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The Nature of Invisible Spacetime

THE NATURE OF INVISIBLE SPACETIME


EVERYTHING IS WITHIN ANYTHING AND ANYTHING IS WITHIN EVERYTHING

LAKSHMI NARAYAN. P
Bangalore, India Ph: +91-9900280599/ +91-8792441999 E-mail: ads4.ln@gmail.com

The Nature of Invisible Spacetime

Contents 1. Visible and the invisible universe 2. Gravity 3. The cause for uncertainty and the uncertainty period 4. Dark energy and dark matter are the same 5. Black holes and worm holes 6. Quantum entanglement 7. Interference in the double slit experiment

The Nature of Invisible Spacetime

THE VISIBLE SPACETIME AND THE INVISIBLE SPACETIME

Our visible universe is made up of three dimensions of space and one dimension of time. But there is always a search for extra dimensions if at all they exist. According to string theory, we live in a 10 dimensional space-time. However till now there is no evidence for any of the extra dimensions other than the three dimensions of space and one dimension of time. But we certainly live in the universe which has more than 4 dimensions. According to Einsteins special Relativity, nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. The speed of light is 299792.458 km/s. The speed of light is the cosmic speed limit. An object, how much ever faster it may travel, it cannot reach the speed of light. When an object travels faster with respect to a reference frame, time dilates i.e. time moves slower for the object moving at a speed compared to a stationery object. Also, distances shrink i.e. space contracts for the moving object. The mechanism of how time slows down is not yet properly understood. To get a proper understanding of this, we have to go into the details of the nature of invisible space-time. Our visible universe is made up of 3 dimensions of space and 1 dimension of time. All objects in the universe exist in this space-time continuum. Space and time are not 2 separate entities irrelative of each other. Space and time are intimately united as one entity called spacetime. As mentioned earlier, all stationery objects experience their time in this visible universe. But no object in the universe is stationery. Each and every object is moving with respect to one another. When an object moves at a speed, it experiences time slowly. This is because apart from the visible universe there is an invisible universe intertwined within the visible universe. Even that invisible universe is made up of space and time but are combined differently and thus having different nature. In the visible universe (VU), space 0 and time 0. Space comprises of 3 dimensions length, width and height. So, in total there are 4 dimensions. But in the invisible universe, space 0, but time = 0 and even in this universe there are 4 dimensions. But these dimensions are different from the dimensions in the visible universe because space and time are tied up in different ways. In the invisible universe, no events can happen since time = 0, but matter can exist since space 0. The slowing of time of a moving object is due to the fact that a moving object does not fully spend its time in the visible universe, it spends some of its time in the invisible universe. It is not that things happen in a slow motion for a fast moving object, it is that it does not exist within the visible universe for some definite amount of time. According to loop quantum theory, spacetime is not continuous. Even spacetime exist in small discrete units called chunks or nodes. Each node is of 10-35 m and 10-43 s. Our universe is made up of countless number of such minute spacetime nodes. Here, each 3

The Nature of Invisible Spacetime

object or particle should stay still within one spacetime node or a group of spacetime nodes for a period of 10-43s without changing its position within that interval. Hence, if a particle does so, it will experience the time as 10-43 s and there would be no time dilation. But if a particle moves with a velocity, it no longer stays still for an interval of 10-43 s. As a result, the particle with velocity sinks to the invisible universe for a certain amount of time. Since space 0, and time = 0, the particle occupies space but does not experience any time as long as it stays within the invisible universe (IU) This is a reason why time dilation occurs when on object moves faster. Spacetime is not continuous, it is discrete. Every 10-43s time stops and starts. i.e. space and time becomes zero. (Here space and time becomes zero means, it is not that space and time does not exist. It is that very large number of spacetime nodes, even though not infinite which permeates everywhere becomes 1 single node.

Time is not continuous. It stops and starts every 10-43s. No object in the universe is still without moving. Any moving object spends some of its time in the visible universe and some of its time in the invisible universe but time dilates since the time spent in the invisible universe does not count. Example 1: Consider an object moving fast say at 0.1c, (c = speed of light which is 299792.458 km/s). Time slows down by a factor of 1.005 for that object. When the new time interval starts, within the interval of 10-43s the object moves a distance of 9x1036 m. Hence, it stays in visible universe for a period of 9.9x10-44s and it sinks to invisible universe and stays there for a period of 10-45s. The time spent by the object in the invisible universe does not count and as a result time dilates for the object. Then again the time stops and a new time interval starts. When the new time interval starts, the object from the invisible universe appears back in the visible universe. Example 2: For an object moving at 0.5c, time slows down by a factor of 1.15. The object stays in visible universe for a period of 8.6x10-44 s and sinks to invisible universe for a period of 1.4x10-44 s. with respect to the visible universe. 4

