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Predictive Direct Control Applied to AC Drives and Active Power Filter


Klemen Drobni c, Student Member, IEEE, Mitja Nemec, Member, IEEE, David Nedeljkovi c, Member, IEEE, and Vanja Ambroi c, Member, IEEE

AbstractThis paper presents different applications of a method called direct control. The previously developed approach has been redened into a generalized form. The method relies on the prediction of either current or ux in discrete-time intervals and, consequently, selects the inverter voltage vector that produces the fastest possible transient. Depending on the task, two possible variants have been developed, offering a compromise between ripple in the controlled variable and switching frequency. A special effort has been made to overcome problems due to various delays (processing time, acquisition, gate driver delay, etc.) in the prediction routine, thus achieving maximum performance. The approach has been upgraded for application in ac drives, which allows additional torque control. The functional versatility of the approach has been demonstrated on different applications of power electronics (active power lter, induction machine, surface-mounted permanent-magnet synchronous machine). All applications have been tested on different laboratory models and have conrmed the validity of the approach. Index TermsAC machines, active lters, predictive control.

I. I NTRODUCTION HE THREE-PHASE voltage-source inverter (VSI) is one of the most common topologies used in power electronics. VSIs can be found in electrical drives, active power lters (APFs), uninterruptible power supplies, etc. The output current is the controlled variable in the majority of applications, whereas modern approaches in ac machine drives control ux and torque. Irrespective of the controlled variable, space vector modulation (SVM) is the preferred control method [1]. Although giving good results, the dynamic response depends on the type of controller, which must be tuned to load and VSI parameters. The other preferred method of control is hysteresis control. This type of control is insensitive to load-parameter variations, gives the fastest transient, and is simple to implement. However, the switching frequency can vary considerably, and output variable has high ripple due to simple modulation. In order to overcome the deciencies of the classical control methods, various modern approaches have been developed [1]. Recently, attention paid to the predictive control gave rise to a considerable array of new and original approaches [2]. A detailed overview of the devised methods as well as its proposed

Manuscript received April 15, 2008; revised February 10, 2009. First published February 27, 2009; current version published June 3, 2009. The authors are with the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia (e-mail: klemen.drobnic@fe.uni-lj.si; mitja.nemec@fe.uni-lj.si; david.nedeljkovic@fe.uni-lj.si; vanja.ambrozic@fe. uni-lj.si). Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TIE.2009.2015749

classication has been recently dealt with in [3]. Using the converter and load models, the path of the controlled variable is predicted. Application of predictive control approaches to an induction machine (IM) drive can be used to improve performance of existing algorithms such as direct torque control (DTC) [4], [5] or to improve dynamic response of a PIcontroller-based approach [6]. The approach, presented in [7], proposes the complete control scheme, utilizing predictive stator-ux control and torque control. In the eld of permanentmagnet synchronous machine (PMSM) drives, predictive control is used either to complement existing approaches based upon DTC or eld orientation control (FOC) [8], [9] or for complete control of the drive [10]. A few applications of predictive control have even been considered for current control in APFs [11][14]. Other elds where predictive control has been employed are as follows: current control in rectiers [15][18], current control in generic three-phase systems [19][23], synchronous-reluctance drives [24], [25], and for passive load only [26]. While predictive control is becoming increasingly popular, it still has some drawbacks that few authors have addressed. Dead-beat approaches very often use SVM voltage modulation, which introduces nonlinearities, due to inverter dead-time effect [12], [14]. Therefore, dead-time controllers must take this effect into consideration in order to improve performance [5], [22]. Another drawback of the predictive control is its complexity, particularly when controlled system is asymmetrical, or even includes saturation, such as synchronous-reluctance drives [24]. The delay between sampling the system variables and actuation is critical in any kind of control but is even more emphasized in predictive-control algorithms. It deteriorates the performance, particularly in applications where the delay time is of the same order as is the sampling interval [19], [26]. Some authors confront this problem using very fast components [9], while others add additional prediction of measured values [17] or implement algorithm for two-step-ahead prediction [9]. Some methods require prediction of more than one available converter states [8], [20], [24], which can be quite timedemanding particularly in multilevel converters [21], while in [7], [11], and [26] and most of the dead-beat-type methods require only one prediction. Since the models of the load and converter are the base for predictive-control algorithm, the estimate of their parameters has to be accurate. This is why predictive methods are sometimes complemented with adaptation routines that monitor these parameters and correct the model accordingly [18], [27][30].

