section 9A1

9-34
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that
specified number till it is specified again. This is the way
STAAD works for all codes.

Table 9A1.1 Indian Concrete Design IS13920 Parameters
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
FYMAIN 415 N/mm
2
Yield Stress for main reinforcing steel.
FYSEC 415 N/mm
2
Yield Stress for secondary reinforcing steel.
FC 30 N/mm
2
Concrete Yield Stress.
CLEAR 25 mm
40 mm
For beam members.
For column members
MINMAIN 10 mm Minimum main reinforcement bar size.
MAXMAIN 60 mm Maximum main reinforcement bar size.
MINSEC 8 mm Minimum secondary reinforcement bar size.
MAXSEC 12 mm Maximum secondary reinforcement bar size.
BRACING 0.0 BEAM DESIGN
A value of 1.0 means the effect of axial force
will be taken into account for beam design.
COLUMN DESIGN
A value of 1.0 means the column is unbraced
about major axis.
A value of 2.0 means the column is unbraced
about minor axis.
A value of 3.0 means the column is unbraced
about both axis.
RATIO 4.0 Maximum percentage of longitudinal
reinforcement in columns.
RFACE 4.0 A value of 4.0 means longitudinal
reinforcement in column is arranged equally
along 4 faces.
A value of 2.0 invokes 2 faced distribution
about major axis.

Section 9A1

9-35
Table 9A1.1 Indian Concrete Design IS13920 Parameters
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
A value of 3.0 invokes 2 faced distribution
about minor axis.
WIDTH ZD Width to be used for design. This value
defaults to ZD as provided under MEMBER
PROPERTIES.
DEPTH YD Total depth to be used for design. This value
defaults to YD as provided under MEMBER
PROPERTIES.
ELZ 1.0 Ratio of effective length to actual length of
column about major axis.
ELY 1.0 Ratio of effective length to actual length of
column about minor axis.
REINF 0.0 Tied column. A value of 1.0 will mean spiral
reinforcement.
TORSION 0.0 A value of 0.0 means torsion to be
considered in beam design.
A value of 1.0 means torsion to be neglected
in beam design.
TRACK 0.0 BEAM DESIGN:
For TRACK = 0.0, output consists of
reinforcement details at START, MIDDLE
and END.
For TRACK = 1.0, critical moments are
printed in addition to TRACK 0.0 output.
For TRACK = 2.0, required steel for
intermediate sections defined by NSECTION
are printed in addition to TRACK 1.0 output.
COLUMN DESIGN:
With TRACK = 0.0, reinforcement details are
printed.
With TRACK = 1.0, column interaction
analysis results are printed in addition to
TRACK 0.0 output.
Concrete Design Per IS13920
Section 9A1

9-36
Table 9A1.1 Indian Concrete Design IS13920 Parameters
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
With TRACK = 2.0, a schematic interaction
diagram and intermediate interaction values
are printed in addition to TRACK 1.0 output.
SPSMAIN 25 mm Minimum clear distance between main
reinforcing bars in beam and column. For
column centre to centre distance between
main bars cannot exceed 300mm.
SFACE 0.0 Face of support location at start of beam. It is
used to check against shear at the face of
the support in beam design. The parameter
can also be used to check against shear at
any point from the start of the member.*
EFACE 0.0 Face of support location at end of beam. The
parameter can also be used to check against
shear at any point from the end of the
member. (Note: Both SFACE and EFACE
are input as positive numbers).*
ENSH 0.0 Perform shear check against enhanced
shear strength as per Cl. 40.5 of IS456:2000.
ENSH = 1.0 means ordinary shear check to
be performed ( no enhancement of shear
strength at sections close to support)
For ENSH = a positive value(say x ), shear
strength will be enhanced up to a distance x
from the start of the member. This is used
only when a span of a beam is subdivided
into two or more parts. (Refer note after
Table 8A.1 )
For ENSH = a negative value(say y), shear
strength will be enhanced up to a distance y
from the end of the member. This is used
only when a span of a beam is subdivided
into two or more parts.(Refer note after Table
8A.1)
If default value (0.0) is used the program will
calculate Length to Overall Depth ratio. If this
ratio is greater than 2.5, shear strength will
be enhanced at sections (<2d) close to
support otherwise ordinary shear check will

Section 9A1

9-37
Table 9A1.1 Indian Concrete Design IS13920 Parameters
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
be performed.
RENSH 0.0 Distance of the start or end point of the
member from its nearest support. This
parameter is used only when a span of a
beam is subdivided into two or more parts.
(Refer note after Table 8A.1)
EUDL None Equivalent u.d.l on span of the beam. This
load value must be the unfactored load on
span. During design the load value is
multiplied by a factor 1.2. If no u.d.l is defined
factored shear force due to gravity load on
span will be taken as zero. No elastic or
plastic moment will be calculated. Shear
design will be performed based on analysis
result.(Refer note)
GLD None Gravity load number to be considered for
calculating equivalent u.d.l on span of the
beam, in case no EUDL is mentioned in the
input. This loadcase can be any static
loadcase containing MEMBER LOAD on the
beam which includes UNI, CON, LIN and
TRAP member loading. CMOM member
loading is considered only when it is
specified in local direction. FLOOR LOAD is
also considered.
The load can be primary or combination load.
For combination load only load numbers
included in load combination is considered.
The load factors are ignored. Internally the
unfactored load is multiplied by a factor 1.2
during design.
If both EUDL and GLD parameters are
mentioned in the input mentioned EUDL will
be considered in design
Note :
No dynamic (Response spectrum, 1893,
Time History) and moving load cases are
considered.
CMOM member loading in global direction is
Concrete Design Per IS13920
Section 9A1

9-38
Table 9A1.1 Indian Concrete Design IS13920 Parameters
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
not considered.
UMOM member loading is not considered.
PLASTIC 0.0 Default value calculates elastic hogging and
sagging moments of resistance of beam at its
ends.
A value of 1.0 means plastic hogging and
sagging moments of resistance of beam to
be calculated at its ends.
IPLM 0.0 Default value calculates elastic/plastic
hogging and sagging moments of resistance
of beam at its ends.
A value of 1.0 means calculation of
elastic/plastic hogging and sagging moments
of resistance of beam to be ignored at start
node of beam. This implies no support exists
at start node.
A value of -1.0 means calculation of
elastic/plastic hogging and sagging moments
of resistance of beam to be considered at
start node of beam. . This implies support
exists at start node.
A value of 2.0 means calculation of
elastic/plastic hogging and sagging moments
of resistance of beam to be ignored at end
node of beam. This implies no support exists
at end node.
A value of -2.0 means calculation of
elastic/plastic hogging and sagging moments
of resistance of beam to be considered at
end node of beam. . This implies support
exists at end node. **
IMB 0.0 Default value calculates elastic/plastic
hogging and sagging moments of resistance
of beam at its ends.
A value of 1.0 means calculation of

Section 9A1

9-39
Table 9A1.1 Indian Concrete Design IS13920 Parameters
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
elastic/plastic hogging and sagging moments
of resistance of beam to be ignored at both
ends of beam. This implies no support exist
at either end of the member.
A value of -1.0 means calculation of
elastic/plastic hogging and sagging moments
of resistance of beam to be considered at
both ends of beam. This implies support exist
at both ends of the member.**
COMBINE 0.0 Default value means there will be no member
combination.
A value of 1.0 means there will be no printout
of sectional force and critical load for
combined member in the output.
A value of 2.0 means there will be printout of
sectional force for combined member in the
output.
A value of 3.0 means there will be printout of
both sectional force and critical load for
combined member in the output. ***

HLINK Spacing of
longitudinal bars
measured to the
outer face
Longer dimension of the rectangular
confining hoop measured to its outer face. It
shall not exceed 300 mm as per Cl. 7.4.8. If
hlink value as provided in the input file does
not satisfy the clause the value will be
internally assumed as the default one. This
parameter is valid for rectangular column.
Bar combination has been introduced for detailing. Please refer section 8A1.6 for
details.


* EFACE and SFACE command is not valid for member combination.
** IPLM and IMB commands are not valid for member combination.
These commands are ignored for members forming physical member.

Concrete Design Per IS13920
Section 9A1

9-40
*** The purpose of COMBINE command is the following:

1. If a beam spanning between two supports is subdivided into many
sub-beams this parameter will combine them into one member. It
can also be used to combine members to form one continuous
beam spanning over more than two supports.
2. When two or more members are combined during design plastic or
elastic moments will be calculated at the column supports. At all
the intermediate nodes (if any) this calculation will be ignored.
Please note that the program only recognizes column at right angle
to the beam. Inclined column support is ignored.
3. It will calculate sectional forces at 13 sections along the length of
the combined member.
4. It will calculate critical loads (similar to that of Design Load
Summary) for all active load cases during design.

Beams will be combined only when DESIGN BEAM command is
issued.

The following lines should be satisfied during combination of
members:

1. Members to be combined should have same sectional properties if
any single span between two column support s of a continuous
beam is subdivided into several members.
2. Members to be combined should have same constants (E, Poi ratio,
alpha,
density and beta angle)
3. Members to be combined should lie in one straight line.
4. Members to be combined should be continuous.
5. Vertical members (i.e. columns) cannot be combined.
6. Same member cannot be used more than once to form two different
combined members.
7. The maximum number of members that can be combined into one
member is 299.


Section 9A1

9-41
Note:

Sectional forces and critical load for combined member output will
only be available when all the members combined are successfully
designed in both flexure and shear.

ENSH and RENSH parameters will have to be provided (as and
when necessary) even if physical member has been formed.


The following lines show a standard example for design to be
performed in IS 13920.

STAAD SPACE
UNIT METER MTON
JOINT COORDINATES
..
MEMBER INCIDENCES
..
MEMBER PROPERTY INDIAN
..
CONSTANTS
.
SUPPORTS
.
DEFINE 1893 LOAD
ZONE 0.05 I 1 K 1 B 1
SELFWEIGHT
JOINT WEIGHT
.
LOAD 1 SEISMIC LOAD IN X DIR
1893 LOAD X 1
LOAD 2 SEISMIC LOAD IN Z DIR
1893 LOAD Z 1
LOAD 3 DL
MEMBER LOAD
UNI GY -5
LOAD 4 LL
Concrete Design Per IS13920
Section 9A1

9-42
MEMBER LOAD
. UNI GY -3
LOAD COMB 5 1.5(DL+LL)
3 1.5 4 1.5
LOAD COMB 6 1.2(DL+LL+SLX)
1 1.2 3 1.2 4 1.2
LOAD COMB 7 1.2(DL+LL-SLX)
1 1.2 3 1.2 4 -1.2
LOAD COMB 8 1.2(DL+LL+SLZ)
2 1.2 3 1.2 4 1.2
LOAD COMB 9 1.2(DL+LL-SLZ)
2 1.2 3 1.2 4 -1.2
PDELTA ANALYSIS
LOAD LIST 5 TO 9
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE IS13920
UNIT MMS NEWTON
FYMAIN 415 ALL
FC 20 ALL
MINMAIN 12 ALL
MAXMAIN 25 ALL
TRACK 2.0 ALL
*** Unfactored gravity load on members 110 to 112 is 8 t/m
(DL+LL) i.e. 78.46 New/mm
EUDL 78.46 MEMB 110 TO 112
** Members to be combined into one physical member
COMBINE 3.0 MEMB 110 TO 112


*** Plastic moment considered
PLASTIC 1.0 MEMB 110 TO 112
DESIGN BEAM 110 TO 112
DESIGN COLUMN
END CONCRETE DESIGN
FINISH

Section 9A1

9-43
9A1.6 Bar Combination
Initially the program selects only one bar to calculate the number
of bars required and area of steel provided at each section along
the length of the beam. Now two bar diameters can be specified to
calculate a combination of each bar to be provided at each section.
The syntax for bar combination is given below.

START BAR COMBINATION
MD1 <bar diameter> MEMB <member list>
MD2 <bar diameter> MEMB <member list>
END BAR COMBINATION

MD2 bar diameter should be greater than MD1 bar diameter. The
typical output for bar combination is shown below:

OUTPUT FOR BAR COMBINATION

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

| M A I N R E I N F O R C E M E N T |

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
SECTION | 0.0- 2166.7 | 2166.7- 6500.0 | 6500.0- 8666.7 |
| mm | mm | mm |
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOP | 6-20 + 1-25 | 2-20 + 1-25 | 2-20 |
| in 2 layer(s) | in 1 layer(s) | in 1 layer(s) |
Ast Reqd| 2330.22 | 1029.90 | 582.55 |
Prov| 2376.79 | 1119.64 | 628.57 |
Ld (mm) | 940.2 | 940.2 | 940.2 |
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
BOTTOM | 4-20 | 2-20 | 2-20 |
| in 1 layer(s) | in 1 layer(s) | in 1 layer(s) |
Ast Reqd| 1165.11 | 582.55 | 582.55 |
Prov| 1257.14 | 628.57 | 628.57 |
Ld (mm) | 940.2 | 940.2 | 940.2 |
----------------------------------------------------------------------------


The beam length is divided into three parts, two at its ends and one
at span. Ld gives the development length to be provided at the two
ends of each section.
Concrete Design Per IS13920
Section 9A1

9-44
Sample example showing calculation of design shear force as per
Clause 6.3.3





For Beam No. 1 and 2

Section Width b 250 mm
Depth D 500 mm
Characteristic Strength of Steel fy 415 N/sq. mm
Characteristic Strength of Concrete fck 20 N/sq. mm
Clear Cover 25 mm
Bar Diameter 12 mm
Effective Depth d 469 mm
Eudl w 6.5 N/sq. mm
Length L 4000 mm
Ast_Top_A 339.29 sq. mm
Ast_Bot_A 226.19 sq. mm
Ast_Top_B 226.19 sq. mm
Ast_Bot_B 339.29 sq. mm


Section 9A1

9-45
Steps

Calculation of Simple Shear
Simple shear from
gravity load on span =
Va = Vb = 1.2 * w * L / 2 = 15600N

Calculation of Moment Of Resistances Based On Area Of Steel Provided

Sagging Moment Of
Resistance of End A
Mu, as =
0.87 * fy * Ast_Bot_A * d *
( 1 - Ast_Bot_A * fy / b * d * fck)
= 36768130.05 N

Hogging Moment Of
Resistance of End A
Micah =
0.87 * fy * Ast_Top_A * d *
( 1 - Ast_Top_A * fy / b * d * fck)
= 54003057.45 N

Sagging Moment Of
Resistance of End A
Mu, bs =
0.87 * fy * Ast_Bot_B * d *
( 1 - Ast_Bot_B * fy / b * d * fck)
= 54003057.45 N

Hogging Moment Of
Resistance of End A
Mob =
0.87 * fy * Ast_Top_B * d * ( 1 -
Ast_Top_B* fy / b * d * fck)
= 36768130.05 N

Calculation of Shear Force Due To Formation Of Plastic Hinge At Both
Ends Of The Beam Plus The Factored Gravity Load On Span



FIG1: SWAY TO RIGHT


Vur,a = Va - 1.4 [ ( Mu,as + Mu,bh ) / L ] = -10137.69104 N

Vur,b = Va + 1.4 [ ( Mu,as + Mu,bh ) / L ] = 41337.69104 N

Concrete Design Per IS13920
Section 9A1

9-46


FIG2: SWAY TO LEFT

Vul,a = Va + 1.4 [ ( Mu,ah + Mu,bs ) / L ] = 53402.14022 N

Vul,b = Va - 1.4 [ ( Mu,ah + Mu,bs ) / L ] = - 22202.14022 N

Design Shear Force

Shear Force From Analysis At End A , Va,anl = 11.56 N

Design Shear Force At End A, Vu,a = Max ( Va,anl, Vur,a, Vul,a) = 53402.14022 N

Shear Force From Analysis At End B , Vb,anl = -6.44 N

Design Shear Force At End B, Vu,b = Max ( Vb,anl, Vur,b, Vul,b) = 41337.69104 N


For Beam No. 3

Section Width b 300 mm
Depth D 450 mm
Characteristic Strength of Steel fy 415 N/sq. mm
Characteristic Strength of Concrete fck 20 N/sq. mm
Clear Cover 25 mm
Bar Diameter 12 mm
Effective Depth d 419 mm
Eudl w 6.5 N/sq. mm
Length L 3000 mm
Ast_Top_A 226.19 sq. mm
Ast_Bot_A 339.29 sq. mm
Ast_Top_B 452.39 sq. mm
Ast_Bot_B 226.19 sq. mm


Section 9A1

9-47

Calculation of Simple Shear
Simple shear from
gravity load on span =
Va = Vb = 1.2 * w * L / 2 = 11700N

Calculation of Moment Of Resistances Based On Area Of Steel Provided

Sagging Moment Of
Resistance of End A
Mu,as =
0.87 * fy * Ast_Bot_A * d *
( 1 - Ast_Bot_A * fy / b * d * fck)
= 48452983 N

Hogging Moment Of
Resistance of End A
Mu,ah =
0.87 * fy * Ast_Top_A * d *
( 1 - Ast_Top_A * fy / b * d * fck)
= 32940364.5 N

Sagging Moment Of
Resistance of End A
Mu,bs =
0.87 * fy * Ast_Bot_B * d *
( 1 - Ast_Bot_B * fy / b * d * fck)
= 32940364.5 N

Hogging Moment Of
Resistance of End A
Mu,bh =
0.87 * fy * Ast_Top_B * d * ( 1 -
Ast_Top_B* fy / b * d * fck)
= 63326721.3 N

Calculation of Shear Force Due To Formation Of Plastic Hinge At Both
Ends Of The Beam Plus The Factored Gravity Load On Span



FIG1: SWAY TO RIGHT

Vur,a = Va - 1.4 [ ( Mu,as + Mu,bh ) / L ] = -40463.862 N

Vur,b = Va + 1.4 [ ( Mu,as + Mu,bh ) / L ] = 63863.862 N

Concrete Design Per IS13920
Section 9A1

9-48


Vul,a = Va + 1.4 [ ( Mu,ah + Mu,bs ) / L ] = 42444.3402 N

Vul,b = Va - 1.4 [ ( Mu,ah + Mu,bs ) / L ] = -15144.34 N

Design Shear Force

Shear Force From Analysis At End A , Va,anl =
-10.31 N

Design Shear Force At End A, Vu,a = Max ( Va,anl, Vur,a, Vul,a) = 42444.3402 N

Shear Force From Analysis At End B , Vb,anl =
-23.81 N

Design Shear Force At End B, Vu,b = Max ( Vb,anl, Vur,b, Vul,b) = 63863.862 N






9-49


Steel Design Per IS800


9B.1 Design Operations
STAAD contains a broad set of facilities for designing structural
members as individual components of an analyzed structure. The
member design facilities provide the user with the ability to carry
out a number of different design operations. These facilities may
be used selectively in accordance with the requirements of the
design problem. The operations to perform a design are:

- Specify the members and the load cases to be considered in the
design.
- Specify whether to perform code checking or member
selection.
- Specify design parameter values, if different from the default
values.
- Specify whether to perform member selection by optimization.

These operations may be repeated by the user any number of times
depending upon the design requirements. The entire ISI steel
section table is supported. Section 8B.13 describes the
specification of steel sections.
Section
9B

Steel Design Per IS800
Section 9B

9-50
9B.2 General Comments
This section presents some general statements regarding the
implementation of Indian Standard code of practice (IS:800-1984)
for structural steel design in STAAD. The design philosophy and
procedural logistics for member selection and code checking are
based upon the principles of allowable stress design. Two major
failure modes are recognized: failure by overstressing, and failure
by stability considerations. The flowing sections describe the
salient features of the allowable stresses being calculated and the
stability criteria being used. Members are proportioned to resist
the design loads without exceeding the allowable stresses and the
most economic section is selected on the basis of least weight
criteria. The code checking part of the program checks stability
and strength requirements and reports the critical loading
condition and the governing code criteria. It is generally assumed
that the user will take care of the detailing requirements like
provision of stiffeners and check the local effects such as flange
buckling and web crippling.
9B.3 Allowable Stresses
The member design and code checking in STAAD are based upon
the allowable stress design method as per IS:800 (1984). It is a
method for proportioning structural members using design loads
and forces, allowable stresses, and design limitations for the
appropriate material under service conditions. It would not be
possible to describe every aspect of IS:800 in this manual. This
section, however, will discuss the salient features of the allowable
stresses specified by IS:800 and implemented in STAAD.
Appropriate sections of IS:800 will be referenced during the
discussion of various types of allowable stresses.

Section 9B

9-51
9B.3.1 Axial Stress
Tensile Stress

The allowable tensile stress, as calculated in STAAD as per IS:800
is described below.

