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CHE!4240!
Capstone!!
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Filter!Press!
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Douglas!J.!Martens!
Shauna!Albritton!
Gerrell!Johnson!
Kyle!Kramer!
Stenson!Smith!
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TABLE!OF!CONTENTS!
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1. SAFETY!!
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2. BACKGROUND!
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3. P&ID!
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4. STANDARD!OPERATING!PROCEDURE!(SOP)!
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5. PHARMACEUTICAL!EXAMPLE!EXPERIMENT!!
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6. PUMP!INFORMATION!
a. MAINTANANCE!MANUAL!
b. PUMP!PERFORMACE!CURVE!
c. SERIES!1531!PUMPS!
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SAFETY!
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This!project!required!unlimited!access!to!the!Unit!Operations!Lab!in!Prescott!101.!
Before,!any!members!of!the!team!were!allowed!on!the!site!the!Safety!Officer!
required!a!safetyEtraining!course.!Each!member!had!to!take!four!OSHA!tests,!these!
were!predetermined!tests!that!were!specific!to!the!location,!materials,!and!hazards!
that!the!team!would!be!facing!in!the!lab.!These!tests!are!listed!along!with!the!
reasons!for!requirement:!
!
A. Slips,!Trips,!and!Falls!
a. Our!project!dealt!with!using!a!filter!press,!which!requires!a!great!
deal!of!water!to!run!it.!This!raised!the!probability!that!spills!could!
occur.!The!team!needed!to!be!aware!of!the!risk!and!made!
accountable!for!cleaning!up!spills!if!they!recognized!a!safety!
hazard.!
!
B. Personnel!Protective!Equipment!(PPE)!
a. PPE!is!always!important!no!matter!the!job!site.!In!Unit!Operations!
lab!there!are!always!several!projects!going!on!no!one!person!can!
know!everything!that!is!occurring.!Hard!Hats!and!Safety!glasses!
were!required!at!all!times.!Also,!our!team!dealt!with!two!
chemicals,!antifreeze!and!calcium!carbonate;!in!addition!gloves!
were!sometimes!required.!!
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C. Lab!Safety!
a. This!was!a!general!test!that!was!used!to!insure!that!all!members!of!
the!team!were!briefed!about!basic!etiquette!in!a!lab!environment.!!
!
D. Research!Conservation!and!Recovery!Act!(RCRA)!!Hazardous!Waste!
a. When!the!filter!press!was!out!of!commission,!antifreeze!was!
poured!into!the!centrifugal!pump!to!maintain!it.!We!had!to!drain!
this!out!of!the!system!and!put!it!in!a!holding!tank!to!contain!it.!We!
also!had!to!make!a!plan!to!dispose!of!it!if!necessary.!This!test!made!
us!aware!proper!holding!and!disposal.!
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Background!
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Filter!press!
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Filter!presses!are!sometimes!called!"PlateEandEFrame!Filters"!which!describes!the!
style!of!filters!developed!from!the!1800's!onwards.!The!majority!of!today's!filters!
are!more!correctly!called!"Membrane!Plate!Filters".!
!
Many!processes!in!the!food,!chemical!or!pharmaceutical!industries!make!products!
that!are!liquidEsolid!suspensions!or!slurries.!These!mixtures!are!a!little!like!a!runny!
mud!or!milkEshake.!The!solids!in!them!do!not!dissolve!in!the!liquid!but!are!carried!
along!in!it.!Filter!presses!separate!the!solids!from!the!liquids!so!that!the!useful!part!
can!be!processed!or!packaged.!
!
Filter!presses!generally!work!in!a!"batch"!manner.!They!are!loaded!with!slurry!
before!completing!a!filtering!cycle!and!producing!a!batch!of!solid!filtered!material,!
called!the!filter!"cake".!The!solid!is!removed,!the!press!reEloaded!with!slurry!and!the!
batch!cycle!repeated.!
!
A!filter!press!uses!increased!pressure!to!maximize!the!rate!of!filtration!and!produce!
a!final!solid!with!a!low!water!content.!This!is!more!efficient!than!filtration!using!a!
funnel!and!paper!which!utilizes!the!low!pressure!caused!by!the!weight!of!liquid!
above!the!filter!paper.!
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Filter!press!operation!
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A!filter!press!consists!of!a!series!of!chambers!containing!square!or!rectangular!filter!
plates!supported!in!a!frame.!Once!the!filter!chambers!are!loaded!with!slurry,!the!
plates!are!forced!together!with!hydraulic!rams!that!generate!pressures!typically!in!
the!region!of!100!pounds!per!square!inch!(70,000kg!per!m2).!For!comparison,!a!car!
tire!would!be!inflated!to!around!30!pounds!per!square!inch.!
!
Each!plate!is!covered!by!a!material!or!membrane!that!acts!as!the!initial!filter!when!
the!press!is!in!operation.!As!the!solid!filter!cake!builds!up,!the!cake!adds!to!the!
removal!of!fine!particles.!The!solution!coming!through!the!filter,!called!the!filtrate,!
will!be!very!pure.!If!it!is!not!wanted!the!filtrate!can!be!drained!away!for!safe!
disposal.!
At!the!end!of!the!compression,!the!solid!filter!cake!can!be!removed.!The!whole!
process!is!often!computer!controlled!to!make!it!automatic!or!semiEautomatic.!
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Applications!!
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Foods!industry,!Chemicals,!Pharmaceuticals,!and!Cosmetics!
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Vinegar,!Honey,!Water,!Paints,!Varnish,!Polishes,!Syrups,!Hand!lotion,!Shampoo,!
Fruit!juice,!Soft!drinks,!Edible!oil,!,!Pigments!Lubrication!oils,!Ink,!Soap!Proteins!
Perfume!
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Classroom!contexts!
These!questions!may!provoke!some!discussion,!or!suggest!further!activities,!within!
the!classroom.!
!
Why!do!companies!use!filter!presses!rather!than!funnels!and!paper?!!
Why!do!solid!particles!not!go!through!the!filter!cloth!or!membrane!in!the!
filter!press?!!
A!filter!press!contains!many!filter!elements!in!the!"filter!stack".!How!does!
this!make!!the!press!more!efficient?!!
Filter!presses!are!used!in!the!food!industry.!What!are!the!types!of!things!
that!might!!be!filtered!before!they!are!bought?!!!
!
Why$do$companies$use$filter$presses$rather$than$funnels$and$paper?$!There!
are!two!main!reasons.!Firstly,!the!volumes!used!are!generally!very!much!larger!
than!ever!used!in!the!classroom.!It!would!be!impractical!to!build!a!big!enough!
filter!funnel.!!Using!the!press!is!also!more!efficient.!The!increased!pressure!in!the!
press!means!that!the!solution!is!filtered!a!lot!more!quickly.!A!filter!funnel!relies!
on!the!pull!of!gravity!to!draw!the!liquid!through!the!filter.!This!very!quickly!
slows!to!a!drip!as!the!solid!begins!to!build!up!on!the!filter!paper.!!!
Why$do$solid$particles$not$go$through$the$filter$cloth$or$membrane$in$the$
filter$press?$$The!solid!part!of!the!solution!contains!molecules!that!are!too!big!to!
fit!through!the!filter!paper!or!membrane.!It!acts!a!little!like!a!sieve.!The!liquid!
can!easily!pass!through,!as!the!molecules!are!very!small.!!!
A$filter$press$contains$many$filter$elements$in$the$"filter$stack".$How$does$this$
make$the$press$more$efficient?$$By!using!many!separate!elements!in!the!filter!
press!it!gives!a!large!surface!area!for!the!filtering!to!happen!over.!!!
Filter$presses$are$used$in$the$food$industry.$What$are$the$types$of$things$that$
might$be$filtered$before$they$are$bought?$$There!are!lots!of!things!that!would!
not!be!very!pleasant!to!eat!if!they!were!"lumpy".!The!examples!given!earlier!
included:!vinegar,!honey,!water,!fruit!juice,!soft!drinks,!and!edible!oil.!!
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*filter!press!frame!and!plate!
*filter!press!with!plate!and!frames!installed!
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MECHANICAL SEPARATIONS
INTRODUCTION
As we have discussed the various aspects of mass transfer, we have emphasized
its analogies to heat transfer. Basically, we can tabulate the various aspects of
heat transfer and generally relate them to corresponding mass transfer situations.
Such a comparison is given in Table 14-1.
There is, of course, still another heat transfer situation, namely, radiative heat
transfer. Radiation has no parallel process in terms of mass transfer.
In addition, there is an aspect of mass transfer which has no parallel sys-
tem in heat transfer. This additional mass transfer area is that of mechanical
separation. These represent separation processes that use mechanical, electrical,
or magnetic forces to bring about a separation. Mechanical (used generically to
include electrical and magnetic forces) separations can be used for liquid-solid,
liquid-liquid, gas-liquid, gas-solid, and solid-solid systems. Table 14-2 sum-
marizes the principal separation processes, the phases involved, and the means
of separation.
FILTRATION
Filtration is one of the most widely used of all of the mechanical separation
processes. Basically, it involves the flow of a liquid-solid or gas-solid system
through a porous medium.
In the case of the liquid-solid system the filtration process takes place through
a filter cake made up of a filter aid and the solids themselves. The former
is made up of hard, fine particles applied either as a coating on a filter cloth
367
Transport Phenomena and Unit Operations: A Combined Approach
Richard G. Griskey
Copyright 0 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
ISBN: 0-471-43819-7
368 MECHANICAL SEPARATIONS
Table 14-1 Comparison of Heat and Mass Transfer Operations
Heat Transfer
Steady-state heat transfer
Unsteady-state heat transfer
Convective heat transfer (heat
Convective heat transfer (heat