The Nature of Invisible Spacetime

Example 3: For an object moving at 0.9c time slows down by a factor of 2.3. The object stays for a period of 4.3 x 10-44 s in the visible universe and sinks to the invisible universe for a period of 5.7x10-44 s with respect to the visible universe. Example 4: For an object moving at 0.9999999997c, time slows down by a factor of 40,000. The object stays for a period of 2.5x10-48 s in the visible universe and sinks to the invisible universe for a period of 9.99975x10-44 s with respect to the visible universe. From the above examples it is shown that time dilation is nothing but the time spent by the object in the invisible universe i.e. the object disappears from the visible universe for certain amount of time and appears back, though the time is very small. At c, for the photon moving at the speed of light, it stays in the visible universe for 0 seconds i.e. the photon does not exist at all in the visible universe. When the new time interval starts, the photon just appears in the visible universe, but without experiencing any time it sinks to the invisible universe. It always spends its time in the invisible universe. As a consequence of this, time for a photon is zero. A photon does not experience any time at all. For a photon there is neither past nor future. After every interval of 10-43s photon appears in the visible universe but soon it disappears into the invisible universe. Now counting the dimensions we have the following. Visible universe, space 0, and time 0 (Space has 3 dimensions) total there are 4 dimensions. Invisible universe, space 0, but time = 0 (Space has 3 dimensions) total there are 4 dimensions. After every interval of 10-43 s, space and time stops, i.e. the entire universe becomes 1 single node or bubble instead of a large number of discrete spacetime nodes. Therefore, space =0 and time =0 (since space =0, it couldnt be further classified as 3 dimensions) Hence, in total there are 2 dimensions. Note: Extra dimensions must either be a space dimension or time dimension which is combined in different ways. Apart from this, any other dimension nowadays so called 5th or 6th dimension couldnt exist. The total number of dimensions counts to 10. There is also an eternal time in which these spacetime dimensions combine in different ways which could be called as the Eleventh dimension. After every interval of 10-43 s spacetime becomes zero i.e. countless number of spacetime nodes becomes 1 spacetime node.

The Nature of Invisible Spacetime

Even spacetime nodes of the invisible universe merge with the spacetime nodes of the visible universe merge to form 1 single spacetime node which could be even called as singularity. All the matter in both the universes gets into one single spacetime node. This also means that all the matter in the universe comes to the same place (one single node) which is equivalent of saying that all particles of matter in the universe is at the same point. As a result of this, the force of gravity arises.

GRAVITY The nature of gravity is always attractive. Since after interval of 10-43 s spacetime becomes 1 single node combining a large number of minute nodes, all the matter particles are now in 1 single node. The matter particles are equivalent of being at the same point in spacetime. When the new time interval starts, the single spacetime node gets divided into countless number of small space-time nodes. Matter also occupies their original position in the respective spacetime nodes.

The Nature of Invisible Spacetime

Since all the particles of matter were at the same point once and now are at different points, there is a tendency for the matter particles to get close to one another as soon as they get separated. Each particle of matter exerts a force on every other particle in the universe and this force is always attractive & is called the gravitational force. According to 3rd law of Newton for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Since the matter practices which were in 1 single node get pushed apart to their respective nodes, there is a reaction from the matter particles to get together or come close to one another. This force is equivalent to acceleration as told by Einstein in his equivalence principle. For example there is gravitational attraction between particles of the earth and each and every other particle in the universe. The force of gravity is infinite. Each and every particle in the universe attracts each and every other particle. Spacetime makes all the matter to be at one place and also all the matter to get separated. When the matter particles are separated by making them occupy their respective spacetime nodes, the reactant force of the matter to get close to one another makes the spacetime to curve. The curvature of spacetime as told by Einstein is the reactant force of the matter particles against the spacetime. The curved geometry of spacetime around mass occurs due to Newtons 3rd law. At spacetime = 0, all the matter are at 1 single point and when the spacetime interval starts all the matter particles occupy their original position. When this happens, there is a repulsive force trying to restrict the matter particles from occupying its original position. As a consequence of this, spacetime curves around objects with mass. Hence, space-time curvature could be attributed to the repulsive force.

THE CAUSE FOR UNCERTAINTY AND THE UNCERTAINTY PERIOD At spacetime=0, all the matter particles occupy the same position. After the new time interval starts these matter particles occupy their original positions in spacetime continuum. Since all the space-time nodes become 1 single node and all the particles occupy 1 single position in spacetime, each and every particle in the universe is equivalent of being at each and every point in spacetime. As a result of this there is a non-zero probability of every particle being at every place in the universe at the same time. When the new space-time interval starts all the particles try to occupy their original position in the space-time continuum. But it takes a very small amount of time for these particles to remember their respective positions (i.e. their respective spacetime nodes).