The permissible stress in axial tension, o
at
in MPa on the net
effective area of the sections shall not exceed

o
at
= 0.6 f
y


where,

f
y
= minimum yield stress of steel in Mpa

Compressive Stress

Allowable compressive stress on the gross section of axially
loaded compression members shall not exceed 0.6f
y
nor the
permissible stress o
ac
calculated based on the following formula:
(Clause: 5.1.1)

f f
n
cc
f
n
y
f
o =

+
0 6 .
[( )
( )
]


where,

o
ac
= Permissible stress in axial compr ession, in Mpa
f
y
= Yield stress of steel, in Mpa
f
cc
= Elastic critical stress in compression = t
2
E/
2

E = Modulus of elasticity of steel, 2 X 10
5
Mpa
=l/r = Slenderness ratio of the member, ratio of the effective
length to appropriate radius of gyration
n = A factor assumed as 1.4.
Steel Design Per IS800
Section 9B

9-52
9B.3.2 Bending Stress
The allowable bending stress in a member subjected to bending is
calculated based on the following formula: (Clause: 6.2.1)

o
bt
or

o
bc
= 0.66 f
y


where,

o
bt
= Bending stress in tension
o
bc
= Bending stress in compression
f
y
= Yield stress of steel, in MPa

For an I-beam or channel with equal flanges bent about the axis of
maximum strength (z-z axis), the maximum bending compressive
stress on the extreme fibre calculated on the effective section shall
not exceed the values of maximum permissible bending compressive
stress. The maximum permissible bending compressive stress shall be
obtained by the following formula: (Clause: 6.2.2)

6.2.3) : (Clause
]
)
f
y
(
n
)
f
cb
(
n
[
1/n
f y f cb
0.66

bc
+

=

where,

f
y
= Yield stress of steel, in Mpa
n = A factor assumed as 1.4.
f
cb
= Elastic critical stress in bending, calculated by the
following formula:

f k X k Y
c
c
= + [ ]


Section 9B

9-53
where,

X Y
IT
r D
MP
y
r
= + 1
1
20 1
Y =
26.5x10
( / )


k
1
= a coefficient to allow for reduction in thickness or
breadth of flanges between points of effective lateral
restraint and depends on , the ratio of the total area of
both flanges at the point of least bending moment to the
corresponding area at the point of greatest bending
moment between such points of restraint.

k
2
= a coefficient to allow for the inequality of flanges, and
depends on e, the ratio of the moment of inertia of the
compression flange alone to that of the sum of the moment
of the flanges each calculated about its own axis parallel to
the y-yaxis of the girder, at the point of maximum bending
moment.

1 = effective length of compression flange

r
y
= radius of gyration of the section about its axis of
minimum strength (y-y axis)

T = mean thickness of the compression flange, is equal to the
area of horizontal portion of flange divided by width.

D = overall depth of beam

c
1
,c
2
= respectively the lesser and greater distances from the
section neutral axis to the extreme fibres.
9B.3.3 Shear Stress
Allowable shear stress calculations are based on Section 6.4 of IS:800.
For shear on the web, the gross section taken into consideration consist
of the product of the total depth and the web thickness. For shear
parallel to the flanges, the gross section is taken as 2/3 times the total
flange area.
Steel Design Per IS800
Section 9B

9-54
9B.3.4 Combined Stress
Members subjected to both axial and bending stresses are
proportioned accordingly to section 7 of IS:800. All members
subject to bending and axial compression are required to satisfy
the equation of Section 7.1.1.(a) for intermediate points, and
equation of Section 7.1.1.(b) for support points.

For combined axial tension and bending the equation of Section
7.1.2. is required to be satisfied.

Cm coefficients are calculated according to the specifications of
Section 7.1.3. information regarding occurrence of sidesway can
be provided through the use of parameters SSY and SSZ. In the
absence of any user provided information, sidesway will be
assumed.
9B.4 Design Parameters
In STAAD implementation of IS:800, the user is allowed complete
control of the design process through the use of design parameters.
Available design parameters to be used in conjunction with IS:800
are listed in Table 7B.1 of this section along with their default
values and applicable restrictions. Users should note that when the
TRACK parameter is set to 1.0 and use in conjunction with this
code, allowable bending stresses in compression (FCY & FCZ),
tension (FTY & FTZ), and allowable shear stress (FV) will be
printed out in Member Selection and Code Check output in Mpa.
When TRACK is set to 2.0, detailed design output will be
provided.
9B.5 Stability Requirements
Slenderness ratios are calculated for all members and checked
against the appropriate maximum values. Section 3.7 of IS:800

Section 9B

9-55
summarizes the maximum slenderness ratios for different types of
members. In STAAD implementation of IS:800, appropriate
maximum slenderness ratio can be provided for each member. If
no maximum slenderness ratio is provided, compression members
will be checked against a maximum value of 180 and tension
members will be checked against a maximum value of 400.
9B.6 Truss Members
As mentioned earlier, a truss member is capable of carrying only
axial forces. So in design no time is wasted in calculating bending
or shear stresses, thus reducing design time considerably.
Therefore, if there is any truss member in an analysis (like bracing
or strut, etc.), it is wise to declare it as a truss member rather than
as a regular frame member with both ends pinned.
9B.7 Deflection Check
This facility allows the user to consider deflection as a criteria in
the CODE CHECK and MEMBER SELECTION processes. The
deflection check may be controlled using three parameters which
are described in Table 7B.1. Note that deflection is used in
addition to other strength and stabil ity related criteria. The local
deflection calculation is based on the latest analysis results.
9B.8 Code Checking
The purpose of code checking is to verify whether the specified
section is capable of satisfying applicable design code
requirements. The code checking is based on the IS:800 (1984)
requirements. Forces and moments at specified sections of the
members are utilized for the code checking calculations. Sections
may be specified using the BEAM parameter or the SECTION
command. If no sections are specified, the code checking is based
on forces and moments at the member ends.

Steel Design Per IS800
Section 9B

9-56
The code checking output labels the members as PASSed or
FAILed. In addition, the critical condition (applicable IS:800
clause no.), governing load case, location (distance from the start)
and magnitudes of the governing forces and moments are also
printed out.
9B.9 Member Selection
STAAD is capable of performing design operations on specified
members. Once an analysis has been performed, the program can
select the most economical section, that is, the lightest section,
which satisfies the applicable code requirements. The section
selected will be of the same type (I-Section, Channel etc.) as
originally specified by the user. Member selection may be
performed with all types of steel sections listed in Section 7B.13
and user provided tables. Selection of members, whose properties
are originally provided from user specified table, will be limited to
sections in the user provided table. Member selection can not be
performed on members whose cross sectional properties are
specified as PRISMATIC.

The process of MEMBER SELECTION may be controlled using
the parameters listed in Table 8B.1. It may be noted that the
parameters DMAX and DMIN may be used to specify member
depth constraints for selection. If PROFILE parameter is provided,
the search for the lightest section is restricted to that profile. Up to
three (3) profiles may be provided for any member with a section
being selected from each one.
9B.10 Member Selection By Optimization
Steel section selection of the entire structure may be optimized.
The optimization method utilizes a state-of-the -art numerical
technique which requires automatic multiple analysis. The user
may start without a specifically designated section. However, the
section profile type (BEAM, COLUMN, CHANNEL, ANGLE etc.)
must be specified using the ASSIGN command (see Chapter 6).

Section 9B

9-57
The optimization is based on member stiffness contributions and
corresponding force distributions. An optimum member size is
determined through successive analysis/design iterations. This
method requires substantial computer time and hence should be
used with caution.
9B.11 Tabulated Results of Steel Design
For code checking or member selection, the program produces the
result in a tabulated fashion. The items in the output table are
explained as follows:

a) MEMBER refers to the member number for which the design
is performed

b) TABLE refers to the INDIAN steel section name which has
been checked against the steel code or has been selected.

c) RESULT prints whether the member has PASSED or FAILed.
If the RESULT is FAIL, there will be an asterisk (*) mark in
front of the member number.

d) CRITICAL COND refers to the section of the IS:800 code
which governs the design.

e) RATIO prints the ratio of the actual stresses to allowable
stresses for the critical condition. Normally a value of 1.0 or
less will mean the member has passed.
f) LOADING provides the load case number which governs the
design.

g) FX, MY and MZ provide the axial force, moment in local y-
axis and moment in local z-axis respectively. Although
STAAD does consider all the member forces and moments
(except torsion) to perform design, only FX,MY and MZ are
printed since they are the ones which are of interest , in most
cases.
Steel Design Per IS800
Section 9B

9-58
h) LOCATION specifies the actual distance from the start of the
member to the section where design forces govern.
i) If the parameter TRACK is set to 1.0, the program will block
out part of the table and will print allowable bending stresses
in compression (FCY & FCZ) and tension (FTY & FTZ),
allowable axial stress in compression (FA), and allowable
shear stress (FV). When the parameter TRACK is set to 2.0
for all members parameter code values are as shown in Fig
8B.1.
STAAD.Pro CODE CHECKING - (ISA )
***********************


|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Y PROPERTIES |
|************* | IN CM UNIT |
| * |=============================| ===|=== ------------ |
|MEMBER 7 * | | | AX = 72.4 |
| * | ST ISLB400 | | --Z AY = 32.0 |
|DESIGN CODE * | | | AZ = 27.5 |
| IS-800 * =============================== ===|=== SY = 86.8 |
| * SZ = 965.3 |
| * |<---LENGTH (ME= 3.00 --->| RY = 3.1 |
|************* RZ = 16.3 |
| |
| 104.6( KN-METR) |
|PARAMETER |L1 STRESSES |
|IN NEWT MM | IN NEWT MM|
|--------------- + -------------|
| KL/R-Y= 95.4 | FA = 84.8 |
| KL/R-Z= 18.4 + fa = 1.6 |
| UNL = 3000.0 | FCZ = 116.6 |
| C = 400.0 + FTZ = 165.0 |
| CMY = 0.85 | FCY = 165.0 |
| CMZ = 0.85 + FTY = 165.0 |
| FYLD = 249.9 | L3 fbz = 108.4 |
| NSF = 0.9 +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| fby = 0.0 |
| DFF = 325.0 92.7 FV = 100.0 |
| dff = 4383.0 ABSOLUTE MZ ENVELOPE |
| (WITH LOAD NO.) |
| |
| MAX FORCE/ MOMENT SUMMARY ( KN-METR) |
| ------------------------- |
| |
| AXIAL SHEAR-Y SHEAR-Z MOMENT-Y MOMENT-Z |
| |
| VALUE -23.7 61.3 0.0 0.0 104.6 |
| LOCATION 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 |
| LOADING 3 1 0 0 1 |
| |
|***************************************************************************|
|* *|
|* DESIGN SUMMARY ( KN-METR) *|
|* -------------- *|
|* *|
|* RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/ *|
| FX MY MZ LOCATION |
| ====================================================== |
| PASS IS-7.1.2 0.667 1 |
| 9.62 T 0.0 -104.6 0.00 |
| |
| DEFLECTION * PASS |
| RATIO: 0.074 LOADING: 3 LOCATION: 0.67 |
|* *|
|***************************************************************************|

Section 9B

9-59
9B.12 Indian Steel Table
This is an important feature of the program since the program will
read section properties of a steel member directly from the latest
ISI steel tables (as published in ISI-800). These properties are
stored in memory corresponding to the section designation (e.g.
ISMB250, etc.). If called for, the properties are also used for
member design. Since the shear areas are built in to these tables,
shear deformation is always considered for these members.

Almost all ISI steel tables are available for input. A complete
listing of the sections available in the built -in steel section library
may be obtained using the tools of the graphical user interface.

Following are the descriptions of all the types of sections
available:

Rolled Steel Beams (ISJB, ISLB, ISMB and ISHB).

All rolled steel beam sections are available the way they are
designated in the ISI handbook., e.g. ISJB225, ISWB400, etc.

20 TO 30 TA ST ISLB325

NOTE:
In case of two identical beams, the heavier beam is designated
with an A on the end., e.g. ISHB400 A, etc.

1 TO 5 TA ST ISHB400A

Steel Design Per IS800
Section 9B

9-60
Rolled Steel Channels (ISJC, ISLC and ISMC)

All these shapes are available as listed in ISI section handbook.
Designation of the channels are per the scheme used by ISI.

10 TO 20 BY 2 TA ST ISMC125
12 TA ST ISLC300

Double Channels

Back to back double channels, with or without spacing between
them, are available. The letter D in front of the section name will
specify a double channel, e.g. D ISJC125, D ISMC75 etc.

21 22 24 TA D ISLC225

Rolled Steel Angles

Both rolled steel equal angles and unequal angles are available for
use in the STAAD implementation of ISI steel tables. The
following example with explanations will be helpful in
understanding the input procedure:

ISA 150 X 75 X 8


Angle symbol Thickness in mm

Long leg length in mm Short leg length in mm

At present there is no standard way to define the local y and z axes
for an angle section. The standard section has local axis system as
illustrated in Fig.2.4 of this manual. The standard angle is
specified as:

51 52 53 TA ST ISA60X60X6

Section 9B

9-61
This specification has the local z-axis ( i.e., the minor axis
corresponding to the V-V axis specifi ed in the steel tables. Many
engineers are familiar with a convention used by some other
programs in which the local y-axis is the minor axis. STAAD
provides for this convention by accepting the command:

54 55 56 TA RA ISA50X30X6 (RA denotes reverse angle)

Double Angles

Short leg back to back or long leg back to back double angles can
be specified by inputting the word SD or LD, respectively, in front
of the angle size. In case of an equal angle either LD or SD will
serve the purpose. For example,

14 TO 20 TA LD ISA50X30X5 SP 1.5
23 27 TA SD ISA75X50X6

Rolled Tees (ISHT, ISST, ISLT and ISJT)

All the rolled tee sections are available for input as they are
specified in the ISI handbook. Following example illustrates the
designated method.

1 2 5 8 TA ST ISNT100
67 68 TA ST ISST250

Pipes (Circular Hollow Sections)

To designate circular hollow sections from ISI tables, use PIP
followed by the numerical value of diameter and thickness of the
section in mm omitting the decimal section of the value provi ded
for diameter. Following example will illustrate the designation.

Steel Design Per IS800
Section 9B

9-62

10 15 TA ST PIP 213.2
(Specifies a 213 mm dia. pipe with 3.2 mm wall thickness)

Circular pipe sections can also be specified by providing the
outside and inside diameters of the section. For example,

1 TO 9 TA ST PIPE OD 25.0ID 20.0
(specifies a pipe with outside dia. of 25 and inside dia. of 20
in current length units)

Only code checking and no member selection will be performed if
this type of specification is used.

Tubes (Rectangular or Square Hollow Sections)

Designation of tubes from the ISI steel table is illustrated below.

TUB 400 200 12.5


Tube Symbol Thickness in mm

Height in mm Width in mm

Example:

15 TO 25 TA ST TUB 160808

Tubes, like pipes, can also be input by their dimensions (Height,
Width and Thickness) and not by any table designations.

6 TA ST TUBE DT 8.0 WT 6.0 TH 0.5 is a tube that has a height
of 8, a width of 6, and a wall thickness of 0.5.


Section 9B

9-63
Note that only code checking and no member selection is
performed for TUBE sections specified this way.

Plate And Angle Girders (With Flange Plates)

All plate and angle grinders (with flange plates) are available as
listed in ISI section handbook. The following example with
explanations will be helpful in understanding the input procedure.

I 1000 12 A 400 12


A F
B E
C D

A Plate and angle girder symbol.
B Web plate width in mm.
C Web plate thickness in mm.
D Flange angle (Flange angle key below):
E Flange plate width in mm.
F Flange plate thickness in mm.

SYMBOL ANGLE(A X B X t)(all in mm)

A 150X150X18
B 200X100X15
C 200X150X18
E 200X200X18

Steel Design Per IS800
Section 9B

9-64
SINGLE JOIST WITH CHANNELS AND PLATES ON THE
FLANGES TO BE USED AS GIRDERS

All single joist with channel and plates on the flanges to be used
as girders are available as listed in ISI section handbook. The
following example with explanations will be helpful in
understanding the input procedure.

IW 450 350 X 10 20

A E
B D
C

A Joist Designation: IW450=ISWB450

B Top flange channel designation:
350=ISMC350

C Constant (always X).

D Top flange plate thickness in mm.
NOTE: D is 0 for no plate.

E Bottom flange plate thickness in mm.

NOTE:

The heavier ISWB600 has been omitted, since the lighter
ISWB600 is more efficient.


Section 9B

9-65
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that
specified number till it is specified again. This is the way STAAD
works for all codes.

Table 9B.1 Indian Steel Design - IS : 800 Parameters

Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
KY 1.0 K value in local y-axis. Usually, this is minor axis.
KZ 1.0 K value in local z-axis. Usually, this is major axis.
LY Member Length
Length in local y-axis to calculate slenderness
ratio.
LZ Member Length Same as above except in local z-axis (major).
FYLD
250 MPA
(36.25 KSI)
Yield strength of steel.
NSF 1.0 Net section factor for tension members.
UNL Member Length
Unsupported length for calculating allowable
bending stress.
UNF 1.0
Same as above provided as a fraction of actual
member length.
SSY 0.0
0.0 = Sidesway in local y-axis.
1.0 = No sidesway
SSZ 0.0 Same as above except in local z-axis.
CMY
CMZ
0.85 for
sidesway and
calculated for no
sidesway
Cm value in local y & z axes
MAIN
180 (Comp.
Memb.)
Allowable Kl/r for slenderness calculations for
compression members.
TMAIN
400 (Tension
Memb)
Allowable Kl/r for slenderness calculations for
tension members.
TRACK 0.0
0.0 = Suppress critical member stresses
1.0 = Print all critical member stresses
2.0 = Print expanded output. If there is
deflection check it will also print the
governing load case number for deflection
check whenever critical condition for
design is not DEFLECTION.
(see fig.8B.1)
Steel Design Per IS800
Section 9B

9-66
Table 9B.1 Indian Steel Design - IS : 800 Parameters

Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
DMAX 100.0 cm. Maximum allowable depth.
DMIN 0.0 cm. Minimum allowable depth.
RATIO 1.0
Permissible ratio of the actual to allowable
stresses.
BEAM 3.0
0.0 = design only for end moments and those at
locations specified by the SECTION
command.
1.0 = calculate section forces at twelfth points
along the beam, design at each
intermediate location and report the critical
location where ratio is maximum.
PROFILE -
Search for the lightest section for the profile
mentioned.
DFF
None
(Mandatory for
deflection check)
"Deflection Length" / Maxm. allowable local
deflection
DJ1
Start Joint
of member
Joint No. denoting starting point for calculation of
"Deflection Length" (See Note 1)
DJ2
End Joint of
member
Joint No. denoting end point for calculation of
"Deflection Length" (See Note 1)

NOTES:

1) "Deflection Length" is defined as the lengt h that is used for
calculation of local deflections within a member. It may be
noted that for most cases the "Deflection Length" will be equal
to the length of the member. However, in some situations, the
"Deflection Length" may be different. For example, refer to
the figure below where a beam has been modeled using four
joints and three members. Note that the "Deflection Length"
for all three members will be equal to the total length of the
beam in this case. The parameters DJ1 and DJ2 should be used
to model this situation. Also the straight line joining DJ1 and
DJ2 is used as the reference line from which local deflections
are measured. Thus, for all three members here, DJ1 should be
"1" and DJ2 should be "4".

Section 9B

9-67

D = Maximum local deflection for members
1 2 and 3.
D
1
2 3
4
1
2 3

EXAMPLE : PARAMETERS
DFF 300. ALL
DJ1 1 ALL
DJ2 4 ALL

2) If DJ1 and DJ2 are not used, "Deflection Length" will default
to the member length and local deflections will be measured
from original member line.

3) The above parameters may be used in conjunction with other
available parameters for steel design.

9B.13 Column With Lacings And Battens
For columns with large loads it is desirable to build rolled sections
at a distance and inter-connect them. The joining of element
sections is done by two ways:

a) Lacing and b) Batten

Double channel sections (back-to-back and face-to-face) can be
joined either by lacing or by batten plates having rivetted or
welded connection.

Table 8B.2 gives the parameters that are required for Lacing or
batten design. These parameters will have to be provided in unit
NEW MMS along with parameters defined in Table 9B.1.
Steel Design Per IS800
Section 9B

9-68
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that
specified number till it is specified again. This is the way
STAAD works for all codes.

Table 9B.2 Indian Concrete Design IS800 Parameters
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
CTYPE 1 Type of joining
CTYPE = 1 implies single lacing with rivetted
connection
CTYPE = 2 implies double lacing with rivetted
connection
CTYPE = 3 implies single lacing with welded
connection
CTYPE = 4 implies double lacing with welded
connection
CTYPE = 5 implies batten with rivetted
connection
CTYPE = 6 implies batten with welded
connection
THETA 50 degree Angle of inclination of lacing bars. It should lie
between 40 degree and 70 degree.
DBL 20 mm Nominal diameter of rivet
FVB
100 N/mm
2
Allowable shear stress in rivet
FYB
300 N/mm
2

Allowable bearing stress in rivet
WMIN 6 mm Minimum thickness of weld
WSTR 108 N/mm
2
Allowable welding stress
EDIST 32 mm (Rivetted
Connection)
25 mm (Welded
Connection)
Edge Distance

Section 9B

9-69
Table 9B.2 Indian Concrete Design IS800 Parameters
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
DCFR
0.0 0.0 implies double channel back-to-back.
1.0 Implies double channel face-to-face.
This parameter is used when member
properties are defined through user provided
table using GENERAL option.
COG
0.0 mm Centre of gravity of the channel. This
parameter is used when member properties
are defined through user provided table using
GENERAL option.
SPA
0.0 mm Spacing between double channels. This
parameter is used when member properties
are defined through user provided table using
GENERAL option.