transfer coefficient)
transfer coefficient)
Radiative heat transfer (not analogous
with other transfer processes)
Mass Transfer
Steady-state molecular diffusion
Unsteady-state molecular diffusion
Convective mass transfer (mass transfer
Equilibrium staged operations (convective
coefficients)
mass transfer using departure from
equilibrium a5 a driving force)
other transfer processes)
Mechanical separations (not analogous with
Table 14-2 Mechanical, Electrical, and Magnetic Separations
Process Phase How Separated
Filtration
Centrifugation
Sedimentation
Cyclone separator
Electrostatic precipitator
Demister
Magnetic separator
Screening
Liquid-solid
Liquid-solid or liquid-liquid
Liquid-solid
Gas-solid or Gas-liquid
Gas-solid
Gas-solid or gas-liquid
Solid-solid Solid-liquid
Solid-solid
Pressure reduction
Centrifugal force
Gravity
Flow
Electric field
Pressure reduction
Magnetic field
Size of particles
(see Figure 14-1) or in the liquid-solid mix (slurry). A typical filter aid is
diatomaceous earth, the fossilized remains of very small marine creatures.
A general expression for the pressure gradient through a filter cake is
(14-1)
where k' is a constant, p is the filtrate viscosity, u, is the superficial velocity of
the filtrate, t is the cake porosity, and D, is the average particle diameter.
If the flow through the cake is considered to be laminar (usually correct), then
Also,
D,
6 6
(14-2)
(14-3)
where So is the specific surface area of the particle. A, and V, are, respectively,
the surface and volume of a single particle.
FILTRATION 369
frame
Figure 14-1. Plate and frame filter press. (Courtesy of T. Schriver and Co.)
Substituting (14-3) in (14-2) gives
which is equation (4-1) with k' equal to 5.
If we solve for superficial velocity us, then
(14-4)
(14-5)
where A is the filtration area and d V/ dQ is the volumetric filtration rate.
370 MECHANICAL SEPARATIONS
By considering the relationship between the filter cake length L (thickness)
and the filtrate volume, we obtain
LA( 1 - E) P, = w( V + t L A) (1 4-6)
where pS is the solid density in the cake and w is the mass of solids in the feed
slurry per volume of liquid in that slurry.
If the volume of filtrate held in the filter cake ( LA) is neglected, then
1 dV ( - AP) f g c e 3 ( - AP) f g c
- - (14-7)
- - --
a p w v
A
A dQ S f l ~ ( 1 - E ) S ~
A Ps
where a! (the specific cake resistance) is 5(1 - E ) S ~ / ~ , ~ E ~ .
For the actual filter unit we should also include any other flow channels that
the system involves (i.e., additional segments of the equipment). If we designate
these as RM, then
( - AP*) gc
--
-
dV
Ad0 p ( a!wV/ A + R M)
(14-8)
where ( - APf ) is the total pressure drop.
Furthermore, if we switch to a V, that represents the filtrate volume needed
to build up a filter cake that would equal the resistance of the filter medium and
any pipe conduits leading to the pressure taps, we obtain
Integrating equation (1 4-9) gives
(14-9)
(14- 10)
Equation (14-10) allows us to find the time needed for a given volume of filtrate.
In order to use equation (14-10), it is necessary to know a! and V,. The former
quantity can be found when e and So are known, V,, however, must be found
in some other way. Generally both a! and V, are determined from pilot filtration
studies. A slurry that matches the actual one is filtered under conditions that come
as close to actual plant requirements as possible. Then if we plot the reciprocal
of the filtration rate versus the volume of filtrate collected, we obtain a linear
relation [i.e., equation (14-9) inverted].
(14-11)
FILTRATION 371
A plot of d0/ dV versus the volume of filtrate collected gives a straight line
whose slope is apw/ g, A2( - AP, ) with a Y-axis intercept of [ paw/ gCA2( - AP, ) ]
V, V. Hence we find from the slope and the intercept V,.
For the other case, that of constant rate, we use the relation
(14-12)
to obtain a linear relation for ( - AP, ) versus V . The slope then is ( paw/ gc A2) /
( dV/ dO) , and the intercept the slope times V . Both a and V, can then be deter-
mined to find the time needed for filtration.
(14-1 3)
In compressible cakes the a and V, terms become functions of pressure so
that equation (1 4-9) becomes
dV -g,Ap,y c3
Ad0 5 ~ p V 0 ( 1 - E ) S ~
d P
--
-
(14-14)
where PI - P2 is the difference between the pressure on the cake surface and
that at the face of the filter medium.
The use of a specific cake resistance (ap) transforms equation (14-14) to
(14- 15)
P
Experiments relating compression and permeability allow the interrelation of
and aD, E , and SO to be determined experimentally. Figure 14-2, 14-3, and
14-4 show typical data of this type.
Industrial filtration units can be either batch or continuous in operation. In
addition to the plate and frame filter press of Figure 14-1, there are leaf filters
that also function in the batch mode. Figure 14-5 shows both a vertical leaf filter
and the filter leaf itself. Other leaf filters include a Niagara type (Figure 14-6),
which uses a horizontal leaf filter, and the Sweetland type (Figure 14-7), which
consists of two half-cylinders that allow the bottom half to be opened downward
to access vertical disk-shaped leaves.
Continuous filters include rotary horizontal vacuum filters (Figure 14-8), rotary
drum filters (Figure 14-9), and rotary disk units (Figure 14-10).
A different mode of filtration is used in centrifugal filtrations (Figure 14-1 1).
These units use centrifugal force as the driving force for the fluid.
372 MECHANICAL SEPARATIONS
1 10 100 1 ,m 1O.OOo
Compressive pressure (P, 1, psis
Figure 14-2. Point specific cake resistance versus compressive pressure. Codes: 1, 2
Superlite CaCO, pH values of 9.8 and 10.3; 3, 4 TiO, pH values of 7.8 and 3.5; 5,6 ZnS,
pH values of 9.1. Curves 1, 3 for flocculated systems. (Reproduced with permission from
reference 1. Copyright 1953, American Institute of Chemical Engineers.)
0
-
8
L
0
5
.
106
V
-
D
v,
0
u
m
r:
v1
V
L-
b)
Q
0
.-
2
w
0
5
105
0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9
Porosity kP) , void fraction
Figure 14-3. Effective surface versus porosity. Codes as in Figure 14-2. (Reproduced with
permission reference I . Copyright 1953, American Institute of Chemical Engineers.)
FILTRATION 373
1,000
Figure 14-4. Cake porosity versus compressive pressure. Codes as in Figure 14-2. (Re-
produced with permission from reference 1 . Copyright 1953, American Institute of Chem-
ical Engineers.)
Here the solution for volumetric rate gives
where P2, P3 = pressures at the filter-cake surface and at the filter-cloth surface,
r2, r3 = radii to the filter-cake surface and to the filter-cloth surface,
p, ps = density of filtrate and of solids, respectively
respectively
respectively
cp = porosity at any point in the bed
ap = specific cake resistance at any point in the bed
h = height of cylindrical surface on which the cake is being built
o = rate of rotation, radiandsec
K L = resistance of the filter medium
(d V/ dO) = filtration rate
PROBLEMS
PROBLEMS
14-1.
14-2.
14-3.
14-4.
399
A slurry composed of Fe(OH)3, 0.01180 kgkg water, filter aid 0.03646
kgkg water, and a soluble salt 0.00686 kgkg water is tested in a labo-
ratory with the following results:
Time (min) Filtrate Collected (m)( x lo4)
0
0.167
0.333
0.500
0.666
0.833
1 .ooo
1 S O
2.00
2.50
3 .OO
3.50
4.00
0
4.89
7.73
9.96
11.8
13.54
15.01
19.03
22.43
25.40
28.07
30.59
32.94
Filter area is 0.043 m2. The cake obtained was 19.2 percent solids.
Determine the appropriate characteristics for a constant pressure filtration
(at 1.05 atm).
How long a time would be needed if the filter in the previous problem is
washed with water equal to the total amount of filtrate collected.
A solid is to be recovered from a slurry (80.13 kg dry solid per m3
of solid free liquid). Liquid viscosity is 1 centipoise. The filter should
deliver I 1.33 m3 of solid-free filtrate over a 2-hr period. System pressure
differential is 1.7 atm.
Find the total area of filtering surface required.
Laboratory-scale data (plate and frame filter press with an area of
0.7432 m2) are as follows:
Total Filtrate Times from start hours
Volume AP = 1.36 A P = 2.04 A P = 2.72
(m3> (atm) (atm) (atm)
0.1416 0.34 0.25 0.21
0.2266 0.85 0.64 0.52
0.2832 1.32 1 .oo 0.8 1
0.3398 1.92 1.43 1.17
A small-scale leaf filter gives the following results:
Pressure Drop (atm) 0.476 0.755 1.02 1.58 2.93 5.56
for a constant filtration rate of 1.136 x lop3 m3/min.
Time (minutes) 1 2 3 5 10 20
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P&ID!
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The centrifugal pump used with the plate and frame filter press utilizes an Emerson
WM4150 variable frequency drive. A variable-frequency drive is a system for controlling
the rotational speed of an alternating current electric motor. It controls the frequency of
the electrical power supplied to the motor. Variable-frequency drives are widely used on
pumps and machine tool drives, compressors and in ventilations systems for large
buildings. Variable-frequency motors on fans, for example, save energy by allowing the
volume of air moved to match the system demand.
Reasons for employing automatic frequency control can both be related to the
functionality of the application and for saving energy. For example, automatic frequency
control is used in pump applications where the flow is matched either to volume or
pressure. The pump adjusts its revolutions to a given set point via a regulating loop.
Adjusting the flow or pressure to the actual demand reduces power consumption.


