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Nuclear Power Plant Unit Olkiluoto 3

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Contents

TVO a world-class nuclear power company Olkiluoto 3 progressive and moderate evolution One unit, many buildings

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n PRIMARY CIRCUIT Reactor pressure vessel and internal structures Reactor core and fuel Reactor operation and control Primary coolant circuit

n SECONDARY CIRCUIT Turbines and generator Condenser

n SEA WATER COOLING SYSTEMS n NUCLEAR SAFETY n WATER CHEMISTRY AND VOLUME CONTROL SYSTEMS n INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL SYSTEMS n ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS n RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING SYSTEMS n TRAINING SIMULATOR Technical data

1. Installation of the steam generator tubes 2. Reactor pressure vessel 3. The construction site in early 2008 4. Steam generator primary head undergoing cladding 5. Feedwater preheaters at level 0 in the turbine plant

Olkiluoto 3

Olkiluoto 3

TVO a world-class nuclear power company

Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) is a Finnish public limited company established in 1969. The operating idea of the company is to produce electricity for its stakeholders at cost price. TVO is the developer, owner and operator of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant. At present, the production of the current nuclear power plant units at Olkiluoto (OL1 and OL2) covers about one sixth of the total electricity consumption in Finland. As the need for electricity production capacity is growing, TVO is now building a third power plant unit, Olkiluoto 3 (OL3), in accordance with a Decision in Principle ratified by Parliament. OL3 will be a unit with an output of approximately 1,600 MWe, which will almost double the production capacity of the Olkiluoto power plant. High level of nuclear power expertise TVO employs about 700 people. Because of the low personnel turnover, many current employees have been involved with the Olkiluoto power plant units from the outset and have thus acquired almost 30 years of experience in running and maintaining a nuclear power plant. This expertise is also being used and further developed in the construction of the OL3 unit. Throughout its existence, TVO has been giving its personnel further training and improving their competence. The development of nuclear technology has been followed for instance by participating in international development programmes for new reactor types. This has kept the company up-to-date with technology and helped maintain active contacts with experts in the field. The companys nuclear expertise has also been enhanced in the upgrading and modernization projects

performed at OL1 and OL2 and in other development and construction projects. Over the years, modernization projects have helped to maintain the safety of the Olkiluoto power plant as well as its production capacity and economy. World-class performance TVOs nuclear expertise is clearly indicated by the high capacity factors of the Olkiluoto plant units, which for years have ranked among the top by international comparison. The capacity factors of OL1 and OL2 have varied between 93% and 98% since the early 1990s. The high capacity factors indicate reliability of operation. This has been made possible by meticulous and proactive planning of annual outages and modifications. Also, the radiation exposure doses of Olkiluoto personnel are among the lowest by international comparison. TVO operating philosophy As a nuclear power company, TVO is committed to a high-level safety culture. Every issue affecting plant safety is treated according to its safety significance and safety has priority in decision-making. High safety and production reliability are the cornerstones of TVOs business. Safety and safety factors always take priority over financial considerations. The vision of TVO is to remain a world leading nuclear power generating company highly valued by the society. To achieve this goal, TVO acts responsibly, proactively and transparently, following the principles of continuous improvement in close cooperation with interest groups.

Olkiluoto 3

Olkiluoto 3 progressive and moderate evolution


Electricity consumption growth is expected to continue in the future. The added capacity brought by OL3 will meet this increased demand and compensate for the decreasing output of ageing power plants. The unit will also, together with the use of renewable energy, promote the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, contribute to the stability and predictability of electricity prices and reduce Finlands dependence on imported electricity. It was on this basis that TVO submitted an application to the Government in November 2000 concerning a Decision in Principle for the building of a new nuclear power plant unit. The Government adopted a Decision in Principle, and Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle on 24 May 2002. The Decision in Principle states that building the new nuclear power plant unit is in the interest of society as a whole. After a call for tenders, in December 2003 TVO took the decision to invest in the construction of a power plant unit with a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with an output of approximately 1,600 MWe at Olkiluoto. The type of the unit is known as a European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR). The unit is being built on a turnkey basis by a consortium formed by AREVA NP and Siemens. AREVA NP is delivering the reactor plant, and Siemens is delivering the turbine plant. Experienced power plant suppliers Both of the principal suppliers are leaders in their respective fields. AREVA NP has delivered the principal components for a total of 100 light-water reactor units 94 pressurized water reactors (PWR) and 6 boiling water reactors (BWR). The most recently commissioned PWR units for which AREVA NP supplied the principal components are Civaux 1 and 2 in France, which went on stream in 1997 and 1999, respectively. AREVA NP also delivered the principal components to units which went on stream in Brazil (Angra 2) and China (Ling Ao 1 and 2) in 2002. Siemens is one of the leading power plant suppliers in the world. The combined output of the power plants delivered by Siemens exceeds 600 GWe. Technology based on solid practical experience OL3 is an evolutionary unit compared with the current power plant units, meaning that its basic design is based on the proven technology of existing power plants. Its development was based on plants commissioned in France (N4) and Germany (Konvoi). Safety features in particular have been developed further. The unit was originally designed to allow for the management of a severe reactor accident (cooling of core melt) and a large aircraft crash (double shell of the reactor containment building).

Germany (Konvoi) Neckarwestheim 2 Isar 2 Emsland France (N4) Chooz 1 Chooz 2 Civaux 1 Civaux 2 1,450 MWe 1,450 MWe 1,450 MWe 1,450 MWe 1996 1997 1997 1999 1,269 MWe 1989 1,400 MWe 1988 1,290 MWe 1988

Olkiluoto 3

Operating principle of a pressurized water reactor (PWR)


A PWR plant has two circuits for heat transfer. Water is kept under high pressure by the pressurizer (1) and circulated by the reactor coolant pumps (2) in the primary circuit (3), which transfers the heat from the reactor (4) to the secondary circuit (5) in the steam generator (7). Reactor power is controlled by control rods (6). The pressure in the secondary circuit is much lower than in the primary circuit, which makes the water in the steam generator boil. The steam from the steam generator makes the turbine (8) rotate. The turbine rotates the coaxially mounted generator (9), generating electricity for the national grid. The steam from the turbine is cooled back to water in the condenser (10) with sea water (11). Condensate water is fed back to the steam generator with feedwater pumps (12), and the warm sea water is pumped back into the sea.

60 years service life In addition to safety, the design of OL3 emphasizes economy in particular. The efficiency rate of the new unit, for instance, is 37% some four percentage points higher than the original efficiency of OL1 and OL2. The design is based on an expected service life of 60 years for the largest structures and components and 30 years for the more easily replaceable structures and components. Allowing in advance for such replacements enables the unit to have an economic service life of at least 60 years. Compared with similar units recently commissioned in Europe, OL3 will have a reactor output about 1% greater and an electricity output about 10% greater. OL3 is being delivered as a turn-key project. TVO has been responsible for site preparation and for the expansion of the infrastructure at Olkiluoto. Site preparation has involved earthmoving, excavation, road building, electrical power supply for the construction site and the building of the tunnels for the cooling water. The actual construction work that is the responsibility of the AREVA NP Siemens consortium began in 2005.

Above: Steel bender installing the steel bars to reinforce the concrete of the base slab. Below: Concreting the inside of the steel liner.

Olkiluoto 3

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A Reactor building 1 Inner and outer containment 24 51 building 2 Reactor building main crane 25 (polar crane) 52 3 Containment heat removal system: sprinklers 26 4 Equipment hatch (large 53 components) 27 5 Refuelling machine 54 6 Steam generator 7 Main steam lines 28 55 8 Main feedwater lines 9 Reactor control rod drives 29 10 Reactor pressure vessel 56 11 Primary circuit reactor coolant 30 pump 57 12 Primary circuit main coolant lines

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system heat exchangers 51 49 14 Core melt spreading area 25 50 54 51 26 51 water 15 Emergency cooling storage 52 (In-containment refueling water 50 26 55 52 27 storage tank, 52 IRWST) 51 16 Intake screens for the cooling 53 51 reactor emergency 27 28 system for 52 56 53 53 cooling and containment heat 54 removal52 system 28 54 53 57 29 54 17 Hydraulic accumulator of the reactor emergency cooling 55 system 53 29 54 58 55 18 pressurizer 30 Primary circuit 55 19 Main steam valves 56 54 valves 30 20 Feedwater 56 55 59 56 safety valve 31 Main steam system 21 57 and relief valve exhaust silencer 55 56 31 60 57 57 division B Safeguard building 1 32

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Olkiluoto 3

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20 27 T 37 46 Concentrate tanks Q 47 Drum storage area 67 42 I Emergency power generating 28 38 21 building R 68 43 48 Emergency diesel generators 29 39 22 J Access building S 69 44 K Office building 30 40 L Turbine building 23 T 49 Moisture separator/reheater 70 45 50 High-pressure feedwater 24 31 41 preheaters 46 51 High-pressure turbine 32 52 Low-pressure 25 turbine 42 53 Condensers 47 54 Cross over lines 26 33 43 55 Generator 48 56 Exciter 27 34 44 57 Feedwater tank 49 50 51 52 28 35 29 36 30 37 45 46 47

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Olkiluoto 3 building responsibilities


AREVA ANPs scope of supplies and services comprises the entire nuclear island which includes the design, procurement and supply of the mechanical and 1 A electrical components and plant 1 A 1 instrumentation and control (I&C) equipment, fuelAfor the first core, A 2 B 1 a simulator and building as well as erection and initial 2 construction B 2 B B 3 C 2 startup.
3 C 3 C 4 D Siemens Power Generations scope of supplies and 4 D services D 5 E 4 comprises the entire turbine island with the turbine generator set. 5 E 5 E This includes design, procurement E supply of the electrical and 6 1 F 5 A and 6 F F mechanical components, the turbine F I&C6equipment and building 7 2 G 6 B 1 G and initial construction as wellAas7erection 7 startup. G 1 A 2 8 B 2 B 1 A TVO as owner is responsible for the licensing process and is H 9 C 4 I 8 D 3 9 I 9 I responsible for site infrastructure 3 2 B andCexcavation, grid connection 9 I 10 J 5 E 4 D and some auxiliary buildings. 10 J J 4 D 10 5 6 7 11 E 1 12 1 F 2 13 2 G 3 14 H 3 A 4 15 4 BI A 5 1 16 1 J 5 B C A 6 2 17 2 K 6 C D B 7 3 18 3 L 7 D E A C 8 4 19 4 8 M E F B D 9 5 20 5 9 N F G C E 10 6 6 O 10 21 G H D F 11 7 7 P 22 H 11 E I G 12 8 8 23 Q I J 12 F H 13 9 9 24 J R 13 G K I 14 10 10 25 S 14 K H J L 15 11 26 T 11 15 L I M K 16 12 27 12 16 M J N L 17 13 28 13 17 N KO M 18 14 29 14 18 O L P N 19 15 30 15 19 P Q M O 20 16 16 20 31R Q N P 21 17 17 32 R S 21 O Q 22 18 3 6 K 10 4 A 5 7 L 11 A 12 5 B 6 8 M 12 B 13 6 C 7 9 N 13 C 14 7 D 8 10 O 14 D 15 E 9 8 A P 15 11 A E 16 F 10 9 B Q 16 12 B F 17 G 10 C 11 R 17 13 G C 18 H 11 D 12 S 18 14 D H 19 I 12 E 13 15 E IT 19 20 J 13 F 14 16 J F 20 21 G K 15 14 17 G 21 K 2215 H L 16 18 H 22 L 23 M 16 I 17 19 I 23 M 2417 N J 18 20 J 24 N 25 O 19 18 K 21 O K 25 26 19 P L 20 22 P L 26 2720 Q M 21 23 M Q 27 28 R 21 N 22 24 N R 28 29 S 22 O 23 25 O S 29 30 T 23 P 24 26 T P 30 31 Q 25 24 27 Q 31 32 R 11 C F J K L D G E H E K F L G M H N I O J P K Q L R M S N T O P Q R S T 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 K L M N O P Q R S T 8 3 H 7 H C G 8 H 4 D 3 C