The Nature of Invisible Spacetime

In this smallest interval of time, since the particle does not know which position in spacetime it exists, it tries to exist in each and every point in spacetime. This period is called the uncertainty period. The particles cannot remember its past for this smallest interval of time and it is everywhere in the universe at the same point of time. But after this uncertainty period, the particle gets to remember its position by inspecting the surrounding conditions which prevailed in the earlier time interval and would occupy its original position. Time again stops and this process continues. As a result of this, the particles position and momentum cannot be found simultaneously. For example, there is a 90% probability of finding the electron within the atom and there is a non-zero probability of finding the same electron at each and every point in the universe. Hence, the Heisenbergs uncertainty is the result of spacetime intervals i.e. discrete spacetime.

THE UNCERTAINTY PERIOD When the new time interval starts, the election doesnt know about its past. It gets to remember about its past only after a certain amount of time. For example, how an electron changes its action in this small interval of time is as follows. 1. First the electron appears after t=0, but now the electron is equivalent of being at every point in the universe, i.e. it tries to occupy each and every point in spacetime. After sometime the electron gets to remember its approximate location down to probability of 90%. Then the electron tries to exhibit its properties and follow the laws of physics. 2. It tries to orbit a proton. Since, electron is negatively charged and proton is positively charged, it gets located at the point near the proton by remembering its surrounding conditions. This uncertainty is also responsible for the chemistry of atoms and molecules. Take an example of CH4 molecule.

The Nature of Invisible Spacetime

Carbon atom has 6 protons in its nucleus and 6 electrons outside. Two of the electrons are in the inner most shell and 4 electrons in the valence shell. 8 electrons are required to make this shell full. In case of Hydrogen atom, 1 electron is in the innermost shell, 1 more electron is needed to make the shell complete. Atoms combine in such a way that they can get as close as they can to making a closed outer shell. Now, when the carbon and hydrogen atoms get close to one another and when the new time interval starts, as said earlier the particles in the atoms does not exactly know their exact location. These particles get to remember their past slowly after a certain period of time called the uncertainty period. During this period, the particles behave differently, but following the laws of physics. Now, as soon as the new time interval starts & when carbon & hydrogen atoms come close together, an outer electron in a carbon atom might locate itself within the outer shell of hydrogen atom and the shell gets filled. But after sometime, the electron remembers its past that it belongs to the carbon atom and hence it moves back to the outer shell of the carbon atom. But then the spacetime stops and again a new spacetime interval starts. Then again electron in the outermost shell of the carbon atom appears both in hydrogen atom as well as carbon atom. As a result of this the carbon and hydrogen atoms are bonded together. In the same way 4 hydrogen atoms when they are close to a carbon atom are bonded the following way. During the uncertainty period, the electrons in the hydrogen atom might appear in the outermost shell of the carbon atom so that the outermost shell of carbon atom is filled. But after small interval, the electrons get to remember that it belongs to the hydrogen atom and they occupy their original position. This exchange of electrons from one atom to the other atom continues over time intervals and as a result of this, the carbon and hydrogen atom are bonded to form CH4 molecule. 9

The Nature of Invisible Spacetime

Uncertainty within an Atom: Within the Hydrogen atom, when the time interval starts, the electron does not know its position but it orbits the proton since it is negatively charged.

Initially, the electron could be at any point within the atom and at any point within the orbital and go around the proton. So it is equally valid for the electron to be in multiple places within the orbital of the atom. But after the uncertainty period, the electron gets to know its exact location or energy level within the orbital. But as soon as this happens, spacetime stops i.e. it becomes 0. Again this process continues. As a result of this, the particles momentum and position cannot be determined simultaneously called the Heisenbergs uncertainty principle. Example of NaCl molecule

Sodium has 3 electrons, 2 in the inner most shell and 1 in the outermost shell. Chlorine has 9 electrons, 2 in the innermost shell and 7 in the outermost shell. Now, the sodium and chlorine atoms are close together and the new time interval begins. Since the electron does not know its exact location, the electron in the outermost shell of the sodium atom appears in the outermost shell of the chlorine atom. The outermost shell becomes complete and electron appears within that shell. But soon it realizes that it belongs to the sodium atom and moves back to the sodium atom. The same thing happens with the electron in the chlorine atom also. This process continues and henceforth the 2 atoms are bonded to form a molecule.

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The Nature of Invisible Spacetime

QUANTUM TUNNELING

Quantum tunneling is a phenomenon wherein a particle having less energy could cross a potential barrier which is impossible from the classical point of view. In the example shown below a photon is aimed at a barrier. All the photons strike the barrier and gets reflected or absorbed but there is a probability that one of the photons might appear on the other side of the barrier even without passing through it. However the barrier should be very thin. Even this phenomenon of tunneling is because of the uncertainty period. We know that time is not continuous. It stops and starts every 10-43s. The photon hits the barrier and the time stops. Now, when the new time interval begins, the photon tries to locate itself touching the barrier. During the uncertainty period, the photon just knows that it should appear next to the barrier. At this point the photon might appear on the other side of the barrier also. This is because the conditions surrounding the photon are the same if the photon is on the other side of the barrier also.