If you look at the specifications on the pump itself, you can see that at 60 Hz the pump
impeller will reach 1750 RPM.

!
After some inspection of the pump itself, you will find that it is a Bell & Gossett series
1531 pump. The pump specifications and pump curve can be found through their
company website. This will also be available in the appendix of this report.




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SOP Plate & Frame Filter Press

Standard Operating Procedure

Plate & Frame Filter Press

Policy: All students and personnel will follow proper lab safety
practices to ensure the safety of all involved. Proper PPE must be worn
at all times when operating the filter press

Hardhat Safety glasses Gloves

Reference the P&ID for valve positions

Procedure: Lab Personnel must operate the plate and frame filter
press by the following steps:


1. Ensure valves V-3 & V-4 are closed on the filter press unit.








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2. Fill the slurry reactor tank with desired amounts of solute and
solvent. Ensure the water level is adequate for use with the
mixer and ensure it is set up with a proper power source.



3. Switch on the circuit breaker to activate power to the variable
frequency drive used with the centrifugal pump.



4. Assemble the plates, frames, and filter cloths as desired. Ensure
holes of plate and holes of frame are opposing.


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5. Open the Slurry Out V-1 valve and ensure the centrifugal
pump is properly primed. This means liquid will hit the impeller.

6. Ensure the tank lid is properly fitted and start the slurry mixer
by switching it to the On position.



7. Ensure all previous steps have been completed. It is now
appropriate to turn on the centrifugal pump using the VFD.



8. Press the button to begin impeller movement in a counter
clockwise direction. Use the and buttons to modify
power to the pump. This will change the impeller speed and flow
rate.

9. Slowly increase the impeller rotation to at most 1750 RPM at 60
Hz.

10. Ensure the filter press runs for a desired amount of time.


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11. Once completed, slowly decrease the power to the pump
and then press the button to turn off the pump.

12. It is now appropriate to turn the V-2 three-way valve to
begin drying of the cake. Ensure the arrow is pointing in the
correct direction on the valve.



13. ***Optional*** Connect a proper air source is connected
and begin insertion of air. Dry the cake long enough to make
sure it does not instantly fall down the drain in the drip tray. This
could take at least 30-60 min.

14. Drain the tank by opening valve V-4

15. After the tank has been drain lower than the drip pan,
drain the drip pan by opening valve V-3

16. Close the drip pan valve V-3 once again and release the
cake from the filter press. Let it fall into the drip pan.


17. Collect your cake and let dry overnight.
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The EHS coordinator will:

1. Monitor all personnel to ensure that they are following proper
procedures.

2. Ensure adequate supplies are available for proper use of filter press.

3. Follow up as necessary.

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Filtration!of!Calcium!Carbonate!Slurry!
!
Purpose!
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! This!experiment!has!been!designed!to!teach!students!how!to!use!a!filter!
press,!and!to!provide!them!with!experience!using!valves,!pumps,!and!controllers.!!
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Safety!
!
! Before!conducting!this!experiment,!it!is!imperative!that!the!standard!
operating!procedure!(SOP)!has!been!read.!This!will!give!a!good!understanding!of!
how!the!filterEpress!and!all!of!its!components!work.!
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Experimental!Procedure!
!
! In!this!experiment,!the!plate!and!frame!filter!press!located!in!the!Unit!Ops!
Lab!101!will!be!used!to!filter!slurry!consisting!of!CaCO3!dissolved!in!water.!This!
process!will!produce!a!cake!filtrate!between!the!plates!and!frames!by!using!a!
polypropylene!filter.!
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Slurry!preparation!and!filter!paper!installation!
!
First,!make!sure!all!valves!are!closed.!
Create!the!slurry!by!mixing!500!grams!(1.1!lbs.)!with!20!gallons!of!water!in!
the!mixing!tank.!
Plug!in!the!electric!stirrer!and!turn!it!on!
At!this!point!all!the!valves!should!still!be!closed,!and!no!material!should!be!escaping!
the!mixing!tank.!While!the!slurry!is!mixing,!install!the!polypropylene!filters!between!
each!plate!and!frame.!The!filters!should!be!available!in!the!cabinet!label!Filter!Press!
Equipment.!
!
Make!sure!the!filter!presss!plates!and!frames!are!oriented!in!the!correct!
fashion.!Reference!the!SOP!for!instructions!on!placement!of!frames.!
Install!a!sheet!of!polypropylene!filter!paper!on!each!side!of!each!plate!and!
frame.!On!completion,!use!the!hand!crank!to!apply!pressure!to!the!apparatus.!
This!creates!a!tight!seal!across!the!plates.!!
For!the!amounts!of!materials!in!this!experiment,!two!frames!and!a!one!plate!
should!suffice.!
The!set!up!stage!is!now!complete,!and!the!slurry!is!ready!to!be!filtrated.!A!pump!will!
push!the!slurry!through!the!filter!press.!Again,!please!make!sure!the!SOP!has!been!
read.!
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Turn!the!power!supply!to!the!pump!on.!It!is!located!in!the!far!corner!of!the!
lab!behind!a!metal!cabinet.!
Open!the!valve!VE1.!This!allows!the!slurry!to!escape!the!tank!and!enter!the!
pump.!
Use!the!VFD!controller!to!turn!on!the!centrifugal!pump.!Press!the!forward!
button!on!the!controller!and!run!the!pump!at!a!frequency!between!45E60!
hertz.!
Allow!the!filtration!to!run!for!45!minutes!and!then!turn!off!the!pump.!
The!filtration!process!is!now!finished.!Cake!should!be!collected!between!the!frames!
and!filter!paper.!The!next!step!is!to!dry!the!cake!for!collection.!
!
Turn!the!threeEway!valve!VE2!to!allow!air!into!the!apparatus.!
Hook!up!an!air!compressor!and!push!air!through!the!cake!for!10!minutes!
o If!an!air!compressor!is!available!
The!cake!is!now!dry!and!ready!to!collect,!but!first!the!tank!and!drip!pan!need!to!be!
drained.!Do!this!by!opening!valves!VE3!and!VE4.!Once!the!system!is!drained!close!
the!drip!pan!valve!and!collect!the!wet!cake.!Let!the!wet!CaCO3!cake!dry!overnight.!
The!experiment!is!now!finished.!All!that!is!left!to!do!is!to!run!clean!water!through!
the!system!to!clean!leftover!calcium!carbonate!left!in!the!pipes.!Run!the!system!
exactly!like!before!but!without!the!filter!paper.!!
!
Make!sure!the!system!is!completely!drained,!unplug!the!stirrer,!
and!turn!off!the!power!to!the!controller.!
!
!