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30 58 Turbine building main crane


59 Low-pressure feedwater preheater 60 Feedwater pumps 31 61 Low-pressure feedwater preheater M Switchgear building 62 Transformer boxes 32 N Circulating water pump building O Essential service water pump 33 building P Anti-icing pumps 34 Q Auxiliary boiler building 63 Demineralized water storage tanks 64 Auxiliary stand-by transformer 35 65 Unit transformers 66 Auxiliary normal transformers 36 67 Switchyard 68 High-voltage lines

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Olkiluoto 3

The reactor building is surrounded by the fuel building and four independent safeguard building divisions.

Safeguard building division 1

Fuel building

Safeguard building division 2 Safeguard building division 3

Reaktorirakennus

Polttoainerakennus

Safeguard building division 4

Reaktorilaitoksen poikkileikkaus

CONTAINMENT BUILDING (REACTOR BUILDING)

FUEL BUILDING

SAFEGUARD BUILDING DIVISIONS 2 AND 3

SPENT FUEL MAST BRIDGE

STORAGE AREA FOR RPV CLOSURE H.

INCORE INSTRUMENT STORAGE POOL

FUELSTORAGE POOL

TRANSFERTATIONS

SPRAY VALVES

SPRAY LINES SG BLOW DOWN SYSTEM

PIPE DU CT

CVCS CVCS

EBSTANK

VALVE ROOM

VALVE ROOM

PIPE DU CT IRWST

CVCS PUMP EBS PUMP

PIPE DU CT SUMP

SPREADING AREA

Olkiluoto 3

One unit, many buildings

The new OL3 power plant unit is being built to the west of the existing ones. The buildings in the new complex can be roughly divided into three parts: the nuclear island, the turbine island, and auxiliary and support buildings. Nuclear island The principal components of the nuclear island are the reactor containment, the fuel building and safeguard building divisions surrounding it. The reactor primary circuit is housed in a gas-tight and pressure-resistant double-shelled containment building, also known as the reactor building. The fuel building, which houses pools for fresh and spent fuel, is on the south side of the reactor building and is about 50 m long, about 20 m wide and more than 40 m high. In addition to fuel storage, it is connected to workshop areas. Flanking the fuel building are the reactor plant auxiliary building and waste management building; the latter is used for handling low-level waste and intermediate-level waste. The reactor building, fuel building and safeguard building divisions are designed to be able to withstand various types of external hazards such as earthquakes and pressure waves caused by explosions. All these buildings are built on the same base slab. The reactor building, the fuel building and two of the safeguard building divisions are designed to withstand a crash by a large aircraft. Reactor containment building The OL3 reactor unit has a double-shelled containment building in reinforced concrete. The shape of the building was chosen for strength and on the basis of construction technology. The inner

containment is a prestressed cylinder in reinforced concrete with an elliptical cover. It is designed to withstand temperature and pressure loads that may be caused by pipe breaks. The massive outer containment is a cylinder in reinforced concrete that shares the same base slab as the inner containment and protects it against external hazards. This massive double-shell structure is a new safety feature which the earlier power plants do not have. Preventing release of radioactive material in case of an accident sets extreme requirements on the leak-tightness of the containment building, which has an inner liner of steel for this reason. The tightness of the building is closely monitored. Any leaks which occur are arrested between the inner and outer shells of the containment building, then filtered and delayed in the annulus ventilation system before being conveyed to the ventilation stack. Personnel access and material transport to the containment building are managed through special airlocks during normal operation. The airlocks have double-sealed doors at both ends; it is impossible to open both ends of the airlock at the same time. Personnel access is at ground level and on the service floor at about 19 m level. The big equipment hatch on the maintenance platform is used during construction and annual outages for bringing large components and devices into the containment building. The 750-tonne main crane of the reactor building, located above the containment building service floor, can lift the reactor pressure vessel and the four steam generators one at a time. The reactor building has an external diameter of about 57 m, a volume of about 80,000 m3 and a total height excluding underground levels of about 70 m. The ventilation stack is about 100 m high.

Olkiluoto 3

The containment building is designed to withstand a crash by a large airliner or a jet fighter.

Safeguard buildings The OL3 plant unit has parallel redundant safety systems which are physically separated from each other to ensure safe operation under all circumstances. The safety systems are divided into four independent subsystems, each of which is housed in a separate safeguard building division. All four buildings have their own low head and medium head safety injection systems, a residual heat removal system, an intermediate cooling system, a sea water cooling system, and an emergency feedwater system. The electrical and instrumentation and control systems are located on the upper levels of the safeguard building divisions. The control room is located in one of the safeguard building divisions. Buildings 2 and 3 are between the reactor building and the turbine island, and buildings 1 and 4 are on opposite flanks of the reactor building. Each of the buildings is about 30 m long, 20 m wide and 30 m high. The power plant unit has four emergency diesel generators suppling power to the safety systems in case of loss of offsite power. There are also two additional diesel generators, station blackout diesels, independent of the above four. The emergency and station blackout diesel generators ensure that the safety systems have power supply even under abnormal circumstances.

Turbine island The turbine building is almost 100 m long, 60 m wide and 60 m high, including underground levels. Its volume is about 250,000 m3. Adjacent to it are the sea water pumping station and switchgear building. The main transformers and plant transformers are located to the north of the turbine building. Auxiliary and support buildings Beside safeguard building divisions 2 and 3, there is an access building, which contains locker rooms and washrooms, and a monitored accessway to the radiation-controlled area. There is a bridge from the access building to the office building, where radiation-controlled office space is available during annual outages. The power plant area also contains separate buildings for housing diesel generators, the sea water system buildings (mainly underground), and a number of minor support buildings.

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Olkiluoto 3

The tightness of the inner containment is ensured with a steel liner consisting of a bottom head and top head and eight rings between them.

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Primary circuit main components 1 Reactor pressure vessel 2 Main coolant line, hot leg 3 Steam generator 4 Reactor coolant pump 5 Main coolant line, cold leg 6 Pressurizer

2 4 5 1

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Olkiluoto 3

PRIMARY CIRCUIT
Primary circuit

The OL3 primary circuit system consists of four individual loops. It is designed for a service life of 60 years and constructed to withstand the loads caused by every conceivable situation of operation or accident.
Primary circuit main functions In each of the four loops comprising the primary circuit, the coolant leaving the reactor pressure vessel at a temperature of 328C goes through the main coolant line hot legs to the steam generators, where heat is transferred to the secondary circuit. The coolant, its temperature now approximately 296C, is returned by the reactor coolant pump to the reactor through the inlet nozzles. Inside the reactor pressure vessel, the coolant first flows down outside the reactor core. From the bottom of the pressure vessel, the flow is reversed up through the core, where the coolant temperature increases as it passes through the fuel rods and the assemblies formed by them. The pressurizer connected to the primary circuit keeps the pressure in the reactor high enough to prevent the coolant from boiling. Under normal conditions, the circuit is full of water which effectively transfer heat from the reactor core. Connected to one of the four individual loops, the pressurizer is larger in volume compared with the existing power plants so that it can better respond to any pressure transients during operation. This helps smooth pressure spikes and extends the useful life of the main components of the primary circuit. The safety systems are designed so that in abnormal events they are able to perform a rapid shut-down of the reactor, known as a reactor scram. This ensures that the reactor releases as little energy as possible while also helping reduce pressure with maximum efficiency and keeping the actuation of the safety valves to a minimum.

Reactor cooling system properties Reactor thermal power Primary circuit flow Primary coolant flow per loop Coolant temperature in the cold leg Coolant temperature in the hot leg Primary circuit design pressure Primary circuit operating pressure Secondary circuit design pressure Main steam pressure under normal conditions Main steam pressure during hot shut-down 4,300 MWth 23,135 kg/s 28,330 m3/h 296C 328C 176 bar 155 bar 100 bar 78 bar 90 bar
kuva: Areva

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PWR Properties of the reactor pressure vessel and its inner structures

Reactor pressure vessel Design pressure Design temperature Life time (capacity factor 90%) Inside diameter (under cladding) Wall thickness (under cladding) Bottom wall thickness Height with closure head Base material Cladding material Mass with closure head End of life fluence level (E > 1 MeV) - design value - expected value Base material final RTNDT (final ductile-brittle transition temperature) Closure head Wall thickness Number of penetrations: - control rod mechanisms - dome temperature measurement - instrumentation - coolant level measurement Base material Cladding material Upper inner structures Upper support plate thickness Upper core plate thickness Main material Lower inner structures Lower support plate thickness Lower inner structure material Neutron reflector Material Weight * low-alloy ferrite steel ** austenitic stainless steel

Control Rod Drive Mechanis (CRDM) m 176 bar

Cross-section of reactor pressure vessel and internal structures

351C 60 years 4,885 mm 250 mm 145 mm 12,708 mm 16 MND 5 stainless steel (less than 0.06% cobalt) 526 t 2.65 x 1019 n/cm2 ca. 1 x 1019 n/cm2 ca. 30C 230 mm 89 pcs 1 pcs 16 pcs 4 pcs 16 MND 5* stainless steel (less than 0.06% cobalt) 350 mm 60 mm Z3 CN 18-10 / Z2 CN 19-10** 415 mm Z3 CN 18-10 / Z2 CN 19-10** Z2 CN 19-10** 90 t

Control rod drive mechanism

Reactor level measurement probe

Reactor pressure vessel head

Control rod guide assembly Core barrel Coolant inlet nozzle Coolant outlet nozzle