Steel Design Per IS800
Section 9B

9-70






9-71


Steel Design Per IS802


9C.1 General Comments
This section presents some general statements regarding the
implementation of Indian Standard code of practice (IS:802-1995
Part 1) for structural steel design for overhead transmission line
towers in STAAD. The design philosophy and procedural logistics
for member selection and code checking are based upon the
principles of allowable stress design. Two major failure modes are
recognized: failure by overstressing, and failure by stability
considerations. The flowing sections describe the salient features
of the allowable stresses being calculated and the stability criteria
being used. Members are proportioned to resist the design loads
without exceeding the allowable stresses and the most economic
section is selected on the basis of least weight criteria. The code
checking part of the program checks stability and strength
requirements and reports the critical loading condition and the
governing code criteria.
9C.2 Allowable Stresses
The member design and code checking in STAAD are based upon
the allowable stress design method as per IS:802 (1995). It is a
method for proportioning structural members using design loads
and forces, allowable stresses, and design limitations for the
appropriate material under service conditions.

This section discusses the salient features of the allowable stresses
specified by IS:802 and implemented in STAAD.
Section
9C

Steel Design Per IS802
Section 9C


9-72
9C.2..1 Axial Stress
Tensile Stress
The allowable tensile stress, as calculated in STAAD as per IS:802
is described below.

The estimated tensile stresses on the net effective sectional area in
various members, multiplied by the appropriate factor of safety
shall not exceed minimum guaranteed yield stress of the material.

Thus, the permissible stress in axial tension, o
at
in MPa on the net
effective area of the sections shall not exceed

o
at
= f
y


where,

f
y
= minimum yield stress of steel in Mpa

Compressive Stress
The estimated compressive stresses in various members multiplied
by the appropriate factor of safety shall not exceed the value given
by the formulae described below.


Condition 1: If
(
(

=
(

s
|
.
|

\
|
y
F
t
b
t
b 210
lim



C
C r / KL s


Stress F
a
=
y
F
Cc
r / KL
2
1
1
2

(
(

N/mm
2

C
C r / KL >

Section 9C

9-73
Stress F
a
=
( )
2
2
/ r KL
E t
N/mm
2


Condition 2: If
lim
|
.
|

\
|
t
b
s
|
.
|

\
|
t
b
s
y
F
378
when F
y is
the N/mm
2
formulae given in condition 1 shall be used substituting for F
y
the
value F
cr
given by:

F
cr
=
y
lim
F
t
b
t
b
677 . 0
677 . 1
(
(
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|


Condition 3: |
.
|

\
|
t
b
>
y
F
378
when F
y is
the N/mm
2
formulae given in
condition 1 shall be used substituting for F
y
the value F
cr
given by

F
cr
=
2
t
b
65550
|
.
|

\
|


In which C
C =
y
F
E 2
t

where,

F
a
= allowable unit stress in compression, Mpa
F
y
= minimum guaranteed yield stress of the material, Mpa
K = restraint factor,
L = unbraced length of the compression member in cm, and
R = appropriate radius of gyration in cm.
E = modulus of elasticity of steel in N/mm
2

Steel Design Per IS802
Section 9C


9-74
r
KL
= largest effective slenderness ratio of any unbraced segment
of the member,

b = distance from edge of the fillet to the extreme fibre in mm, and
t = thickness of flange in mm.

Note : The maximum permissible value of b/t for any type of steel
shall not exceed 25.
9C.3 Stability Requirements
Slenderness ratios are calculated for all members and checked
against the appropriate maximum values. Following are the default
values used in STAAD:

Compression Members:

Members
Slenderness
value
Leg Members, ground wire peak member and lower
members of cross arms in compression
120
Other members carrying computed stress 200
Redundant members and those carrying nominal
stresses
250



Section 9C

9-75
Slenderness ratios of compression members are determined as
follows:

If ELA number given in the input for any particular member is
such that condition for L/r ratio to fall within the specified range
is not satisfied, STAAD goes on by the usual way of finding
slenderness ratio using K*L/r formula.

ELA NO.


Type of members

Value of KL/r
1 Leg sections or joint members bolted
at connections in both faces
L/r
2 Members with concentric loading at
both ends of the unsupported panel
with values of L/r up to and
including 120
L/r
3 Member with concentric loading at
one end and normal eccentricities at
the other end of the unsupported
panel for value of L/r up to and
including 120
30 + 0.75L/r
4 Members with normal framing
eccentricities at both ends of the
unsupported panel for values of L/r
up to and including 120
60 + 0.5L/r
5 Member unrestrained against
rotation at both ends of the
unsupported panel for value of L/r
from 120 to 200
L/r
6 Members partially restrained against
rotation at one end of the
unsupported panel for values of L/r
over 120 and up to and including 225
28.6 + 0.762L/r
7 Members partially restrained against
rotation at both ends of the
unsupported panel for values of L/r
over 120 and up to and including 250
46.2 + 0.615L/r
Steel Design Per IS802
Section 9C


9-76
Tension Members:
Slenderness ratio KL/r of a member carrying axial tension only,
shall not exceed 400.
9C.4 Minimum Thickness Requirement
As per Clause7.1 of IS: 802-1995 minimum thickness of different
tower members shall be as fol lows:

Members
Minimum Thickness, mm
Galvanized Painted
Leg Members, ground wire peak
member and lower members of
cross arms in compression

5 6
Other members

4 5
9C.5 Code Checking
The purpose of code checking is to verify whether the specified
section is capable of satisfying applicable design code
requirements. The code checking is based on the IS:802 (1995)
requirements. Axial forces at two ends of the members are utilized
for the code checking calculations.

The code checking output labels t he members as PASSed or
FAILed. In addition, the critical condition, governing load case,
location (distance from the start) and magnitudes of the governing
forces are also printed out. Using TRACK 9 option calculation
steps are also printed.


Section 9C

9-77
9C.5.1 Design Steps
The following are the steps followed in member design.

Step 1

Thickness of the member (maximum of web and flange
thicknesses) is checked against minimum allowable thickness,
depending upon whether the member is painted or galvanised.

Step 2

If the minimum thickness criterion is fulfilled, the program
determines whether the member is under compression or tension
for the loadcase under consideration. Depending upon whether the
member is under tension or compression the slenderness ratio of
the member is calculated. This calculated ratio is checked against
allowable slenderness ratio.

Step 3

If the slenderness criterion is fulfilled check against allowable
stress is performed. Allowable axial and tensile stresses are
calculated. If the member is under tension and there is no user
defined net section factor (NSF), the net section factor is
calculated by the program itself (Refer Section 8C.10). Actual
axial stress in the member is calculated. The ratio for actual stress
to allowable stress, if less than 1.0 or user defined value, the
member has passed the check.

Step 4

Number of bolts required for the critical loadcase is calculated.
Steel Design Per IS802
Section 9C


9-78
9C.6 Member Selection
STAAD is capable of performing design operations on specified
members. Once an analysis has been performed, the program can
select the most economical section, that is, the lightest section,
which satisfies the applicable code requirements. The section
selected will be of the same type (either angle or channel) as
originally specified by the user. Member selection may be
performed with all angle or channel sections and user provided
tables. Selection of members, whose properties are originally
provided from user specified table, will be limited to sections in
the user provided table.

The process of MEMBER SELECTION may be controlled using
the parameters listed in Table 8B.1. It may be noted that the
parameters DMAX and DMIN may be used to specify member
depth constraints for selection. If PROFILE parameter is provided,
the search for the lightest section is restricted to that profile. Up to
three (3) profiles may be provided for any member with a section
being selected from each one.
9C.7 Member Selection by Optimization
Steel section selection of the entire structure may be optimized.
The optimization method utilizes a state-of-the -art numerical
technique which requires automatic multiple analysis. The
optimization is based on member stiffness contributions and
corresponding force distributions.

An optimum member size is determined through successive
analysis/design iterations. This method requires substantial
computer time and hence should be used with caution.





Section 9C

9-79
9C.8 Tabulated Results of Steel Design



DETAILS OF CALCULATION
----------------------

CHECK FOR MINIMUM THICKNESS
---------------------------

TYPE : GALVANISED

MIN. ALLOWABLE THICKNESS : 5.0 MM

ACTUAL THICKNESS : 10.0 MM

RESULT : PASS
Steel Design Per IS802
Section 9C


9-80

CHECK FOR SLENDERNESS RATIO
---------------------------

VALUE OF L/r : 90.16

EQN. USED TO FIND KL/r : 60.0 + 0.5*L/r

ACTUAL VALUE OF KL/r : 105.08

ALLOWABLE KL/r : 120.00

RESULT : PASS

CALCULATION OF ALLOWABLE STRESS
--------------------------------

CRITICAL CONDITION : COMPRESSION

Cc : sqrt(2*3.141592*3.141592*E/ fy) : 127.22

b : LENGTH OF LEG - WEB THICKNESS - ROOT RADIUS
: 150.0 - 10.0 - 11.0 : 129.0 MM

(b/t)l i m : 210/ sqrt(fy) : 13.28

(b/t)cal : 12.90

(b/t)cal <= (b/t )li m AND KL/ r <= Cc

ALLOWABLE AXIAL COMP. STRESS : (1-0.5*(KL/r/ Cc)*(KL/r/Cc))*fy :
164.72 MPA

CHECK AGAINST PERMISSIBLE STRESS
--------------------------------

DESIGN AXIAL FORCE : 250000.00 N

ACTUAL AXIAL COMP. STRESS : 250000.00 / 2552.0 : 97. 96 MPA

RESULT : PASS
BOLTING
-------

BOLT DIA : 16 MM

SHEARING CAP : 20.11 KN

BEARING CAP : 38.40 KN

BOLT CAP : 20.11 KN

NO. OF BOLTS REQD. : 13

Section 9C

9-81
9C.9 Parameter Table for IS 802
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that
specified number till it is specified again. This is the way
STAAD works for all codes.

Table 9C.1 Indian Steel Design - IS 802 Parameters

Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
KY 1.0 K value in local y-axis. Usually, this is minor
axis.
KZ 1.0 K value in local z-axis. Usually, this is major
axis.
LY Member Length Unbraced length in local z-axis to calculate
slenderness ratio.
LZ Member Length Unbraced length in local z-axis to calculate
slenderness ratio.
FYLD 250 MPA Yield Strength of steel
MAIN 1.0 Type of member to find allowable Kl/r for
slenderness calculations for members.
1.0 = Leg, Ground wire peak and lower
members of cross arms in compression
(KL/r = 120)
2.0 = Members carrying computed stress
(KL/r = 200)
3.0 = Redundant members and members
carrying nominal stresses (KL/r = 250)
4.0 = Tension members (KL/r = 400)
10.0 = Do not perform KL/r check
Any value greater than 10.0 indicates user
defined allowable KL/r ratio. For this case KY
and KZ values are must to find actual KL/r
ratio of the member.
DMAX 100.0 cm. Maximum allowable depth.
DMIN 0.0 cm. Minimum allowable depth.
Steel Design Per IS802
Section 9C


9-82
Table 9C.1 Indian Steel Design - IS 802 Parameters

Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
TRACK 0.0 0.0 = Suppress critical member stresses
1.0 = Print all critical member stresses
2.0 = Print expanded output.
9.0 = Print design calculations along with
expanded output.
LEG 1.0 This parameter is meant for plain angles.
0.0 = indicates the angle is connected by
shorter leg
1.0 = indicates the angle is connected by
longer leg
ELA 1.0 This parameter indicates what type of end
conditions is to be used. Refer Section 8C.3.
NSF 1.0 Net section factor for tension members
CNSF 0.0 This parameter indicates whether user has
defined NSF or the program will calculate it.
0.0 = User has defined NSF
1.0 = Program has to calculate it
DANGLE 0.0 This parameter indicates how the pair of
angles are connected to each other. This is
required to find whether the angle is in single
or double shear and the net section factor.
0.0 = Double angle placed back to back and
connected to each side of a gusset plate
1.0 = Pair of angle placed back-to-back
connected by only one leg of each angle
to the same side of a gusset plate
DBL 12 mm Diameter of bolt for calculation of number of
bolts and net section factor.
FVB 218 MPA Allowable shear stress in bolt
FYB 436 MPA Allowable bearing stress in bolt

Section 9C

9-83
Table 9C.1 Indian Steel Design - IS 802 Parameters

Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
GUSSET 5 mm Thickness of gusset plate.
Minimum of the thicknesses of the gusset plate
and the leg is used for calculation of the
capacity of bolt in bearing
NHL 0.0 mm Deduction for holes.
Default value is one bolt width plus 1.5 mm. If
the area of holes cut by any straight, diagonal
or zigzag line across the member is different
from the default value, this parameter is to be
defined.

9C.10 Calculation of Net Section Factor
The procedure for calculating net section factor for angle section is
described below.

Single angle connected by only one leg

A
net
= A
1
+ A
2
x K
1


Where, A
1
= net cross-sectional area of the connected leg
A
2
= gross cross-sectional area of the unconnected leg
And K
1
=
A2 A1 3
A1 3
+ x
x


The area of a leg of an angle = Thickness of angle x (length of leg
0.5x thickness of leg)


Steel Design Per IS802
Section 9C


9-84
Pair of angles placed back-to-back connected by only one leg of
each angle to the same side of a gusset plate

A
net
= A
1
+ A
2
x K
1


Where A
1
= net cross-sectional area of the connected leg
A
2
= gross cross-sectional area of the unconnected leg
And K
1
=
A2 A1 5
A1 5
+ x
x


The area of a leg of an angle = Thickness of angle x (length of leg
0.5x thickness of leg)

Double angles placed back to back and connected to each side
of a gusset plate

A
net
= gross area deduction for holes
Net Section Factor

For angle section it is the ratio of the net effective area, A
net
to the
gross area.

For channel section net section factor is taken to be 1.0.

Section 9C

9-85
9C.11 Example Problem No. 28
A transmission line tower is subjected to different loading
conditions. Design some members as per IS-802 and show detailed
calculation steps for the critical loading condition.



Given: End Condition = Members with normal framing
eccentricities at both ends of the unsupported panel for
values of L/r up to and including 120
Diameter of the bolt = 16 mm
Thickness of the gusset plate = 8 mm
Net Section Factor is to be calculated.

Steel Design Per IS802
Section 9C


9-86


STAAD TRUSS
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 3 0 3; 2 1.2 27 1.2; 3 2.8 3 2.8; 4 2.6 6 2.6; 5 2.4 9 2.4; 6 2.2 12 2.2;
7 2 15 2; 8 1.8 18 1.8; 9 1.6 21 1.6; 10 1.4 24 1.4; 11 -3 0 3; 12 -1.2 27 1.2;
13 -2.8 3 2.8; 14 -2.6 6 2.6; 15 -2.4 9 2.4; 16 -2.2 12 2.2; 17 -2 15 2;
18 -1.8 18 1.8; 19 -1.6 21 1.6; 20 -1.4 24 1.4; 21 3 0 -3; 22 1.2 27 -1.2;
23 2.8 3 -2.8; 24 2.6 6 -2.6; 25 2.4 9 -2.4; 26 2.2 12 -2.2; 27 2 15 -2;
28 1.8 18 -1.8; 29 1.6 21 -1.6; 30 1.4 24 -1.4; 31 -3 0 -3; 32 -1.2 27 -1.2;
33 -2.8 3 -2.8; 34 -2.6 6 -2.6; 35 -2.4 9 -2.4; 36 -2.2 12 -2.2; 37 -2 15 -2;
38 -1.8 18 -1.8; 39 -1.6 21 -1.6; 40 -1.4 24 -1.4; 41 1.2 30 1.2;
42 -1.2 30 1.2; 43 1.2 30 -1.2; 44 -1.2 30 -1.2; 45 4.2 27 1.2; 46 7.2 27 1.2;
47 4.2 30 1.2; 48 4.2 27 -1.2; 49 7.2 27 -1.2; 50 4.2 30 -1.2; 51 -4.2 27 1.2;
52 -7.2 27 1.2; 53 -4.2 30 1.2; 54 -4.2 27 -1.2; 55 -7.2 27 -1.2;
56 -4.2 30 -1.2; 57 1.2 33 1.2; 58 -1.2 33 1.2; 59 1.2 33 -1.2;
60 -1.2 33 -1.2; 61 0 35 0;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 3; 2 3 4; 3 4 5; 4 5 6; 5 6 7; 6 7 8; 7 8 9; 8 9 10; 9 10 2; 10 11 13;
11 13 14; 12 14 15; 13 15 16; 14 16 17; 15 17 18; 16 18 19; 17 19 20; 18 20 12;
19 13 3; 20 14 4; 21 15 5; 22 16 6; 23 17 7; 24 18 8; 25 19 9; 26 20 10;
27 12 2; 28 11 3; 29 1 13; 30 13 4; 31 3 14; 32 14 5; 33 15 4; 34 15 6;
35 16 5; 36 16 7; 37 17 6; 38 17 8; 39 18 7; 40 18 9; 41 19 8; 42 19 10;
43 20 9; 44 20 2; 45 12 10; 46 21 23; 47 23 24; 48 24 25; 49 25 26; 50 26 27;
51 27 28; 52 28 29; 53 29 30; 54 30 22; 55 3 23; 56 4 24; 57 5 25; 58 6 26;
59 7 27; 60 8 28; 61 9 29; 62 10 30; 63 2 22; 64 1 23; 65 21 3; 66 3 24;
67 23 4; 68 4 25; 69 5 24; 70 5 26; 71 6 25; 72 6 27; 73 7 26; 74 7 28;
75 8 27; 76 8 29; 77 9 28; 78 9 30; 79 10 29; 80 10 22; 81 2 30; 82 31 33;
83 33 34; 84 34 35; 85 35 36; 86 36 37; 87 37 38; 88 38 39; 89 39 40; 90 40 32;
91 23 33; 92 24 34; 93 25 35; 94 26 36; 95 27 37; 96 28 38; 97 29 39; 98 30 40;
99 22 32; 100 21 33; 101 31 23; 102 23 34; 103 33 24; 104 24 35; 105 25 34;
106 25 36; 107 26 35; 108 26 37; 109 27 36; 110 27 38; 111 28 37; 112 28 39;
113 29 38; 114 29 40; 115 30 39; 116 30 32; 117 22 40; 118 33 13; 119 34 14;
120 35 15; 121 36 16; 122 37 17; 123 38 18; 124 39 19; 125 40 20; 126 32 12;
127 31 13; 128 11 33; 129 33 14; 130 13 34; 131 34 15; 132 35 14; 133 35 16;
134 36 15; 135 36 17; 136 37 16; 137 37 18; 138 38 17; 139 38 19; 140 39 18;
141 39 20; 142 40 19; 143 40 12; 144 32 20; 145 32 44; 146 12 42; 147 2 41;
148 22 43; 149 42 41; 150 41 43; 151 43 44; 152 44 42; 153 12 41; 154 42 2;
155 22 41; 156 43 2; 157 43 32; 158 44 22; 159 12 44; 160 32 42; 161 41 47;
162 47 45; 163 45 2; 164 47 46; 165 46 45; 166 41 45; 167 43 50; 168 50 48;
169 48 22; 170 50 49; 171 49 48; 172 43 48; 173 47 50; 174 46 49; 175 45 48;
176 41 50; 177 50 46; 178 43 47; 179 47 49; 180 22 50; 181 2 47; 182 22 45;
183 2 48; 184 47 48; 185 50 45; 186 45 49; 187 48 46; 188 42 53; 189 53 51;
190 51 12; 191 53 52; 192 52 51; 193 42 51; 194 44 56; 195 56 54; 196 54 32;
197 56 55; 198 55 54; 199 44 54; 200 53 56; 201 52 55; 202 51 54; 203 42 56;
204 56 52; 205 44 53; 206 53 55; 207 32 56; 208 12 53; 209 32 51; 210 12 54;
211 53 54; 212 56 51; 213 51 55; 214 54 52; 215 44 60; 216 42 58; 217 41 57;
218 43 59; 219 60 59; 220 59 57; 221 57 58; 222 58 60; 223 44 58; 224 42 60;
225 42 57; 226 41 58; 227 44 59; 228 43 60; 229 43 57; 230 41 59; 231 60 57;
232 59 58; 235 33 3; 236 13 23; 237 34 4; 238 14 24; 239 35 5; 240 15 25;
241 36 6; 242 16 26; 243 37 7; 244 17 27; 245 38 8; 246 18 28; 247 39 9;
248 19 29; 249 40 10; 250 20 30; 251 32 2; 252 22 12; 253 44 41; 254 43 42;