As shown in the figure above, when the photon touches the barrier, it gets into contact with an atom and there will be similar atoms or molecules surrounding the atoms. When a new time interval starts, the photon tries to locate itself nearer the barrier, i.e. at A. The conditions on the other side of the barrier i.e. at B, if the photon appears there is also the same as A, except for the case wherein the atoms and the barrier are towards the right on one side and towards left on the other side. The photons would not recognize the left and the right direction. It will only remember the conditions which prevailed earlier. Accordingly, the photon being on left side is equivalent to being on the right side, since the conditions surrounding the photon is the same. Sometimes the photon remembers its past as being on the other side of the barrier and appears on the other side. Thus the tunneling happens. The photon does not pass through the barrier. After it touches one side of the barrier, it just appears on the other side of the barrier touching it.

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Example 2:

In the above example the current is passed through the circuit. The flow of current stops at plate A. Even though there is a small gap between plate A and plate B (very small of the order 10-3m) due to the phenomenon of tunneling, sometimes the current flows from A to B. The free electrons passing through the wire will stop at the edge of metal plate A. Again, when time stops and starts, there is a probability that the free electrons might locate itself on the edge of plate B instead on the edge of plate A. This is because the conditions surrounding when the electron is at the edge of plate A is similar to the conditions if the electron is at the edge of plate B. Henceforth, sometimes the free electrons remember its past location as at the edge of plate B. The electron which was at the edge of plate A disappears and appears at the edge of plate B but not travel between A and B.

TUNELLING IN THE SUN: In the sun, fusion occurs by combining 2 hydrogen atoms to form a deuterium atom. But there is not enough heat energy in the sun for the fusion process to take place. When two hydrogen nuclei come close to another, they repel each other due to +ve charges of the nuclei. A very high amount of energy is needed to overcome the repulsive force between the two nuclei and fuse together. Even though the required energy is not available the fusion in the sun occurs due to the phenomenon of quantum tunneling.

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As shown in the above figure, 2 photons from 2 hydrogen atoms come close to one another. When time stops and the new time interval starts, sometimes the proton from atom A tries to occupy the position of proton in atom B. This happens because when the new time interval starts and during the uncertainty period, the proton is at all places instantaneously at all points in space in the universe. Then it remembers its past slowly and tries to get located within the atom A wherein an electron is rotating around it. The conditions surrounding proton in atom B is same as the conditions surrounding proton in atom A. Since the 2 protons are very close to one another, sometimes proton in atom A occupy the position of proton in atom B and sometimes proton in atom B occupy the position of proton in atom A. But soon after that, the respective protons remember its past and try to occupy their original positions in the respective atoms. Nevertheless, a momentum is created for both the protons to come together i.e. the proton in atom A is pushed towards atom B and the proton in atom B is pushed towards atom A. As a result of this extra momentum gained by the protons, 2 atoms overlap and fuse together.

DARK MATTER AND DARK ENERGY ARE THE SAME At the start of the Big Bang, all the matter energy was concentrated in a single node - a tiny point of infinite density. Space and time were separate entities and were not intertwined. When this matter energy became unstable, space and time got intertwined in different ways to make the matter energy stable. A single spacetime node got divided into a very large number of minute spacetime nodes and the matter energy was distributed throughout the minute spacetime nodes. This happened in a very short span of time. The universe of a very small size expanded by an incredible amount and at an exponential rate. In less than 10-30s, the universe grows by a factor of 1030 or even more. This rapid expansion of universe is called inflation. The vast number of spacetime nodes were divided and distributed into 2 different BRANES as follows: Brane 1, space 0 and time 0 13

The Nature of Invisible Spacetime

This is the universe visible to us. Matter of less energy or matter which is less unstable got distributed within the Brane 1 or visible universe Brane 2, wherein space 0 and time = 0. High energetic and very unstable particles which have the tendency to move greater than the speed of light got locked within Brane 2. This could also be called as the invisible universe. These high energetic particles could only occupy position in space but no events within that particle nor among the particles could take place. This is because in Brane 2, the time dimension is 0. Events would occur in Braine 1 or visible universe since the time dimension is active (i.e. t 0) Brane 1, space 0 and time 0 Brane 2, space 0 and time = 0 visible universe invisible universe

The visible universe B1 is the universe in which we live in. The particles of matter in the visible universe combine to form atoms, molecules subsequently stars, galaxies etc. which we see in our universe. Particles in the invisible universe B2 is not visible since the time dimension is 0. If no events happen in the invisible universe then there is no visibility of that universe also. These particles do not interact and they are the same even now since the time it got locked in B2 at the start of inflation.