Pressure vessel shell

Control assembly

Core support grid

Fuel assembly

Flow distribution plate

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Olkiluoto 3

Reactor pressure vessel and internal structures

Primary circuit

Pressure vessel structures include the control rod guide The reactor pressure vessel contains the thimbles, whose fastenings and beams are reactor core. Both the pressure vessel and fixed to the control rod support plate and the vessel head are made of forged ferrite the upper core support plate. steel. They are also clad with stainless steel Core barrel on the inside to prevent corrosion. The pressure vessel is supported by The flange of the core barrel rests on the beams which rest on the support ring in machined flange of the pressure vessel, the top part of the reactor cavity, under and is kept in place by a large spring. The the eight primary circuit pipes. The vessel fuel assemblies rest on a perforated core head is fastened with bolts and a sealing support plate, made of forged stainless Reactor pressure vessel upper inner gasket. steel and welded to the core barrel. Each structures (Chooz 1, France). To manufacture the reactor with as few fuel assembly is positioned by two pins welding seams as possible, the flange and 180 apart. nozzle area of the pressure vessel is forged Neutron reflector (heavy reflector) from a single piece of metal. There are no welding seams between the flange and the nozzles. Combined with the There is a steel neutron reflector, heavy reflector, around structure of the nozzles, this ensures that there is a conthe polygonal core, between the core and the cylindrical siderable distance and a large volume of water between core barrel. The reflector reduces the number of neutrons the nozzles and the top of the core. This minimizes the escaping from the core and flattens the power distribuexposure of the structures to neutron radiation. tion. It also reduces the exposure of the pressure vessel to the neutron radiation that reduces ductility in its mateInternal structures rial, and also dampens any pressure spikes which the inThe internal structures of the reactor pressure vessel supternal structures and fuel in the reactor might be exposed port the fuel assemblies in the core, enabling the reactivto in case of pipe break. ity of the core to be controlled by the control rods and The heavy reflector consists of pieces of stainless steel the fuel to be cooled with water under all circumstances. piled up and linked together. The tie rods bolted to the The inner structures are partly removed during refuelling core support plate keep the pieces in place axially. The and can be completely removed for an inspection of the heat generated in the steel by gamma radiation is abinner wall of the pressure vessel. sorbed by the primary coolant flowing through cooling The pressure vessel also contains upper internal strucducts in the reflector. tures, whose function is to support the top of the fuel assemblies and to keep them correctly aligned axially. These

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Initial core loading

In-core instrumentation

High enriched assembly with gadolinium

Reactor core properties Reactor thermal power Operating pressure Primary coolant temperature in the inlet Primary coolant temperature in the outlet Equivalent diameter Active core height Number of fuel assemblies Number of fuel rods Average linear heat rate 4,300 MWth 155 bar 296C 329C 3,767 mm 4,200 mm 241 pcs 63,865 pcs 156.1 W/cm

12 lance yokes, each comprising: 3 core outlet temperature sensors 6 in-core neutron flux detectors 3-4 aeroball probes 89 control assemblies 4 water level probes core external neutron flux measurements TC temperature measurement

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Core instrumentation

Medium enriched assembly with gadolinium

Aeroball system (neutron flux measurement calibration system)

Low enriched assembly without gadolinium

TC

Reactor core and fuel


Primary circuit

The OL3 reactor core consists of 241 fuel assemblies identical in structure. For the initial core loading, the assemblies are divided into three groups according to their enrichment level. The two groups with the highest levels of 235U also contain gadolinium, which acts as a neutron absorber and thus reduces the reactivity of the initial phase of the reactors operation and flattens the power distribution. The number and properties of the fuel assemblies replaced annually depend on the fuel management plan chosen, particularly the load pattern and the length of the refuelling interval. The refuelling interval of the reactor core can be 12 to 24 months. The primary coolant, due to its composition, is a significant neutron moderator and reflector. The coolant conveys heat from the core at a pressure of approximately 155 bar and a temperature of 312C on average. The primary coolant contains boron, which absorbs some of the neutrons. Adjusting the boron level helps control changes in reactivity that are fairly slow, such as the impact of fuel burn-up. Rapid changes in reactivity and in power

Carrier gas Ball guide tube Shroud Steel balls Active core height

output are controlled using the control assemblies. The main core properties and operational conditions have been selected to achieve a high thermal power and low fuel costs. The OL3 reactor core is also designed to be adaptable to various refuelling intervals and operating situations. Core instrumentation The core power is measured with both internal and external instrumentation. The fixed in-core instrumentation comprises neutron flux and temperature measurements monitoring the distribution of the neutron flux in the core and the temperature distribution in the upper part of the core. Ex-core instrumentation is used for power measurement and also for monitoring core sub-criticality during outages. All the penetrations required for core instrumentation are in the pressure vessel head. The core power distribution is also measured at regular intervals using the aeroball system. The results thus achieved are used for calibrating fixed in-core neutron flux measurement devices.

Ball stop Aeroball system Balls made of a vanadium alloy are fed into 40 narrow tubes from above the reactor and pneumatically propelled to the reactor core through guide tubes in the fuel assemblies. The activation of the balls in one tube is measured at 36 points. The results are used to calibrate the devices used to measure the neutron flux in the reactor core.

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17 x 17 fuel assembly
Top nozzle

Spacer grid

Fuel rod

Fuel properties Fuel uranium dioxide UO2 Fuel assembly type 17 x 17 HTP Number of fuel rods per assembly 265 pcs Number of guide thimbles per assembly 24 pcs Number of spacer grids per assembly 10 pcs Length of fuel assembly 4.8 m Weight of fuel assembly 735 kg Width of fuel assembly 213.5 mm Cladding material M5TM UO2 pellet density 10.45 g/cm3 Fuel discharge burnup 45 MWd/kgU

Bottom nozzle

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Olkiluoto 3

Primary circuit

Fuel assembly Fuel rods A fuel assembly consists of fuel rods, spacA fuel rod is a tube containing compressed er grids and top and bottom nozzles. The ceramic pellets of uranium dioxide (UO2). guide thimbles, spacer grids and the end The rods are welded hermetically leakpieces form the supporting structure of tight and pressurized using helium. The power of the reactor comes from the fisthe assembly. The fuel rods form a 17 x 17 matrix. sion of the uranium in the pellets, mainly Each fuel assembly contains 265 fuel rods, the isotope 235U. The enrichment level of 24 guide thimbles and 10 spacer grids, tied the pellets varies, being just under 5% at together by end pieces at either end. its highest. In some of the fuel rods, the The bottom nozzle is shaped to disfuel pellets are made of an alloy of UO2 The fuel supplier for the tribute coolant flow evently. There is also and Gd2O3, the latter helping to reduce reOL3 reactor is AREVA NP. a debris filter at the lower end to prevent activity and to flatten the power distribuany foreign objects that may end up in the tion in fresh fuel rods. primary circuit from entering the fuel assembly; such obThe cladding tubes of the fuel rods are made of a zirjects could mechanically damage it. The top nozzle has conium alloy. The cladding is the first barrier to the rea leaf spring set on each side to achieve the force with lease of radioactive emissions as it separates the fuel and which the fuel assemblies are kept stationary against the their fissile products from the primary coolant. There is primary coolant flow. space for fission gases within the fuel rod, which reduces The eight middle spacer grids in the fuel assembly are the pressure increase caused by gases released from the made of zirconium alloy. They have flow guides to enuranium pellets in the nuclear reaction. The pellets are hance heat transfer from the fuel rods. The uppermost held in place by a spring inside the top of the fuel rod. and lowermost spacer grids are made of nickel-based alloy because of their higher strength requirements.

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Primary circuit

Fuel handling Fresh fuel assemblies are stored either in the fresh fuel dry storage or in storage racks in the fuel pools where spent assemblies are also stored. During a refuelling outage, some of the spent fuel assemblies in the reactor are replaced with fresh ones. For example, if the reactor is being operated at 12-month cycles, one quarter of fuel is replaced annually. Different kinds of fuel assemblies are placed in the reactor in compliance with the restrictions on the reactor core and fuel use. Fuel assemblies are moved between the reactor and the fuel building through the fuel transfer tube. There is a fuel handling machine in the reactor building and in the fuel building. Core unloading takes about 40 hours in all, and core reloading plus a final core inspection using the camera in the refuelling machine takes about 45 hours. The final inspection is intended to ensure the correct placement of fuel assemblies in the core, following the refuelling plan. The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Euratom and the IAEA all participate in each final inspection to ensure the appropriate handling and safeguard measures of reactor fuel. Spent fuel assemblies that have been in the reactor are kept under water at all times for cooling and radiation protection. Although 1 m of water would be sufficient radiation protection, at Olkiluoto the fuel assemblies are always kept under at least 3 m of water.

Spent fuel assembly handling After being removed from the reactor, spent fuel assemblies are kept in the spent fuel pools in the fuel building for a few years to cool them off. At the same time, the radioactivity of the spent fuel decreases substantially. After sufficient cooling, the spent fuel is transported to an interim storage facility at the power plant site using a spent fuel cask which is docked below the spent fuel pool using a transfer facility. Before placement in the final repository, the spent fuel is kept in interim storage for several decades. During this time, the radioactivity and heat output of the fuel decrease to less than 1/1000 of their original values, making the further handling of the fuel much simpler. The final repository for spent fuel is being built at Olkiluoto by Posiva Oy, a company which is jointly owned by TVO and Fortum Power and Heat Oy, who will also be responsible for its operation. The spent fuel from the nuclear power plant units in Loviisa will also be deposited at Olkiluoto. Final placement will begin in 2020.

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Olkiluoto 3

Primary circuit

Transferring fuel out of and into the core


The refuelling machine lifts a fuel assembly out of the reactor core and transfers it to the transfer container, which is in a vertical position. The transfer mechanism turns the transfer container to a horizontal position and moves it from the reactor building through the transfer tube to the

fuel building. The container is again turned to a vertical position, and the spent fuel mast bridge lifts the fuel assembly out and transfers it to the spent fuel storage rack in the spent fuel pool. Installing new fuel assemblies in the core is performed using the same process in reverse.

Fuel transfer systems in the reactor building and fuel building

Spent fuel mast bridge in the fuel building Refuelling machine in the reactor building

Fuel transfer tube

Fuel assembly transfer mechanism

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Cross-section of control rod drive mechanism


Plug connector

Upper limit position indicator coil

Control rod system properties Rod cluster control assemblies Number 89 pcs Weight 61.7 kg Control rods per assembly 24 Absorber B4C part (upper part) - natural boron 19.9% B10 atoms - specific weight 1.79 g/cm3 - external diameter 8.47 mm - length 1,340 mm AIC part (lower part) - weight composition: silver, indium, cadmium (%) 80,15, 5 - specific weight 10.17 g/cm3 - external diameter 8.65 mm - length 2,900 mm Cladding Material stainless steel Surface treatment (external surface) ion nitrification External diameter 9.68 mm Internal diameter 8.74 mm Filling gas helium Control rod drive mechanisms Number of drive mechanisms 89 pcs Weight 403 kg Lifting power >3,000 N Travel range 4,100 mm Stepping speed 375 mm/min or 750 mm/min Maximum scram time allowed 3.5 sec Materials austenitic and martensitic stainless steel

Drive rod upper final position

Position indicator coil Lower limit position indicator coil

Sheet steel casing Drive rod lower final position

Lifting pole Lift armature

Lifting coil

Gripping armature Gripping latch Gripping latch carrier Holding pole Holding latch carrier Holding armature Holding latch Flange connection Sealing area

Gripping coil

Holding coil

Control rod drive mechanism nozzle

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Olkiluoto 3

Reactor operation and control


Primary circuit

The control assemblies are one system to control the reactor power. In addition to short-term power control, they also flatten vertical power distribution in the reactor core. In the long term, decreasing the boron content helps compensate for the loss of reactivity due to fuel burnup.