Section 9C

9-87

255 60 61; 256 58 61; 257 57 61; 258 59 61;
MEMBER PROPERTY INDIAN
1 TO 18 46 TO 54 82 TO 90 145 TO 148 215 TO 218 TA LD ISA200X150X18 SP 0.01
19 TO 26 28 TO 45 55 TO 62 64 TO 81 91 TO 98 100 TO 125 127 TO 144 155 156 -
159 160 223 224 229 230 235 TO 250 TA ST ISA150X150X10
27 63 99 126 149 TO 154 157 158 161 TO 214 219 TO 222 225 TO 228 231 232 251 -
252 TO 258 TA ST ISA80X50X6
CONSTANTS
E 2.05e+008 ALL
POISSON 0.3 ALL
DENSITY 76.8195 ALL
ALPHA 6.5e-006 ALL
SUPPORTS
1 11 21 31 FIXED
UNIT METER KG
LOAD 1 VERT
SELFWEIGHT Y -1
JOINT LOAD
61 FX 732
46 49 52 55 FX 153
61 FX 1280 FY -1016 FZ 160
46 49 52 55 FX 9006 FY -7844 FZ 1968
2 12 22 32 FX 4503 FY -3937 FZ 1968
LOAD 2 GWBC
SELFWEIGHT Y -1
JOINT LOAD
61 FX 549
46 49 52 55 FX 1148
61 FX 515 FY -762 FZ 2342
46 49 52 55 FX 6755 FY -5906
2 12 22 32 FX 3378 FY -2953
LOAD 3 LEFT PCBC
SELFWEIGHT Y -1
JOINT LOAD
61 FX 549
46 49 52 55 FX 1148
61 FX 960 FY -762
46 49 FX 6755 FY -5906
52 55 FX 4211 FY -4551 FZ 13293
2 12 22 32 FX 3378 FY -2953
LOAD 4 RIGHT PCBC
SELFWEIGHT Y -1
JOINT LOAD
61 FX 549
46 49 52 55 FX 1148
61 FX 960 FY -762
52 55 FX 6755 FY -5906
46 49 FX 4211 FY -4551 FZ 13293
2 12 22 32 FX 3378 FY -2953
PERFORM ANALYSIS
UNIT NEW MMS
PARAMETER
CODE IS802
Steel Design Per IS802
Section 9C


9-88

LY 2800 MEMB 28 LZ 2800 MEMB 28
MAIN 1.0 MEMB 1
ELA 4 MEMB 1
CNSF 1.0 MEMB 28
DBL 16 ALL
GUSSET 8 ALL
TRACK 9 ALL
CHECK CODE MEMB 1 28
FINI SH


Output of design result






Section 9C

9-89
DETAILS OF CALCULATION
----------------------

CHECK FOR MINIMUM THICKNESS
---------------------------

TYPE : PAINTED

MIN. ALLOWABLE THICKNESS : 6.0 MM

ACTUAL THICKNESS : 18.0 MM

RESULT : PASS

CHECK FOR SLENDERNESS RATIO
---------------------------

VALUE OF L/r : 48.49

EQN. USED TO FIND KL/r : 60.0 + 0.5*L/r

ACTUAL VALUE OF KL/r : 84.25

ALLOWABLE KL/r : 120.00

RESULT : PASS

CALCULATION OF ALLOWABLE STRESS
---------------------------------

CRITICAL CONDITION : COMPRESSION

Cc : sqrt (2*3.141592*3.141592*E/fy) : 127.24

b : LENGTH OF LEG - WEB THICKNESS - ROOT RADIUS
: 200.0 - 18.0 - 13.5 : 168.5 MM

(b/t)lim : 210/sqrt(fy) : 13.28

(b/t)cal : 9.36

(b/t)cal <= (b/t)lim AND KL/r <= Cc

ALLOWABLE AXIAL COMP. STRESS : (1- 0.5*(KL/r/Cc)*(KL/r/Cc))*fy :
195.15 MPA

CHECK AGAINST PERMISSIBLE STRESS
--------------------------------

LOAD NO. : 1

DESIGN AXIAL FORCE : 1742002.38 N

ACTUAL AXIAL COMP. STRESS :1742002.38 / 11952.0 : 145.75 MPA

RESULT : PASS
Steel Design Per IS802
Section 9C


9-90
BOLTING
-------

BOLT DIA : 16 MM

SHEARING CAP : 87.66 KN

BEARING CAP : 55.81 KN

BOLT CAP : 55.81 KN

NO. OF BOLTS REQD. : 32




Section 9C

9-91
DETAILS OF CALCULATION
----------------------
CHECK FOR MINIMUM THICKNESS
---------------------------
TYPE : PAINTED

MIN. ALLOWABLE THICKNESS : 6.0 MM

ACTUAL THICKNESS : 10.0 MM

RESULT : PASS

CHECK FOR SLENDERNESS RATIO
---------------------------
VALUE OF L/r : 95.56

EQN. USED TO FIND KL/r : K*L/r

ACTUAL VALUE OF KL/r : 95.56

ALLOWABLE KL/r : 400.00

RESULT : PASS

CALCULATION OF ALLOWABLE STRESS
---------------------------------

CRITICAL CONDITION : TENSION

ALLOWABLE AXIAL TENSILE STRESS : 249.94 MPA

CHECK AGAINST PERMISSIBLE STRESS
--------------------------------

LOAD NO. : 3

DESIGN AXIAL FORCE : 112909.27 N

ACTUAL AXIAL TENSILE STRESS : 112909.27 / ( 2903.0*0.801 ) : 48.53 MPA

RESULT : PASS

BOLTING
-------
BOLT DIA : 16 MM

SHEARING CAP : 43.83 KN

BEARING CAP : 55.81 KN

BOLT CAP : 43.83 KN

NO. OF BOLTS REQD. : 3

********** END OF TABULATED RESULT OF DESIGN ***********

Steel Design Per IS802
Section 9C


9-92




9-93
Design Per Indian Cold Formed
Steel Code


9D.1 General
Provisions of IS:801-1975, including revisions dated May, 1988,
have been implemented. The program allows design of single
(non-composite) members in tension, compression, bending, shear,
as well as their combinations. Cold work of forming strengthening
effects has been included as an option.
9D.2 Cross-Sectional Properties
The user specifies the geometry of the cross-section by selecting
one of the section shape designations from the Gross Section
Property Tables from IS:811-1987 (Specification for cold formed
light gauge structural steel sections).

The Tables are currently available for the following shapes:

- Channel with Lips
- Channel without Lips
- Angle without Lips
- Z with Lips
- Hat

Shape selection may be done using the member property pages of
the graphical user interface (GUI) or by specifying the section
designation symbol in the input file.
Section
9D

Design Per Indian Cold Formed Steel Code
Section 9D


9-94
The properties listed in the tables are gross section properties.
STAAD.Pro uses unreduced section properties in the structure
analysis stage. Both unreduced and effective section properties are
used in the design stage, as applicable.
9D.3 Design Procedure
The following two design modes are available:

1. Code Checking
The program compares the resistance of members with the applied
load effects, in accordance with IS:801-1975. Code checking is
carried out for locations specified by the user via the SECTION
command or the BEAM parameter. The results are presented in a
form of a PASS/FAIL identifier and a RATIO of load effect to
resistance for each member checked. The user may choose the
degree of detail in the output data by setting the TRACK
parameter.

2. Member Selection
The user may request that the program search the cold formed steel
shapes database (IS standard sections) for alternative members that
pass the code check and meet the least weight criterion. In
addition, a minimum and/or maximum acceptable depth of the
member may be specified. The program will then evaluate all
database sections of the type initially specified (i.e., channel,
angle, etc.) and, if a suitable replacement is found, presents design
results for that section. If no section satisfying the depth
restrictions or lighter than the initial one can be found, the
program leaves the member unchanged, regardless of whether it
passes the code check or not.

The program calculates effective section properties in accordance
with Clause 5.2.1.1. Cross-sectional properties and overall
slenderness of members are checked for compliance with

Section 9D

9-95

- Clause 6.6.3, Maximum Effective Slenderness Ratio for
members in Compression
- Clause 5.2.3, Maximum Flat Width Ratios for Elements in
Compression
- Clause 5.2.4, Maximum Section Depths.

The program will check member strength in accordance with
Clause 6 of the Standard as follows:

Members in tension

Resistance is calculated in accordance with Clauses 6.1

Members in bending and shear

Resistance calculations are based on Clauses:

a) 6.4.1 Shear stress in webs,
b) 6.4.2 Bending stress in webs
c) 6.4.3 Combined Bending and Shear in Webs.

Members in compression

Resistance calculations are based on Clauses:

a) 6.2 Compression on flat unstiffened element,
b) 6.6.1.1 Shapes not subject to torsional -flexural buckling,
c) 6.6.1.2 Singly-symmetric sections and nonsymmetrical
shapes of open cross section or intermittently fastened
singly-symmetrical components of built -up shapes having
Q = 1.0 which may be subject to torsional -flexural
buckling,
Design Per Indian Cold Formed Steel Code
Section 9D


9-96
d) 6.6.1.3 Singly-symmetric sections and nonsymmetrical
shapes or intermittently fastened singly-symmetrical
components of built-up shapes having Q < 1.0 which may
be subject to torsional-flexural buckling,
e) 6.8 Cylindrical Tubular Sections.

Members in compression and bending

Resistance calculations are based on Clauses:

a) All clauses for members in compression

&

b) 6.3 Laterally Unsupported Members,

c) 6.7.1 Doubly-symmetric shapes or Shapes not subjected
to torsional or torsional-flexural buckling

d) 6.7.2. Singly-symmetric shapes or Intermittently fastened
singly-symmetric components of built -up shapes having
Q=1.0 which may be subjected to torsional -flexural
buckling

e) 6.7.3. Singly-symmetric shapes or Intermittently fastened
singly-symmetric components of built -up shapes having
Q<1.0 which may be subjected to torsional -flexural
buckling.

Input for the coefficients of uniform bending must be provided by
the user.


Section 9D

9-97
The following table contains the input parameters for specifying
values of design variables and selection of design options. Note:
Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified
number till it is specified again. This is the way STAAD works
for all codes.

COLD FORMED STEEL DESIGN PARAMETERS
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
BEAM 1.0
When this parameter is set to 1.0 (default), the adequacy of
the member is determined by checking a total of 13 equally
spaced locations along the length of the member. If the BEAM
value is 0.0, the 13 location check is not conducted, and
instead, checking is done only at the locations specified by
the SECTION command (See STAAD manual for details. For
TRUSS members only start and end locations are designed.
CMZ 1.0
Coefficient of equivalent uniform bending e
z
. See IS:801-
1975, 6.7. Used for Combined axial load and bending design.
Values range from 0.4 to 1.0.
CMY 0.85
Coefficient of equivalent uniform bending e
y
. See IS:801-
1975, 6.7. Used for Combined axial load and bending design.
Values range from 0.4 to 1.0.
CWY 0.85
Specifies whether the cold work of forming strengthening
effect should be included in resistance computation. See
IS:801-1975, 6.1.1
Values: 0 effect should not be included
1 effect should be included
FLX 1
Specifies whether torsional-flexural buckling restraint is
provided or is not necessary for the member. See IS:801-
1975, 6.6.1
Values:
0 Section not subject to torsional flexural buckling
1 Section subject to torsional flexural buckling
Design Per Indian Cold Formed Steel Code
Section 9D


9-98
COLD FORMED STEEL DESIGN PARAMETERS
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
FU 450 MPa
(4588.72
kg/cm
2
)
Ultimate tensile strength of steel in current units.
FYLD 353.04
MPa
(3600.0
kg/cm
2
)
Yield strength of steel in current units.
KX 1.0
Effective length factor for torsional buckling. It is a fraction
and is unit-less. Values can range from 0.01 (for a column
completely prevented from buckling) to any user specified
large value. It is used to compute the KL/R ratio for twisting
for determining the capacity in axial compression.
KY 1.0
Effective length factor for overall buckling about the local Y-
axis. It is a fraction and is unit-less. Values can range from
0.01 (for a column completely prevented from buckling) to any
user specified large value. It is used to compute the KL/R
ratio for determining the capacity in axial compression.
KZ 1.0
Effective length factor for overall buckling in the local Z-axis. It
is a fraction and is unit-less. Values can range from 0.01 (for
a member completely prevented from buckling) to any user
specified large value. It is used to compute the KL/R ratio for
determining the capacity in axial compression.
LX Member
length
Unbraced length for twisting. It is input in the current units of
length. Values can range from 0.01 (for a member completely
prevented from torsional buckling) to any user specified large
value. It is used to compute the KL/R ratio for twisting for
determining the capacity in axial compression.
LY Member
length
Effective length for overall buckling in the local Y-axis. It is
input in the current units of length. Values can range from
0.01 (for a member completely prevented from buckling) to
any user specified large value. It is used to compute the KL/R
ratio for determining the capacity in axial compression.

Section 9D

9-99
COLD FORMED STEEL DESIGN PARAMETERS
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
LZ Member
length
Effective length for overall buckling in the local Z-axis. It is
input in the current units of length. Values can range from
0.01 (for a member completely prevented from buckling) to
any user specified large value. It is used to compute the KL/R
ratio for determining the capacity in axial compression.
MAIN 0
0 Check slenderness ratio
0 Do not check slenderness ratio
NSF 1.0
Net section factor for tension members

DMAX
2540.0
cm.
Maximum allowable depth. It is input in the current units of
length.
RATIO 1.0
Permissible ratio of actual to allowable stresses
TRACK
0 This parameter is used to control the level of detail in which
the design output is reported in the output file. The allowable
values are:

0 - Prints only the member number, section name, ratio, and
PASS/FAIL status.
1 - Prints the design summary in addition to that printed by
TRACK 1
2 - Prints member and material properties in addition to that
printed by TRACK 2.
TSA 1
Specifies whether webs of flexural members are adequately
stiffened to satisfy the requirements of IS:801-1975, 5.2.4.
Values:
0 Do not comply with 5.2.4
1 Comply with 5.2.4




Design Per Indian Cold Formed Steel Code
Section 9D
9-100







13-1


Concrete Design Per SABS 0100-1


13A.1 Design Operations
STAAD has the capability for performing design of concrete
beams and columns according to the South African code SABS
0100-1. The 2000 revision of the code is currently implemented.
Design can be performed for beams (flexure, shear and torsion)
and columns (axial load + biaxial bending). Given the width and
depth (or diameter for circular columns) of a section, STAAD will
calculate the required reinforcement.
13A.2 Design Parameters
The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to
perform and control the design to SABS 0100-1. These parameters
not only act as a method to input required data for code
calculations but give the engineer control over the actual design
process. Default values of commonly used parameters for
conventional design practice have been chosen as the basis. Table
12A.1 contains a complete list of avai lable parameters with their
default values. Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value
stays at that specified number till it is specified again. This is
the way STAAD works for all codes.
Section
13A

South African Concrete Code Per SABS 0100-1
Section 13A

13-2

Table 13A.1 South African Concrete Design-SABS 0100-1 -Parameters
Parameter Default Description
Name Value
FYMAIN *450 N/mm
2
Yield Stress for main reinforcement
FYSEC *450N/mm
2
Yield Stress for secondary reinforcement a.
Applicable to shear bars in beams
FC * 30N/mm
2
Concrete Yield Stress / cube strength
MINMAIN 8mm Minimum main reinforcement bar size
Acceptable bar sizes: 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 28
32 36 40 50 60
MINSEC 8mm Minimum secondary bar size a. Applicable to
shear reinforcement in beams
MAXMAIN 50mm Maximum required reinforcement bar size
Acceptable bars are per MINMAIN above.
CLT 20mm Clear Cover for outermost top reinforcement
CLB 20mm Clear Cover for outermost bottom
reinforcement
CLS 20mm Clear Cover for outermost side
reinforcement
TRACK 0.0 0.0 = Critical Moment will not be printed with
beam design report. Column design gives no
detailed results.
1.0 = For beam gives min/max steel % and
spacing. For columns gives a detailed table
of output with additional moments
calculated.
2.0 = Output of TRACK 1.0
List of design sag/hog moments and
corresponding required steel area at each
section of member
WIDTH *ZD Width of concrete member. This value
default is as provided as ZD in MEMBER
PROPERTIES.
DEPTH *YD Depth of concrete member. This value
default is as provided as YD in MEMBER
PROPERTIES.

Section 13A

13-3
Table 13A.1 South African Concrete Design-SABS 0100-1 -Parameters
Parameter Default Description
Name Value
BRACE 0.0 0.0 = Column braced in both directions.
1.0 = Column braced about local Y
direction only
2.0 = Column unbraced about local Z
direction only
3.0 = Column unbraced in both Y and Z
directions
ELY 1.0 Member length factor about local Y
direction for column design.
ELZ 1.0 Member length factor about local Z
direction for column design.
* Provided in current unit system
13A.3 Member Dimensions
Concrete members that are to be designed by STAAD must have
certain section properties input under the MEMBER PROPERTIES
command. The following example demonstrates the required
input:
UNIT MM
MEMBER PROPERTIES
*RECTANGULAR COLUMN 300mm WIDE X 450mm DEEP
1 3 TO 7 9 PRISM YD 450. ZD 300.
*CIRCULAR COLUMN 300mm diameter
11 13 PR YD 300.
* T-SECTION - FLANGE 1000.X 200.(YD-YB)
* - STEM 250(THICK) X 350.(DEEP)
14 PRISM YD 550. ZD 1000. YB 350. ZB 250.
South African Concrete Code Per SABS 0100-1
Section 13A

13-4
In the above input, the first set of members are rectangular
(450mm depth x 300mm width) and the second set of members,
with only depth and no width provided, will be assumed to be
circular with 300mm diameter. Note that area (AX) is not provided
for these members. If shear area areas (AY & AZ ) are to be
considered in analysis, the user may provide them along with YD
and ZD. Also note that if moments of i nertias are not provided, the
program will calculate them from YD and ZD. Finally a T section
can be considered by using the third definition above.
13A.4 Beam Design
Beam design includes flexure, shear and torsion. For all types of
beam action, all active beam loadings are scanned to create
moment and shear envelopes and locate the critical sections. The
total number of sections considered is thirteen. From the critical
moment values, the required positive and negative bar pattern is
developed. Design for flexure is carried out as per clause no.
4.3.3.4.
Shear design as per SABS 0100 clause 4.3.4 has been followed and
the procedure includes computation of critical shear values. From
these values, stirrup sizes are calculated with proper spacing. If
torsion is present, the program will also consider the provisions of
SABS 0100 clause 4.3.5. Torsional reinforcement is separately
reported.

Section 13A

13-5
A TRACK 2 design output is presented below.

B E A M N O. 4 D E S I G N R E S U L T S

M20 Fe450 (Main) Fe450 (Sec.)

LENGTH: 7500.0 mm SIZE: 380.0 mm X 715.0 mm COVER: 25.0 mm

DESIGN LOAD SUMMARY (KN MET)
--------------------------------------------------------------------
SECTION |FLEXURE (Maxm. Sagging/Hogging moments)| SHEAR
(in mm) | MZ Load Case MX Load Case | VY P Load Case
--------------------------------------------------------------------
0.0 | 135.75 5 -3.44 5 | 152.06 50.62 4
| -295.92 4 |
625.0 | 189.16 5 -3.43 5 | 133.95 48.87 4
| -236.52 4 |
1250.0 | 231.25 5 -3.41 5 | 115.84 47.12 4
| -188.44 4 |
1875.0 | 262.01 5 -3.40 5 | 97.73 45.37 4
| -151.68 4 |
2500.0 | 281.46 5 -3.39 5 | 79.61 43.63 4
| -126.24 4 |
3125.0 | 289.59 5 -3.37 5 | 61.50 41.88 4
| -112.12 4 |
3750.0 | 286.39 5 -3.36 4 | -62.13 40.13 5
| -109.32 4 |
4375.0 | 271.88 5 -3.37 4 | -80.25 41.88 5
| -117.84 4 |
5000.0 | 246.05 5 -3.39 4 | -98.36 43.63 5
| -137.68 4 |
5625.0 | 208.89 5 -3.40 4 | -116.47 45.37 5
| -168.84 4 |
6250.0 | 160.42 5 -3.41 4 | -134.58 47.12 5
| -211.33 4 |
6875.0 | 100.62 5 -3.43 4 | -152.70 48.87 5
| -265.13 4 |
7500.0 | 29.50 4 -3.44 4 | -170.81 29.63 4
| -330.25 5 |


SUMMARY OF REINF. AREA FOR FLEXURE DESIGN (Sq.mm)

--------------------------------------------------------------------
SECTION | TOP | BOTTOM | STIRRUPS
(in mm) | Reqd./Provided reinf. | Reqd./Provided reinf. | (2 legged)
--------------------------------------------------------------------
0.0 | 1232.70/1256.64( 4-20 )| 543.40/ 565.50( 5-12 )| 8 @ 425 mm
625.0 | 960.90/ 981.74( 2-25 )| 754.32/ 791.70( 7-12 )| 8 @ 510 mm
1250.0 | 751.24/ 791.70( 7-12 )| 937.49/ 942.48( 3-20 )| 8 @ 510 mm
1875.0 | 596.52/ 603.18( 3-16 )| 1075.72/1206.36( 6-16 )| 8 @ 510 mm
2500.0 | 543.40/ 565.50( 5-12 )| 1165.13/1206.36( 6-16 )| 8 @ 510 mm
3125.0 | 543.40/ 565.50( 5-12 )| 1203.00/1206.36( 6-16 )| 8 @ 220 mm
3750.0 | 543.40/ 565.50( 5-12 )| 1188.08/1206.36( 6-16 )| 8 @ 220 mm
4375.0 | 543.40/ 565.50( 5-12 )| 1120.87/1206.36( 6-16 )| 8 @ 220 mm
5000.0 | 543.40/ 565.50( 5-12 )| 1003.50/1005.30( 5-16 )| 8 @ 220 mm
5625.0 | 668.18/ 678.60( 6-12 )| 839.38/ 904.80( 8-12 )| 8 @ 220 mm
6250.0 | 849.99/ 904.80( 8-12 )| 632.84/ 678.60( 6-12 )| 8 @ 220 mm
6875.0 | 1089.94/1206.36( 6-16 )| 543.40/ 565.50( 5-12 )| 8 @ 220 mm
7500.0 | 1397.16/1407.42( 7-16 )| 543.40/ 565.50( 5-12 )| 8 @ 220 mm
--------------------------------------------------------------------
TORSION REINFORCEMENT: Not required


South African Concrete Code Per SABS 0100-1
Section 13A

13-6
13A.5 Column Design
Columns are designed for axial force and biaxial bending at the
ends. All active loadings are tested to calculate reinforcement. The
loading which produces maximum reinforcement is called the
critical load and is displayed. The requirements of SABS 0100-1
clause 4.7 are followed, with the user having control on the
effective length in each direction by using the ELZ and ELY
parameters as described in table 12A.1. Bracing conditions are
controlled by using the BRACE parameter. The program will then
decide whether or not the column is short or slender and whether it
requires additional moment calculations. For biaxial bending, the
recommendations of 4.7.4.4 of the code are considered.
Column design is done for square, rectangular and circular
sections. For rectangular and square sections, the reinforcement is
always assumed to be arranged symmetrically. This causes slightly
conservative results in certain cases. Table 12A.3 shows typical
column design results.
Using parameter TRACK 1.0, the detailed output below is
obtained. TRACK 0.0 would merely give the bar configuration,
required steel area and percentage, column size and critical load
case.

