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Annotated Bibliography

How does Twitter make fans feel more connected to their athletes unlike ever before?

Christopher Estrada Professor Malcolm Campbell English 1103/Section 011 March 14, 2013

McKnight, Michael. "Twitter Can Be Dangerous for Professional Athletes - More Sports SI.com." Sports Illustrated. N.p., 20 Sept. 2012. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. <http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/2012/more/09/19/twitter-downside/index.html>. In this online web article from Sports Illustrated, the downside of athletes using Twitter is discussed. Throughout, they use several examples of athletes that have gotten into trouble from some of their tweets, like Will Hill and Amare Stoudemire. They discuss how some colleges have hired UDiligence, which reveals an athletes mistweets, which are tweets that they mistakenly made, in order for coaches to tell the player to take it down. They end with discussing the concept of ghost-tweeting. Ghost-tweeting is when you are not tweeting for yourself. This is done for athletes who are prone to diarrhea of the fingertips (McKnight) in order to prevent them from tweeting something they should not.

This article has very good points that it makes through out, with the main one being that athletes need to watch out what they tweet because it can come back to bite them. It has credibility because it appears in a well-known sports magazine, Sports Illustrated. Also, McKnight is a well-known sports writer, and does a lot of research on the pieces that he writes. I could really use the part about ghost-tweeting in my Extended Inquiry Project. I could say that the athlete behind the tweet is not the real athlete. How are fans supposed to feel like they know their favorite athlete, when it is not even them who are tweeting? Overall, the source should be very useful to me.

Patrick Walsh, et al. "Why We Follow: An Examination Of Parasocial Interaction And Fan Motivations For Following Athlete Archetypes On Twitter." International Journal Of Sport Communication 5.4 (2012): 481-502. SPORTDiscus with Full Text. Web. 22 Feb. 2013

In this article from the International Journal of Sport Communication, Patrick Walsh describes a study conducted on the similarities and differences in the follower motivations of social and parasocial athletes. They defined social as one who uses the @ symbol when tweeting about an athlete and parasocial as one that did not include the @ symbol. They took eleven different measures into account when they were conducting the study. This included Amount of Time Spent With the Medium, which had to do with how much time a day you spend on twitter, and Social Attraction, which dealt with why the fan is attracted to the athlete. The results that they found were that, the more social an athlete is on Twitter the more media users may feel as if they are engaged in a normal social relationship with that athlete. (Walsh, 493)

This academic journal article will more than likely appear in my Extended Inquiry Project. The reason for this is I find that it has a very high overall quality because it is a study done by professionals. It is based on formulas instead of opinions, which makes it a very unbiased piece. Patrick Walsh carries credibility because he is at Miami University and works in the Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences. The purpose of it is to find correlations between follower motivations and the type of athlete a person is, whether it be social or parasocial. The audience of it is pretty much anyone who cares to know which types of athletes attracts the most followers and why this may be. It should be very useful to me as I plan on arguing that people feel more connected to their favorite athletes than ever because the athletes tend to me more social. It should support my argument perfectly.

Pegoraro, Ann. "Look Who's Talking--Athletes On Twitter: A Case Study." International Journal Of Sport Communication 3.4 (2010): 501-514. SPORTDiscus with Full Text. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. In this peer-reviewed article from the International Journal of Sport Communication, Ann Pegoraro elaborates on a study done on what exactly athletes are tweeting on Twitter. Researchers found the top five Twitter accounts for athletes and collected their tweets over a seven-day period. They then examined the types of tweet and the content of the tweets. They found that the largest percentage of athlete tweets were direct messages at around forty-six percent of the tweets. But when they examined the tweet content, they found that the overwhelming majority of the tweets were responses to fans. In fact the percentage of tweets responding to fans was over 17% for all sports (Pegoraro, 509)

This article will appear in my Extended Inquiry Project because it goes into more depth as to what type of tweets athletes have. It, like the other sources I have, is very reliable because professionals did the study that was discussed. This article is also peer reviewed so it gains some additional credibility. Ann Pegoraro, the author, is the Associate Director of the Institute for Sport Marketing at Laurentian University in Canada. She has done extensive research on how media makes connections between consumers of sports at all levels. This article should be useful to me because it will support my argument very well. I plan on arguing that fans feel more connected to their favorite athletes thanks to Twitter. If most of the time that the athlete spends on Twitter is for fan response, then fans are more likely to feel more connected to their favorite athlete. This will help back up my argument.

T. Christopher Greenwell, et al. "Understanding Professional Athletes' Use Of Twitter: A Content Analysis Of Athlete Tweets." International Journal Of Sport Communication 3.4 (2010): 454-471. SPORTDiscus with Full Text. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. In this article from the International Journal of Sport Communication, Christopher Greenwell describes a content analysis done on various athletes tweets. They analyzed the accounts of 101 different athletes across many different sports leagues including the National Basketball Association and the National Football League. They then took the twenty most recent tweets from each of the 101 athletes and placed them into six categories based off of content. The categories were interactivity, diversion, information sharing, content, fanship, and promotional. The results of the study came to find that the most common type of tweet an athlete has is interactivity with 34 percent of the tweets. This means that athletes use Twitter most commonly as a medium for direct interpersonal communication with friends and fans. (Greenwell, 481)

This article will appear in my Extended Inquiry Project because it is highly reliable as it comes from a study done by professionals. The study is based off of data that was collected through out the process, which makes it unbiased. Dr. Christopher Greenwell gives the source credibility. He works at University of Louisville in the Department of Health and Sport Sciences and has published scholarly articles in several academic journal like Sport Management Review and Sport Marketing Quarterly .The purpose of this piece was to show what kind of tweet an athlete most commonly has. The article should be useful to me because I am planning to argue that fans feel more connected than ever to their favorite athlete through the usage of Twitter. Since most of the tweets that an athlete has are ones, which interact with fans, it should support my argument very well.