Control rod system The control rod system is a part of the reactor power control system. It consists of The individual control rods of the the control assemblies formed with conreactor control assemblies move in trol rods, the control rod drive mechathe guide thimbles in the fuel assemnisms and the control rod drive mechablies. These guide thimbles are also nism operating system. The system is used used for placing instrumentation and for controlling the reactor power and for a neutron sources. reactor scram. The control rods enter the core through guide thimbles in the fuel Control rod drive mechanisms assemblies. The control rod system is governed by the reactor A control rod drive mechanism consists of the pressure control, surveillance and limitation system and manually housing with flange connection, the latch unit, the drive by the control room operators. The reactor scram is trigrod, the coils and their housings. The role of the control gered automatically by the protection system or its backrod drive mechanisms in controlling the reactor is to up system, a hardwired back-up system. An operator may move the 89 control assemblies throughout the length of also trigger the reactor scram manually. the core and to keep them at any location required. Their secondary role is to drop the control assemblies into the Control assemblies reactor, thus stopping the chain reaction and shutting the There are 89 identical control assemblies. Each consists reactor down in a number of seconds, particularly in a of 24 identical absorber rods attached to a single mount. scram situation. When the reactor scram signal is activatThe rods contain materials that absorb neutrons (silver, ed, all operating coils are de-energized, the latches are reindium, cadmium and boron carbide). When the rods tracted from the rod grooves, and the control assemblies are completely inserted into the core, they almost totally drop into the core by force of gravity. cover the active length of the fuel assemblies. The control rod drive mechanisms are installed into The control assemblies are divided into separate conadapters welded to the reactor pressure vessel head. Each trol groups. The majority of them, 53 elements, are in the drive mechanism is a separate entity that can be installed shut-down bank, which executes a rapid shut-down of and removed independently of the others. the reactor, or reactor scram, if necessary. The remaining

36 elements control the temperature of the primary circuit and flatten vertical power distribution in the reactor core. The control assemblies in the control bank are further divided into quadruplets, which are used in various drive sequences and insertion sequences depending on the refuelling interval in progress. The current insertion sequence and control assembly banks can be changed at any time regardless of the current reactor power. The control bank in operation is regularly changed at intervals of about 30 days of power operation. This avoids fuel discharge burnup from affecting the effectiveness of the control and equalizes the burnup.

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Cross-section of steam generator

Steam outlet nozzle

Steam dryer Secondary manway

Steam generator properties Number of steam generators 4 pcs Heat transfer surface per steam generator 7,960 m2 Primary circuit design pressure 176 bar Primary circuit design temperature 351C Secondary circuit design pressure 100 bar Secondary circuit design temperature 311C Heat transfer tube external diameter / wall thickness 19.05 mm / 1.09 mm Number of tubes 5,980 pcs Triangular pitch 27.43 mm Total height 23 m Materials Tubes Inconel 690 alloy, heat treated Shell 18 MND 5* Cladding tube sheet Ni-Cr-Fe alloy Tube support plates 13% Cr-treated stainless steel Other Total weight 500 t Feedwater temperature 230C Main steam moisture content 0.25% Main steam flow 2,443 kg/s Main steam temperature 293C Main steam saturated pressure 78 bar Pressure during hot shut-down 90 bar *low-alloy ferrite steel

Steam separator

Emergency feedwater nozzle

Emergency feedwater ring Feedwater ring Feedwater nozzle

Upper lateral support brackets

Bundle double wrapper

Bundle wrapper

Tube support plates

Tube sheet

Partition plate Tube bundle

Partition plate (primary circuit) Coolant inlet nozzle Coolant outlet nozzle

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Olkiluoto 3

Primary coolant circuit


Primary circuit

Steam generators A steam generator is a heat exchanger which transfers heat from the primary coolant circuit to the water in the secondary circuit. As in a typical heat exchanger, the contents of the primary and secondary circuits never come into direct contact with one another. The steam generator in an EPR power plant unit is of the vertical type. The primary coolant passes through U-shaped tubes in the steam generator. The feedwater of the secondary circuit, which is to be turned into steam, circulates inside the shell of the steam generator. The steam separators and steam dryer at the top of the secondary circuit portion separate the steam from the water. The separated water returns down along the outer shell of the steam generator. The feedwater pipes continously refill the secondary side of the steam generator with water equivalent to the mass of steam fed into the turbine. The axial feedwater preheater enables not only a larger heat exchange area but also a saturation pressure of 78 bar, which is a significant factor in the high efficiency (37%) of the power plant unit. The tubes in the steam generator are made of wear-resistant and corrosion-resistant alloy called

Inconel 690, which has a cobalt content of less than 0.015%. The shell of the steam generator is made of 18 MND 5 steel. The design concept, with the cold feedwater being mixed with only 10% of the warmer recirculated water, ensures a larger temperature differential and hence a more efficient heat transfer. As a result, the main steam pressure of the OL3 steam generator is 3 bar higher per unit of heat exchange area than that of power plant units which the design is based on. The efficiency of the steam generator is achieved through the asymmetrical conveying of feedwater into a discrete channel separated from the walls of the steam generator. In the design of the OL3 steam generators, particular attention was paid to the prevention of cross-flows in the secondary circuit and of the adverse effects caused by thermal layering due to the efficient heat exchange. The steam space has been enlarged, increasing the steam volume. On the other hand, the steam generator also has a higher water volume than in the power plant units upon which the design is based. This improves the safety margin and increases the grace period in a situation where all feedwater systems malfunction and no cooling water is available for feeding into the steam generator.

kuva: Areva

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Cross-section of reactor coolant pump


1. Flywheel 2. Radial bearings 3. Thrust bearing 4. Air cooler 5. Oil cooler 6. Motor (stator) 7. Motor (rotor) 8. Motor shaft 9. Spool piece 10. Pump shaft 11. Shaft seal housings 12. Main flange 13. Seal water injection 14. Thermal barrier 15. Diffuser 16. Impeller 17. Pump casing 18. Outlet nozzle 19. Inlet nozzle

Reactor coolant pump and pipe properties Pump Number of pumps Design pressure Design temperature Primary coolant flow Design head Seal water injection Seal water return Speed Total height Total weight without water and oil Motor Rated power Frequency Main circulation pipes Internal diameter Wall thickness Material Pressurizer connection pipe Internal diameter Thickness Material *low carbon stainless austenitic steel

1 2 3 1 4 2 5 3 6 4 7 5 8 6 9 7 10 8 11 9 12 10 13 11 14 12 15 13 16 14 17 15 18 16 19 17 20 18 21 19 22 20 23 21 24 22 25 23

4 pcs 176 bar 351C 28,330 m3/h 100.2 m 5% 1.8 m3/h 0.680 m3/h 1,465 rpm 9.3 m 112 t 9,000 kW 50 Hz 780 mm 76 mm Z2 CN 19-10* 325.5 mm 40.5 mm Z2 CN 19-10*

1 1 A 1 2 2 B 2 3 3 C4 3 14 A D5 4 25 B E6 5 36 C F7 6 47 D G8 7 E5 8 H 91 8 F6 9 I10 2 9 710 G J 3 10 811 H 11 4 K I912 11 12 5 L13 10 J 12 13 6 M 14 13 11 K 14

1 2

A 1 A A B A 2 B B 1 C B 3 C 1 2 D C 4AD 2 3 E D 5B E 3 4 F E 6C 1F 4 5 G F 7D 2G 5 6 H G 8E 3H 6 7 IA H 9F 4I 7 B 8 J IG 10 5J 8 C 9 JH 6K 11 9K D 10 L I K7 12 L 10 E 11 M J 8 L 13 M 11 F 12 9N M K 14 N 12 G 13 O N10 LO 15 13 H 14 P O M 16 11P 14 I 15 A Q P12 NQ 17 15 J 16 B R Q13 OR 18 16 K 17 C S R14 PS 19 17 L 18 D T S15 QT 20 18 M 19 E T16 R 21 19 N 20 F S 17 22 20 O G 2118 T 23 21 P H 2219 24 22 IQ 2320 25 23 R J 24 26 21 24 S 25 K 27 22 25 T 26 L 28 23 26 27 M 29 24

A1

A B

A B C A D B E C F D G E H F I G J H K I L J M K N L O M P N Q O R P S Q T R S T

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Olkiluoto 3

26 24 27 25 28 26

2 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 41 4 2 3 2 3 52 5 3 4 3 4 63 6 4 5 4 5 74 7 5 6 5 6 85 8 6 7 6 7 96 9 7 8 7 8 10 7 10 8 9 8 9 11 8 11 9 10 9 9 1210 12 10 11 10 11 1310 13 11 12 11 12 1411 7 1 14 N 12 13 15 14 12 12 L 12 13 15 15 15 8 O 14 16 2 13 15 13 13 M 13 14 16 16 16 9 P17 3 14 15 1 16 14 14 N 15 17 1714 10 4 17 Q 15 16 2 18 17 15 15 O 16 18 1815 18 R19 11 5 16 17 3 18 16 16 P 17 19 1916 19 S 12 6 17 18 4 20 19 17 17 Q 18 20 2017 20 T5 13 7 18 19 20 21 18 18 R 18 21 2119 21 14 8 19 20 6 22 19 19 S 21 19 22 2220 22 15 9 20 7 21 23 20 20 T 22 20 23 2321 16 1023 8 21 22 24 23 21 21 21 22 24 24 17 1124 9 22 23 25 24 22 22 22 23 25 25 18 1225 10 23 24 26 25 23 23 23 24 26 26 19 26 25 11 27 1324 26 24 24 24 25 27 27 20 1427 25 26 12 28 27 25 25 25 26 28 28 28 15 21 26 27 13 29 28 26 26 26 27 29 29

B2 A A CA C C3 1A A B B A D B DA D4 2B B C C B E C EB E 5 3C C D D C FA D FC F 6 4D D E E D GB E GD G7 5E E F F E HC F HE H8 6 F F G G F ID F I G I 9 7G G H H G H JE JG J10 8H H I I H I KF KH 11 9 I K I J J II L G L J 10J 12 L J K KH J K M MJ 13 11 K M K L L K NI L NK 14 12 L N AM L MJ L O L OM 15 M O 13 BM N N M N PK PM 16 14 N P CN O O N QL O QN 17 15 O Q DO P P O P RM RO 18 P R 16 EQ P Q P SN P SQ 19 17 Q S FQ R R Q TO R TQ 20 18 R T GR S S R P R S 19 21 S HS T T S Q S T T 22 20 I T T R T 23 21 J S 24 22 K T 25 23 L M N O 26 24 27 25 28 26