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Fig. 1.

Generic three-phase load connected to three-phase inverter.

This paper summarizes various applications of direct control, already proposed by the authors [7], [11], [31], [32], extending it into a generalized form. Depending on the character of the specic application (APF, IM, and PMSM), direct control takes different forms. Special attention has been paid to the solution of problems arising from various intrinsic delays, which can be easily solved owing to the nature of the method. After the description of the experimental setup, obtained results are shown and discussed. II. D IRECT C ONTROL Direct control [7], [11], [26], [31], [32] is a predictive control method derived specically for an application in a discretetime space, where the sampling interval t is much shorter than the other time constants. As the typical load equations are very similar regardless of the application in this paper (IM and PMSM drives, APF), the basic idea of the direct control will be shown on current control of generic three-phase load connected to the three-phase inverter (Fig. 1), where VDC is the dc-link voltage, R and L are load resistance and inductance, respectively, and E is an optional induced/impressed voltage. From the discretized voltage equation v(n) = L i(n + 1) i(n) + R i(n) + E(n) t (1)
Fig. 2. Comparison between predicted current errors for both direct control approaches (superscripts I and II denote the approach, respectively).

A. Direct Control I In the rst variant of direct control (in this case, direct current controlDCC), only one voltage vector is applied throughout the sampling interval. The predicted current error, if zero voltage vector is applied, adds up to 0 (n + 1) = i (n + 1) i0 (n). (5)

The direction of 0 also dictates the choice of the nearest active voltage vector vx , of the possible six (v1 to v6 ), which should reduce this error as fast as possible. Due to the fact that, usually, the active voltage vector does not coincide with 0 , the predicted current error at the end of sampling interval is I V (n + 1) = 0 (n + 1) vx (n) t . L (6)

the current at the end of the nth sampling interval can be predicted i(n + 1) = i0 (n + 1) + v(n) where i0 (n + 1) = i(n) 1 t R t E(n) . L L (3) t L (2)

In this case, the active vector is impressed for the duration of the whole sampling time interval. By comparing errors 0 and I V , the voltage vector (either zero or the appropriate active one) that will result in lower predicted current error at the end of sampling interval can be selected. A practical criterion, when an active voltage vector should be applied, is [26] 2 VDC t < 0a (n + 1) KV a (n) + 0b (n + 1) KV b (n). 9 (7) Contrary to the methods introduced in [8], [20], [21], and [24], only one prediction (of 0 ) is required; thus, the execution of the algorithm is quite fast. An example, shown in Fig. 2, indicates the current error with superscript I . In this particular case, the magnitude of predicted current error for a zero voltage vector (0 ) is smaller than the magnitude of predicted error for an active voltage vector (I V for v3 ); therefore, a zero voltage vector should be selected.

In a common three-phase inverter, v(n) is limited to eight distinct vectors: six active (v1 to v6 ) and two zero voltage vectors (v0 and v7 ) s1 (n) 2 1 1 KV a (n) 3 3 v(n) = VDC s3 (n) = VDC 3 1 1 0 KV b (n) 3 3 s5 (n) (4) where s1 , s3 , and s5 are the corresponding transistors states (zero or one) and indexes a and b denote vector components in a stationary reference frame.

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Fig. 3. Inuence of sampling, conversion, and calculation time ( active or zero voltage vector).

Fig. 4. Solution to delay-time effect using zero voltage vector ( only active voltage vector).