Section 13A

13-7
TABLE 12A.3 -COLUMN DESIGN OUTPUT

=======================================================================

C O L U M N N O. 1 D E S I G N R E S U L T S

M20 Fe450 (Main) Fe450 (Sec.)

LENGTH: 3660.0 mm CROSS SECTION: 750.0 mm X 460.0 mm COVER:40.0mm

** GUIDING LOAD CASE: 4 END JOINT: 1 SHORT COLUMN

DESIGN FORCES (KNS-MET)
-----------------------
DESIGN AXIAL FORCE (Pu) : 915.6

About Z About Y
INITIAL MOMENTS : 0.00 0.00
MOMENTS DUE TO MINIMUM ECC. : 18.31 18.31

SLENDERNESS RATIOS : 7.96 4.88
ADDITION MOMENTS (Maddz and Maddy) : 0.00 0.00

TOTAL DESIGN MOMENTS : 555.13 21.91

REQD. STEEL AREA : 3349.20 Sq.mm.
REQD. CONCRETE AREA: 114451.62 Sq.mm.
MAIN REINFORCEMENT : Provide 32 - 12 dia. (1.05%, 3619.20 Sq.mm.)
(Equally Distributed)
TIE REINFORCEMENT : Provide 8 mm dia. rectangular ties @ 140 mm c/c

SECTION CAPACITY BASED ON REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED (KNS-MET)
----------------------------------------------------------
Puz : 2160.42 Muz1 : 570.23 Muy1 : 563.74






South African Concrete Code Per SABS 0100-1
Section 13A

13-8






13-9


Steel Design Per SAB Standard SAB01621: 1993


13B.1 General
The South African Steel Design facility in STAAD is based on the
SAB Standard SAB0162-1: 1993, Limit States Design of Steel
Structures. A steel section library consisting of South African
Standards shapes is available for member property specification.

The design philosophy embodied in this specification is based on
the concept of limit state design. Structures are designed and
proportioned taking into consideration the limit states at which
they would become unfit for their intended use. Two major
categories of limit-state are recognized - ultimate and
serviceability. The primary considerations in ultimate limit state
design are strength and stability, while that in serviceability is
deflection. Appropriate load and resistance factors are used so that
a uniform reliability is achieved for all steel structures under
various loading conditions and at the same time the chances of
limits being surpassed are acceptably remote.

In the STAAD implementation, members are proportioned to resist
the design loads without exceeding the limit states of strength,
stability and serviceability. Accordingly, the most economic
section is selected on the basis of the least weight criteria as
augmented by the designer in specification of allowable member
depths, desired section type, or other such parameters. The code
checking portion of the program checks whether code requirements
for each selected section are met and identifies the governing
criteria.
Section
13B

South African Steel Code Per SAB Standard SAB01621: 1993
Section 13B

13-10
The following sections describe the salient features of the STAAD
implementation of SAB0162-1: 1993. A detailed description of the
design process along with its underlying concepts and assumptions
is available in the specification document.
13B.2 Analysis Methodology
Elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments
for design. Analysis is done for the primary and combination
loading conditions provided by the user. The user is allowed
complete flexibility in providing loading specifications and using
appropriate load factors to create necessary loading situations.
Depending upon the analysis requirements, regular st iffness
analysis or P-Delta analysis may be specified. Dynamic analysis
may also be performed and the results combined with static
analysis results.
13B.3 Member Property Specifications
For specification of member properties, the steel section library
available in STAAD may be used. The next section describes the
syntax of commands used to assign properties from the built -in
steel table. Member properties may also be specified using the
User Table facility. For more information on these facilities, refer
to the STAAD Technical Reference Manual.
13B.4 Built-in Steel Section Library
The following information is provided for use when the built -in
steel tables are to be referenced for member property specification.
These properties are stored in a database file. If called for, the
properties are also used for member design. Since the shear areas
are built into these tables, shear deformation is always considered
during the analysis of these members.

Section 13B

13-11
I Shapes

The following example illustrates the specification of I- shapes.

1 TO 15 TABLE ST IPE-AA100

H shapes

Designation of H shapes in STAAD is as follows.

For example,

18 TO 20 TABLE ST 152X37UC

PG shapes

Designation of PG shapes in STAAD is as follows.

100 TO 150 TABLE ST 720X200PG

Channel Sections (C & MC shapes)

C and MC shapes are designated as shown in the following
example.

3 TABLE ST 127X64X15C

Double Channels

Back to back double channels, with or without spacing between
them, are specified by preceding the section designation by the
letter D. For example, a back to back double channel section
PFC140X60 without spacing in between should be specified as:

South African Steel Code Per SAB Standard SAB01621: 1993
Section 13B

13-12
100 TO 150 TABLE D PFC140X60
A back to back double channel section 140X60X16C with spacing
0.01unitlength in between should be specified as:

100 TO 150 TABLE D 140X60X16C SP 0.01

Note that the specification SP after the section designation is used
for providing the spacing. The spacing should always be provided
in the current length unit.

Angles

To specify angles, the letter L succeeds the angle name. Thus, a
70X70 angle with a 25mm thickness is designated as 70X70X8L.
The following examples illustrate angle specifications.

100 TO 150 TABLE ST 70X70X8L

Note that the above specification is for standard angles. In this
specification, the local z-axis (see Fig. 2.6 in the Technical
Reference Manual) corresponds to the Y-Y axis shown in the
CSA table. Another common practice of specifying angles assumes
the local y-axis to correspond to the Y-Y axis. To specify angles
in accordance with this convention, the reverse angle designation
facility has been provided. A reverse angle may be specified by
substituting the word ST with the word RA. Refer to the following
example for details.

100 TO 150 TABLE RA 45X45X3L

The local axis systems for STANDARD and REVERSE angles are
shown in Fig. 2.6 of the STAAD Technical Reference manual.


Section 13B

13-13
Double Angles

To specify double angles, the specification ST should be
substituted with LD (for long leg back to back) or SD (short leg
back to back). For equal angles, either SD or LD will serve the
purpose. Spacing between angles may be provided by using the
word SP followed by the value of spacing (in current length unit)
after section designation.

100 TO 150 TABLE LD 50X50X3L
3 TABLE LD 40X40X5L SP 0.01

The second example above describes a double angle section
consisting of 40X40X5 angles with a spacing of 0.01 length units.

Tees

Tee sections obtained by cutting W sections may be specified by
using the T specification instead of ST before the name of the W
shape. For example:

100 TO 150 TABLE T IPE-AA180

will describe a T section cut from a IPE-AA180 section.

Rectangular Hollow Sections

These sections may be specified in two possible ways. Those
sections listed in the SAB tables may be specified as follows.

100 TO 150 TABLE ST TUB60X30X2.5




South African Steel Code Per SAB Standard SAB01621: 1993
Section 13B

13-14




In addition, any tube section may be specified by using the DT(for
depth), WT(for width), and TH(for thickness) specifications. For
example:

100 TO 150 TABLE ST TUBE TH 3 WT 100 DT 50

will describe a tube with a depth of 50mm, width of 100mm. and a
wall thickness of 3mm. Note that the values of depth, width and
thickness must be provided in current length unit.

Circular Hollow Sections

Sections listed in the SAB tables may be provided as follows:

100 TO 150 TABLE ST PIP34X3.0CHS








In addition to sections listed in the SAB tables, circular hollow
sections may be specified by using the OD (outside diameter) and
ID (inside diameter) specifications.
Pipe symbol
Thickness
PIP34X3.0
Diameter
Width
Tube symbol
Height
Thickness
TUB60X30X2.5

Section 13B

13-15
For example:

100 TO 150 TABLE ST PIPE OD 50 ID 48

will describe a pipe with an outside diameter of 50 length units
and inside diameter of 48 length units. Note that the values of
outside and inside diameters must be provided in terms of current
length unit.

Sample input file to demonstrate usage of South African shapes is
shown below.

STAAD PLANE
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 30-Mar-05
END JOB INFORMATION
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 9 0 0; 3 0 6 0; 4 3 6 0; 5 6 6 0; 6 9 6 0; 7 0 10.5 0;
8 9 10.5 0; 9 2.25 10.5 0; 10 6.75 10.5 0; 11 4.5 10.5 0; 12 1.5 11.4
0;
13 7.5 11.4 0; 14 3 12.3 0; 15 6 12.3 0; 16 4.5 13.2 0;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 3; 2 3 7; 3 2 6; 4 6 8; 5 3 4; 6 4 5; 7 5 6; 8 7 12; 9 12 14;
10 14 16; 11 15 16; 12 13 15; 13 8 13; 14 9 12; 15 9 14; 16 11 14;
17 11 15; 18 10 15; 19 10 13; 20 7 9; 21 9 11; 22 10 11; 23 8 10;
MEMBER PROPERTY SAFRICAN
1 TABLE ST IPE-AA100
2 TABLE T IPE120
3 TABLE ST 152X23UC
4 TABLE T 152X23UC
5 TABLE ST 812X200PG
6 TABLE T 812X200PG
7 TABLE ST 178X54X15C
8 TABLE D 178X54X15C
9 TABLE D 178X54X15C SP 0.1
10 TABLE ST 25X25X5L
11 TABLE RA 25X25X5L
12 TABLE LD 25X25X5L
13 TABLE SD 25X25X5L
14 TABLE LD 25X25X5L SP 0.1
15 TABLE SD 25X25X5L SP 0.1
South African Steel Code Per SAB Standard SAB01621: 1993
Section 13B

13-16
16 TABLE ST TUB40X2.5SHS
17 TABLE ST TUBE TH 0 WT 0 DT 50
18 TABLE ST TUBE TH 0.02 WT 100 DT 50
20 TABLE ST PIP48X2.0CHS
21 TABLE ST PIPE OD 0.5 ID 0.48
PRINT MEMBER PROPERTIES
FINISH

13B.5 Section Classification
The SAB specification allows inelastic deformation of section
elements. Thus, local buckling becomes an important criterion.
Steel sections are classified as plastic (Class 1), compact (Class 2),
non compact (Class 3) or slender element (Class 4) sections
depending upon their local buckling characteristics (See Clause
11.2 and Table 1 of SAB0162-1:1993). This classification is a
function of the geometric properties of the section. The design
procedures are different depending on the section class. STAAD
determines the section classification for the standard shapes and
user specified shapes. Design is performed for sections that fall
into the category of Class 1,2 or 3 sections only. Class 4 sections
are not designed by STAAD.
13B.6 Member Resistances
The member resistances are calculated in STAAD according to the
procedures outlined in section 13 of the specification. These
depend on several factors such as members unsupported lengths,
cross-sectional properties, slenderness factors, unsupported width
to thickness ratios and so on. Note that the program automatically
takes into consideration appropriate resistance factors to calculate
member resistances. Explained here is the procedure adopted in
STAAD for calculating the member resistances.

All the members are checked against allowable slenderness ratio as
per Cl.10.2 of SAB0162-1: 1993.

Section 13B

13-17
Axial Tension

The criterion governing the capacity of t ension members is based
on two limit states. The limit state of yielding in the gross section
is intended to prevent excessive elongation of the member. The
second limit state involves fracture at the section with the
minimum effective net area. The net section area may be specified
by the user through the use of the parameter NSF (see Table 3B.1).
STAAD calculates the tension capacity of a member based on
these two limits states per Cl.13.2 of SAB0162-1: 1993.
Parameters FYLD, FU and NSF are applicable for these
calculations.

Axial Compression

The compressive resistance of columns is determined based on
Clause 13.3 of the code. The equations presented in this section of
the code assume that the compressive resistance is a function of
the compressive strength of the gross section (Gross section Area
times the Yield Strength) as well as the slenderness factor (KL/r
ratios). The effective length for the calculation of compression
resistance may be provided through the use of the parameters KX,
KY, KZ, LX, LY and LZ (see Table 3B.1). Some of the aspects of
the axial compression capacity calculations are:

1. For frame members not subjected to any bending, and for truss
members, the axial compression capacity in general column
flexural buckling is calculated from Cl.13.3.1 using the
slenderness ratios for the local Y-Y and Z-Z axis. The
parameters KY, LY, KZ and LZ are applicable for this.
2. For single angles, asymmetric or cruciform sections are
checked as to whether torsional -flexural buckling is critical.
But for KL/r ratio exceeding 50,as torsional flexural buckling
is not critical, the axial compression capacities are calculated
by using Cl.13.3. The reason for this is that the South African
code doesnt provide any clear guidelines for calculating this
value. The parameters KY, LY, KZ and LZ are applicable for
this.
South African Steel Code Per SAB Standard SAB01621: 1993
Section 13B

13-18
3. The axial compression capacity is also calculated by taking
flexural-torsional buckling into account. Parameters KX and
LX may be used to provide the effective length factor and
effective length value for flexural-torsional buckling. Flexural-
torsional buckling capacity is computed for single channels,
single angles, Tees and Double angles.
4. While computing the general column flexural buckling
capacity of sections with axial compression + bending, the
special provisions of 13.8.1(a), 13.8.1(b) and 13.8.1(c) are
applied. For example, Lambda = 0 for 13.8.1(a), K=1 for
13.8.1(b), etc.)

Bending

The laterally unsupported length of the compression flange for the
purpose of computing the factored moment resistance is specified
in STAAD with the help of the parameter UNL. If UNL is less
than one tenth the member length (member length is the distance
between the joints of the member), the member is treated as being
continuously laterally supported. In this case, the moment
resistance is computed from Clause 13.5 of the code. If UNL is
greater than or equal to one-tenth the member length, its value is
used as the laterally unsupported length. The equations of Clause
13.6 of the code are used to arrive at the moment of resistance of
laterally unsupported members. Some of the aspects of the bending
capacity calculations are:

1. The weak axis bending capacity of all sections except single
angles is calculated as

For Class 1 & 2 sections, Phi*Py*Fy
For Class 3 sections, Phi*Sy*Fy
Where Phi = Resistance factor = 0.9
Py = Plastic section modulus about the local Y axis
Sy = Elastic section modulus about the local Y axis
Fy = Yield stress of steel


Section 13B

13-19
2. For single angles sections are not designed by STAAD, as the
South African code doesnt provide any clear guidelines for
calculating this value.
3. For calculating the bending capacity about the Z-Z axis of
singly symmetric shapes such as Tees and Double angles,
SAB0162-1: 1993 stipulates in Clause 13.6(b), page 31, that a
rational method.

Axial compression and bending

The member strength for sections subjected to axial compression
and uniaxial or biaxial bending is obtained through the use of
interaction equations. In these equations, the additional bending
caused by the action of the axial load is accounted for by using
amplification factors. Clause 13.8 of the code provides the
equations for this purpose. If the summation of the left hand side
of these equations exceeds 1.0 or the allowable value provided
using the RATIO parameter (see Table 3B.1), the member is
considered to have FAILed under the loading condition.

Axial tension and bending

Members subjected to axial tension and bending are also designed
using interaction equations. Clause 13.9 of the code is used to
perform these checks. The actual RATIO is determined as the
value of the left hand side of the critical equation.

Shear

The shear resistance of the cross section is determined using the
equations of Clause 13.4 of the code. Once this is obtained, the
ratio of the shear force acting on the cross section to the shear
resistance of the section is calculated. If any of the ratios (for both
local Y & Z axes) exceed 1.0 or the allowable value provided
using the RATIO parameter (see Table 3B.1), the section is
considered to have failed under shear. The code also requires that
the slenderness ratio of the web be within a certain limit (See
Cl.13.4.1.3, page 29 of SABS 0162-1:1993). Checks for safety in
shear are performed only if this value is within the allowable limit.
South African Steel Code Per SAB Standard SAB01621: 1993
Section 13B

13-20
Users may by-pass this limitation by specifying a value of 2.0 for
the MAIN parameter.
13B.7 Design Parameters
The design parameters outlined in table below may be used to
control the design procedure. These parameters communicate
design decisions from the engineer to the program and thus allow
the engineer to control the design process to suit an application' s
specific needs.

The default parameter values have been selected such that they are
frequently used numbers for conventional design. Depending on
the particular design requirements, some or all of these parameter
values may be changed to exactly model the physical structure.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that
specified number till it is specified again. This is the way
STAAD works for all codes.


South African steel design parameters
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
Kt 1.0 K value for flexural torsional buckling
Ky 1.0 K value in local Y-axis, usually minor axis
Kz 1.0 K value in local Z-axis, usually major axis
Lt Member length Length for flexural torsional buckling
Ly Member length
Length in local Y axis for slenderness
value KL/r
Lz Member length
Length in local Z axis for slenderness value
KL/r
Fyld 300Mpa Yield strength of steel
Fu 345Mpa Ultimate strength of steel
NSF 1.0 Net section factor for tension members

Section 13B

13-21
South African steel design parameters
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
UNT Member Length
Unsupported length in bending
compression of top flange for calculating
moment resistance
UNB Member Length
Unsupported length in bending
compression of bottom flange for
calculating moment resistance
Main 0
Flag for controlling slenderness check
0 - For Check for slenderness.
1 - For Do not check for slenderness
Cb 1.0
Greater than 0.0 and less than 2.5,Value of
Omega_2 (C1.13.6) to be used for
calculation
Equal to 0.0: Calculate Omega_2
Ssy 0
Sidesway parameter
0 - Sideway about local Y-axis.
1 - No sideway about local Y-axis.
Ssz 0
Sidesway parameter
0 - Sideway about local Z-axis.
1 - No sideway about local Z-axis.
Cmy 1.0
1 - Do not calculate Omega-1 for local Y
axis.
2 - Calculate Omega-1 for local Y axis
Cmz 1.0
1 - Do not calculate Omega-1 for local Z
axis.
2 - Calculate Omega-1 for local Z axis
Track 0
Track parameter
0 = Print the design output at the minimum
detail level.
1 = Print the design output at the
South African Steel Code Per SAB Standard SAB01621: 1993
Section 13B

13-22
South African steel design parameters
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
intermediate detail level.
2 = Print the design output at maximum
detail level
Dmax 1000 Maximum allowable depth
Dmin 0 Minimum required depth
Ratio 1.0
Permissible ratio of applied load to section
capacity
Used in altering the RHS of critical
interaction equations
Beam 0
0 - Perform design at ends and those
locations specified in the section command.
1 - Perform design at ends and 1/12th
section locations along member length.
Dff 0
Default is 0 indicating that deflection
check is not performed
Dj1 0
Start node of physical member for
determining deflected pattern for deflection
check and should be set along with DFF
parameter
Dj2 0
End node of physical member for
determining deflected pattern for deflection
check and should be set along with DFF
parameter

13B.8 Code Checking
The purpose of code checking is to determine whether the current
section properties of the members are adequate to carry the forces
obtained from the most recent analysis. The adequacy is checked
as per the SAB0162-1: 1993 requirements.

Section 13B

13-23
Code checking is done using forces and moments at specified
sections of the members. If the BEAM parameter for a member is
set to 1 (which is also its default value), moments are calculated at
every twelfth point along the beam. When no section locations are
specified and the BEAM parameter is set to zero, design will be
based on member start and end forces only. The code checking
output labels the members as PASSed or FAILed. In addition, the
critical condition, governing load case, location (di stance from the
start joint) and magnitudes of the governing forces and moments
are also printed. Using the TRACK parameter can control the
extent of detail of the output.