!
!
!
!
Series 1531
Installation,
Operation, and
Maintenance Manual
Table of Contents
Introduction and Safety.........................................................................................................................2
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................2
Requesting other information.........................................................................................................2
Safety.....................................................................................................................................................2
Safety terminology and symbols....................................................................................................3
Safety instruction decals..................................................................................................................4
User safety.........................................................................................................................................4
Environmental safety........................................................................................................................6
Product warranty.................................................................................................................................6
Transportation and Storage..................................................................................................................8
Inspect the delivery.............................................................................................................................8
Inspect the package.........................................................................................................................8
Inspect the unit..................................................................................................................................8
Pump lifting..........................................................................................................................................8
Long-term storage...............................................................................................................................9
Product Description.............................................................................................................................10
General description..........................................................................................................................10
Operational specications...............................................................................................................10
Installation.............................................................................................................................................12
Preinstallation....................................................................................................................................12
Pump location guidelines..............................................................................................................12
Foundation requirements.............................................................................................................13
Piping checklist...............................................................................................................................14
Typical installation.............................................................................................................................15
Commissioning, Startup, Operation, and Shutdown......................................................................16
Preparation for startup.....................................................................................................................16
Prime the pump.................................................................................................................................16
Start the pump...................................................................................................................................17
Pump operation precautions...........................................................................................................17
Shut down the pump........................................................................................................................18
Note on the packed pump operation.............................................................................................18
Maintenance.........................................................................................................................................20
Bearing maintenance........................................................................................................................20
Disassembly.......................................................................................................................................20
Disassembly precautions...............................................................................................................20
Drain the pump...............................................................................................................................20
Remove the bearing frame and impeller assembly...................................................................21
Remove the mechanical seal (1531 and 1531-F) ......................................................................21
Remove the seal or packing rings (1531-S, 1531-D, and 1531-PF) ........................................21
Pre-assembly inspections.................................................................................................................21
Shaft and sleeve inspection..........................................................................................................21
Reassembly........................................................................................................................................22
Seal assembly..................................................................................................................................22
Assemble the packed stufng box (1531-PF) ............................................................................24
Reinstall the bearing frame and impeller assembly ..................................................................25
Capscrew torque values................................................................................................................25
Dealer servicing .............................................................................................................................26
Table of Contents
Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual 1
Introduction and Safety
Introduction
Purpose of this manual
The purpose of this manual is to provide necessary information for:
Installation
Operation
Maintenance
CAUTION:
Read this manual carefully before installing and using the product. Improper use of the
product can cause personal injury and damage to property, and may void the warranty.
NOTICE:
Save this manual for future reference, and keep it readily available at the location of the
unit.
Requesting other information
Special versions can be supplied with supplementary instruction leaets. See the sales
contract for any modications or special version characteristics. For instructions, situations,
or events that are not considered in this manual or in the sales documents, please contact
the nearest Xylem representative.
Always specify the exact product type and identication code when requesting technical
information or spare parts.
Safety
WARNING:
The operator must be aware of safety precautions to prevent physical injury.
Any pressure-containing device can explode, rupture, or discharge its contents if it is
over-pressurized. Take all necessary measures to avoid over-pressurization.
Operating, installing, or maintaining the unit in any way that is not covered in this manual
could cause death, serious personal injury, or damage to the equipment. This includes
any modication to the equipment or use of parts not provided by Xylem. If there is a
question regarding the intended use of the equipment, please contact a Xylem
representative before proceeding.
Do not change the service application without the approval of an authorized Xylem
representative.
CAUTION:
You must observe the instructions contained in this manual. Failure to do so could result in
physical injury, damage, or delays.
Introduction and Safety
2 Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual
Safety terminology and symbols
About safety messages
It is extremely important that you read, understand, and follow the safety messages and
regulations carefully before handling the product. They are published to help prevent
these hazards:
Personal accidents and health problems
Damage to the product
Product malfunction
Hazard levels
Hazard level Indication
DANGER:
A hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result in
death or serious injury
WARNING:
A hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result
in death or serious injury
CAUTION:
A hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result
in minor or moderate injury
NOTICE:
A potential situation which, if not avoided, could
result in undesirable conditions
A practice not related to personal injury
Hazard categories
Hazard categories can either fall under hazard levels or let specic symbols replace the
ordinary hazard level symbols.
Electrical hazards are indicated by the following specic symbol:
Electrical Hazard:
These are examples of other categories that can occur. They fall under the ordinary hazard
levels and may use complementing symbols:
Crush hazard
Cutting hazard
Arc ash hazard
Introduction and Safety
Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual 3
Safety instruction decals
WARNING:
The maximum working pressure of the pump is listed on the nameplate. Do not exceed
this pressure. Failure to follow these instructions can result in serious personal injury,
death, and/or property damage.
Alert symbol
This safety alert symbol is used in manuals and on the safety instruction decals on the pump
to draw attention to safety-related instructions.
When used, the safety alert symbol means that failure to follow the instructions may result in
a safety hazard.
Decals
Make sure your pump has these safety instruction decals and that they are located as this
gure shows. If the decals are missing or illegible, contact your local sales and service
representative for a replacement.
Make sure that all safety instruction decals are always clearly visible and readable.
User safety
General safety rules
These safety rules apply:
Always keep the work area clean.
Pay attention to the risks presented by gas and vapors in the work area.
Avoid all electrical dangers. Pay attention to the risks of electric shock or arc ash
hazards.
Always bear in mind the risk of drowning, electrical accidents, and burn injuries.
Introduction and Safety
4 Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual
Safety equipment
Use safety equipment according to the company regulations. Use this safety equipment
within the work area:
Hard hat
Safety goggles, preferably with side shields
Protective shoes
Protective gloves
Gas mask
Hearing protection
First-aid kit
Safety devices
NOTICE:
Never operate a unit unless safety devices are installed. Also see specic information
about safety devices in other chapters of this manual.
Electrical connections
Electrical connections must be made by certied electricians in compliance with all
international, national, state, and local regulations. For more information about
requirements, see sections dealing specically with electrical connections.
Precautions before work
Observe these safety precautions before you work with the product or are in connection
with the product:
Provide a suitable barrier around the work area, for example, a guard rail.
Make sure that all safety guards are in place and secure.
Make sure that you have a clear path of retreat.
Make sure that the product cannot roll or fall over and injure people or damage
property.
Make sure that the lifting equipment is in good condition.
Use a lifting harness, a safety line, and a breathing device as required.
Allow all system and pump components to cool before you handle them.
Make sure that the product has been thoroughly cleaned.
Disconnect and lock out power before you service the pump.
Check the explosion risk before you weld or use electric hand tools.
Wash the skin and eyes
Follow these procedures for chemicals or hazardous uids that have come into contact
with your eyes or your skin:
Condition Action