B. Direct Control II In the second variant of direct control, an active voltage vector is applied only for a subinterval ton within a sampling interval; a zero voltage vector is applied for the remaining time. Thus, the predicted error at the end of sampling interval is II V (n + 1) = 0 (n + 1) vx (n) ton . L (8)

III. S AMPLING AND C ALCULATION D ELAY As it has been already pointed out in [9] and [10], the delay time introduced by sampling, A/D conversion, and algorithm execution deteriorates the performance of predictive methods. At the point of transistors triggering, the value of controlled actual variable differs from the sampled one (Fig. 3). This delay was not considered when initially developing the DCC, leading to nonoptimal operation. The phenomenon is not pronounced when delay time takes only a fraction of a sampling interval (low switching frequencies) [15], [18] or when electrical time constant is large enough, since the current difference during delay time is very small. However, when electrical time constant is small or at high sampling frequencies, where the delay time represents major part of sampling interval, the methods performance is deteriorated [19]. Some authors solve this problem by using faster A/D converters and execute the algorithm with state-of-the-art FPGA circuits [9]. This solution not only adds to the system costs but also just mitigates the symptoms of the delay time. The problem still exists but is expressed at higher sampling frequencies. A proposed solution is to apply a zero voltage vector during delay time (Fig. 4), keeping the change of the controlled

The calculation of the active subinterval ton ton = 9 (0a (n + 1) KV a (n) + 0b (n + 1) KV b (n)) 4VDC (9)

is obtained by minimizing this error. For this DCC approach, minimized current error in Fig. 2 is shown with superscript II , where the active voltage vector v3 is impressed for ton only. As a consequence of modulation of zero and active voltage vector within single sampling interval, switching frequency (unlike with direct control I) is almost constant and independent of the load conditions, which is desired in some applications.

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Fig. 5.

Linear extrapolation in the rst variant of direct control ( active or zero voltage vector).

Fig. 6.

Linear extrapolation in the second variant of direct control ( only active voltage vector).

variable on minimum. This solution is applicable only to passive loads [26] or active loads with low voltage E with regard to dc-link voltage. Another deciency of this solution is that it adds two commutations, thus raising the switching frequency. Therefore, the only application of this method is with the second variant of direct control, which modulates zero and an active voltage vector. Here, the only drawback is minimal duration of a zero voltage vector requested, which equals the delay time. The better solution to the problem is additional prediction, by which the algorithm for the nth sampling interval can be executed prior to the nth sampling instant. While some authors modify the whole converter-load model for two-step-ahead prediction [10], others only add the prediction of the measured value and/or reference value [21]. As it has been shown in [17], linear extrapolation is accurate enough for rst and even higher order systems. Thus, with additional sampling in the middle of the sampling interval, we can predict the value of measured/controlled variable (e.g., current) at the beginning of next sampling interval using the following: iP (n t) = i(n t t) t + 2 i n t 2 i(n t t) . (10)

Figs. 5 and 6 show the application of linear-extrapolation technique to predict the value of current at the beginning of the nth sampling interval. It is important to stress that the modulation scheme for second variant of direct control (Fig. 6) is somewhat changed, as an active voltage vector is applied in the middle of sampling interval. In order to ensure precise prediction, all delay times in transistors triggering line (voltage translation, gate driver delay) must be accounted for. If additional sampling does not occur exactly in the middle of applied voltage vector, linear extrapolation produces inaccurate information iP (n) = i(n) which results in poor control performance. IV. A PPLICATION OF D IRECT C ONTROL A. Application in an APF A conguration of a parallel APF for three-phase three-wire loads is shown in Fig. 7. Current reference for APF (index F ) is calculated from the nonlinear load current (index L) and (11)

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Fig. 7. Parallel APF topology.

Fig. 8.