PARAMETER
CODE SAB0162
MAIN 1 all
LY 4 MEMB 1
LZ 4 MEMB 1
UNL 4 MEMB 1
CB 0 MEMB 1 TO 23
CMZ MEMB 2 1 TO 23
CMY MEMB 2 1 TO 23
SSY 0 MEMB 1 TO 23
SSZ 0 MEMB 1 TO 23
FU 450000 MEMB 1 TO 23
BEAM 1 ALL
NSF 0.85 ALL
KY 1.2 MEMB 3 4
RATIO 1.0 ALL
TRACK 2 ALL
FYLD 300000 1 TO 23
CHECK CODE ALL
FINISH
South African Steel Code Per SAB Standard SAB01621: 1993
Section 13B

13-24
13B.9 Member Selection
The member selection process involves determination of the least
weight member that PASSes the code checking procedure based on
the forces and moments of the most recent analysis. The section
selected will be of the same type as that specified initially. For
example, a member specified initially as a channel will have a
channel selected for it. Selection of members whose properties are
originally provided from a user table will be limited to sections in
the user table. Member selection cannot be performed on members
listed as PRISMATIC.
13B.10 Tabulated Results of Steel Design
Results of code checking and member selection are presented in a
tabular format. The term CRITICAL COND refers to the section of
the SAB0162-1: 1993 specification, which governed the design.

If the TRACK parameter is set to 1.0, the output will be displayed
as follows:


**************************************
STAAD.PRO CODE CHECKING
(SOUTHAFRICAN STEEL/SAB-0162-01(1993))
**************************************

ALL UNITS ARE - KNS MET (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)

MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/
FX MY MZ LOCATION
=======================================================================


* 1 ST PFC140X60 (SOUTHAFRICAN SECTIONS)
FAIL SAB-13.9 4.321 1
-20.00 0.00 82.53 0.00
|---------------------------------------------------------------------|
| FACTORED RESISTANCES FOR MEMBER- 1 UNIT - KN,M PHI = 0.90 |
| MRZ= 14.35 MRY= 3.86 |
| CR= 58.41 TR= 425.81 VR= 123.85 |
|---------------------------------------------------------------------|

Factored member resistances will be printed out. Following is a
description of some of the items printed out.
MRZ= Factored moment of resistance in z direction

Section 13B

13-25
MRY= Factored moment of resistance in z direction
CR = Factored compressive resistance for column
TR= Factored tensile capacity
VR= Factored shear resistance

Further details can be obtained by setting TRACK to 2.0. A typical
output of track 2.0 parameter is as follows.


**************************************
STAAD.PRO CODE CHECKING
(SOUTHAFRICAN STEEL/SAB-0162-01(1993))
**************************************

ALL UNITS ARE - KNS MET (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)

MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/
FX MY MZ LOCATION
=======================================================================


* 1 ST PFC140X60 (SOUTHAFRICAN SECTIONS)
FAIL SAB-13.9 4.321 1
-20.00 0.00 82.53 0.00

MEMBER PROPERTIES (UNIT = CM)
-----------------------------

CROSS SECTION AREA = 1.95E+01 MEMBER LENGTH = 4.50E+02
IZ = 6.05E+02 SZ = 8.64E+01 PZ = 4.24E+02
IY = 6.91E+01 SY = 1.73E+01 PY = 1.52E+02


MATERIAL PROPERTIES (UNIT = MPA)
--------------------------------

FYLD = 248.2 FU = 285.4


SECTION CAPACITIES (UNIT - KN,M)
---------------------------------

CRY = 5.841E+01 CRZ = 2.947E+02
CTORFLX = 2.021E+02
TENSILE CAPACITY = 4.258E+02 COMPRESSIVE CAPACITY = 5.841E+01
FACTORED MOMENT RESISTANCE : MRY = 3.859E+00 MRZ = 1.435E+01
FACTORED SHEAR RESISTANCE : VRY = 1.238E+02 VRZ = 1.168E+02


MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION
--------------------------

NET SECTION FACTOR FOR TENSION = 1.000
KL/RY = 239.051 KL/RZ = 80.789 ALLOWABLE KL/R = 300.000
UNSUPPORTED LENGTH OF THE COMPRESSION FLANGE (M) = 4.500
OMEGA-1 (Y-AXIS) = 1.00 OMEGA-1 (Z-AXIS) = 1.00 OMEGA-2 = 1.00
SHEAR FORCE (KNS) : Y AXIS = 0.000E+00 Z AXIS = 3.526E+01
SLENDERNESS RATIO OF WEB (H/W) = 2.00E+01

South African Steel Code Per SAB Standard SAB01621: 1993
Section 13B

13-26
Following is a description of some of the items printed out.

CRY Factored compressive resistance for column buckling
about the local y axis
CRZ Factored compressive resistance for column buckling
about the local z axis
CTORFLX Factored compressive resistance against torsional
flexural buckling
TENSILE
CAPACITY
Factored tensile capacity
COMPRESSIVE
CAPACITY
Factored compressive capacity
FACTORED
MOMENT
RESISTANCE
MRY = Factored moment of resistance in y direction
MRZ = Factored moment of resistance in z direction
FACTORED
SHEAR
RESISTANCE
VRY = Factored shear resistance in y direction
VRZ = Factored shear resistance in z direction

13B.11 Verification Problems
In the next few pages are included 3 verification examples for
reference purposes.












Section 13B

13-27
Verification Problem No. 1
Objective: - To determine the capacity of a South African I-
section column in axial compression. Column is
braced at its ends for both axes.

Design Code: - South African steel design code (SAB:0162-
1(1993))

Reference: - Example 4.3.4.1, page 4.18, Structural Steel
Design to SAB:0162-1(1993)(Limit state Design)
by Greg Parrott, 1st edition, Shades Technical
publication

Given: - FYLD = 300Mpa
Length = 6000mm

Comparison: -

Solution Design Strength (kN)
Theory 1516
STAAD 1516
Difference No

South African Steel Code Per SAB Standard SAB01621: 1993
Section 13B

13-28

****************************************************
* *
* STAAD.Pro *
* Version Bld *
* Proprietary Program of *
* Research Engineers, Intl. *
* Date= *
* Time= *
* *
* USER ID: *
****************************************************



1. STAAD PLANE
2. START JOB INFORMATION
3. ENGINEER DATE
4. END JOB INFORMATION
5. INPUT WIDTH 79
6. ***********************************************
7. * STAAD.PRO GENERATED COMMENT *
8. ***********************************************
9. *1 0 0 0,2 0 6 0
10. ***********************************************
11. UNIT METER KN
12. JOINT COORDINATES
13. 1 0 0 0; 2 0 6 0
14. MEMBER INCIDENCES
15. 1 1 2
16. MEMBER PROPERTY SAFRICAN
17. 1 TABLE ST 356X67UB
18. DEFINE MATERIAL START
19. ISOTROPIC MATERIAL1
20. E 2.0E+008
21. POISSON 0.3
22. DENSITY 76.977
23. ISOTROPIC STEEL
24. E 2.00E+008
25. POISSON 0.3
26. DENSITY 76.8195
27. ALPHA 1.2E-005
28. DAMP 0.03
29. END DEFINE MATERIAL
30. UNIT MMS KN
31. CONSTANTS
32. MATERIAL STEEL MEMB 1
33. UNIT METER KN
34. SUPPORTS
35. 1 FIXED
36. LOAD 1 LOADTYPE NONE TITLE LOAD CASE 1
37. JOINT LOAD
38. 2 FY -1500
39. PERFORM ANALYSIS

P R O B L E M S T A T I S T I C S
-----------------------------------

NUMBER OF JOINTS/MEMBER+ELEMENTS/SUPPORTS = 2/ 1/ 1
ORIGINAL/FINAL BAND-WIDTH= 1/ 1/ 3 DOF
TOTAL PRIMARY LOAD CASES = 1, TOTAL DEGREES OF FREEDOM = 3
SIZE OF STIFFNESS MATRIX = 0 DOUBLE KILO-WORDS
REQRD/AVAIL. DISK SPACE = 12.0/ 3978.5 MB

40. PARAMETER
41. CODE SAB0162
42. LZ 6 ALL
43. LY 3 ALL
44. FU 450000 ALL
45. BEAM 1 ALL
46. NSF 0.85 ALL
47. TRACK 2 ALL
48. FYLD 300000 ALL
49. CHECK CODE ALL



Section 13B

13-29

**************************************
STAAD.PRO CODE CHECKING
(SOUTHAFRICAN STEEL/SAB-0162-01(1993))
**************************************


ALL UNITS ARE - KNS MET (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)

MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/
FX MY MZ LOCATION
=======================================================================

1 ST 356X67UB (SOUTHAFRICAN SECTIONS)
PASS SAB-13.8 0.989 1
1500.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

MEMBER PROPERTIES (UNIT = CM)
-----------------------------

CROSS SECTION AREA = 8.55E+01 MEMBER LENGTH = 6.00E+02
IZ = 1.95E+04 SZ = 1.07E+03 PZ = 1.21E+03
IY = 1.36E+03 SY = 1.57E+02 PY = 2.43E+02


MATERIAL PROPERTIES (UNIT = MPA)
--------------------------------

FYLD = 300.0 FU = 345.0


SECTION CAPACITIES (UNIT - KN,M)
---------------------------------

CRY = 1.516E+03 CRZ = 2.038E+03
CTORFLX = 1.516E+03
TENSILE CAPACITY = 1.918E+03 COMPRESSIVE CAPACITY = 1.516E+03
FACTORED MOMENT RESISTANCE : MRY = 6.561E+01 MRZ = 1.992E+02
FACTORED SHEAR RESISTANCE : VRY = 5.903E+02 VRZ = 6.461E+02


MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION
--------------------------

NET SECTION FACTOR FOR TENSION = 0.850
KL/RY = 75.220 KL/RZ = 39.730 ALLOWABLE KL/R = 200.000
UNSUPPORTED LENGTH OF THE COMPRESSION FLANGE (M) = 6.000
OMEGA-1 (Y-AXIS) = 1.00 OMEGA-1 (Z-AXIS) = 1.00 OMEGA-2 = 1.00
SHEAR FORCE (KNS) : Y AXIS = 0.000E+00 Z AXIS = 0.000E+00
SLENDERNESS RATIO OF WEB (H/W) = 3.65E+01

50. FINISH























South African Steel Code Per SAB Standard SAB01621: 1993
Section 13B

13-30
Verification Problem No. 2
Objective:- To determine the capacity of a South African I-section
beam in bending. The beam has torsional and simple
lateral rotational restraint at the supports, and the
applied point load provides effective lateral restraint at
the point of application is braced at its ends for both
axes.

Design Code: - South African steel design code (SAB:0162-
1(1993))

Reference: - Example 4.5, page 4.37, Structural Steel Design to
SAB:0162-1(1993)(Limit state Design) by Greg Parrott,
1
st
edition, Shades Technical publication

Given: - FYLD = 300Mpa

Comparison: -

Solution Design Strength (kN-m)
Theory 353.4
STAAD 353.3
Difference Small


Section 13B

13-31


****************************************************
* *
* STAAD.Pro *
* Version Bld *
* Proprietary Program of *
* Research Engineers, Intl. *
* Date= *
* Time= *
* *
* USER ID: *
****************************************************


1. STAAD PLANE
2. START JOB INFORMATION
3. ENGINEER DATE
4. END JOB INFORMATION
5. INPUT WIDTH 79
6. UNIT METER KN
7. JOINT COORDINATES
8. 1 0 0 0; 2 10 0 0; 3 7 0 0
9. MEMBER INCIDENCES
10. 1 1 3; 2 3 2
11. MEMBER PROPERTY SAFRICAN
12. 1 2 TABLE ST 406X67UB
13. DEFINE MATERIAL START
14. ISOTROPIC MATERIAL1
15. E 2.0E+008
16. POISSON 0.3
17. DENSITY 76.977
18. ISOTROPIC STEEL
19. E 2.00E+008
20. POISSON 0.3
21. DENSITY 76.8195
22. ALPHA 1.2E-005
23. DAMP 0.03
24. END DEFINE MATERIAL
25. UNIT MMS KN
26. CONSTANTS
27. MATERIAL STEEL MEMB 1 2
28. UNIT METER KN
29. SUPPORTS
30. 1 3 PINNED
31. LOAD 1 LOADTYPE NONE TITLE LOAD CASE 1
32. MEMBER LOAD
33. 1 CON GY -104 4
34. 1 UNI GY -26.4
35. 2 UNI GY -7.2
36. PERFORM ANALYSIS

P R O B L E M S T A T I S T I C S
-----------------------------------

NUMBER OF JOINTS/MEMBER+ELEMENTS/SUPPORTS = 3/ 2/ 2
ORIGINAL/FINAL BAND-WIDTH= 2/ 2/ 5 DOF
TOTAL PRIMARY LOAD CASES = 1, TOTAL DEGREES OF FREEDOM = 5
SIZE OF STIFFNESS MATRIX = 1 DOUBLE KILO-WORDS
REQRD/AVAIL. DISK SPACE = 12.0/ 3978.5 MB

37. PARAMETER
38. CODE SABS0162
39. CB 0 ALL
40. UNL 4 MEMB 1
41. FU 450000 ALL
42. BEAM 1 ALL
43. NSF 0.85 ALL
44. FYLD 300000 ALL
45. TRACK 2 ALL
46. CHECK CODE MEMB 1

South African Steel Code Per SAB Standard SAB01621: 1993
Section 13B

13-32

**************************************
STAAD.PRO CODE CHECKING
(SOUTHAFRICAN STEEL/SAB-0162-01(1993))
**************************************


ALL UNITS ARE - KNS MET (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)

MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/
FX MY MZ LOCATION
=======================================================================


1 ST 406X67UB (SOUTHAFRICAN SECTIONS)
PASS SHEAR 0.244 1
0.00 0.00 32.40 7.00

MEMBER PROPERTIES (UNIT = CM)
-----------------------------

CROSS SECTION AREA = 8.55E+01 MEMBER LENGTH = 7.00E+02
IZ = 2.43E+04 SZ = 1.19E+03 PZ = 1.35E+03
IY = 1.36E+03 SY = 1.52E+02 PY = 2.37E+02


MATERIAL PROPERTIES (UNIT = MPA)
--------------------------------

FYLD = 300.0 FU = 345.0


SECTION CAPACITIES (UNIT - KN,M)
---------------------------------

CRY = 4.532E+02 CRZ = 2.016E+03
CTORFLX = 4.532E+02
TENSILE CAPACITY = 1.918E+03 COMPRESSIVE CAPACITY = 4.532E+02
FACTORED MOMENT RESISTANCE : MRY = 6.399E+01 MRZ = 3.533E+02
FACTORED SHEAR RESISTANCE : VRY = 6.420E+02 VRZ = 6.075E+02


MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION
--------------------------

NET SECTION FACTOR FOR TENSION = 0.850
KL/RY = 175.514 KL/RZ = 41.522 ALLOWABLE KL/R = 300.000
UNSUPPORTED LENGTH OF THE COMPRESSION FLANGE (M) = 4.000
OMEGA-1 (Y-AXIS) = 1.00 OMEGA-1 (Z-AXIS) = 1.00 OMEGA-2 = 1.75
SHEAR FORCE (KNS) : Y AXIS = 0.000E+00 Z AXIS = -1.565E+02
SLENDERNESS RATIO OF WEB (H/W) = 4.33E+01

47. FINISH






















Section 13B

13-33
Verification Problem No. 3
Objective: - To determine the elastic shear capacity of a South
African I-section which is simply supported over the
span of 8 m

Design Code: - South African steel design code (SAB:0162-1(1993))

Reference: - Example 4.6.5, page 4.54, Structural Steel Design to
SAB:0162-1(1993)(Limit state Design) by Greg Parrott,
1
st
edition, Shades Technical publication

Given: - FYLD = 300Mpa

Comparison: -

Solution Design Strength (kN)
Theory 687.1
STAAD 687.1
Difference No

South African Steel Code Per SAB Standard SAB01621: 1993
Section 13B

13-34

****************************************************
* *
* STAAD.Pro *
* Version Bld *
* Proprietary Program of *
* Research Engineers, Intl. *
* Date= *
* Time= *
* *
* USER ID: *
****************************************************


1. STAAD PLANE
2. START JOB INFORMATION
3. ENGINEER DATE
4. END JOB INFORMATION
5. INPUT WIDTH 79
6. UNIT METER KN
7. JOINT COORDINATES
8. 1 0 0 0; 2 8 0 0
9. MEMBER INCIDENCES
10. 1 1 2
11. MEMBER PROPERTY SAFRICAN
12. 1 TABLE ST 457X67UB
13. DEFINE MATERIAL START
14. ISOTROPIC MATERIAL1
15. E 2E+008
16. POISSON 0.3
17. DENSITY 76.977
18. ISOTROPIC STEEL
19. E 2E+008
20. POISSON 0.3
21. DENSITY 76.8195
22. ALPHA 1.2E-005
23. DAMP 0.03
24. END DEFINE MATERIAL
25. UNIT MMS KN
26. CONSTANTS
27. MATERIAL STEEL MEMB 1
28. UNIT METER KN
29. SUPPORTS
30. 1 2 PINNED
31. LOAD 1 LOADTYPE NONE TITLE LOAD CASE 1
32. MEMBER LOAD
33. 1 UNI GY -70
34. PERFORM ANALYSIS

P R O B L E M S T A T I S T I C S
-----------------------------------

NUMBER OF JOINTS/MEMBER+ELEMENTS/SUPPORTS = 2/ 1/ 2
ORIGINAL/FINAL BAND-WIDTH= 1/ 1/ 2 DOF
TOTAL PRIMARY LOAD CASES = 1, TOTAL DEGREES OF FREEDOM = 2
SIZE OF STIFFNESS MATRIX = 0 DOUBLE KILO-WORDS
REQRD/AVAIL. DISK SPACE = 12.0/ 3978.4 MB

35. PARAMETER
36. CODE SABS0162
37. FU 450000 ALL
38. BEAM 1 ALL
39. FYLD 300000 ALL
40. TRACK 2 ALL
41. CHECK CODE ALL






Section 13B

13-35

**************************************
STAAD.PRO CODE CHECKING
(SOUTHAFRICAN STEEL/SAB-0162-01(1993))
**************************************
ALL UNITS ARE - KNS MET (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)

MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/
FX MY MZ LOCATION
=======================================================================


* 1 ST 457X67UB (SOUTHAFRICAN SECTIONS)
FAIL CLASS 4 SECT 2.000
0.00 0.00 0.00

MEMBER PROPERTIES (UNIT = CM)
-----------------------------

CROSS SECTION AREA = 8.55E+01 MEMBER LENGTH = 8.00E+02
IZ = 2.94E+04 SZ = 1.30E+03 PZ = 1.47E+03
IY = 1.45E+03 SY = 1.53E+02 PY = 2.37E+02


MATERIAL PROPERTIES (UNIT = MPA)
--------------------------------

FYLD = 300.0 FU = 345.0


SECTION CAPACITIES (UNIT - KN,M)
---------------------------------

CRY = 0.000E+00 CRZ = 0.000E+00
CTORFLX = 0.000E+00
TENSILE CAPACITY = 2.257E+03 COMPRESSIVE CAPACITY = 0.000E+00
FACTORED MOMENT RESISTANCE : MRY = 4.123E+01 MRZ = 0.000E+00
FACTORED SHEAR RESISTANCE : VRY = 6.871E+02 VRZ = 5.730E+02


MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION
--------------------------

NET SECTION FACTOR FOR TENSION = 1.000
KL/RY = 194.263 KL/RZ = 43.142 ALLOWABLE KL/R = 200.000
UNSUPPORTED LENGTH OF THE COMPRESSION FLANGE (M) = 8.000
OMEGA-1 (Y-AXIS) = 1.00 OMEGA-1 (Z-AXIS) = 1.00 OMEGA-2 = 1.00
SHEAR FORCE (KNS) : Y AXIS = 0.000E+00 Z AXIS = 2.800E+02
SLENDERNESS RATIO OF WEB (H/W) = 5.04E+01

42. FINISH


















South African Steel Code Per SAB Standard SAB01621: 1993
Section 13B

13-36



















Section 14
American Aluminum
Code























14-1

Design Per American Aluminum Code



14.1 General
STAAD is currently equipped with the facilities to perform design
based on the specifications for Aluminum Structures. The
requirements of the Allowable Stress Design, Sixth edition,
October 1994, have been implemented.

The various issues related to the implementation of this code in
STAAD are explained below.
14.2 Member Properties
In order to do this design in STAAD, the members in the structure
must have their properties specified from Section VI of the above-
mentioned manual. The section names are mentioned in Tables 5
through 28 of that manual. All of those tables except Table 10
(Wing Channels) and Table 20 (Bulb Angles) are available in
STAAD.