Primary circuit

Reactor coolant pump The shaft seal system consists of three The reactor coolant pumps provide forced dynamic seals assembled into a cartridge circulation of water through the reactor and a standstill seal. The first seal is a hycoolant system. This circulation removes drostatically controlled leakage seal, which heat from the reactor core to the steam takes the full primary pressure. The second generators, where it is transferred to the seal is a hydrodynamic seal which receives secondary circuit. In each of the four loops the remaining pressure but can also withof the primary circuit, the reactor coolant stand the entire primary pressure if necespump is located between the steam gensary. The third seal is also hydrodynamic erator outlet and the reactor inlet. and is a backup leak seal. The standstill The reactor coolant pumps have hydroseal ensures that no primary coolant is lost Reactor coolant pump static bearings, which ensure a low vibrain the event of a loss of power or the siat the Jeumont plant in France tion level. The OL3 reactor coolant pumps multaneous malfunction of all shaft seals (N4, 1,500 MWe). have three separate shaft seals and an adwhen the pump is stopped. ditional standstill seal which is operated When the pump is in operation, the by gas pressure. shaft seals are cooled and lubricated with seal injection A reactor coolant pump consists of three main parts: water which is injected below the seals at a pressure the pump itself, the shaft seals and the motor. slightly higher than that of the primary coolant. The third The pump hydraulic cell consists of the impeller, the shaft seal, which is a backup to the first two, receives its diffuser and the suction adapter. The pump shaft is in two cooling water from the demineralized water distribution parts connected by a spool piece which can be removed system. for seal maintenance. The shaft is supported on three The motor is a drip-proof squirrel-cage asyncronous bearings: two oil-lubricated bearings in the motor and motor. A spool piece placed between the pump and the one hydrostatic bearing at the impeller. There is a doublemotor shafts and the shaft seal housing structure enable action thrust bearing at the top of the motor shaft, under maintenance to be carried out on the seal pack without the flywheel, to compensate axial forces. removing the motor.

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Cross-section of pressurizer

Access hatch Venting nozzle Level and temperature measurement nozzle Safety valve nozzle

Convex end

Spray inlet Spray nozzle

Cylinder shells

Pressurizer properties Design pressure Design temperature Total volume Total length Base material Cylindrical shell thickness Number of heaters Total weight, empty Total weight, filled with water Number of safety valves and capacity under design pressure Relief valve capacity under design pressure (doubled for valves) * low-alloy ferrite steel 176 bar 362C 75 m3 14.4 m 18 MND 5* 140 mm 108 150 t 225 t 3 x 300 t/h 1 x 900 t/h
Support plate

Support

Convex end Level and temperature measurement nozzle

Flow distributor Surge line

Heaters

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Olkiluoto 3

Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company,2005-2008 For Evaluation Only.

Primary circuit

Pressurizer The pressurizer contains primary coolant in its lower part and steam in its upper part. The pressurizer is part of the primary circuit and is connected through a surge line to the hot leg of one primary loop. The purpose of the pressurizer is to keep the pressure in the primary circuit within specified limits. The pressure in the primary circuit is controlled by regulating the steam pressure. For this purpose, the pressurizer has heaters in its lower part to produce steam and a spray system in its upper part to condense steam into water. The pressure-relief and safety valves at the top of the pressurizer protect the primary circuit against excessive pressure. There are two parallel pressure-relief lines with valves which the operators can use, in the case of a severe accident, to relieve pressure quickly in the primary circuit: the primary coolant released from the primary circuit is discharged to the pressurizer relief tank, where a rupture disk breaks and releases the coolant into the containment building. There the steam condenses into water, which is collected in the emergency cooling water storage tank at the bottom of the containment building and pumped back into the reactor. The maintenance platform running around the pressurizer facilitates heater replacement and reduces radiation doses during valve maintenance.

All components of the pressurizer shell, except for the heater penetrations, are made of forged ferrite steel with two layers of cladding. The material is the same as in the reactor pressure vessel. The heater penetrations are made of stainless steel and are welded using a corrosion-resistant alloy. The pressurizer supports are welded to its frame. Compared with plants which the design of OL3 is based on, the volume of the pressurizer has been increased in order to smooth the response to operational transients. Main coolant lines The main coolant lines of the four loops that form the primary circuit and the pressurizer surge line are part of the reactor coolant system in the reactor building. The main coolant lines convey the primary coolant from the reactor pressure vessel to the steam generators and onward to the reactor coolant pumps, which return the coolant to the pressure vessel. One of the four loops is connected to the pressurizer. Each of the four loops has three parts: the hot leg from the reactor pressure vessel to the steam generator, the crossover leg from the steam generator to the reactor coolant pump, and the cold leg from the reactor coolant pump to the reactor pressure vessel. The main circulation pipes are made of forged austenitic stainless steel, which is resistant to thermal fatigue and can be inspected using ultrasound.

kuva: Areva

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29

1 Moisture separator reheater (MSR) 2 High-pressure turbine 3 Low-pressure turbine 4 Condenser 5 Generator

1 2 3 1 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 A 2 B 3 C 4 D 5 E 6 F 7 G 8 H 9 I 10 J 11 K 12 L 13 M 14 N 15 O 16 P 17 Q 18 R 19 S 20 T 21 21 22 21 22 23 24 11 K 12 L 13 M 14 N 15 O 16 P 17 Q 18 R 19 S 20 T 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 K L M N O P Q R S 24 T 25 26 M N O P Q R 21 S 22 T 23 1 A 2 B 3 C 4 D 5 E 6 F 7 G 8 H 9 I 10 J 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A B C D E F G H I J A B C D E F G H 11 I 12 J 13 K L 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T

30

20
Olkiluoto 3

SECONDARY CIRCUIT
Secondary circuit

The purpose of the steam-water secondary circuit in the turbine plant is to convert the thermal energy of the main steam entering from the nuclear island into electrical energy through the turbine and generator as efficiently as possible and to return the secondary-circuit feedwater to the steam generators in the reactor plant. There is no radioactivity in the secondary circuit because the water of the primary and secondary circuits are separated from each other.
Main steam system The main steam generated in the steam generators belonging to the primary circuit is fed to the turbine plant through the four main steam lines. The main steam is fed to the high-pressure (HP) turbine through the high pressure turbine stop and control valves located in each main steam line. Every main steam line has a relief train, safety valves and an isolation valve in the event of abnormal operation. The steam is conveyed through the relief system and the safety valves straight into the atmosphere. The exhaust steam from the HP turbine is dried and reheated in the moisture separator reheaters (MSR). The reheating is performed in two stages, using extracted steam from the HP turbine extraction A7 and from the main steam extracted between the HP turbine stop and control valves. From the MSRs, the reheater steam goes through the LP turbine stop and control valves to the three LP turbines. The exhaust steam from the LP turbines is condensed in three separate sea water condenser units. In addition to condensing the steam from the LP turbines, the turbine bypass steam is also condensed in these condenser units. The purpose of the turbine bypass steam system is to control the main steam pressure depending on the power plant operation mode. Main condenser and condensate system There are three condensate extraction pumps (CEP), two pumping the main condensate from the condenser condensate chambers (hot wells) to the feedwater storage tank through the low-pressure feedwater preheating system. The third pump acts as a stand-by pump. The main condensate is preheated in four low-pressure feedwater heating stages to improve the efficiency of the steam-water process. The main condensate system also contains a mechanical condensate purification system for removing impurities. Feedwater system There are four feedwater pumps, three pumping feedwater from the feedwater storage tank through the high pressure feedwater preheating system to the steam generators. The fourth pump acts as a stand-by pump. The feedwater is preheated in three feedwater heating stages in two trains, each train consisting of two high-pressure feedwater preheaters and the reheating stage 2 condensate coolers. The steam is extracted into the high-pressure feedwater preheaters from the HP turbine extractions A7 and A6. From the preheating system, the feedwater is conveyed through the feedwater valves in the safeguard building divisions into the steam generators.

The OL3 LP turbines are doubleflow turbines with running blades attached to blade wheel discs shrunk on to the turbine shaft.

(Source: Siemens)

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Turbine plant main figures General Gross electrical output 1,720 MWe Net electrical output 1,600 MWe Main steam pressure (HP turbine) 75.5 bar Main steam temperature 290C Steam flow 2,443 kg/s Rated speed 1,500 r.p.m. HP turbine 1 LP turbine 3 Last expansion stage - exhaust area 30 m2 - last stage blade (LSB) airfoil length 1,830 mm - overall diameter 6,720 mm Length of turbine-generator rotor train 68 m Condenser Cooling surface 110,000 m2 Cooling medium sea water Cooling water flow 53 m3/s Vacuum at full load 24.7 mbar abs. Sea water temperature rise 12C Feedwater Preheating stages 7 Final feedwater temperature 230C
The HP turbine is a double-flow turbine consisting of inner and outer casing structures split horizontally.

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Olkiluoto 3

Turbines and generator


Secondary circuit

The thermal energy generated in the reactor is converted to mechanical energy by the turbines and then to electricity by the generator. The high 1,600 MWe power output of OL3 is partly due to the high efficiency of the turbine-generator set. The single-shaft turbine-generator set consists of one HP turbine and three LP turbines, a generator and an exciter. Each turbine rotor is mounted on two bearings, i.e. there are double bearings between each turbine module. The rated speed of the turbine-generator is 1,500 r.p.m., and its shaft length is 68 m. The planned service life of the replaceable components of the turbine is 30 years, and the planned service life of the turbine plant as a whole is 60 years.

Turbine bearing structures being installed at the turbine hall floor level. The bearing pedestals are being aligned and installed on the turbine foundation.

LP turbines The three OL3 LP turbines produce approximately 60% of the gross power output of the power plant unit (approximately 320 MWe each). LP turbines are doubleflow reaction turbines consisting of following main components: inner casings outer casings 9 expansion stages, stationary blade and running blade stages (6 stages with shrouded blades and 3 stages as free-standing blades) rotor (forged and machined spindle shaft where shrunk-on fitted forged and machined blade wheel discs)

HP turbine The OL3 HP turbine produces about 40% of the gross power output of the power plant unit (650 MWe). It is a admission double-flow reaction turbine consisting of following main components: inner casing (cast, machined) outer casing (cast, machined) rotor (6.26 m and 100 t, forged and machined) 12 expansion stages, stationary blade and running blade stages The inner and outer casings of the HP turbine are formed with horizontally split inner and outer casing constructions. The inner casing is attached to the outer casing construction. The stationary blades of the HP turbine and the running blade seal strips are attached to the HP turbine inner casing. The shaft seal constructions are attached to the HP turbine outer casing. The HP turbine rotor is machined from the forging. The running blades of the rotor and the stationary blade seal strips are attached to the rotor machined blade and seal strip grooves.