IM drive using IFC and PTC.

grid voltage (index G) [11]. The voltage equation of a given topology reads as follows: vF = LF di F + R F i F + vG . dt (12)

only by stator ux, the value of the stator current at the end of sampling interval has to be known [7] T el (n + 1) = 3p (S (n + 1) iS (n + 1)) . 2 (16)

For the control of lter current with direct control, the term denoting active part E of generic load in (1) is replaced with grid voltage vG , VDC with VC , and v with vF iF (n + 1) iF (n) + R iF (n) + vG (n). (13) vF (n) = L t As shown in [11], nal expressions for either variant of direct control are simple to calculate. B. Application in IM Drive From the basic torque equation of an electrical machine Tel = 3 p S iS 2 (14)

As it turns out, we can predict the value of stator current using the values at the beginning of the sampling interval and the value of the stator ux at the end of the sampling interval iS (n + 1) = + S (n + 1) LS t S (n) S (n) 1 + j t iS (n) . iS (n) TR LS LS
iS (n)

(17) Owing to the adequate ux control that is performed by IFC, the predicted stator ux at the end of the sampling interval can be presumed to be equal to its reference S (n + 1) S (n + 1). Stator-current prediction from (17) is relatively insensitive to rotor-parameter changes, as the term involving rotor time constant TR is practically negligible. The reference value of the stator-ux magnitude | S (n + 1)| (usually constant, unless operating in the eld-weakening region) is given by the algorithm for rotor-speed evaluation. Using (16) and (17), we can calculate the angle between current iS and reference stator ux S (n + 1) T (n) = arcsin d S = vS R S i S . dt (15)
2 (n + 1) Tel 3p |S (n + 1)| |iS (n)|

it is obvious that, for successful control of electromagnetic torque, we need to have both the stator ux and stator current under control. As generally known, the stator-ux change can be easily controlled through the stator (inverter) voltage after subtracting the usually small resistive drop, which is the basic principle of DTC (e.g., [4], [5], [7])

(18)

This yields the reference stator-ux angle given by = T + i (19)

In order to apply direct-control approach, the equation for predicted current error at the end of sampling interval (5) has to be slightly changed/simplied. The current is exchanged with stator ux S . Thus, the voltage relations are simplied, and the term denoting active part E is omitted. Again, nal expressions for either variant of direct control of stator ux are simple to calculate [7]. This approach of direct control is referred as immediate ux control (IFC). Having stator ux under control is just the rst step. To control the torque generated at the end of sampling interval

where i denotes the angle of iS in stator coordinates [7]. Final control scheme is shown in Fig. 8. With this predictive torque control (PTC), we can calculate, through the stator-current prediction, the reference stator-ux value. With previously described IFC, which is based on direct-control principles, optimal stator-voltage vectors are selected, in order to generate stator ux, which follows its reference with minimal possible error.

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Fig. 9.

PMSM drive using DCC. Fig. 10. Line voltages (vG(1) , vG(2) , vG(1) ) and load currents (il(1) , il(2) , il(3) ) during the load transient (kv = 400 V/div, ki = 50 A/div).

C. Application in PMSM Drive Control of PMSM drive is somewhat simpler as the rotor ux is independent of the stator-current value. Thus, stator current is the preferred control variable. By applying direct-control principles to stator-current control of PMSM, active part of generic load E is substituted with EMF part from stator-voltage equations written in the rotor-eld (dq ) reference frame vd = Ld diSd + R iSd e Lq iSq dt diSq + R iSq + e Ld iSd + e M . vq = Lq dt

(20)

Owing to adequate current control performed by DCC, the predicted current at the end of the sampling interval can be presumed to be equal to its reference i(n + 1) i (n + 1). Therefore, the torque at the end of the sampling interval can be written as Tel (n + 1) = 3 M (n + 1) i q (n + 1). 2 (21)
Fig. 11. Second DCC method: lter currents (iF (1) , iF (2) , iF (3) ), compensated line currents (iG(1) , iG(2) , iG(3) ), and lter capacitor voltage (VC ) during the load transient (kv = 400 V/div, ki = 50 A/div).