Described below is the command specification for various
sections:

Standard single section


memb-list TA ST section-name



Section
14

Design Per American Aluminum Code
Section 14

14-2

Example

1 TO 5 TA ST CS12X11.8
9 TA ST I8.00X13.1
11 33 45 67 TA ST LS8.00X8.00X0.625
18 TA ST 1.50PipeX160
15 TA ST T(A-N)6.00X8.00X11.2
23 25 29 TA ST 20X12RectX.500Wall


Double channel back-to-back


memb-list TA BACK section-name SPACING value

Example

3 TA BACK C(A-N)7X3.61 SPACING 1.5
5 TA BACK C15X17.33 SP 0.75


Double channel front-to-front


memb-list TA FRONT section-name SPACING value

Example

2 TA FRONT CS12X10.3 SP 1.0
4 TA FR CS10X10.1 SP 0.5



Section 14

14-3

Double angle long leg back-to-back

memb-list TA LD section-name SPACING value

Example

14 TA LD LS4.00X3.00X0.375 SP 1.5


Double angle short leg back-to-back

memb-list TA SD section-name SPACING value

Example

12 TA SD L3.5X3X0.5 SP 0.25
13 TA SD L8X6X0.75 SP 1.0

14.3 Design Procedure
The design is done according to the rules specified in Sections 4.1,
4.2 and 4.4 on pages I-A-41 and I-A-42 of the Aluminum code.
The allowable stresses for the various sections are computed
according to the equations shown in Section 3.4.1 through 3.4.21
on pages I-A-27 through I-A-40. The adequacy of the member is
checked by calculating the value of the left -hand side of equations
4.1.1-1, 4.1.1-2, 4.1.1-3, 4.1.2-1, 4.4-1 and 4.4-2. This left-hand
side value is termed as RATIO. If the highest RATIO among these
equations turns out to be less than or equal to 1.0, the member is
declared as having PASSed. If it exceeds 1.0, the member has
FAILed the design requirements.

Design Per American Aluminum Code
Section 14

14-4
The check for torsion per Clause 4.3 for open sections is currently
not done.
14.4 Design Parameters
The following are the parameters for specifying the values for
variables associated with the design. Note: Once a parameter is
specified, its value stays at that specified number till it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.

Table 14.1 Aluminum Design Parameters
Parameter Default Description
Name Value
ALLOY 34 This variable can take on a value from 1 through 40.
The default value represents the alloy 6061-T6. See
Table 12A.2 in the following pages for a list of values
for this parameter and the alloy they represent.
Table 3.3-1 in Section I-B of the Aluminum
specifications provides information on the properties
of the various alloys.
PRODUCT 1
This variable can take on a value from 1 through 4.
They represent:

1 - All 2 - Extrusions
3 - Drawn Tube 4 - Pipe

The default value stands for All. The PRODUCT
parameter finds mention in Table 3.3-1 in Section I-B
of the Aluminum specifications.
ALCLAD 0
This variable can take on a value of either 0 or 1.

0 - Material used in the section is not an Alclad.
1 - Material used in the section is an Alclad.

Section 14

14-5
Table 14.1 Aluminum Design Parameters
Parameter Default Description
Name Value
WELD 0
In Table 3.4-2 in Section I-A of the Aluminum
specifications, it is mentioned that the value of
coefficients Kt and Kc are dependent upon whether
or not, the location of the section where design is
done is within 1.0 inch of a weld. The WELD
parameter is used in STAAD for this purpose. The
values that can be assigned to this parameter are:

0 - Region is farther than 1.0in from a weld
1 - Region is within 1.0in from a weld
STRUCTURE 1
In Table 3.4-1 in Section I-A of the Aluminum
specifications, it is mentioned that the value of
coefficients nu, ny and na are dependent upon
whether the structure being designed is a building or
a bridge. Users may convey this information to
STAAD using the parameter STRUCTURE. The
values that can be assigned to this parameter are:

1 - Buildings and similar type structures
2 - Bridges and similar type structures
DMAX 1000 in. Maximum depth permissible for the section during
member selection. This value must be provided in
the current units.
DMIN 0.0 in Minimum depth required for the section during
member selection. This value must be provided in
the current units.
UNL Member
length
Distance between points where the compression
flange is braced against buckling or twisting. This
value must be provided in the current units. This
value is used to compute the allowable stress in
bending compression.
KY 1.0 Effective length factor for overall column buckling in
the local Y-axis. It is a fraction and is unit-less.
Values can range from 0.01 (for a column completely
prevented from buckling) to any user specified large
value. It is used to compute the KL/R ratio for
determining the allowable stress in axial
compression.
Design Per American Aluminum Code
Section 14

14-6
Table 14.1 Aluminum Design Parameters
Parameter Default Description
Name Value
LY Member
length
Effective length for overall column buckling in the
local Y-axis. It is input in the current units of length.
Values can range from 0.01 (for a column completely
prevented from buckling) to any user specified large
value. It is used to compute the KL/R ratio for
determining the allowable stress in axial
compression.
KZ 1.0 Effective length factor for overall column buckling in
the local Z-axis. It is a fraction and is unit-less.
Values can range from 0.01 (for a column completely
prevented from buckling) to any user specified large
value. It is used to compute the KL/R ratio for
determining the allowable stress in axial
compression.
LZ Member
length
Effective length for overall column buckling in the
local Z-axis. It is input in the current units of length.
Values can range from 0.01 (for a column completely
prevented from buckling) to any user specified large
value. It is used to compute the KL/R ratio for
determining the allowable stress in axial
compression.
KT 1.0 Effective length factor for torsional buckling. It is a
fraction and is unit-less. Values can range from 0.01
(for a column completely prevented from torsional
buckling) to any user specified large value. It is used
to compute the KL/R ratio for twisting for determining
the allowable stress in axial compression. See
Equation 3.4.7.2-6 on page I-A-28 of the Aluminum
specifications for details.
LT Member
length
Unbraced length for twisting. It is input in the current
units of length. Values can range from 0.01 (for a
column completely prevented from torsional
buckling) to any user specified large value. It is used
to compute the KL/R ratio for twisting for determining
the allowable stress in axial compression. See
Equation 3.4.7.2-6 on page I-A-28 of the Aluminum
specifications for details.
STIFF Member
length
Spacing in the longitudinal direction of shear
stiffeners for stiffened flat webs. It is input in the
current units of length. See section 3.4.21 on page I-
A-40 of the Aluminum specifications for information
regarding this parameter.

Section 14

14-7
Table 14.1 Aluminum Design Parameters
Parameter Default Description
Name Value
SSY 0.0
Factor that indicates whether or not the structure is
subjected to sidesway along the local Y axis of the
member. The values are:

0 - Sidesway is present along the local Y-axis of
the member
1 - There is no sidesway along the local Y-axis of
the member.
The sidesway condition is used to determine the
value of Cm explained in Section 4.1.1, page I-A-41
of the Aluminum specifications.
SSZ 0.0
Factor that indicates whether or not the structure is
subjected to sidesway along the local Z axis of the
member. The values are:

0 - Sidesway is present along the local Z-axis of the
member
1 - There is no sidesway along the local Z-axis of
the member.
The sidesway condition is used to determine the
value of Cm explained in Section 4.1.1, page I-A-41
of the Aluminum specifications.
TRACK 2
This parameter is used to control the level of detail in
which the design output is reported in the output file.
The allowable values are:

1 - Prints only the member number, section name,
ratio, and PASS/FAIL status.
2 - Prints the design summary in addition to that
printed by TRACK 1
3 - Prints the member properties and alloy
properties in addition to that printed by
TRACK 2.
4 - Prints the values of variables used in design in
addition to that printed by TRACK 3.
Design Per American Aluminum Code
Section 14

14-8
Table 14.1 Aluminum Design Parameters
Parameter Default Description
Name Value
BEAM 0.0 If this parameter is set to 1.0, the adequacy of the
member is determined by checking a total of 13
equally spaced locations along the length of the
member. If the BEAM value is 0.0, the 13 location
check is not conducted, and instead, checking is
done only at the locations specified by the SECTION
command (See STAAD manual for details). If neither
the BEAM parameter nor any SECTION command is
specified, STAAD will terminate the run and ask the
user to provide one of those 2 commands. This rule
is not enforced for TRUSS members.
14.5 Code Checking
The purpose of code checking is to determine whether the initially
specified member properties are adequate to carry the forces
transmitted to the member due to the loads on the structure. Code
checking is done at the locations specified by either the SECTION
command or the BEAM parameter described above.

It is done with the aid of the command CHECK CODE
described in the main STAAD Technical Reference Manual.
Example Problem 1 in the Getting Started and Examples Manual
for STAAD provides an example on the usage of the CHECK
CODE command.
14.6 Member Selection
The member selection process involves the determination of the
least weight member that PASSes the code checking procedure
based on the forces and moments of the most recent analysis. The
section selected will be of the same type as that specified initially.
For example, a member specified initially as a channel will have a
channel selected for it. It is done with the aid of the command
SELECT MEMBER described in the main STAAD Technical

Section 14

14-9
Reference Manual. Example Problem 1 in the Getting Started and
Examples Manual for STAAD provides an example on the usage of
the SELECT MEMBER command.

Sample input data for Aluminum Design

PARAMETER
CODE ALUMIMUM
BEAM 1 ALL
KY 1.2 MEMB 3 4
ALLOY 35 ALL
PRODUCT 2 ALL
TRACK 3 ALL
SELECT ALL
ALCLAD 1 ALL
STRUCT 1 ALL
CHECK CODE ALL








Design Per American Aluminum Code
Section 14

14-10
Table 14.2 - ALLOY PARAMETER :


Values and Corresponding Names

1 1100-H12
2 1100-H14
3 2014-T6
4 2014-T6510
5 2014-T6511
6 2014-T651
7 3003-H12
8 3003-H14
9 3003-H16
10 3003-H18
11 3004-H32
12 3004-H34
13 3004-H36
14 3004-H38
15 5005-H12
16 5005-H14
17 5005-H32
18 5005-H34
19 5050-H32
20 5050-H34
21 5052-H32
22 5052-H34
23 5083-H111
24 5086-H111
25 5086-H116
26 5086-H32
27 5086-H34
28 5454-H111
29 5454-H112
30 5456-H111
31 5456-H112
32 6005-T5
33 6105-T5

Section 14

14-11
34 6061-T6
35 6061-T6510
36 6061-T6511
37 6061-T651
38 6063-T5
39 6063-T6
40 6351-T5










Design Per American Aluminum Code
Section 14

14-12



















Section 15
American Transmission
Tower Code







15-1

Steel Design per ASCE 10-97



15A.1 General Comments
The design of structural steel members in accordance with the
specifications of ASCE Standard 10-97 Design of Latticed Steel
Transmission Structures is now implemented. This code is meant
to supercede the older edition of the code, available under the
name ASCE Publication 52. However, in the interests of backward
compatibility, both codes are currently accessible in STAAD.Pro.

To access the ASCE 52 code, use the commands

PARAMETER
CODE ASCE 52

To access the ASCE 10-97 code, use the commands

PARAMETER
CODE ASCE

In general, the concepts followed in MEMBER SELECTION and
CODE CHECKING procedures are similar to that of t he AISC
based design. It is assumed that the user is familiar with the basic
concepts of steel design facilities available in STAAD. Please
refer to Section 2 of the STAAD Technical Reference Manual for
detailed information on this topic. This section specifically
addresses the implementation of steel design based on ASCE 10-
97.

Design is available for all standard sections listed in the AISC
ASD 9
t h
edition manual, namely, Wide Flanges, S, M, HP, Tees,
Channels, Single Angles, Double Angles, Tubes and Pipes. Design
Section
15A

Steel Design Per ASCE 10-97
Section 15A

15-2
of HSS sections (those listed in the 3
rd
edition AISC LRFD
manual) and Composite beams (I shapes with concrete slab on top)
is not suppported.
15A.2 Allowable Stresses per ASCE 10 - 97
Member selection and code checking operations in the STAAD
implementation of ASCE 10-97 are done to resist loads at stresses
approaching yielding, buckling, fracture and other limiting
conditions specified in the standard. Those stresses are referred to
in the standard as Design Stresses. The appropriate sections of the
ASCE standard where the procedure for calculating the design
stresses is explained are as follows.

Design Axial Tensile Stress
Design tensile stresses are calculated on the basis of the procedure
described in section 3.10. The NSF parameter (see the Parameters
table shown later in this section) may be used if the section area
needs to be reduced to account for bolt holes.

Design Axial Compressive Stress
Design compressive stress calculation is based on the procedures
of section 3.6 through 3.9. For angle members under compression,
the procedures of sections 3.7 and 3.8 have been implemented.
Capacity of the section is computed for column buckling and
wherever applicable, torsional buckling. The user may control the
effective lengths for buckling using the LT, LY, LZ and/or KT,
KY, KZ parameters (see the Parameters table shown later in this
section).

Design Bending Compressive Stress
Calculations for design bending compressive stress about the
major axis and minor axis are based on the procedures of section
3.14. Procedures outlined in sections 3.14.1 through 3.14.6 have
been implemented.


Section 15A

15-3
Design Bending Tensile Stress
Calculations for design bending tensile stress about the major and
minor axis are based on the procedures of section 3.14.2.

Design Shear Stress
Calculation of the design shear stress is based on the procedure
outlined in section 3.15 of the ASCE 10-97. The procedure of
section 3.15.2 is followed for angles and the procedure of section
3.15.1 is followed for all other sect ions.
15A.3 Critical Conditions used as criteria to determine
Pass/Fail status
These are Clause 3.4 for slenderness limits, Clause 3.12 for Axial
Compression and Bending, Clause 3.13 for Axial Tension and
Bending, Clause 3.9.2 for Maximum w/t ratios and Clause 3.15 for
Shear.
15A.4 Design Parameters
Design per ASCE (10-97) must be initiated by using the command
CODE ASCE. This command should be the first command after the
PARAMETER statement. Other applicable parameters are
summarized in the table shown later in this section. These
parameters may be used to control the design process to suit
specific modeling needs. The default parameter values have been
selected such that they are frequently used numbers for
conventional design.
15A.5 Code Checking and Member Selection
Both code checking and member selection options are available in
the ASCE 10-97 implementation. For general information on these
Steel Design Per ASCE 10-97
Section 15A

15-4
options, refer to sections 2 and 5 of the STAAD Technical
Reference Manual.

Table of Steel Design Parameters for ASCE 10-97

Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
KY 1.0 Effective length factor (K) for compression buckling about the
Y-axis (minor axis)
KZ 1.0 Effective length factor (K) for compression buckling about the
Z-axis (major axis)
KT 1.0 Effective length coefficient for warping restraint (clause
3.14.4, pg 11)
LY Member
Length
Length to calculate slenderness ratio for buckling about the
Y-axis (minor axis)
LZ Member
Length
Length to calculate slenderness ratio for buckling about the
Z-axis (major axis)
LT Member
Length
Effective length for warping.
FYLD 36.0 KSI Yield Strength of steel
NSF 1.0 Net section factor for tension members
UNL Member
Length
Unsupported length of member for calculation of
allowable bending stress
UNF 1.0 Same as UNL, but provided as a fraction of the member
length
TRACK 0.0 0.0 = Suppresses printing of allowable stresses
1.0 = Prints all allowable stresses
DMAX 45.0 in. Maximum allowable depth for member selection
DMIN 0.0 in. Minimum allowable depth for member selection
RATIO 1.0 Permissible ratio that determines the cut off point for
pass/fail status. A value below this quantity
indicates PASS while a value greater than this
quantity indicates FAILURE.
BEAM 1.0 0.0 = Perform design at beam ends and section locations
specified according to the SECTION
command
1.0 = Perform design at the ends and eleven
intermediate sections of the beam

Section 15A

15-5
Table of Steel Design Parameters for ASCE 10-97

Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
MAIN 2 Parameter that indicates the member type for the purpose of
calculating the KL/R ratio
(SEE CLAUSE 3.4, PAGE 3, ASCE 10-97)

= 10 : DO NOT PERFORM THE KL/R CHECK
= 1 : LEG MEMBER KL/R <= 150
= 2 : COMPRESSION MEMBER KL/R <= 200
= 3 : TENSION MEMBER KL/R <= 500
= 4 : HANGAR MEMBERS KL/R <= 375
(Clause 4C.4, page 43)
= 5 : REDUNDANT MEMBERS KL/R <= 250

ELA 4 Indicates what type of end conditions are to be used
from among Equations 3.7-4 thru 3.7-7 to determine
the KL/R ratio.

ELA=1 : EQN.3.7-4, Page 4
(VALID FOR LEG MEMBERS ONLY)
ELA=2 : EQN.3.7-5, Page 4
ELA=3 : EQN.3.7-6, Page 4
ELA=4 : EQN.3.7-7, Page 5
ELB 1 Indicates what type of end conditions are to be used
from among Equations. 3.7-8 thru 3.7-10 and 3.7-12 thru
3.7-14 to determine the KL/R ratio.
ELB=1 : EQN.3.7-8, Page 5, EQN.3.7-12, Page 5
ELB=2 : EQN.3.7-9, Page 5, EQN.3.7-13, Page 5
ELB=3 : EQN.3.7-10, Page 5, EQN.3.7-14,Page 5
Steel Design Per ASCE 10-97
Section 15A

15-6
Table of Steel Design Parameters for ASCE 10-97

Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
LEG 0.0 This parameter is meant for plain angles.

0.0 = indicates that the angle is connected by both
legs and allowable stress in axial tension is
1.0FYLD.
1.0 = indicates that the angle is connected only by
the shorter leg and allowable tensile stress is
computed per clause 3.10.2 as 0.9FYLD.
2.0 = indicates that the angle is connected by the
longer leg.
DBL 0.75 in. Diameter of bolt for calculation of number of bolts
required and the net section factor.
FYB 36 KSI Yield strength of bolt.
FVB 30 KSI Shear strength of bolt.
NHL

0 Number of bolt holes on the cross section that
should be used to determine the net section factor for
tension capacity.


Notes:

All values must be provided in the current unit system.

Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number
till it is specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.



15-7

Steel Design per ASCE Manuals and Reports



15B.1 General Comments
This document presents some general statements regarding the
implementation of the Steel Design per ASCE Manuals and
Reports on Engineering Practice No. 52 Guide for Design of
Steel Transmission Towers, Second Edition. The design
philosophy and procedural logistics for member selection and code
checking is based upon the principles of allowable stress design.
Two major failure modes are recognized: failure by overstressing
and failure by stability considerations.

The following sections describe the salient features regarding the
process of calculation of the relevant allowable stresses and the
stability criteria being used. Member s are proportioned to resist
the design loads without exceeding the allowable stresses and the
most economical section is selected based on the least weight
criteria. The code checking part of the program also checks the
slenderness requirements, the mini mum metal thickness
requirements and the width-thickness requirements. It is generally
assumed that the user will take care of the detailing requirements
like provision of stiffeners and check the local effects like flange
buckling, web crippling, etc. It general, it may be noted that the
concepts followed in MEMBER SELECTION and CODE
CHECKING procedures are similar to that of the AISC based
design. It is assumed that the user is familiar with the basic
concepts of Steel Design facilities available in STAAD. Please
refer to Section 3 of the STAAD Technical Reference Manual for
detailed information on this topic. This document specifically
addresses the implementation of steel design based on ASCE Pub.
52.
Section
15B

Steel Design Per ASCE Manuals and Reports
Section 15B

15-8
15B.2 Allowable Stresses per ASCE (Pub. 52)
The member design and code checking in the STAAD
implementation of ASCE (Pub. 52) is based upon the allowable
stress design method. Appropriate sections of this publication are
referenced below.

Allowable Axial Tensile Stress
Allowable tensile stresses are calculated on the basis of the
procedure described in section 4.10. The NSF parameter (Table
1.1) may be used if the net section area needs to be used.

Allowable Axial Compressive Stress
Allowable compressive stress calculation is based on the
procedures of section 4.6 through 4.9. For angle members under
compression, the procedures of sections 4.7 and 4.8 have been
implemented. Capacity of the section is computed for column
buckling and wherever applicable, torsional buckling. The user
may control the effective lengths for buckling using the LX, LY,
LZ and/or KX, KY, KZ parameters (Table 1.1).

Allowable Bending Compressive Stress
Calculations for allowable bending compressive stress about the
major axis and minor axis are based on the procedures of section
4.14. Procedures outlined in sections 4.14.1 through 4.14.6 have
been implemented.

Allowable Bending Tensile Stress
Calculations for allowable bending tensile stress about the major
and minor axis are based on the procedures of section 4.14.2.

Allowable Shear Stress
Calculation of the allowable shear stress is based on the procedure
outlined in section 4.15 of the ASCE Pub. 52. The procedure of

Section 15B

15-9
section 4.15.2 is followed for angles and the procedure of section
4.15.1 is followed for all other sections.