The inner and outer casings of the LP turbines consist of inner and outer casing constructions split horizontally. The inner casing of an LP turbine is attached to the turbine foundation structure, and the outer casing is welded permanently to the condenser construction, which is supported by the base foundation structures. The stationary blades and running blade seal strips are attached to the inner casing structures. The thermal expansion of the outer casing structures is separated from the inner casing and rotor construction of the LP turbines. The LP turbine rotor consists of a through-bored spindle shaft with eight blade wheel discs (four for each flow) shrunk-on fitted. The coupling flanges of the LP turbine rotors are also partly secured to the rotor shaft with a shrink-on fit. The running blades and stationary blade seal strips of the LP turbine are attached to grooves machined in the blade wheel discs. The first six running blade stages are so called drum stages and have blade bands, and the last three blade stages are so called free-standing blades. The exhaust area of the last running blade stage is 30 m2, produced by the 1,830 mm profile length of the last running stage blades (LSB). The stationary blades in the last stage are hollow vane type, and part of moisture of the expanding steam is separated via cuts on the hollow vane before the LSB stage.

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Generator properties Rated speed Frequency Effective power Nominal rating Power factor Voltage Efficiency Magnetization current Cooling water temperature Hydrogen cooling medium temperature 1,500 r.p.m. 50 Hz 1,793 MWel 1,992 MVA 0.9 27 kV 5% ca. 99% 9,471 A 45C 40C
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 A B C D E F G H I J K L M A 5 B 6 C 7 D 8 E 9 F 10 G 11 H 12 I 13 J 14 K 15 L 16 M 17 A B C D E F G H I

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N

1. Water tank J 13 2. Four hydrogen / water heat exchangers 14 K 3. Fan 4. Shaft seals
L 15 16 17 18 19 20 M N O P Q

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Olkiluoto 3

13 14

Secondary circuit

Generator The OL3 generator is a four-pole, hydrogen-cooled generator with a brushless excitation system. The stator winding and the winding terminals are water-cooled.

The rotor windings are cooled using hydrogen, which is conveyed axially through the windings at a pressure of 5 bar. The hydrogen is cooled in the hydrogen/water heat exchangers. The hydrogen circuit inside the generator is powered by a multistage fan mounted on the rotor.

The generator output terminals transfer the electricity generated through the bus duct to the main transformer and onward to the national grid.

The hydrogen-cooled generator rotor rotates at 1,500 r.p.m., weighs 250 t and is almost 17 m long.

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35

Secondary circuit
Construction of cooling water tubes for condenser unit. Sea water chambers in condenser unit installed in place. One sea water chamber for a condenser section weighs about 250 t. There are six of them in total, two for each LP turbine.

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Olkiluoto 3

Condenser
Secondary circuit

The exhaust steam from the LP turbines is condensed into water in the condenser. There is a condenser unit under each LP turbine, divided into two separate sea water chambers. The structural design allows one sea water chamber to be removed and inspected without turbine shut-down. In addition to condensing the exhaust steam from the LP turbines, the condenser receives condensate and gas flows extracted from various process systems. The condenser has a total cooling surface of about 110,000 m2. The tube material used is titanium, which is highly resistant to sea water corrosion. The sea water

used as coolant is fed into the tubes through the water chambers. The temperature rise of the cooling water in the condenser is about 12C. The condenser tubes are cleaned by feeding soft cleaning balls (Taprogge) into the cooling water flow and collecting them once they have passed through the condenser tubes. The condenser must have a sufficient low vacuum in order to increase the power plant effeciency. The vacuum pump system maintains a sufficient vacuum in the condenser by extracting air and uncondensed gases.

Thermal treatment equipment for condenser welding.

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37

A B C D E F G

= = = = = = =

Cooling water systems Service water system Anti-icing system Essential service water piping system Essential service water system pumping station Anti-icing pumps Circulating water

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Olkiluoto 3

SEA WATER COOLING SYSTEMS


Sea water cooling systems

Sea water is conveyed along its own underground cooling water tunnel at a rate of 57 m3/s into the OL3 pump station. Before entering the tunnel, major impurities are filtered out of the sea water with coarse screens. In the pumping station, the water is conveyed through four filtering lines to the sea water pumps. The filtering lines contain a fine screen and a chain basket filter to remove minor impurities from the sea water.

The pumping station contains four sea water pumps, which are vertically mounted in a concrete casing. Each pump conveys about 13 m3/s of sea water to the condensers. To cool the power plant systems, 4 m3/s of the total sea water flow is used. From the condenser, the water goes to a seal pit and then through the outfall tunnel to the sea. The outfall channel is shared with OL1 and OL2.
The cooling water intake tunnel has a cross-section of about 60 m2. The cooling water pumped by the sea water pumps is conveyed into a sea water condenser through the manifold shown below.

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39

The safety system consists of four parallel trains, each capable of performing the required safeguard function on its own. The four parallel trains are located in separate buildings on different sides of the reactor building to eliminate the possibility of simultaneous failure.

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Olkiluoto 3

NUCLEAR SAFETY
Nuclear safety

The general objective is to ensure the safety of the nuclear power plant so that its use causes no radiation risks to the health of employees or of people living in the vicinity, nor any other damage to the environment or property. The general principle is that no radioactive substances must ever be released into the environment.
In case of abnormal operation, OL3 has safety systems consisting of four redundant subsystems, each capable of performing the required safety function on its own. Three functions are a prerequisite to ensure reactor safety under all circumstances: 1. Control of the chain reaction and of the power generated by it. 2. Cooling of the fuel also after the chain reaction has stopped, i.e. removal of residual heat. 3. Isolation of radioactive products from the environment. Reactor safety is based on three protective barriers to prevent radioactive releases and on the defence-in-depth principle. Three protective barriers The concept of three protective barriers refers to a series of strong and leak-tight physical barriers between radioactive products and the environment. The barriers prevent releases of radioactive products in all circumstances.
First barrier Third barrier

The primary circuit is completely enclosed by the leaktight containment with massive concrete walls. The double concrete walls of the OL3 containment are built on a thick base slab, and the inner containment is covered with a leak-tight metal liner. Any one of these barriers is tight enough to ensure that no radioactive materials can be released into the environment. Safety features of OL3 OL3 represents evolutionary technology developed on the basis of the most recent German Konvoi plants and French N4 plants. The operating experience from these plants has been carefully studied and considered for the design of OL3. In the development process, the main focus has been on safety systems and the prevention of severe reactor accidents, as well as minimizing the damage caused by an accident. The design of the safety systems is based on quadruple redundancy of systems. It means that the systems consist of four parallel trains, each capable of performing the required safety task on its own. The four trains are physically separated and located in different parts of the reactor building in independent divisions. Each of the four safeguard building divisions contains a low and medium-pressure emergency cooling system with the closed cooling and essential service water circuits cooling them, the steam generator emergency feedwater system, and the electrical equipment and instrumentation and control systems required for these systems.
3rd barrier

The uranium fuel in which radioactive products are formed is enclosed in a metal fuel rod cladding.
Second barrier

The primary circuit is a closed circuit made of thick steel. The reactor pressure vessel forms part of this circuit. The uranium fuel encased in metal fuel rods is within this vessel in the reactor core.
1st barrier

2nd barrier

Ceramic uranium fuel enclosed in a metal fuel rod cladding

Reactor pressure vessel and primary circuit

Double concrete walls of the gas-tight containment

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41

Nuclear safety Examples of principal safety features of Olkiluoto 3


Double containment (ventilation, filtering) Core melt spreading area Containment heat removal system Emergency cooling water storage tank (In-containment refuelling water storage tank) Safety systems: four-fold redundancy

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Olkiluoto 3

Nuclear safety

The emergency cooling systems take their water from the in-containment emergency cooling water storage tank. The probability of a serious reactor accident has been further reduced compared with earlier power plants by enhancing preventive systems. The OL3 systems have also been further developed to drastically limit the consequences of a severe accident. Safety design All the reactor protection and safety functions required to be instantly activated in an abnormal operating situation or accident are based on automatic systems. This allows for a planning period of 30 minutes for corrective actions by the plant control room. The OL3 safety design is based on the concept that in the event of abnormal operation, the plant will automatically be transferred to a controlled state known as a hot shut-down and further, by manual control, to a stable cold shut-down. The controlled state is achieved by using the emergency feedwater system, the main steam relief train and the primary circuit emergency boron injection system. The level at which the residual heat removal system can operate (30 bar and 180C) is attained by cooling through the secondary circuit and by lowering the pressure in the primary circuit. The emergency cooling or residual heat removal systems are then used to attain cold shut-down. The volumes of the largest reactor components, i.e. the pressure vessel, the steam generators and the pressurizer, have been increased over previous plant designs to slow down the time progression of the reactor transients and to give the operators more time to initiate corrective actions. The large steam volume of the steam generator means that it takes a long time to fill with water from the primary circuit in case of a ruptured heat transfer tube. The steam is conveyed from the damaged steam generator primarily to the condenser through the turbine bypass valves and not straight into atmosphere. When the condenser is not available, environmental releases from any leak between the primary and secondary circuits in the

steam generators are minimized by lowering pressure through the turbine bypass relief valves and automatic isolation of the damaged steam generator. The activation pressure levels of the OL3 emergency cooling systems are lower than the pressure levels that open the steam generator safety valves so that in case of a leak between the primary and secondary circuits, the steam generator safety valves will not be actuated. Emergency core cooling and residual heat removal system The emergency core cooling system consists of low and medium-pressure injection pumps, nitrogen-pressurized pressure accumulators and the in-containment refuelling water storage tank. Under normal use, the system functions as a residual heat removal system when the plant unit is being powered down to a cold shut-down. The system consists of four separate divisions, each of which can independently pump water into the primary circuit using the low and medium-pressure injection pumps. Each subsystem is housed in its own safeguard building division and feeds into a different one of the four loops of the primary circuit. This arrangement ensures sufficient cooling capacity in case of loss of coolant. Emergency boron injection This design concept counteracts the rare event of a failed reactor scram. If the control assemblies fail to drop when the automatic scram conditions are actuated, the reactor coolant pumps stop and the emergency boron injection system, which has two lines and three pumps, starts up. The piston pumps used for emergency boron injection can pump boron-containing water at pressures up to 260 bar. Residual heat removal During normal use or in case of an accident, the excess energy and residual heat produced by the fuel can be transferred through the steam generators to the secondary circuit. The steam generators are provided with water through the feedwater system during normal use and the emergency feedwater system in case of an accident.

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Nuclear safety

The emergency feedwater system consists of four separate parallel subsystems that are independent of each other, each of which feeds water into one of the steam generators. Each injection pump has its own emergency feedwater tank. The tanks and systems are housed in separate compartments in the safeguard building divisions. Residual heat can be removed either through the steam generators to the secondary circuit and then through the condensers to the sea or by release of steam into the outside air through the main steam relief trains. In case of a complete coolant loss in the secondary circuit, pressure in the primary circuit can be lowered by steam discharge into the containment through the pressurizer relief lines or safety valves. In such cases, make-up water is injected into the primary circuit using the low and medium-pressure injection pumps, and the 2,000-tonne in-containment refuelling water storage tank is cooled using an intermediate cooling circuit powered by an emergency diesel generator, or using the independent containment heat removal system. Heat is transferred through the cooling chain formed by the reactor cooling system, the closed cooling water system and essential service water system to the ultimate heat sink. The suction pipes of the safety systems have a guard pipe up to the first isolation valve to prevent water loss in case of a suction pipe break. Essential service water system The essential service water system is a safety system consisting of four physically separated pumping chains housed in the four safeguard building divisions. The system transfers heat from the heat exchangers of the closed cooling water system, which cools the safety systems, to the sea. In addition to the four main chains, the essential service water system has two dedicated pumping chains which form part of the independent heat transfer chain that is used in case of a severe accident.