Thus, the current reference that will generate the reference torque at the end of the sampling interval can be calculated from i q (n + 1) =
(n + 1) 2 Tel 3 M (n + 1)

i d (n + 1) = 0.

(22)

Fig. 9 shows the control scheme using direct control principles. Reference current values are calculated using (22), and DCC is used for stator current control. V. R ESULTS A. APF The APF with DCC was tested on a laboratory model, built with Semikron SKM75GB123D IGBT modules, and CF = 1000 F, LF = 2.6 mH, and RF = 90 m. During the experiments, the supply grid line-to-neutral voltage VG was 230 V (RMS), and the lter capacitor voltage VC was controlled to 720 V. The process control unit (Fig. 7) is based on a TMS320F2407A DSP controller with six additional fast twochannel AD converters (MAX 1314, conversion time 1.2 s/ 2 channel).

Usually, the lter-current reference is obtained with integrative methods, which can be further improved with prediction of the load current [33] or with repetitive action controller [34][36]. The DSP performs all the calculations for ltercurrent reference determination [11] and lter capacitor voltage control for 256 samples per grid cycle (20 ms); therefore, the sampling interval for these tasks is 78.125 s. Within the halved sampling interval (t = 39.06 s), the DSP samples all the signals, executes the routines for the direct control algorithm, and consequently generates the triggering pulses for the powerstage transistors (T1 T6 ). During the tests, a single-phase thyristor rectier was used as a nonlinear load, being connected between two phase terminals. Thus, unbalanced conditions were simulated as one phase was left unconnected. Compensation results for the lter, controlled by second DCC variant, are shown in Figs. 10 and 11. A fast response of line current to the load transient is obvious as well as its sinusoidal form and symmetrical distribution.

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TABLE I ACTIVE FILTER TRANSISTOR S COMMUTATION FREQUENCY

Fig. 12. Normalized load current (il(1) ) spectrum.

Fig. 14.

Stator ux and torque response of IM with PTC using IFC I.

Fig. 15.

Stator ux and torque response of IM with PTC using IFC II.

B. IM Drive The control of stator ux with direct control was tested with TMS320LF406A DSP [7] on a 3-kW 20-Nm four-pole pair IM. The dc-link voltage was set to 450 V. The sampling interval of the DSP is set to 62.5 s. The acquisition of motor signals, all calculations of internal variables, IFC, and PTC are performed approximately within 17 s, in both cases (both direct-current variants). The stator reference ux is calculated using the torque reference, provided by the speed control loop from the previous sample. In the rst IFC approach, the transistors switching states corresponding to an active or a zero voltage vector are sent to the inverter immediately after this new voltage vector has been determined. On the contrary, with the second IFC method, after the sampling instant, a zero voltage vector is impressed, while the calculation of an active voltage vector and its duration (ton ) is still in progress. Then, in an appropriate instant, the selected active voltage vector is applied until the next sampling instant. The details of start-up transient are shown in Figs. 14 and 15. As shown in Fig. 14, with the rst variant of IFC, stator ux and torque have very fast response, and some ripple is present. With the second variant of IFC (Fig. 15), response is somewhat slower due to the implemented delay-time compensation using zero voltage vector. Nevertheless, as expected, the ux and torque ripple are signicantly reduced at the expense of higher commutation frequency. In Figs. 16 and 17, transient response

Fig. 13. Compared frequency spectra for normalized line current (iG(1) ), obtained with both DCC methods (I and II).

The comparison between two DCC methods can be seen from the current spectra (Figs. 12 and 13). Fig. 12 shows normalized load current spectrum. From normalized line current spectrum (Fig. 13) using rst or second direct-control variant with compensation of delay time, several conclusions can be made. As expected, the second method of direct control yields lower harmonic content. The absolute number of commutations was also recorded in order to compare actual switching frequencies. The number of all commutations of all transistors during the 100-ms load transient was evaluated. In order to avoid any misunderstandings here, commutation frequency of a single transistor is dened as number of all changes (on and off) per second. The results for both control methods are shown in Table I. The advantage in reduced commutation frequency of the rst direct-control variant is evident. Higher commutation frequency for the second direct-control variant has been foreseen, although it does reduce the current ripple signicantly.