Critical Conditions used as criteria to determine Pass/Fail
status
These are Clause 4.4 for slenderness limits, Equation 4.12-1 for
Axial Compression and Bending, Equation 4.13-1 for Axial
Tension and Bending, Clause 4.9.2 for Maximum w/t ratios and
Clause 4.15 for Shear.
15B.3 Design Parameters
Design per ASCE (Pub. 52) must be initiated by using the
command CODE ASCE. This command should be the first
command after the PARAMETER statement. Other applicable
parameters are summarized in Table 1.1. These parameters may be
used to control the design process to suit specific modeling needs.
The default parameter values have been selected such that they are
frequently used numbers for conventional design.
15B.4 Code Checking and Member Selection
Both code checking and member selection options are available in
the ASCE Pub. 52 implementation. For general information on
these options, refer to section 3 of the STAAD Technical
Reference Manual. For information on specification of these
commands, refer to section 6.
Steel Design Per ASCE Manuals and Reports
Section 15B

15-10
15B.5 Parameter Definition Table
Table 15B.1 - Steel Design Parameters for ASCE (PUB. 52) Based Design

Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
KY 1.0 Effective length factor (K) for compression buckling
about the Y-axis (minor axis)
KZ 1.0 Effective length factor (K) for compression buckling
about the Z-axis (major axis)
KT 1.0 Effective length coefficient for warping restraint
(clause 4.14.4, pg 36)
LY Member
Length
Length to calculate slenderness ratio for buckling
about the Y-axis (minor axis)
LZ Member
Length
Length to calculate slenderness ratio for buckling
about the Z-axis (major axis)
LT Member
Length
Effective length for warping.
FYLD 36.0 KSI Yield Strength of steel
NSF 1.0 Net section factor for tension members
UNL Member
Length
Unsupported length of member for calculation of
allowable bending stress
UNF 1.0 Same as UNL, but provided as a fraction of the
member length
TRACK 0.0 1.0 = Suppresses printing of allowable stresses
1.0 = Prints all allowable stresses
DMAX 45.0 in. Maximum allowable depth for member selection
DMIN 0.0 in. Minimum allowable depth for member selection
RATIO 1.0 Permissible ratio that determines the cut off point for
pass/fail status. A value below this quantity
indicates PASS while a value greater than this
quantity indicates FAILURE.

Section 15B

15-11
Table 15B.1 - Steel Design Parameters for ASCE (PUB. 52) Based Design

Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
BEAM 0.0 2.0 = Perform design using the section locations
specified according to the SECTION
command
3.0 = Perform design at the ends and eleven
intermediate sections of the beam
MAIN 2 Parameter that indicates the member type for the purpose
of calculating the KL/R ratio
(SEE CLAUSE 4.4, PAGE 25)

= 10 : DO NOT PERFORM THE KL/R CHECK
= 1 : LEG MEMBER KL/R <= 150
= 2 : COMPRESSION MEMBER KL/R <= 200
= 3 : TENSION MEMBER KL/R <= 500
= 4 : HANGAR MEMBERS KL/R <= 375
(Clause 4C.4, page 43)
= 5 : REDUNDANT MEMBERS KL/R <= 250

ELA 4 Indicates what type of end conditions are to be used
From among Equations 4.7-4 thru 4.7-7 to determine the
the KL/R ratio.

ELA=1 : EQN.4.7-4, Page 26
(VALID FOR LEG MEMBERS ONLY)
ELA=2 : EQN.4.7-5, Page 27
ELA=3 : EQN.4.7-6, Page 27
ELA=4 : EQN.4.7-7, Page 27
ELB 1 Indicates what type of end conditions are to be used
From among Equations. 4.7-8 thru 4.7-10 to
determine the KL/R ratio.

ELB=1 : EQN.4.7-8, Page 27, EQN.4.7-12, Page 28
ELB=2 : EQN.4.7-9, Page 27, EQN.4.7-13, Page 28
ELB=3 : EQN.4.7-10, Page 27, EQN.4.7-14,Page28
Steel Design Per ASCE Manuals and Reports
Section 15B

15-12
Table 15B.1 - Steel Design Parameters for ASCE (PUB. 52) Based Design

Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
LEG 0.0 This parameter is meant for plain angles.

3.0 = indicates that the angle is connected by both
legs and allowable stress in axial tension is
1.0FYLD.
4.0 = indicates that the angle is connected only by
the shorter leg and allowable tensile stress is
computed per clause 4.10.2 as 0.9FYLD.
5.0 = indicates that the angle is connected by the
longer leg.
DBL 0.75 in. Diameter of bolt for calculation of number of bolts
required and the net section factor.
FYB 36 KSI Yield strength of bolt.
FVB 30 KSI Shear strength of bolt.
NHL

0 Number of bolt holes on the cross section that
should be used to determine the net section factor for
tension capacity.


Notes:

All values must be provided in the current unit system.

Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that
specified number till it is specified again. This is the way STAAD
works for all codes.
















Section 16
American Steel Design
Per A.P.I. Code



















































16-1


Steel Design Per A.P.I.


16.1 Design Operations
STAAD contains a broad set of facilities for the design of
structural members as individual components of an analyzed
structure. The member design facilities provide the user with the
ability to carry out a number of different design operations. These
facilities may be used selectively in accordance with the
requirements of the design problem. The operations to perform a
design are:

- Specify the members and the load cases to be considered in t he
design;
- Specify whether to perform code checking or member
selection;
- Specify design parameter values, if different from the default
values; and
- Specify design parameters to carry out punching shear checks.

These operations may be repeated by the user any number of times
depending upon the design requirements, but care should be taken
when coupled with manipulation of the punching shear LEG
parameter.

The basic process is:-
a. Define the STAAD model geometry, loading and analysis.
b. Define the API code parameters with LEG 1.0.
c. Run the analysis and API design which creates the Geometry
file and give preliminary design results.
d. Check and modify the Geometry file as necessary.
Section
16

Steel Design Per A.P.I.
Section 16

16-2
e. Reset the LEG parameter to 2.0 and re-run the analysis to read
the modified Geometry file for the final design results.
16.2 Allowables per API Code
For steel design, STAAD compares the actual stresses with the
allowable stresses as defined by the American Petroleum Institute
(API-RP2A) Code. The 20th edition of API Code, as published in
1993, is used as the basis of this design (except for tension stress).
16.2.1 Tension Stress
Allowable tension stresses, as calculated in STAAD, are based on
the API Code, clause (3.2.1-1).

Allowable tension stress on the net section

F
t
= 0.60F
y

16.2.2 Shear Stress
Beam Shear Stress
Allowable beam shear stress on the gross section must conform to
(3.2.4-2):

F
v
= 0.4 F
y


The maximum applied beam shear stress is:

f
v
= V / 0.5 A (3.2.4-1)

Torsional Shear Stress
Allowable torsional shear stress

F
vt
= 0.4 F
y
(3.2.4-4)

Section 16

16-3

F
vt
is the maximum torsional shear stress per (3.2.4-3).
16.3 Stress due to Compression
The allowable compressive stress on the gross section of axially
loaded compression members is calculated based on the formula
3.2.2-1 in the API Code, when the largest effective slenderness
ratio
|
.
|

\
|
r
Kl
is less than C
c
=
y
F
E
2
2t . If
r
Kl
exceeds C
c
the
allowable compressive stress is increased as per formula (3.2.2-2)
of the Code.

For
t
D
> 60 the lesser of F
xe
or F
xc
are substituted for F
xy
.
F
xe
= the elastic local buckling stress calculated with C, the critical
elastic buckling coefficient = 0.3 (3.2.2-3)
F
xc
= the inelastic local buckling stress, (3.2.2-4)
16.4 Bending Stress
The allowable bending stress for tension and compression for a
symmetrical member loaded in the plane of its minor axis, as given
in Section 3.2.3 is:

a) F
b
= 0.75 F
y


provided
t
D
s
y
F
1500
(Imperial Units)

b) F
b
=
(


Et
D F
y
74 . 1 84 . 0 F
y


Steel Design Per A.P.I.
Section 16

16-4
where
y
F
1500
<
t
D
<
y
F
3000
(Imperial Units)

c) F
b
=
(


Et
D F
y
58 . 0 72 . 0 F
y


where
y
F
3000
<
t
D
s 300 (Imperial Units)
16.5 Combined Compression and Bending
Members subjected to both axial compression and bending stresses
are proportioned to satisfy API for mula 3.3.1-1 and 3.3.1-2 when
a
a
F
f
is greater than 0.15, otherwise formula 3.3.1-3 applies. It
should be noted that during code checking or member selection, if
a
a
F
f
exceeds unity, the program does not compute the second
3.3.1-1/2.
16.6 Design Parameters
The program contains a large number of parameter names which
are required to perform design and code checks. These parameter
names, with their default values, are listed in Table 12.1. These
parameters communicate design decisions from the engineer to the
program. (Also see section 5.44.1).

The default parameter values have been selected such that they are
frequently used numbers for conventional design. Depending on
the particular design requirements for an analysis, some or all of
these parameter values may have to be changed to exactly model
the physical structure. For example, by default the KZ value (k
value in local z-axis) of a member is set to 1.0, wile in the real

Section 16

16-5
structure it may be 1.5. In that case, the KZ value in the program
can be changed to 1.5, as shown in the input instruction (Section
5). Similarly, the TRACK value of a member is set to 0.0, which
means no allowable stresses of the member will be printed. If the
allowable stresses are to be printed, the TRACK value must be set
to 1.0.

Notes: The parameter names DMAX and DMIN are only used for
member selection. Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at
that specified number till it is specified again. This is the way
STAAD works for all codes.

Table 16.1- American (API) Steel Design Parameters
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
KY 1.0 K value in local y-axis.
Usually, this is minor axis.
KZ 1.0 K value in local z-axis.
Usually, this is major axis.
LY Member
Length
Length in local Y-axis to calculate slenderness ratio.
LZ Member
Length
Length in local Z-axis to calculate slenderness ratio.
FYLD 36 KSI Yield strength of steel.
NSF 1.0 Net section factor for tension members.
UNL Member
Length
Unsupported length for calculating allowable bending
stress
UNF 1.0 Same as above provided as a fraction of actual
member length
CB 1.0 Cb value as used in Section 1.5 of AISC
0.0 = Cb value to be calculated
Any other value will mean the value to be used in
design
MAIN 0.0 1.0 = Main member
2.0 = Secondary member
SSY 0.0 0.0 = Sidesway in local y-axis
Steel Design Per A.P.I.
Section 16

16-6
Table 16.1- American (API) Steel Design Parameters
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
1.0 = No sidesway
SSZ 0.0 Same as above except in local z-axis
CMY
CMZ
0.85 for
sidesway*
and
calculated for
no sidesway
Cm value in local y & z axes

TRACK 0.0
1.0 = Print all critical member
stresses
100.0 = Suppress all checks except punching shear

DMAX 0.0 Maximum allowable depth
DMIN 0.0 Minimum allowable depth
RATIO Permissible ratio of the actual to allowable stresses
WELD 1 for closed
sections
2 for open
sections
Weld type, as explained in section 3.1.1.
1 = Welding is one side only except for wide flange
or tee sections, where the web is always
assumed to be welded on both sides.
2 = Welding is both sides. For closed sections like
pipe or tube, the welding will be only on one
side.
BEAM 1.0
0.0 = design only for end moments or
those at locations specified by the SECTION
command.
= calculate moments at twelfth points along the
beam, and use the maximum Mz location for
design.
WMIN 1.16 in. Minimum thickness
WSTR 0.4 X FLYD Allowable welding stress
LEG 1.0
2.0
To write out external parameters file.
To read in the external parameters file.


Section 16

16-7
16.7 Code Checking
The purpose of code checking is to ascertain whether the provided
section properties of the members are adequate as per API. Code
checking is done using the forces and moments at specific sections
of the members. If no sections are specified, the program uses the
start and end forces for code checking.

When code checking is selected, the program calculates and prints
whether the members have passed or failed the checks, the critical
condition of API code (like any of the API specifications for
compression, tension, shear, etc.), the value of the ratio of the
critical condition (overstressed for value more than 1.0 or any
other specified RATIO value), the governing load case, and the
location (distance from the start of the number of forces in the
member) where the critical condition occurs.

Code checking can be done with any type of steel section listed in
Section 2.2, American Steel Design, of the Technical Reference
manual.
16.8 Member Selection
STAAD is capable of performing design operations on specified
members. Once an analysis has been performed, the program can
select the most economical section, i.e. the lightest section which
fulfills the code requirements for the specified member. The
section selected will be of the same type section as originally
designated for the member being designed. Member selection can
also be constrained by the parameters DMAX and DMIN which
limits the maximum and minimum depth of the members.

Member selection can be performed with all types of hollow steel
sections.

Steel Design Per A.P.I.
Section 16

16-8
Selection of members whose properties are originally input from a
user created table will be limited to sections i n the user table.

Member selection cannot be performed on members whose section
properties are input as prismatic.
16.9 Truss Members
As mentioned earlier, a truss member is capable of carrying only
axial force. So in design, no time is wasted calculating the
allowable bending or shear stresses, thus reducing design time
considerably. Therefore, if there is any truss member in an
analysis (like bracing or strut, etc.), it is wise to declare it as a
truss member rather than as a regular frame member wi th both
ends pinned.
16.10 Punching Shear
For tubular members, punching shear may be checked in
accordance with the American Petroleum Institute (API) RP 2A
20th Edition Section 4. The parameter PUNCH is used to identify
joint types for each end of the member where the punching shear
check is required. The PUNCH parameter is only read in from the
external geometry file. The external geometry file is described in
section 12.13. The PUNCH parameter is not specified within the
STAAD input file (the file with the .std extension).

Type of Joint and Geometry Req. Value of Parameter
PUNCH

K (overlap) 1.0
K (gap) 2.0
T & Y 3.0
CROSS 4.0
CROSS (with/diaphragms) 5.0


Section 16

16-9
Note: A value representing joint type and geometry must be
provided for parameter PUNCH, in the external file. On the first
run where no external table is present, LEG must equal 1.0.
16.11 Generation of the Geometry File
Automatic selection of the chord and brace members is performed
with the parameter LEG 1.0.

Two tubular members are used by the program to identify the
chord member. The chord members must be collinear (5 degree
tolerance).

The chord member must have a greater diameter and thickness
than the brace member being considered.

The punching shear check is performed on the joint treating it as a
T/Y joint. The yield stress of the brace is used. In the 50%
strength check the brace and chord yield are assumed to be the
same.

The major moment axis Mz is taken as In Plane Bending (IPB).
To change this, the parameter SWAP 1 should be used in the
external geometry file.

Note: The in-plane/out-of-plane correspondence can be set by
using the BETA angle.

If the punching shear cannot be performed at the joint for the
member being considered, a message is written to the output file
<filename>.ANL.

If a punching shear check is performed with the parameter LEG
1.0 used, then the geometry data used to perform the check is
written to the default external output file APIPUN.

The default external output/input file name can be changed by
using the command line:-
Steel Design Per A.P.I.
Section 16

16-10
CODE API <filename>.

This external output data file can be edited and used as an external
input file to re-perform the check using the parameter PUNCH 1.0
to 5.0.

This external input file allows can/stub geometry data to be
specified and chords to be assigned geometry where they could not
be identified in the Automatic selection.

The parameter LEG 2.0 must be used to read an external input file
where the default name is APIPUN.

The yield strength of the brace is used in the punching shear
check. This can be changed in the external geometry file. The
user should ensure that the correct cord member has been selected
for the check.
16.12 Chord Selection and Q
f
Parameter
Q
f
is a factor to account for the presence of nomi nal longitudinal
stress in the chord. When calculating Q
f
for the joints, the
moments used in the chord stress calculation will be from the
computer node results and not the representative moments
underneath the brace. If the moment varies significantly along the
chord, it is more accurate to use the actual chord moment in the
middle of the brace foot print. The tests reported in Reference I
1

were performed with a constant moment along the chord. Thus for
a local joint check, the local chord moment (under the brace)
should be used.

STAAD calculates Q
f
based on the moment at the chord member.
The chord member can be selected automatically by initial
screening by the program (based on geometry and independent of
loading) or specified by the user in the External file.

1
Ref I: Boone, TJ, Yura, JA and Hoadley, PW, Ultimate Strength if Tubular Joints Chord
Stress Effects, OTC 4828, 1984

Section 16

16-11

In the automatic selection of the chord two collinear members (5
degree tolerance) are used to identify the chord. The chord is then
selected from one of the two members based on the larger diameter
then thickness or then by the minimum framing angle; for T joints
the first member modeled will be selected as the chord.

The user should confirm that the chord either be assigned by the
program or the user is representative of the local chord moment for
the brace in question.
16.13 External Geometry File
An example of the external geometry file is shown below:

BRACE CHORD PUNCH D T d T GAP FYLD THETAT TW SWAP
209 211 3 17.992 0.984 12.752 0.787 0.000 50.00 0.00 0.000 0
209 210 3 17.992 0.984 12.752 0.787 0.000 50.00 0.00 0.000 0
212 202 3 17.992 0.787 12.752 0.787 0.000 50.00 0.00 0.000 0


The parameters used in the external file are defined as follows:

Table 16.2 External File
Parameter Description
PUNCH Parameter for punching shear (See Section
12.10)
BRACE Member number of brace
CHORD Member number of chord
D Chord Diameter in inches
T Chord Thickness in inches
d Brace Diameter in inches
T Brace Thickness in inches
GAP Gap in inches (must be negative for overlap
K-joint)
FYLD Local yield strength used for joint in KIPS
THETAT Angle of through brace in overlap K-joint in
Steel Design Per A.P.I.
Section 16

16-12
Table 16.2 External File
Parameter Description
Degrees
TW Used in overlap K-joint, taken as the lesser of
the weld throat thickness or thickness t of the
thinner brace in inches
SWAP If parameter SWAP 0 is used then major
moment Mz is taken for In Plane Bending
(IPB). SWAP 1 uses the minor moment My as
the IPB.

Notes:

- For overlap K-joints, the through brace is assumed to be the
same diameter as the brace being checked.
- If any of the parameters for diameter and thickness specified
in the external file are less than that for members being
checked, then the member properties specified in the STAAD
file shall be used.
- The member diameter and thickness should be used in API
equation (4.1-1); in this check it has been assumed that the
yield strength of the chord and brace members are the same.
- The geometry file name is currently limited to eight characters
(4 if an extension as .txt is used).

The overall process of performing punching shear checks consists
of two steps. These steps are explained in section 12.16.
16.14 Limitations
The parameter SELECT 1.0 should not be used while carrying out
punching shear checks. It can be used in initial runs for member
selection.

No classification of the joint is performed using the loading.

No hydrostatic checks are performed.

Section 16

16-13
16.15 Tabulated Results of Steel Design
For code checking or member selection, the program produces the
results in a tabulated fashion. The items in the output table are
explained as follows:

a) Member refers to the member number for which the
design is performed.
b) TABLE refers to AISC steel section name which has been
checked against the steel code or has been selected.
c) RESULTS prints whether the member has PASSed or
FAILed. If the RESULT is FAIL, there will be an asterisk
(*) mark on front of the member.
d) CRITICAL COND refers to the section of the AISC code
which governs the design.
e) RATIO prints the ratio of the actual stresses to allowable
stresses for the critical condition. Normally a value of 1.0
or less will mean the member has passed.
f) LOADING provides the load case number which governed
the design.
g) FX, MY, and MZ provide the axial force, moment in local
Y-axis, and the moment in local Z-axis respectively.
Although STAAD does consider all the member forces
and moments (except torsion) to perform design, only FX,
MY and MZ are printed since they are the ones which are
of interest, in most cases.
h) LOCATION specifies the actual distance from the start of
the member to the section where design forces govern.
i) If the parameter TRACK is set to 1.0, the program will
block out part of the table and will print the allowable
bending stressed in compression (FCY & FCZ) and
tension (FTY & FTZ), allowable axial stress in
compression (FA), and allowable shear stress (FV).
Steel Design Per A.P.I.
Section 16

16-14
16.16 The Two-Step Process
The overall procedure for performing the code check per the API
code is as follows:

Step 1 Creating the geometry data file. This is done by
specifying the name of the geometry data file alongside the
command line CODE API. If a file name is not specified, STAAD
automatically assigns the file name APIPUN to the geometry data
file. The parameter instructions in the .std file should contain the
LEG parameter and it should be assigned the value 1.0.


Example Reading External Geometry File

UNIT INCHES KIPS
PARAMETERS
* All joint data will be written to external file GEOM1 for
punching shear.
CODE API GEOM1
LEG 1.0
* Joints to be considered as T and Y, i.e. PUNCH is set to 3.0.
FYLD 50.0 ALL
TRACK 1.0 ALL
RATIO 1.0 ALL
BEAM 1.0 ALL
CHECK CODE ALL

After ensuring that your STAAD input file contains the above
data, run the analysis. Once the analysis is completed, you will
find that a file by the name GEOM1 has been created and is
located in the same folder as the one where your .std file is
located. (In case you did not specify a file name - GEOM1 shown
in the earlier example - STAAD will create the file named
APIPUN.


Section 16

16-15
Step 2 The geometry data file (GEOM 1 or otherwise) should be
inspected and modified as required such as changing the PUNCH
values and local section properties for the punching shear checks.
Modify the .std file so it reruns the code check process by reading
the instructions of the GEOM file. This message is conveyed by
changing the value of the LEG parameter to 2.0. After making this
change, a re-analysis will result in the program using the
information in the geometry data file (GEOM1, APIPUN, or
otherwise) for performing the code check.


Example Reading an existing Joint Geometry Data File,
GEOM1

UNIT INCHES KIPS
PARAMETERS
* All joint data will be read from the external file GEOM1 for
punching shear.
CODE API GEOM1
LEG 2.0
FYLD 50.0 ALL
TRACK 1.0 ALL
RATIO 1.0 ALL
BEAM 1.0 ALL
CHECK CODE ALL



Steel Design Per A.P.I.
Section 16

16-16