Preparedness for severe reactor accidents In the design of OL3, a severe reactor accident is addressed: even if the multiple redundant and independent safety systems were all to fail, the impact of the event beyond the power plant site would be minor in terms of both time and range. Situations that would result in a release of any significant amounts of radioactive products into the environment have been virtually eliminated. The integrity of the reactor containment building in case of a core meltdown is ensured with structures that retard the progression of core melt and a passive core melt cooling system. At the bottom of the containment, there is a core melt spreading area consisting of a metal structure (core catcher) covered with a 10 cm layer of sacrificial concrete. The purpose of the catcher is to cool the core melt and to protect the base slab of the reactor building against damage that might lead to leaks. Water circulates in cooling channels under the core melt spreading area, and water will also rise above the core melt. The large area of the core catcher (170 m2) ensures cooling of the core melt. If the reactor pressure vessel fails, the core melt is collected at the bottom of the reactor pit. The transfer of core melt from the reactor pit into the spreading area is initiated as a passive event, with the hot core melt forcing its way through the aluminium plug into the core catcher. The 50 cm layer of sacrificial concrete over the aluminium plug melts into the core melt, delaying the failure of the plug until all the core melt has accumulated in the reactor pit under the pressure vessel. As the core melt enters the spreading area, the cooling system is passively activated. The sacrificial concrete over the core catcher melts into the core melt. Cooling continues as a passive process with water from a tank inside the reactor containment, flowing down by gravity into the channels under the core catcher and onto the core melt. The efficiency of the cooling system is sufficient to solidify the core melt within a few days, after which the post-accident long-term management can begin.

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Olkiluoto 3

Nuclear safety

Core melt cooling system


In the highly unlikely event of a core meltdown at OL3, the core melt is transferred to the core melt spreading area, where it is cooled and solidified.

Spray nozzles

Photo: Areva

Passive flooding device

Containment emergency heat removal system (2 x 100%)

Core melt spreading area

Emergency cooling water storage tank

Melt flooding via cooling device

Water level in case of water injection into spreading area Flow limiter

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Coolant handling system

Letdown

Heat exchanger High-pressure heat exchanger Component cooling water system Low pressure reducing station

Auxiliary spray CCWS

Pressurizer
PRT

Loop 2 Reactor pressure vessel Charging line

Sampling system

Loop 1

Coolant purification
M

Loop 4

Loop 3 Reactor coolant pump seal injection and leak-off system

Coolant degassing

Coolant storage Boron-containing make-up water Make-up water Gaseous waste processing system Volume control tank Emergency cooling water storage tank (IRWST) Gas treatment N2 H2

Emergency cooling water storage tank (IRWST)

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Olkiluoto 3

WATER CHEMISTRY AND VOLUME CONTROL SYSTEMS

Water chemistry and volume control systems

OL3 has a total of about 120 process systems for handling liquid, steam and gas flows. The chemical and volume control system of the reactor plant is an essential one, acting as an interface between the high-pressure primary circuit and the low-pressure systems.
Boron and make-up water system The coolant treatment systems manage The boron in the coolant is enriched with the boron content in the primary circuit regard to one of its two natural isotopes coolant, water chemistry, purification of (B10, ca. 3032% by weight). Its purpose the circulating coolant, injection and conis to compensate for residual reactivity in trol of chemicals, dissolved gases in the the reactor core. The boric acid solution coolant; and the degassing, handling and is stored at a concentration of 4%, which storage of extracted coolant in various corresponds to about 7,000 ppm of boron. situations. The systems are also used for All the solutions required for the plant preparing, storing and injecting the boron systems are made from this storage solusolution needed for various systems in the tion, using pure ion-exchanged water for plant. During outages, the systems ensure The boron content of the make-up diluting. the availability of make-up water needed water added to the primary circuit is in the draining and refilling of the primamonitored with double continuousControlling core reactivity ry circuit. action measurement devices Core reactivity is at its highest at the beThe most important of the coolant that control the automatic ginning of the refuelling interval because treatment systems is the chemical and safety function. of the fresh fuel. When fresh fuel is loaded volume control system, which is directly into the core, all control rod assemblies connected to the regulation of the chemiare inserted, and the primary circuit, the reactor pool and cal and physical properties of the coolant in the primary the transfer pool are filled with a boron solution whose circuit, e.g. its boron content and volume. concentration is about 1,550 ppm. The boron injection The chemical and volume control system also mansystem is always used when the reactor is powered down ages the reactor coolant pump seal injection and leak-off. to a cold shut-down, so as to ensure the sub-critical state The volume control system inlet line is also the source of of the reactor regardless of its temperature. When the recoolant for the pressurizer auxiliary spray system, which actor is powered up, the control rod assemblies are first helps lower pressure in the pressurizer. retracted, after which the boron level rod in the primary Boron is used in OL3 in the form of boric acid discircuit is decreased by diluting until the critical level is solved in water. The boron content of the primary circuit reached. The boron level maintained during use is always coolant is regulated by adding either pure water or boless than 1,200 ppm. ric acid solution to the coolant fed into the circuit, as reSlow changes in power output over the long term quired. The volume of the coolant added to and extracted and the decline in the neutron flux due to fuel discharge from the primary circuit must be consistent with the runburnup are compensated for by lowering the boron level ning situation. gradually until it reaches a level of about 5 ppm just before refuelling.

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Instrumentation & control systems architecture

I&C service centre

Technical support centre

Control room

PICS PICS PICS


Terminal bus

SICS

Plant bus

HBS

PAS

TGI

SAS

PS

RCSL

TXS

PAC
Field instrumentation Switchgear Control Control rods Release Field instrumentation Switchgear

TXP

Functional I & C

Safety instrumentation

SICS PICS RCSL

Safety information and control system Process information and control system Reactor control, surveillance and limitation system

PS SAS PAS PAC

Protection system Safety automation system Process automation system Priority and actuator control

HBS TGI TXS TXP

Hardwired backup systems Turbine-generator instrumentation TeleprmXS protection automation system TeleprmXP automation system

Functional levels of Instrumentation & control system according to the safety concept Process I&C systems
Control plant operations under normal circumstances

Normal operating parameters exceeded

Limitation systems
Correct the state of the plant so that protection systems do not need to be activated

Operating parameters exceed protection system threshold

Normal operating parameters

Protection systems
Initiate the required protection function (reactor scram and protection system control)

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Olkiluoto 3

INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL SYSTEMS

Instrumentation & control systems

Instrumentation & control (I&C) systems consist of measurement devices, control systems and monitoring and surveillance equipment. Monitoring and surveillance equipment is used by the operators to monitor plant operations.
I&C systems of the plant unit are fully automated using tested digital technology, with traditional analogue technology as a backup. The system design of OL3 I&C focuses on safety and flexibility of use. Functions of the instrumentation & control systems The I&C systems follow the defence-in-depth principle, with three functional levels: 1. The process I&C systems maintain the situation of the plant unit within normal operating parameters. 2. If normal parameters are exceeded, the limita tion systems take a corrective action to restore the normal situation. 3. If the operating parameters exceed any of the pro tection system threshold values, the reactor protec tion system automatically initiates the required safety measures (reactor scram and any situation-specific action required). In accordance with the design concept, the protection I&C manages the initial response to any transient or accident so that no operator intervention is required until 30 minutes after the incident. This gives the operators more time to consider corrective actions and to follow the relevant transient or accident instructions. The OL3 protection I&C and the safety systems actuated by it are generally four redundant. During the normal operation, the control room personnel use the workstations and displays in the control room to monitor and control the plant unit. If required, the plant unit can be taken into a controlled safe state from a separate remote shut-down station. Architecture of the instrumentation & control systems Each subsystem in the I&C system (measurements, controls, instrumentation, user interfaces) is classified according to their functional and safety significance, and they are divided according to their roles into levels 0, 1 and 2. The I&C systems consist of the following levels: The process interface (level 0) consists of sensors and switches. The system automation level (level 1) consists of I&C circuits involved in reactor protection, reactor control, surveillance and limitation functions, safety and process automation. Process supervision and control (level 2) consists of the workstations and control panels in the main control room, in the remote shut-down station and in the technical support centre, and also the I&C systems which link the user information to the system-level instrumentation. Safety classification of the instrumentation & control systems The functions and equipment of the I&C systems, just like all other systems, are classified according to their nuclear safety relevance. The equipment used in the I&C systems fulfil the quality requirements required by the respective safety classification. The OL3 I&C systems, their functions and equipment are designed to comply with the general principles of nuclear safety, including physical and functional separation and redundancy. For example, the emergency cooling system and emergency feedwater system, which each consist of four redundant and independent subsystems, also have four redundant and independent control system channels. After the activation of the automatic functions of the protection system, actions by operators are needed. The potential of human error in the control room is reduced through redundant and mutually independent control and protection automation systems and advanced display technology. Also, OL3 is equipped with a separate hardwired backup system, which is independent of the digital I&C system.

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Simplified schematic of the Olkiluoto 3 power plant unit


400 kV 110 kV

Unit transformer

Auxiliary normal transformer

Auxiliary normal transformer

Auxiliary stand-by transformer

G Generator 10kV M Turbine island 690V 400V 690V 400V 10kV M 690V 400V 10kV M 690V 400V 10kV M

Nuclear island

EDG G 10kV M 690V 400V M

RCP 10kV

EDG G M

RCP 10kV

EDG G M

RCP 10kV

EDG G

RCP

M 690V 400V 690V 400V

M 690V 400V

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Olkiluoto 3

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS


Electrical power systems

The electrical power systems have two purposes: to transfer the electricity generated into the external grid and to supply and distribute the electricity needed by the power plant itself. The former function involves the generator busbar, the main transformer and the 400 kV switchyard and power line. The latter function involves the auxiliary unit transformers, medium-voltage switchgear, diesel generators and low-voltage distribution network.
The generator busbars between the gensupplied by the Olkiluoto gas turbine plant. erator and the main transformer are inThe systems are designed to ensure sufdependent, single-phase busbars with ficient capacity for maintaining nuclear earthed metal cladding. The main transsafety even if one division fails and anothformer consists of three single-phase units. er is simultaneously out of operation due The transformer is cooled with oil runto maintenance. ning through the coils, which is cooled by Safety-critical systems are connected to a separate, external water-cooling circuit. backed-up electrical power systems. These The electricity needed by the power are systems that ensure safe reactor shutplant itself is taken from the 400 kV grid down and residual heat removal and prethrough two auxiliary unit transform400 kV power line isolator chain. vent the spreading of radioactivity. ers, which are backed up by an auxiliary In case of the loss of all external power stand-by transformer connected to the supplies, the malfunction of all four diesel 110 kV grid. These two power supplies are generators at once, i.e. the complete loss of all AC power, the independent of one another. plant unit has two smaller diesel generators with an output of The reactor plant electrical power system is divided approximately 3 MVA each. These ensure power supply to into four parallel and physically separated sub-divisions. safety-critical systems even in such a highly exceptional The power supply to equipment critical for the safety of situation. each division is backed up with a 7.8 MVA diesel generator. The busbars of the diesel generators can also be

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Liquid waste handling system schematic


Radioactive waste water collection and storage 3. Evaporation plant Return

2. Centrifuge plant Solid waste Tank sludge Concentrate tank Ion-exchange resin dosing tank

Monitoring tank Pure water outlet Ion-exchange resins from the feedwater purification system

1.