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Fig. 18. PMSM torque response using DCC I.

Fig. 16. Rotor speed, stator current, stator ux, and torque of IM with PTC using IFC I during speed reversal. Fig. 19. PMSM torque response using DCC II.

Fig. 17. Rotor speed, stator current, stator ux, and torque of IM with PTC using IFC II during speed reversal. TABLE II IM DRIVE TRANSISTOR S COMMUTATION FREQUENCY

Fig. 20. Rotor speed, stator current, stator ux, and torque of PMSM with using DCC I during startup.

to speed reversal is shown. Again, the rst variant of IFC has considerate current, ux, and torque ripple, which is reduced with second IFC variant. In Figs. 14 and 16, we can see that the rst IFC variant results in very few commutations when rotor speed is low or at standstill. This is because EMF is practically negligible; thus, to achieve reference ux, active voltage vector is selected only during fewer sampling intervals. For majority of sampling intervals, zero voltage vector is selected successively throughout several sampling intervals. As in APF, the number of all commutations during the 80-ms start-up transient was evaluated (Table II). C. PMSM Drive The proposed control algorithm was tested on TMS320F2812 150MIPS DSP. Sampling frequency was set to

40 kHz, thus the sampling interval was 25 s. The algorithm execution time was about 10 s, allowing the sampling interval to be even shorter. The motor under test is of special construction, with very high number of pole pairs (p = 24) and very low inductance (Ld = 30 H, Lq = 24 H), but the dc voltage is 48 V. Accordingly, current and torque ripple are somewhat high. Again, the details of startup transient are shown in Figs. 18 and 19. As shown in Fig. 18, with rst variant of direct control, torque has very fast response, and considerable ripple is present. With the second variant of direct control (Fig. 19), the response is equally fast due to the proper delay-time compensation using linear-extrapolation technique presented before. The torque ripple is signicantly reduced at the expense of higher switching frequency, as expected. Whole start-up transient is shown in Figs. 20 and 21. It is obvious that DCC II results in much lower current and torque ripple. Again, at very low speed, DCC I selects zero voltage vector for more sampling intervals than an active one due to low EMF part with respect to VDC . As in APF and IM drive, the number of all commutations during the 80-ms startup transient was evaluated (Table III).