As shown in the above figure, after 10-43s intervals, time stops and the large number of spacetime nodes becomes 1 single node. Not only the spacetime nodes of the visible universe form a single node, even the spacetime nodes of the invisible universe or B2 combine with the spacetime nodes of B1 to form a single spacetime node. When the new time interval begins after t = 0, particles in both the Branes gets located to their respective positions in space and time. All the particles in both the Branes 14

The Nature of Invisible Spacetime

were at the same point at once but are separated now. As said earlier a force of attraction exerts between the particles. There is a force of attraction between the particles not only in their respective Branes, but also between the particles of both the Brane 1 and Brane 2. This force which tries to resist the separation between the particles is nothing but the gravitational force. Hence, there is gravitational force also between matter in the visible universe and matter in the invisible universe. The matter in the invisible universe is called Dark Matter. Why Dark Matter is Invisible?

As shown in the above figure, matter in the visible universe and matter in the invisible universe are layered upon each other but matter in B2 is invisible. When particle in B1 is travelling at a velocity it spends some of its time in B2. The particle of B1 might occupy a position which is occupied by a matter particle existing in B2. But there is no interaction between particle of B1 and particle in B2. This is because interaction between particles is an event in time. Since the time dimension is zero in B2, no event can occur and henceforth, no interaction exists between particles. Even when a photon comes in contact with a particle in B2, There is no interaction between them. The photon simply passes through particles as if it hasnt encountered any particle. The matter energy in B2 could interact with matter energy in B1 only through the gravitational force. From the observations it is concluded that there is 6 times more dark matter than the normal matter in the universe.

DARK ENERGY: It is concluded that 70% of our universe is made up of dark energy. Dark energy is nothing but the dark matter which leaks to the visible universe from the invisible universe. After t = 0 when the new time interval starts, the dark matter energy leaks into our visible universe. Since the dark matter particle/energy is associated with spacetime node, even the spacetime nodes leak into our visible universe. As soon as the spacetime nodes of the invisible universe enter the visible universe, the time dimension becomes active. Then there would be no difference between the spacetime nodes in the visible universe and the spacetime nodes which leaked from the invisible universe. 15

The Nature of Invisible Spacetime

As a result of this, extra spacetime nodes are being added to our universe, which makes the visible universe become bigger or expand. Since the matter energy in B2 leaks into B1 equally at all points of spacetime in the visible universe, extra spacetime is being added at all points of spacetime equally. As a result of this, the universe expands in all directions. The dark matter attracts normal matter when it is in B2 and the same dark matter when it leaks to B1 Pushes matter apart (i.e. by adding extra space nodes into B1). Dark energy is nothing but Dark Matter which leaks into the visible universe. In the early universe, after the Big Bang, the universe was expanding but the rate of expansion was decelerating. This was because there was a lot more dark matter in B2 and the gravitational attraction between the galaxies in our universe was more. As time progressed more & more dark matter leaked into the visible universe, more and more spacetime nodes got added to the visible universe. The leaking of dark matter into B1 is proportional to the number of spacetime nodes in B1. More the spacetime nodes in B1, more the dark energy. The dark matter concentration in B2 went on deceasing and also the gravitational force between the galaxies went on deceasing. At some point say after 8 billion years, dark energy took over dark matter & hence, the expansion of universe accelerated. The universe keeps on expanding till all the dark matter particles leak to the visible universe and after that the expansion stops. Then there will be no more dark matter left in B2. Also galaxies would disintegrate since there is no dark matter to hold them together. The expansion of the universe stops and all the galaxies in the visible universe would then attract each other gravitationally. They come close to one another and the distance between them decreases since there is no more repulsive force acting between the matter particles. The gravitational pull between them becomes very strong overtime. Within a short span of time all the matter in the visible universe come very close to one another resulting in big crunch, which would eventually lead to singularity. This singularity is nothing but single spacetime node which contains all matter energy of the universe. Now when time stops, the universe is a single spacetime node and even after the new time interval starts, the universe is single spacetime node rather than vast number of spacetime nodes. Then occurs the Big Bang. A new universe is born, expands and contracts and the cycle continues. BACK HOLES AND WORM HOLES When all the fuel burns out in a massive star (3 times more massive than the sun) the star collapses on itself due to the gravitational force, to a single point in spacetime called the singularity. The singularity is a point in spacetime with zero volume and infinite density. However, the volume cannot be zero. At least it should be the size of one spacetime node of length 10-35 m and time 10-43s. When a star collapses on itself due to the gravitational force, all the matter in the star gets compressed into a single point. There is a rip or tear in the spacetime node of the 16