Buffer tank Condensate

Mixing circuit

1. Radioactive water from primary circuit and fuel pools, and decontamination water 2. Low-level radioactive water, e.g. from laundry and washrooms 3. Possibly radioactive water from the steam generator dump valves

Concentrate and resin drying in drums by vacuum heating (drying station)

Gaseous waste handling schematic


Stack Pressure relief station Decay filters Compressor Pressure relief station Gas filter

Gas dryer Coolant degassing system

Recombiner

Cooler

Pre-dryer

Flushing the tanks in the reactor building

Gel dryer

Reduction stations

Flushing the tanks in the auxiliary building and fuel building

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RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING SYSTEMS

Radioactive waste processing systems

Radioactive waste is classified on the basis of its radioactivity and its physical and chemical properties. Each type of waste is processed appropriately. High-level radioactive waste is kept separate from low-level radioactive waste at all times, and there are separate processing lines for different types of solid, liquid and gaseous waste.
Solid waste separate solid particles. Chemicals are H2O H2 O used to enhance the processing, dependSolid reactor waste is divided into lowing on the nature of the waste water. level waste and medium-level waste. LowH2O Biological decomposition using bacteria level waste is mixed waste contaminated can also be used for organic substances. with radioactive material. Such material H2O H 2O The steam from the evaporation process is includes fire-resistant fabrics, plastics, H2O condensed and collected in a monitoring protective clothing, tools and components tank, where it is sampled to ensure that it removed from the system. Compactable H 2O H2O is clean enough to be discharged out of the waste is packed into 200-litre drums, while plant unit. hard materials are separated into pieces The sludges from the storage tanks and and packed into concrete containers. Impurities in the coolant are bound the concentrates from the evaporator are Medium-level waste consists of the into the ion-exchange resins by a packed into 200-litre drums and dried in ion-exchange resins used for cleaning the chemical reaction and thus removed drum driers, where the remaining water process water. This mass is dried and sofrom the circuit. is evaporated by vacuum drying. The relidified into bitumen in 200-litre drums. sulting condensate is returned to the liqBoth low-level and medium-level solid uid waste processing system. Ion-exchange resins used to waste are placed in the final disposal repository which is clean process waters can be mixed with the concentrates located at Olkiluoto shared with OL1 and OL2. and dried at the same time for packing into drums. Liquid waste The filter elements from the mechanical filters in the reactor plant auxiliary systems are packed into 200-litre Radioactive waste water is collected through fixed pipedrums. The drums are placed in interim storage and then lines into liquid waste storage tanks in the radioactive taken to the final disposal repository just like the drums waste processing building. There are separate collecting of solidified medium-level waste. tanks for radioactive water from the primary circuit and Waste oil is measured for radioactivity, packed into related systems, for waste water with low-level radioactiv200-litre drums and transferred to the existing waste oil ity and for possibly radioactive waste water. processing facility used by OL1 and OL2. The processing of liquid waste depends on its composition. A centrifuge and an evaporator are used to
Ion-exchange resin

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Radioactive waste processing systems

Gaseous waste During power operation, the combined Gaseous radioactive waste mostly consists gas volume of the tanks in the system reof the fission gases krypton and xenon mains fairly stable, and it is usually not dissolved in the primary coolant. These, necessary to vent offgas to the ventilation together with hydrogen, oxygen and any stack. The gaseous waste processing sysother dissolved gases, are removed from tem is flushed with nitrogen in a closed the primary coolant in the coolant degascircuit, and the hydrogen and oxygen consing system. Gases are also released into tent of the gases is limited. The radioactive the airspace of the tanks in the systems noble gases remain in the flush circuit and connected to the primary circuit. decay each according to their half-life. In order to minimize gas emissions, the During start-up and shut-down, procOffgases are delayed, filtered and offgas system is based on a semi-enclosed ess actions and events such as nitrogen conveyed from the plant into the circuit. It consists of two parts: the flushflushing of the reactor pressure vessel atmosphere through a 100-metreing unit and the delay unit. The flushing head can cause a substantial gas flow to high ventilation stack. unit is designed to receive gas from the the gaseous waste processing system. The degassing system and to flush tanks where overflow is conveyed from the pressurized gases may be released and to limit their hydrogen conpart of the system through delay beds into the ventilation tent. The delay unit is designed to retain radioactive nostack. The active charcoal filters in the delay beds bind ble gases (xenon, krypton) so as to decay their radioactivthe xenon and krypton until their radioactivity has deity before their release. cayed to an acceptable level. The radioactivity level in the ventilation stack is monitored continuously.

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Olkiluoto 3

Radioactive waste processing systems

Solid plant waste is packed into 200-litre drums.

A special vehicle takes the waste packages to the Olkiluoto disposal repository.

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Olkiluoto 3

TRAINING SIMULATOR
Training simulator

Part of the OL3 power plant supply to TVO will include a full-scope training simulator, which will be completed and ready for use one year before the first fuel loading of the power plant unit. The simulator can replicate exactly the functions of the new unit, and the simulator control room is a full-scale replica of the real one. The simulator will mainly be used for operator training before the power plant unit is started up, and subsequently for annual supplementary training.

Simulator control room being tested in the manufacturers facilities.

The purpose of the training simulator is for personnel to practise all possible events that may occur at the power plant unit, including transients and accidents, and to validate operation, abnormal operation and emergency operation procedures. The plant supplier is responsible for designing and building the simulator together with several well-known suppliers in the field. The simulator and its auxiliary facilities will be housed in a new annexe to be built at the existing TVO training centre.

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Technical data

General Reactor thermal power Electrical power, gross Electrical power, net Efficiency Primary coolant flow Reactor operating pressure Coolant temperature in the reactor pressure vessel, average Coolant temperature in the hot leg Coolant temperature in the cold leg Electricity output per year Sea water flow Service life Building volume Containment volume Containment design pressure Reactor core Number of fuel assemblies Active core height Core diameter Total fuel weight Fuel enrichment level, initial core loading Fuel enrichment level, reloading Fuel consumption per year Fuel consumption per year

4,300 MWth 1,720 MWe 1,600 MWe ca. 37% 23,135 kg/s 155 bar 312C 329C 296C ca. 13 TWh 57 m3/s ca. 60 years 950,000 m3 80,000 m3 5.3 bar

Fuel Fuel Assembly type Fuel rods per assembly Guide thimbles per assembly Spacer grids per assembly Length of fuel assembly Weight of fuel assembly Width of fuel assembly Cladding material UO2 pellet density Fuel discharge burnup Control rods Number of control rods Absorber length: lower part upper part total length Absorber material lower part upper part Pressure vessel Inner diameter Inner height Wall thickness Bottom thickness Thickness of stainless steel cladding Design pressure Design temperature Weight with cover

uranium dioxide UO2 17x17 HTP 265 24 10 4.8 m 735 kg 213.5 mm M5TM 10.45 g/cm3 45 MWd/kgU

89 2,900 mm 1,340 mm 4,717.5 mm silver, indium, cadmium boron carbide

241 4.2 m 3.77 m ca. 128 tU 1.9% 3.3% 235U 1.9% 4.9% 235U ca. 32 tU ca. 60 assemblies

4.9 m 12.3 m 250 mm 145 mm 7.5 mm 176 bar 351C 526 t

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Olkiluoto 3

Turbine plant Turbine generator unit Gross electrical output Main steam pressure Steam temperature Steam flow Rated speed HP turbine LP turbine HP turbine stop and control valves LP turbine stop and control valves Last stage exit annulus area blade length overall diameter Turbine-generator shaft length Condenser Cooling surface Cooling medium Coolant flow Vacuum at full load Temperature rise Feedwater Preheating stages Final feedwater temperature

1 ca. 1,720 MW 75.5 bar 290C 2,443 kg/s 1,500 r.p.m. 1 3 4/4 6/6 30 m2 1,830 mm 6,720 mm 68 m

Generator Nominal rating Power factor, nominal Rated voltage Frequency Rated speed Cooling, stator coils Cooling, rotor Magnetization current Cooling water temperature Hydrogen cooling medium temperature Power supply Main transformer Nominal rating Rated voltage Auxiliary unit transformers Nominal rating Rated voltage Auxiliary standby transformer Nominal rating Rated voltage Emergency power supply Nominal ratings Turbine plant diesel engine Nominal rating

1,992 MVA 0.9 27 kV 5% 50 Hz 1,500 r.p.m. water hydrogen 9,471 A 45C 40C

110,000 m2 sea water 53 m3/s 24.7 mbar 12C

7 230C

3 x 1-phase 3 x 701 MVA 410/27 kV 2 90/45/45 MVA 400/10.5 kV 1 100/50/50 MVA 110/10.5 kV 4XEDG and 2XSBO 4 x 7.8 MVA and 2 x 3.0 MVA 1 1.6 MVA

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Photo: Areva Photo: Areva

1. Ingot of steam generator shell before forging 2. Forging the steam generator shell 3. Closure head of reactor pressure vessel under manufacturing 4. Reactor pressure vessel

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Photo: Areva

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21 11 K 31 22 12 L 32 23 13 M 33 24 14 N 34 25 15 O lkiluoto 3 O 35 26 16 P 36

25 26 27 28

Photo: Areva

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Photo: Areva Photo: Areva Photo: Areva

1. Cladding of the steam generator tubesheet 2. Drilling of the steam generator tube support plate 3. Mounting of the steam generator tube support plate 4. Welding shell and lower head of pressurizer 5. Cladding the pressurizer shell

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Photo: Areva Photo: Areva

Teollisuuden Voima Oyj Olkiluoto FI-27160 EURAJOKI, FINLAND Tel. +358 2 83 811 Fax +358 2 8381 2109 www.tvo.fi Teollisuuden Voima Oyj Tlnkatu 4 FI-00100 HELSINKI, FINLAND Fax +358 9 6180 2570 Teollisuuden Voima Oyj 4 rue de la Presse BE-1000 BRUSSELS, BELGIUM Tel. +32 2 227 1122 Fax +32 2 218 3141
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