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Further work in this area will involve the integration of the method to the sensorless drives and diagnostics of the motor (broken rotor bars). R EFERENCES
[1] M. P. Kazmierkowski and L. Malesani, Current control techniques for three-phase voltage-source PWM converters: A survey, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 691703, Oct. 1998. [2] R. Kennel and A. Linder, Predictive control of inverter supplied electrical drives, in Proc. 31st Annu. IEEE PESC, Jun. 2000, vol. 2, pp. 761766. [3] P. Cortes, M. P. Kazmierkowski, R. M. Kennel, D. E. Quevedo, and J. Rodriguez, Predictive control in power electronics and drives, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 43124324, Dec. 2008. [4] V. Ambroi c, G. S. Buja, and R. Menis, Band-constrained technique for direct torque control of induction motor, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 776784, Aug. 2004. [5] J. H. Lee, C. G. Kim, and M. J. Youn, A dead beat type digital controller for the direct torque control of an induction motor, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 739746, Sep. 2002. [6] P. Correa, M. Pacas, and J. Rodrguez, Predictive torque control for inverter-fed induction machines, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 10731079, Apr. 2007. [7] M. Nemec, V. Ambroi c, and D. Nedeljkovi c, Predictive torque control of induction machines using immediate ux control, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 20092017, Aug. 2007. [8] M. Pacas and J. Weber, Predictive direct torque control for PM synchronous machine, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 13501356, Oct. 2005. [9] M. W. Naouar, E. Monmasson, A. A. Naassani, I. S. Belekhodja, and N. Patin, FPGA-based current controller for AC machine drives A review, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 19071925, Aug. 2007. [10] H. T. Moon, H. S. Kim, and M. J. Youn, A discrete-time predictive current control for PMSM, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 464472, Jan. 2003. [11] D. Nedeljkovi c, M. Nemec, and V. Ambroi c, Three-phase parallel active power lter with direct current control, in Proc. EPE-PEMC, Portoro, Slovenia, Aug./Sep. 2006, pp. 16601664. [12] S. Buso, L. Malesani, and P. Mattavelli, Comparison of current control techniques for active lter applications, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 722729, Oct. 1998. [13] S. G. Jeong and M. H. Woo, DSP-based active power lter with predictive current control, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 329 336, Jun. 1997. [14] L. Malesani, P. Mattavelli, and S. Buso, Dead-beat current control for active lters, in Proc. 24th Annu. IEEE IECON, Aug./Sep. 1998, vol. 3, pp. 18591864. [15] P. Zanchetta, D. B. Gerry, V. G. Monopoli, J. C. Clare, and P. W. Wheeler, Predictive current control for multilevel active rectier with reduced switching frequency, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 163 172, Jan. 2008. [16] S. A. Larrinaga, M. A. R. Vidal, E. Oyarbide, and J. R. T. Apraiz, Predictive control strategy for DC/AC converters based on direct power control, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 12611271, Jun. 2007. [17] T. Nussbaumer, M. L. Heldwein, G. Gong, S. D. Round, and J. W. Kolar, Comparison of prediction techniques to compensate time delays caused by digital control of a three-phase buck-type PWM rectier system, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 791799, Feb. 2008. [18] S. J. Jeong and S. H. Song, Improvement of predictive current control performance using online parameter estimation in phase controlled rectier, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 18201825, Sep. 2007. [19] O. Kuker, Discrete-time current control of voltage-fed three phase PWM inverters, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 260269, Mar. 1996. [20] J. Rodrguez, J. Pontt, C. A. Silva, P. Correa, P. Corts, and U. Ammann, Predictive current control of a voltage source inverter, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 495503, Feb. 2007. [21] R. Vargas, P. Corts, U. Ammann, J. Rodrguez, and J. Pontt, Predictive control of a three-phase neutral-point-clamped inverter, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 26972705, Oct. 2007. [22] S. Saggini, W. Stefanutti, E. Tedeschi, and P. Mattavelli, Digital deadbeat control tuning for a dc-dc converters using error correlation, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 15661570, Jul. 2007.

Fig. 21. Rotor speed, stator current, stator ux, and torque of PMSM using DCC II during startup.

TABLE III PMSM DRIVE TRANSISTOR S COMMUTATION FREQUENCY

VI. C ONCLUSION In this paper, a generalized concept of direct control for three-phase systems has been applied to different types of applications involving VSI and microprocessor. Basic equations prove to be simple and very easy to implement regardless of the application. Algorithms are suitable for the realization on different generations of DSP controllers aimed at control of power electronics. In addition, standard units, present in this type of controllers (e.g., for SVM, A/D conversion), can be fully utilized without additional hardware. The method can be split into two possible variants obtaining lower ripple and higher switching frequency and vice-versa. Depending on the targeted application, the same idea could be use to control current or ux (e.g., in electrical machines). An additional predictive method has also been proposed for torque control of electrical drives. A special care has been taken to overcome problems related to inherent dead times due to processing time, measuring, and actual triggering of the power stage. The problems are to be found in all similar prediction methods, particularly when the algorithm execution is restricted to very limited time boundaries. In order to prove the general validity of the proposed predictive control, three different types of applications have been examined: APF, IM, and surface-mounted PMSM. In APF, the method has been tested on a highly nonlinear unbalanced load, exhibiting high dynamics and accuracy, yet with moderate switching frequency. The application in IM could be a possible alternative to FOC with SVM or DTC, showing excellent dynamics. The method has also been tested on a demanding SM PMSM (very high number of poles and very small inductance, battery powered) for electrical scooter, with very encouraging results.