The Nature of Invisible Spacetime

visible universe. All the matter enters the invisible universe through the rip and is accumulated within a single spacetime node of the invisible universe. In Brane 1 all the matter particles of the dying star cannot occupy a single spacetime node. But due to the immense gravitation all the matter tries to come together to one single point. When this happens there is a rip in the spacetime node which transforms all this matter to one of the spacetime nodes in Brane-2 (invisible universe). All the matter of the star can get accumulated within 1 single node of B2 because the time dimension in B2 is zero and there could be no events happening. Henceforth, there are no interactions between the particles even though they all are at the same point in space and time. The only force acting on the particles of matter in B2 is the gravitational force. The density of dark matter particles surrounding the singularity node which connects both the universes will become high over a period of time. More and more matter gets accumulated surrounding the singularly node in B2 and simultaneously more and more matter is accumulated around the Black hole in B1. Since matter in B2 attracts matter in B1 gravitationally matter is accumulated around the singularity node in both the Branes. Over a period of time galaxies are formed around the central Black hole. These black holes at the centre of all the galaxies act as an anchor between the two Branes B1 and B2. These black holes swallow up the surrounding matter and grow in size. The stars get circled around this massive black hole to form galaxies. But this central Black hole is not enough to form galaxies of light years across. Any how this central Black hole would be the centre of the galaxy. The Black hole which forms at first in the local cluster of stars becomes the centre of the galaxy. This black hole would grow in size by swallowing up matter / stars in the vicinity of them. The black holes at the centre of the galaxies we see today are even millions of times more massive than the mass of the sun. To form galaxies of light years across there would be other numerous black holes in the galaxy which all holds the galaxy together like the needle holding 2 sheets of card board as shown in the figure.

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The central big needle is the central massive black hole which is a major contribution for holding the stars together and forming a galaxy. The 2 sheets are the 2 Branes (2 universes). The smaller needles are the smaller black holes which contribute in making the galaxy bigger and bigger. Every Black hole is a single spacetime node which connects both the Branes B1 and B2. Matter gets clumped around these black holes and therefore a galaxy is formed. Also the shapes of the galaxies are based on the number and positions of small black holes within the galaxy. In the following figure, we have a spiral galaxy and an elliptical galaxy.

Galaxy 1 (spiral)

Galaxy 2 (elliptical)

It can be seen that galaxy 1 is not elliptical instead spherical. This is because in the empty space between the spherical arms there are no black holes. As a result of that, the matter could not clump around that region. There is no uniform distribution of black holes. As a result the galaxy is spherical in shape. The galaxy 2 is an elliptical galaxy. The black holes are spread out uniformly throughout the galaxy. Hence, the form and shapes of different galaxies are based on the number and position of black holes within that galaxy.

WORM HOLES: A worm hole is a tunnel through spacetime that connects two different points. If the wormhole is traversable it acts as shortcut through spacetime. Distances which stretch over light years could be travelled within an instant through the wormhole. A worm hole is a mathematical solution to Einsteins relativistic equation for gravity in which 2 parts of spacetime may be joined together. But even though the idea of worm holes is theoretical, there could be only one possible principle based on which a wormhole works i.e. discrete spacetime. As seen earlier, time is not continuous. It stops and starts every 10-43 s. interval. Since one single spacetime node becomes a large number of spacetime nodes all the spacetime nodes are connected. Each and every point of spacetime is connected.

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Every particle or object is equivalent of being in every other place in the universe but this is only in the uncertainty period and after that period all the matter occupies their original positions in spacetime. Worm hole is a phenomenon which makes the matter particle to occupy a different position rather than occupying its respective position (original position). When the new time interval starts, even though an object is equivalent of being everywhere in the universe ultimately it should occupy one single position in the spacetime. Wormhole does not create a tunnel through different points in spacetime, it is that it restricts the matter particles to occupy their original position and make matter to occupy a different position altogether.

Principle of Worm Hole: It is known that all the particles of matter has motion and as a result of this, spends a little time in B2 (invisible universe). But when the time stops and a new time interval begins, the particles of matter in B2 belonging to B1 appears back in B1. But if the particles are made to stay within B2 instead of appearing in B1 for one time interval of 10-43 s, the particle would lose information about its past (i.e. information about its position in spacetime and the surrounding conditions) and it could appear in any position in spacetime in Brane 1(visible universe) in the next time interval. A worm hole is actually a spacetime node or a group of spacetime nodes which makes a particle or an object belonging to B1 to stay within B2 even after the new time interval starts. Creating a worm hole is actually making spacetime node in B1 similar to the spacetime node of B2 (i.e. making the time dimension zero.) i.e. in Brane 1, space 0 and time 0 in Brane 2, space 0 and time = 0 Wormhole is a spacetime node where in the time dimension is made zero within the Brane 1( visible universe). Now at the beginning of the new time interval, the objects get back to visible universe from the invisible universe and occupy the spacetime node in the visible universe. Since the time dimension of the spacetime node in B1 the particle is made zero, it is equivalent of being in B2 only and not in B1. As a result of this, the object looses information about its past completely and such an object could be made to appear elsewhere in the universe instantaneously without travelling to that part of the universe.

