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Unit : 5

Antennas and Wave Propagation

- V. D. Gaikwad

Prepared by Mr. V. D. Gaikwad, Vishwakarma Institute of Technology, Pune.

Antenna : Definition
Antenna is one or more electrical conductors of a specific length that radiate radio waves generated by a transmitter or that collects radio waves at the receiver. Radio wave is an electromagnetic wave. E and H fields are perpendicular to one another.

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Electromagnetic Wave

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EM wave traveling !!!


Animation

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Polarization
The direction of electric field specifies the polarization of the antenna.

Horizontally polarized wave = Electric field is parallel to the


earth

Vertically polarized wave = Electric field is perpendicular to the


earth

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Horizontally Polarized Antenna

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Horizontally Polarized Antenna

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Vertically Polarized Antenna

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Polarization contd

Transmitting and receiving antennas must be of the same polarization for optimum transmission and reception. Vertically polarized wave will produce 0 V in a horizontal antenna and vice-a versa.

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Dipole Antenna
Half-wave dipole - also called doublet - it is a piece of wire or rod that is one

half wavelength long at the operating


frequency

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A Half-Wave Dipole Antenna /2

73 ohm impedance transmission line 75 ohm coax

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Folded Dipole /2

300 ohm impedance transmission line 300 ohm Twin lead

Commonly used for TV and FM radio reception


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Folded Dipole

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Radiation Pattern
A diagram which indicates how well an antenna transmits or receives in the different directions is called radiation pattern of the antenna.

Isotropic antenna Omni directional pattern Yagi antenna Unidirectional pattern

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Uni - Directional Pattern

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Bi-Directional Pattern

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Omni Directional Pattern

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Dipole Antenna

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Conductor bending

+ +


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Conductor bending at 900

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How waves are traveling into the space !!!

Animation 1

Animation 2

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Yagi Antenna
Most common antenna for TV reception Gain = 7 dB Radiation pattern is UNI-DIRECTIONAL Three elements 1. Reflector 2. Director 3. Dipole

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Yagi Antenna

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Design Issues
Reflector Director 5% shorter than dipole distance between dipole and director is 0.15 5% longer than dipole distance between dipole and reflector is 0.2

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Design Issues
Length of Reflector (m) = 152 f (MHz) 143 f (MHz) 137 f (MHz)

Length of Dipole (m)

Length of director

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Design Issues

e.g. For 143 MHz signal, Reflector Length Dipole Length Director Length = = = 1.06 m 1.00 m 0.96 m

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Antenna Parameters

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Antenna Gain Field Intensity Antenna Resistance Bandwidth Beamwidth

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1. Antenna Gain
Directive Gain Ratio of the power density in a particular direction of one antenna to the power density that would be radiated by an omni-directional antenna (isotropic antenna)

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2. Field Intensity
The field intensity (field strength) of an antennas radiation, at a given point in space, is equal to the amount of voltage

induced in a wire antenna 1 m long, located at that given point. Affected by number of conditions such as the time of atmospheric conditions and distance. day,

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3. Radiation Resistance
Radiation resistance is the ratio of the power radiated by the antenna to the square of the current at the feed points. Rrad =

Prad I2

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4. Bandwidth
The range of the frequencies over which the antenna will radiate effectively The antenna will perform satisfactorily throughout this range of frequencies.

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5. Beamwidth
Beamwidth is defined as angles created by comparing the halfpower points (3dB) on the main radiation lobe to its maximum power point.

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