Chemicals or hazardous
uids in eyes
1. Hold your eyelids apart forcibly with your ngers.
2. Rinse the eyes with eyewash or running water for at least 15 minutes.
3. Seek medical attention.
Chemicals or hazardous
uids on skin
1. Remove contaminated clothing.
2. Wash the skin with soap and water for at least 1 minute.
3. Seek medical attention, if necessary.
Introduction and Safety
Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual 5
Environmental safety
The work area
Always keep the station clean.
Waste and emissions regulations
Observe these safety regulations regarding waste and emissions:
Appropriately dispose of all waste.
Handle and dispose of the processed liquid in compliance with applicable
environmental regulations.
Clean up all spills in accordance with safety and environmental procedures.
Report all environmental emissions to the appropriate authorities.
WARNING:
Radiation Hazard. Do NOT send the product to Xylem if it has been exposed to any nuclear
radiation.
Electrical installation
For electrical installation recycling requirements, consult your local electric utility.
Recycling guidelines
Always follow local laws and regulations regarding recycling.
Product warranty
Coverage
Xylem undertakes to remedy defects in products from Xylem under these conditions:
The faults are due to defects in design, materials, or workmanship.
The faults are reported to an local sales and service representative within the warranty
period.
The product is used only under the conditions described in this manual.
The monitoring equipment incorporated in the product is correctly connected and in
use.
All service and repair work is done by Xylem authorized personnel.
Genuine Xylem parts are used.
Only Ex-approved spare parts and accessories authorized by an EX-approved Xylem
representative are used in Ex-approved products.
Limitations
The warranty does not cover defects caused by these situations:
Decient maintenance
Improper installation
Modications or changes to the product and installation made without consulting an
Xylem authorized representative
Incorrectly executed repair work
Normal wear and tear
Xylem assumes no liability for these situations:
Bodily injuries
Material damages
Economic losses
Introduction and Safety
6 Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual
Warranty claim
Xylem products are high-quality products with expected reliable operation and long life.
However, should the need arise for a warranty claim, then contact your local sales and
service representative.
Introduction and Safety
Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual 7
Transportation and Storage
Inspect the delivery
Inspect the package
1. Inspect the package for damaged or missing items upon delivery.
2. Note any damaged or missing items on the receipt and freight bill.
3. File a claim with the shipping company if anything is out of order.
If the product has been picked up at a distributor, make a claim directly to the
distributor.
Inspect the unit
1. Remove packing materials from the product.
Dispose of all packing materials in accordance with local regulations.
2. Inspect the product to determine if any parts have been damaged or are missing.
3. If applicable, unfasten the product by removing any screws, bolts, or straps.
For your personal safety, be careful when you handle nails and straps.
4. Contact the local sales representative if there is any issue.
Pump lifting
WARNING:
Assembled units and their components are heavy. Failure to properly lift and support
this equipment can result in serious physical injury and/or equipment damage. Lift
equipment only at the specically identied lifting points. Lifting devices such as
eyebolts, slings, and spreaders must be rated, selected, and used for the entire load
being lifted.
Crush hazard. The unit and the components can be heavy. Use proper lifting methods
and wear steel-toed shoes at all times.
In order to lift the entire pump, use slings placed around the unit as shown.
Figure 1: Proper lifting method
Transportation and Storage
8 Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual
Long-term storage
If the unit is stored for more than 6 months, these requirements apply:
Store in a covered and dry location.
Store the unit free from heat, dirt, and vibrations.
Rotate the shaft by hand several times at least every three months.
Treat bearing and machined surfaces so that they are well preserved. Refer to the drive
unit and coupling manufacturers for their long-term storage procedures.
For questions about possible long-term storage treatment services, please contact your
local sales and service representative.
Transportation and Storage
Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual 9
Product Description
General description
The Series 1531 pump is a centrifugal, close-coupled pump. These features make the
pump easy to install, operate, and service:
High efciency
Rugged bronze-tted construction
Foot-mounted motor
Intended applications
WARNING:
California Proposition 65 warning! This product contains chemicals known to the state of
California to cause cancer and birth defects or other reproductive harm.
NOTICE:
This product is not intended for potable water applications.
The pump is intended for use with these pumped uids:
Unheated domestic and fresh water
Boiler feed water
Condensate
Hydronic cooling or heating
Benign liquids
Pressure boosting
General liquid transfer
Rotation
Pump rotation is clockwise when viewed from the back of the motor. An arrow is also
located on the pump to show the direction of rotation.
Operational specications
Mechanical seal specications
This table describes the specications of each mechanical seal type.
Seal type Parameter Value
Standard seals, BUNA carbon/ceramic pH range limits for BUNA pH 79
Liquid temperature range that
complies with the pH range limits for
BUNA
-20F to 225F (-29C to 107C)
Optional seals, EPR carbon/tungsten
carbide
pH range limits for EPR pH 711
Liquid temperature range that
complies with the pH range limits for
EPR
-20F to 250F (-29C to 121C)
EPR/SiC/SiC pH range limits pH 712.5
Liquid temperature range -20F to 250F (-29C to 121C)
Product Description
10 Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual
Seal type Parameter Value
Flushed single seals
1,3,4
pH range limits pH 79
Liquid temperature range 0F to 250F (-18C to 121C)
Packing
2
pH range pH 79
Liquid temperature range 0F to 200F (-18C to 93C)
Table notes
1. An external ush is required on low pressure systems that contain a high
concentration of abrasives.
2. Use packing on open or closed systems which require a large amount of makeup
water, as well as systems that are subjected to a wide variety of chemical conditions
and solids buildup.
3. For operating temperatures above 250F, a cooled ush is required and is
recommended for temperatures above 225F for optimum seal life. On closed
systems, cooling is accomplished by inserting a small heat exchanger in the ush line
to cool the seal ushing uid.
4. Flush-line lters and sediment separators are available on request.
5. Use a standard seal on closed or open systems that are relatively free of dirt and/or
other abrasive particles.
Product Description
Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual 11
Installation
Preinstallation
Precautions
WARNING:
When installing in a potentially explosive environment, make sure that the motor is
properly certied.
You must earth (ground) all electrical equipment. This applies to the pump equipment,
the driver, and any monitoring equipment. Test the earth (ground) lead to verify that it is
connected correctly.
Motors without built-in protection must be provided with contactors and thermal
overload protection for single-phase motors, or starters with heaters for three-phase
motors. (See the nameplate on the drive unit to select properly-sized overloads.)
NOTICE: Supervision by an authorized Xylem representative is recommended to ensure
proper installation. Failure to do so may result in equipment damage or decreased
performance.
Evaluate the installation in order to determine that the Net Positive Suction Head Available
(NPSH
A
) meets or exceeds the Net Positive Suction Head Required (NPSH
R
), as stated by
the pump performance curve.
Pump location guidelines
WARNING:
Assembled units and their components are heavy. Failure to properly lift and support this
equipment can result in serious physical injury and/or equipment damage. Lift equipment
only at the specically identied lifting points. Lifting devices such as eyebolts, slings, and
spreaders must be rated, selected, and used for the entire load being lifted.
Guideline Explanation/comment
Keep the pump as close to the liquid source as
practically possible.
If the pump is not on a closed system, locate the pump
so that the fewest number of bends or elbows in the
suction pipe are needed.
This minimizes the friction loss and keeps the suction
piping as short as possible.
Make sure that the space around the pump is sufcient. This facilitates ventilation, inspection, maintenance, and
service.
If you require lifting equipment such as a hoist or tackle,
make sure that there is enough space above the pump.
This makes it easier to properly use the lifting
equipment and safely remove and relocate the
components to a safe location.
Protect the unit from weather and water damage due to
rain, ooding, and freezing temperatures.
This is applicable if nothing else is specied.
Do not install and operate the equipment in closed
systems unless the system is constructed with properly-
sized safety devices and control devices.
Acceptable devices:
Pressure relief valves
Compression tanks
Pressure controls
Installation
12 Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual
Guideline Explanation/comment
Temperature controls
Flow controls
If the system does not include these devices, consult the
engineer or architect in charge before you operate the
pump.
Take into consideration the occurrence of unwanted
noise and vibration.
The best pump location for noise and vibration
absorption is on a concrete oor with subsoil
underneath.
If the pump location is overhead, undertake special
precautions to reduce possible noise transmission.
Consider a consultation with a noise specialist.
When possible, locate the pump below the uid level. This facilitates priming, ensures a steady ow of liquid,
and provides a positive suction head on the pump.
Foundation requirements
Requirements
The foundation must be able to absorb any type of vibration and form a permanent,
rigid support for the unit.
The foundation must weigh at least 2-1/2 times the weight of the pump unit.
Provide a at, substantial concrete foundation in order to prevent strain and distortion
when you tighten the foundation bolts.
Sleeve-type and J-type foundation bolts are most commonly used. Both designs allow
movement for the nal bolt adjustment.
Tie the concrete pad in with the nished oor.
Use some type of expansion tting in order to facilitate easy servicing. Insert the female
portion into a suitable hole in the pad so that its top surface is ush with the pad
surface. Thus, when the hold-down bolts are removed, the motor can be removed by
sliding it back from the pump.
Bolt installation diagram
Correct
lncorrect
Installation
Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual 13
Piping checklist
WARNING:
The heating of water and other uids causes volumetric expansion. The associated forces
can cause the failure of system components and the release of high-temperature uids.
In order to prevent this, install properly sized and located compression tanks and
pressure-relief valves. Failure to follow these instructions can result in serious personal
injury or death, or property damage.
Avoid serious personal injury and property damage. Make sure that the ange bolts are
adequately torqued.
Never force piping to make a connection with a pump.
Check Explanation/comment Checked
Check that a section of straight pipe, with a length that
is ve times its diameter, is installed between the
suction side of the pump and the rst elbow, or that a
B&G Suction Diffuser is installed.
This reduces suction turbulence by
straightening the ow of liquid before it enters
the pump.
Check that the suction and discharge pipes are
supported independently by use of pipe hangers near
the pump .
This eliminates pipe strain on the pump .
Check that there is a strong, rigid support for the
suction and discharge lines.
As a rule, ordinary wire or band hangers are not
adequate to maintain proper alignment.
For pumps with anges, check that the bolt holes in
the pump anges match the bolt holes in the pipe
anges.