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et al.: PREDICTIVE DIRECT CONTROL APPLIED TO AC DRIVES AND ACTIVE POWER FILTER DROBNIC

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[23] P. Corts, J. Rodrguez, D. E. Quevedo, and C. Silva, Predictive current control strategy with imposed load current spectrum, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 612618, Jan. 2008. [24] R. M. Caporal and M. Pacas, A predictive torque control for the synchronous reluctance machine taking into account the magnetic cross saturation, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 11611167, Apr. 2007. [25] R. Morales-Caporal and M. Pacas, Encoderless predictive direct torque control for synchronous reluctance machines at very low and zero speed, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 44084416, Dec. 2008. [26] V. Ambroi c, R. Fier, and D. Nedeljkovi c, Direct current controlA new current regulation principle, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 495503, Jan. 2003. [27] K. Drobni c, Direct current control with a TMS 320F2808 DSP, M.S. thesis, Univ. Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2007, (in Slovene). [28] Y. A. R. I. Mohamed and E. F. E. Saadany, Robust high bandwidth discrete-time predictive current control with predictive internal modelA unied approach for voltage-source PWM converters, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 126136, Jan. 2008. [29] P. Antoniewicz and M. P. Kazmierkowski, Virtual-ux-based predictive direct power control of AC/DC converters with online inductance estimation, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 43814390, Dec. 2008. [30] J. Weigold and M. Braun, Predictive current control using identication of current ripple, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 4346 4353, Dec. 2008. [31] M. Nemec, Predictive control in three-phase inverter systems, Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2008. in Slovene. [32] M. Nemec, D. Nedeljkovi c, K. Drobni c, and V. Ambroi c, Direct current control of a multi-pole synchronous machine, in Proc. ISIE, Cambridge, U.K., Jun./Jul. 2008, pp. 515519. [33] B. M. Han, B. Y. Bae, and S. J. Ovaska, Reference signal generator for active power lters using improved adaptive predictive lter, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 576584, Apr. 2005. [34] M. Wojciechowski, R. Strzelecki, and G. Benysek, Predictive control system of the shunt active power lter, in Proc. Int. Biennial BEC, Tallin, Estonia, Oct. 2008. CD ROM. [35] G. Modrijan, P. Zajec, J. Nastran, H. Lavri c, and D. Von cina, An improved repetitive action corrector for reduction of steady-state error and nonlinear distortion in power ampliers, Electrotech. Rev., vol. 73, no. 2/3, pp. 111116, 2006. [36] G. Modrijan, M. Petkovek, P. Zajec, and D. Von cina, Precision BH analyser with low THD secondary induced voltage, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 364370, Jan. 2008.

Mitja Nemec (M04) received the B.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia, in 2003 and 2008, respectively. He is currently a Senior Researcher with the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, where his focus is in the area of power electronics and motion control. His main research interests include control of electrical drives, active power lters, and applications of power electronics in the automotive industry.

David Nedeljkovi c (M96) received the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia, in 1991, 1996, and 1998, respectively. In 2001, he was a Guest Scientist at the Institut fr Regelungstechnik, Technische Universitt Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany. He is currently an Assistant Professor and the Vice-Dean for nancial affairs with the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana. His main research interests include active power lters, pulsemagnetizing devices, solid-state power converters, and control of electrical drives.

Klemen Drobni c (S08) received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia, in 2007, where he is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree in the Faculty of Electrical Engineering. His research interests include motor control, predictive control, and power electronics.

Vanja Ambroi c (M92) received the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia, in 1986, 1990, and 1993, respectively. In 1986, he was a Junior Researcher with the Laboratory of Control Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, where he became an Assistant and, then, an Assistant Professor with the Department of Control Engineering and Electromagnetic Energy Conversion. He is currently an Associate Professor with the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana. His main research interests include control of electrical drives and power electronics.

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