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The Nature of Invisible Spacetime

VIRTUAL PARTICLES When the new time interval starts, like how the particles of matter does not know its exact location in spacetime immediately, the same way spacetime does not know how much matter / energy it contained till a certain period of time (uncertainty period). Hence, during the uncertainty period, the spacetime might allow as many particles to appear within itself. But at the end of the uncertainty period, when the actual particles of matter belonging to B1 gets located within the respective spacetime nodes, the particles which do not belong to this Brane disappear. Even though those particles which disappear exist for a very short duration, the effects of those particles can be observed. Those particulars are called virtual particles and the observed effects of virtual particles are called casimir effect.

QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT Entanglement is a quantum phenomenon wherein 2 particles become intertwined so that they always share the same properties even if they are repeated by vast distances. When 2 photons are created together they are said to be entangled. When they are fired in opposite direction and after sometime if the polarization of the photon is found at x, instantaneously, the polarization of the other photon will be found at y even though they are separated by vast distances. Similarly, when 2 entangled electrons are separated by a distance and when the spin of one of the electron is measured up, instantaneously the spin of second electron becomes down (this instantaneous communication between the electrons happens faster than the speed of light but anyhow no useful information is transferred). The working of quantum entanglement: As seen earlier after t = 0, and the new time interval starts, the particles of matter tries to occupy their respective positions. The particles are equivalent of being in multiple places. At the end of uncertainty time, only 1 particle with only location is left out. The particle identifies its exact location by remembering its past conditions. During the uncertainty period even though there are multiple copies of the same particle, the surrounding conditions of the particle is valid in only one place. We can take the following example: A photon is split into 2 identical photons of half the frequency of the original photon using a BBO crystal. These 2 photons are in a state of quantum super position i.e. the 2 photons are entangled. Either of the photon can be of clockwise spin or anticlockwise spin. Only when a measurement is made it causes one of the photons to take a definite spin. As soon as this happens, the other entangled pair will take the opposite value of spin.

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The Nature of Invisible Spacetime

Let say that a photon is split into 2 photons. When the time stops and the new time interval starts, the 2 photons try to occupy their position in spacetime based on the conditions which surrounded the respective photons in the previous time interval. But the 2 photons are identical and emerge from the same photon. Even after the uncertainty period the photons, instead of occupying one definite position tries to occupy both the positions.

As shown in the figure above, photon A and B are entangled. Lets consider the position of photon A as 1 and the position of photon B as 2. Now at the end of uncertainty period, Photon A could occupy both the positions 1 & 2 and the Photon B could occupy both the positions 2 & 1. The photon doesnt know exactly to which position it belongs to. Since both the photons are identical and were created at the same time, each one of them is equally valid of being in both the positions. But since it could not simultaneously be in both the places, the photon would occupy only 1 single position. Then the entangled pair occupies the remaining position. Again in the next time interval, the photon which earlier occupied position 1 now occupies position 2 and photon which earlier occupied position 2 now occupies position 1. This happens because earlier at the end of uncertainty period when photon A occupies position 1, it will have the tendency to occupy position 2 also. This is because both the positions are valid for the photon. As a result of this, when the next time interval starts photon A remembers its position as 2 & occupies the position 2 but again in this time interval also photon A will be having the tendency to occupy the position 1. In the next time interval, photon A appears at position 1 and this process continues. The same happens for photon B also. So there will be a change in positions of photon A and photon B every 10-43 s interval. Photon A appears in place of photon B and photon B appears in place of photon A. Anyhow, the photons will have different polarizations. Since the position of the photons changes, the polarization also changes at positions 1 and 2. Henceforth, the photons have both the polarizations in both the positions. But when a measurement is made on one of the photons, that photon achieves a definite position and polarization. Hence, the other photons occupy the remaining position and its polarization also becomes definite. From then onwards the photons are not in a state of superposition. From the next time interval onwards the positions of the photons dont get interchanged. This is because when a measurement is made on one of the photons, a distinction arises between the two entangled photons and from then on they are not similar to one another but 2 distinct photons. 21

The Nature of Invisible Spacetime

INTERFERENCE PATTERN IN THE DOUBLE SLIT EXPERIMENT In the double slit experiment, when light is passed through the double slit, the interference pattern occurs. It can be attributed that when light from the source passes through both the slits, waves from both the slits interfere with one another and points where the waves add up will be brighter and the points where the wave cancel each other will be darker resulting in bright and dark fingers. Now the intensity of light is decreased to such an extent that only one photon passes through the apparatus. However, the interference pattern appears. But when single photons are fired one by one so that there are no two photons at a time within the apparatus to interfere with one another, even then the interference pattern occurs. The interference pattern is observed only when the 2 slits are open. The 2 slits are kept open and the individual photons are fired through the slits. After a large number of photons have hit the screen and when the pattern is observed, the resulting pattern is the interference pattern.

But when one of the slits is closed and then the photons are fired at the screen, the interference pattern disappears. Now we find a pattern characteristic of the bullets fired through the slits and not the interference pattern.

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The Nature of Invisible Spacetime

Explanation: Even though the individual photons are fired, still the interference pattern in observed. This interference is the consequence of the uncertainty period. As said earlier time is not continuous. Every 10-43 s interval, time stops and starts. Soon after the new time interval starts particles of matter try to occupy their respective positions. Now coming to the experiment, a photon is fired from the source. Now the photon is at point 1. When time stops and starts again, during the uncertainty period there exists multiple copies of the same photon throughout the universe. The photon does not know its exact location and henceforth, it is everywhere. But after sometime the photon gets to remember its past and tries to locate itself at position 1. But now even at point 2, the conditions are the same as point 1, i.e. surrounding conditions at point 1 are the slits ahead and source behind. Conditions surrounding point 2 is also the same i.e. slits ahead and source behind. Point 2 is the exact mirror copy of point 1. At the end of the uncertainty period, just before the photon is pinpointed to get located at point 1, there is another location i.e. point 2 which is as same as point 1. The photon would not recognize the left and the right direction. It will only remember the conditions which prevailed in the previous time interval. But that tendency to appear at point (1) is very high and hence the photon occupies the point 1. But there is a tendency for the photon to go to point 2. As a result of this tendency a momentum is created for photon towards point 2. As a result of extra momentum gained by the photon at point 1, the photons path is shifted towards point 2 say by an angle as shown in the figure. Now consider photon at point 3. Here again conditions surrounding point 3 and point 4 are the same. At the end of the uncertainty period, the real photon appears at point 3 and its super particle appears at point 4. Again a momentum is created for a photon at point 3 to more towards point 4. The photon path is again shifted by an angle as shown in the figure. From the point of emission from the source and till the screen, the photon passes though a large number of spacetime intervals. At every interval the photons path is disturbed a little and the photons path get shifted towards right where another imaginary particle called the super particle is located. 23

The Nature of Invisible Spacetime

At exactly the slits when the photon is at point 5 and its super particle is at point 6, the photon acquires momentum towards the point 6 which is maximum. The momentum is maximum because when the surrounding conditions are compared between points 1 & 2, 3 & 4, 5 & 6. Points 5 and 6 are higher in similarity when compared to points1 & 2, 3 & 4. The conditions surrounding point 6 when compared to point 5 is very much stronger than the conditions surrounding point 4 when compared to point 3. Hence, there will be a maximum deviation in the photon path at point 5. This deviation of photon path continues till the photon hits the screen. At each interval of spacetime, the path of the photon changes a bit. But the change in angle of the photon varies from point to point and also the angle by which the path of the photon is changed could not be of any value. It can be of only certain values. For example, it could be of only some value say 100, 150, 200 etc but not in between those. As a result of this, the photons location on the screen is not continuous. There will be areas where more photons hit the screen and there will be areas where less or no photons hit the screen which corresponds to light and dark fringes.

WHEELERS DELAYED CHOICE EXPERIMENT This experiment is similar to the double slit experiment but there is a provision wherein the detection screen could be quickly replaced by 2 telescopes which will be tightly focused on the 2 slits. As shown in the figure below, behind the screen there are 2 telescopes (1) & (2). Telescope (1) focuses on slit A and telescope (2) focuses on slit B. Soon after the photon passes the slit, the detection screen is removed and is faced with the telescopes. But now the interference pattern disappears and the results are as if the photons are fired through each of the slits with the other slit closed. As shown in the figure below, the photon travels from the source to the screen. Now in every time interval, at the end of uncertainty period when the photon tries to occupy its position by its remembering its past, there will 24

The Nature of Invisible Spacetime

2 positions which satisfies its past conditions i.e. position C & D. When photon occupies position C, there is a tendency for photon at position C to occupy the position D also. As a result there is a force between position C and D and the direction of photon C is slightly changed. When an n number of time intervals pass by, there will be subsequent change in the direction of the photon. If the distance between the source and the screen is say 0.5m, there will be a total of 1034 time intervals between the source and the screen

This change in direction continues even after the photon passes the slit and it continues till the detection screen and hence, the interference pattern appears. But now after the photon passes the slits, the screen is replaced by the telescopes. Now say the photon is at position E. When the screen is removed the interference pattern disappears. This is because when the new time intervals begin, the surrounding conditions earlier were different from the surrounding conditions at present. Earlier, there were slits at the backside and the detection screen in the front. Now even though the slits are located on backside, upfront the detection screen is replaced by the telescopes. As a result the process of interference is disturbed. Now even though the conditions of photon and its super partner photon at E & F are same i.e. telescopes on either sides and 2 slits behind, the link is broken between the surrounding conditions between previous time interval and the present time interval.

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