Check that the suction or discharge lines are not


forced into position.
Coupling and bearing wear will result if suction
or discharge lines are forced into position.
Check that ttings for absorbing expansion are
installed in the system when considerable
temperature changes are expected.
This helps to avoid strain on the pump.
Check that you have a foot valve of equal or greater
area than the pump suction piping when you use an
open system with a suction lift.
Prevent clogging by using a strainer at the
suction inlet next to the foot valve. Make sure
that the strainer has an area three times that of
the suction pipe with a mesh hole diameter of
no less than 0.25 in. (0.64 cm).
Check that exible piping is used on both the suction
and discharge sides of the pump when you use an
isolation base.

Check that a B&G Triple Duty

valve is installed in the


discharge line.
This valve serves as a check valve that protects
the pump from water hammer, and serves as
an isolation valve for servicing and for
throttling.
Check that the pipeline has isolation valves around
the pump and has a drain valve in the suction pipe.

Use PTFE tape sealer or a high quality thread sealant


when you install the suction and discharge
connections to a threaded pump housing.

Installation
14 Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual
Typical installation
3
4
5
6
7
8
2
9
10
11
1
1. Compression tank (locate the compression tank on the suction side of the pump)
2. B&G Rolairtrol

air separator
3. Supply to system
4. B&G Circuit Setter

5. B&G Triple Duty

valve
6. B&G Series 1531 Pump
7. B&G Suction Diffuser
8. Isolation valve
9. Pipe from boiler, chiller, or converter
10. Cold water supply
11. B&G Reducing Valve
Installation
Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual 15
Commissioning, Startup, Operation,
and Shutdown
Preparation for startup
WARNING:
Explosion hazard. Do not short battery terminals together or damage the battery.
WARNING:
Failure to follow these precautions before you start the unit will lead to serious personal
injury and equipment failure.
Do not operate the pump below the minimum rated ows or with the suction or
discharge valves closed. These conditions can create an explosive hazard due to
vaporization of pumped uid and can quickly lead to pump failure and physical injury.
If the pump, motor, or piping operate at extremely high or low temperatures, then
guarding or insulation is required. Failure to follow these instructions can result in
serious personal injury or death, and property damage.
Always disconnect and lock out power to the driver before you perform any installation
or maintenance tasks. Failure to disconnect and lock out driver power will result in
serious physical injury.
Operating the pump in reverse rotation can result in the contact of metal parts, heat
generation, and breach of containment.
NOTICE:
Verify the driver settings before you start any pump.
Make sure that the warm-up rate does not exceed 2.5F (1.4C) per minute.
You must follow these precautions before you start the pump:
Flush and clear the system thoroughly to remove dirt or debris in the pipe system in
order to prevent premature failure at initial startup.
Bring variable-speed drivers to the rated speed as quickly as possible.
If temperatures of the pumped uid will exceed 200F (93C), then warm up the pump
prior to operation. Circulate a small amount of uid through the pump until the casing
temperature is within 100F (38C) of the uid temperature.
At initial startup, do not adjust the variable-speed drivers or check for speed governor or
over-speed trip settings while the variable-speed driver is coupled to the pump. If the
settings have not been veried, then uncouple the unit and refer to instructions supplied
by the driver manufacturer.
Prime the pump
CAUTION:
Do not run the pump dry.
Commissioning, Startup, Operation, and Shutdown
16 Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual
Make sure that the pump body is full of liquid before startup. If the system does not
automatically ll the pump body with liquid, then you must manually prime the pump.
1. Loosen the vent plugs on the pump body.
2. While venting the air from the pump body, rotate the pump shaft a few times by hand.
3. After all air has been purged from the pump, close the vent plugs.
Start the pump
CAUTION:
Observe the pump for vibration levels, bearing temperature, and excessive noise. If
normal levels are exceeded, shut down the pump and resolve the issue.
Before you start the pump, you must perform these tasks:
Open the suction valve.
Open any recirculation or cooling lines.
1. Fully close or partially open the discharge valve, depending on system conditions.
2. Start the driver.
3. Slowly open the discharge valve until the pump reaches the desired ow.
4. Immediately check the pressure gauge to ensure that the pump quickly reaches the
correct discharge pressure.
5. If the pump fails to reach the correct pressure, perform these steps:
a) Stop the driver.
b) Prime the pump again.
c) Restart the driver.
6. Monitor the pump while it is operating:
a) Check the pump for bearing temperature, excessive vibration, and noise.
b) If the pump exceeds normal levels, then shut down the pump immediately and
correct the problem.
7. Repeat steps 5 and 6 until the pump runs properly.
Pump operation precautions
General considerations
WARNING:
Do NOT exceed the maximum working pressure of the pump. This information is listed on
the nameplate of the pump.
CAUTION:
Vary the capacity with the regulating valve in the discharge line. Never throttle the ow
from the suction side since this can result in decreased performance, unexpected heat
generation, and equipment damage.
Do not overload the driver. Driver overload can result in unexpected heat generation
and equipment damage. The driver can overload in these circumstances:
The specic gravity of the pumped uid is greater than expected.
The pumped uid exceeds the rated ow rate.
Make sure to operate the pump at or near the rated conditions. Failure to do so can
result in pump damage from cavitation or recirculation.
Commissioning, Startup, Operation, and Shutdown
Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual 17
Operation at reduced capacity
WARNING:
Never operate any pumping system with a blocked suction and discharge. Operation,
even for a brief period under these conditions, can cause conned pumped uid to
overheat, which results in a violent explosion. You must take all necessary measures to
avoid this condition.
CAUTION:
Avoid excessive vibration levels. Excessive vibration levels can damage the bearings,
stufng box or seal chamber, and the mechanical seal, which can result in decreased
performance.
NOTICE:
Avoid increased radial load. Failure to do so can cause stress on the shaft and
bearings.
Avoid heat build-up. Failure to do so can cause rotating parts to score or seize.
Avoid cavitation. Failure to do so can cause damage to the internal surfaces of the
pump.
Operation under freezing conditions
NOTICE:
Do not expose an idle pump to freezing conditions. Drain all liquid that is inside the pump.
Failure to do so can cause liquid to freeze and damage the pump.
Shut down the pump
1. Slowly close the discharge valve.
2. Shut down and lock the driver to prevent accidental rotation.
Note on the packed pump operation
Tighten the gland nuts
Before you start the pump, back off the packing gland nuts or screws until the gland is
loose.
Hand tighten until the gland is snug against the rst packing ring. Initially, water might
freely run from the packing. This is normal and should be allowed to continue for a period
of time before you continue to tighten the gland. Tighten the gland nuts slowly and one
at at a time.
Leakage rate
An adequate leakage rate is not one single value for all pumps and installations, but is the
amount required to provide adequate cooling and lubrication. The required leakage is
inuenced by operating pressure, uid temperature, shaft speed, and so forth. For uid
temperatures in the range of 32F to 190F (0C to 88C), average leakage rates of 60 to
80 drops per minute are recommended. However, each individual pump and installation
has unique operating conditions that result in widely-variable leakage rate requirements.
Commissioning, Startup, Operation, and Shutdown
18 Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual
Maximum uid temperature
At uid operating temperatures near the upper limit of 190F (88C), the maximum
temperature rise of the leakage is important. Never operate a packed pump with steam
forming at the gland. This limits the temperature rise to a maximum of about 20F (-7C). If
the formation of steam persists at higher leakage rates, you must provide cooling water by
means of an external supply, or a heat exchanger used to cool the bypass ush.
Commissioning, Startup, Operation, and Shutdown
Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual 19
Maintenance
Bearing maintenance
Bearing lubrication schedule
Type of bearing First lubrication Lubrication intervals
Motor bearings No initial lubrication. The motor was
lubricated at the factory.
Refer to the motor manufacturer's
recommendations for lubrication
intervals.
Disassembly
Disassembly precautions
This manual clearly identies accepted methods for disassembling units. These methods
must be adhered to.
WARNING:
Make sure that the pump is isolated from the system and that pressure is relieved before
you disassemble the pump, remove plugs, open vent or drain valves, or disconnect the
piping.
Always disconnect and lock out power to the driver before you perform any installation
or maintenance tasks. Failure to disconnect and lock out driver power will result in
serious physical injury.
Crush hazard. The unit and the components can be heavy. Use proper lifting methods
and wear steel-toed shoes at all times.
NOTICE:
Make sure that all replacement parts are available before you disassemble the pump for
overhaul.
Drain the pump
CAUTION:
Allow all system and pump components to cool before you handle them to prevent
physical injury.
1. Close the isolation valves on the suction and discharge sides of the pump.
You must drain the system if no valves are installed.
2. Open the drain valve.
Do not proceed until liquid stops coming out of the drain valve. If liquid continues to
ow from the drain valve, the isolation valves are not sealing properly and you must
repair them before you proceed.
3. Leave the drain valve open and remove the drain plug located on the bottom of the
pump housing.
Do not reinstall the plug or close the drain valve until the reassembly is complete.
4. Drain the liquid from the piping and ush the pump if it is necessary.
5. Disconnect all auxiliary piping and tubing.
Maintenance
20 Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual
Remove the bearing frame and impeller assembly
1. Remove the support foot capscrews.
2. Loosen the volute capscrews but do not remove them.
3. Loosen the bearing frame and impeller assembly from the volute.
WARNING:
Make certain that the internal pressure of the pump is relieved before
you continue. Failure to follow these instructions could result in serious
personal injury or death, or property damage.
4. Remove the seal ushing tube if it is used.
5. Remove the volute capscrews.
6. Remove the bearing frame and impeller assembly from the volute.
7. Remove the impeller capscrew, lock washer, and washer.
8. Remove the impeller.
Remove the mechanical seal (1531 and 1531-F)
1. Remove the rotating portion of the seal.
If necessary, use a screwdriver to loosen the rubber ring.
2. Remove the seal insert, the insert gasket, and the retainer if it is used.
Remove the seal or packing rings (1531-S, 1531-D, and 1531-PF)
1. Remove the hex nuts from the seal cap bolts.
2. For the 1531-PF, remove the hex nuts from the packing gland.
3. Remove the coverplate screws.
4. Remove the coverplate from the bracket.
5. Remove the seal assembly or packing rings.
Pre-assembly inspections
Guidelines
Before you assemble the pump parts, make sure you follow these guidelines:
Inspect the pump parts according to the information in these pre-assembly topics
before you reassemble your pump. Replace any part that does not meet the required
criteria.
Make sure that the parts are clean. Clean the pump parts in solvent in order to remove
oil, grease, and dirt.
NOTICE: Protect machined surfaces while you clean the parts. Failure to do so may
result in equipment damage.
Areas to inspect
Inspect the pump regularly for leaking seals, worn gaskets, and loose or damaged
components. Replace or repair these parts as required.
Shaft and sleeve inspection
Inspection criteria
Inspect the shaft and sleeve according to this criteria:
Thoroughly clean the shaft and sleeve.
Thoroughly clean the coverplate seal cavity.
Inspect the surface for damage such as pitting, corrosion, nicks, and scratches.
Maintenance
Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual 21
Replace these parts if they are damaged.
Reassembly
Seal assembly
Assemble the standard mechanical seal (1531 and 1531-F)
1. Lubricate the shaft sleeve and coverplate seal cavity with soapy water.
Do not use a petroleum lubricant.
2. Install a new cup gasket and a new seal insert with the indentation side down into the
cup.
3. Slide a new rotating seal assembly onto the shaft sleeve.
4. Push the top of the compression ring with a screwdriver until the seal is tight against
the seal insert.
5. Install the seal spring and point the narrow end toward the seal.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1. Impeller
2. Impeller capscrew
3. Drain plug
4. Volute
5. Volute capscrews
6. Motor bracket
7. Motor foot capscrews
8. Shaft sleeve
9. Seal assembly
10. Volute gasket
Assemble the single mechanical seal (1531-S)
1. Lubricate the shaft sleeve and seal cap with soapy water.
Do not use a petroleum lubricant.
2. Insert a stationary seal with an O-ring into the seal cap and slide it onto the shaft.
3. Replace the seal cap gasket.
4. Slide the rotating portion of the seal assembly onto the shaft sleeve and lock it in place.
ID seal size Distance between collar and impeller end of the shaft sleeve
1-1/4 in. (3.175 cm) 1-13/32 in. (3.571 cm)
Maintenance
22 Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual
ID seal size Distance between collar and impeller end of the shaft sleeve
1-5/8 in. (4.128 cm) 1-1/4 in. (3.175 cm)
5. Assemble the coverplate onto the bracket.
6. Tighten the capscrews according to the Capscrew torque table.
7. Attach the seal cap to the coverplate.
8. Tighten the hex nuts on the seal cap bolts according to the Capscrew torque table.
2
3
4
5
6
7
9
1
8
1. O-ring
2. Coverplate
3. For 1-1/4 in. seal: 1-13/32 in. (3.571 cm)
4. For 1-5/8 in. seal: 1-1/4 in. (3.175 cm)
5. Seal locking collar
6. Seal cap bolt
7. Seal cap
8. O-ring
9. Motor end
Figure 2: Single mechanical seal (1531S)
Assemble the double mechanical seal (1531-D)
1. Lubricate the shaft sleeve, seal cap, and coverplate cavity with soapy water.
Do not use a petroleum lubricant.
2. Insert a stationary seal and O-ring into the seal cap.
For the 1-1/4 in. ID seal, both parts are housed in the coverplate. A seal cap gasket is
not used.
Maintenance
Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual 23
1
2
1
1. O-rings
2. Motor end
Figure 3: Double mechanical seal (1531D)
3. Insert another stationary seal and O-ring into the coverplate.
4. Slide the seal cap onto the shaft.
5. Replace the seal cap gasket.
6. Slide the rotating portion of the seal assembly onto the shaft sleeve.
7. Assemble the coverplate onto the bracket.
8. Tighten the capscrews according to the Capscrew torque values table.
9. Attach the seal cap to the coverplate.
10. Tighten the hex nuts on the seal cap bolts according to the Capscrew torque values
table.
Assemble the packed stufng box (1531-PF)
1. Insert two packing rings into the stufng box.
2. Insert the lantern ring and the last two pieces of packing.
Make sure that the joints on the packing rings are staggered 90.
3. Install, but do not tighten, the packing gland.
4. Install the coverplate over the pump shaft.
5. Tighten the capscrews according to the Capscrew torque table in the Maintenance
chapter.
6. Tighten the packing gland to compress the packing.
See the note on the packed pump operation in the Operations chapter for more
information.
Maintenance
24 Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual
1
2
3
4
5
1. Flushing tube
2. Coverplate capscrew
3. Packing gland
4. Bracket
5. Coverplate
Reinstall the bearing frame and impeller assembly
1. Install the impeller, impeller washer, lock washer, and capscrew, and then tighten per
the Capscrew torque values table.
2. Install a new volute gasket.
3. Install the bearing frame assembly into the volute.
4. Tighten the volute capscrews according to the Capscrew torque values table.
5. Install a seal ushing tube if it is used.
6. Install the support foot capscrews and tighten them according to the Capscrew torque
values table.
7. Install the drain plug and close the drain valve.
8. Open the isolation valves and inspect the pump for leaks.
Return the pump to service if you do not detect any leaks. See the Note on the packed
pump operation in the Commissioning, Startup, Operations, and Shutdown chapter.
Capscrew torque values
Capscrew torque in ft-lbs (Nm)
Capscrew
type
Head
marking
1/4 in. 5/16 in. 3/8 in. 7/16 in. 1/2 in. 5/8 in. 3/4 in. 7/8 in. 1 in.
SAE grade 2 6 (8) 13 (18) 25 (34) 38 (52) 60 (81) 120 (163) 190 (258) 210 (285) 300 (407)
Brass or
stainless
steel
or
4 (5) 10 (14) 17 (23) 27 (37) 42 (57) 83 (113) 130 (176) 200 (271) 300 (407)
Maintenance
Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual 25
Capscrew
type
Head
marking
1/4 in. 5/16 in. 3/8 in. 7/16 in. 1/2 in. 5/8 in. 3/4 in. 7/8 in. 1 in.
SAE grade 5 10 (14) 20 (27) 35 (47) 60 (81) 90 (122) 180 (244) 325 (441) 525 (712) 800 (1085)
Dealer servicing
If trouble occurs that cannot be rectied, contact your local sales and service
representative and be prepared to provide this information:
1. Complete nameplate data of pump and motor
2. Suction and discharge pipe pressure gauge readings
3. Ampere draw of the motor
4. A sketch of the pump hook-up and piping
Maintenance
26 Series 1531 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual

Xylem |zlm|
1) The tissue in plants that brings water upward from the roots
2) A leading global water technology company
We're 12,500 people unied in a common purpose: creating
innovative solutions to meet our world's water needs. Developing new
technologies that will improve the way water is used, conserved, and
re-used in the future is central to our work. We move, treat, analyze,
and return water to the environment, and we help people use water
efciently, in their homes, buildings, factories and farms. In more than
150 countries, we have strong, long-standing relationships with
customers who know us for our powerful combination of leading
product brands and applications expertise, backed by a legacy of
innovation.
For more information on how Xylem can help you, go to xyleminc.com
Xylem Inc.
8200 N. Austin Avenue
Morton Grove, IL 60053
Tel. 1-847-966-3700
Fax 1-847-965-8379
www.xyleminc.com/brands/
bellgossett
Visit our Web site for the latest version of this
document and more information
The original instruction is in English. All non-
English instructions are translations of the original
instruction.

2012 Xylem Inc.


Bell & Gossett is a trademark of Xylem Inc or one
of its subsidiaries.
P81567_F_ en.US_2012 -12_IOM.1531
CURVES
B-360E
SERIES 1531
CLOSE COUPLED CENTRIFUGAL PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVES
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SERIES 1531
Bell & Gossett is a trademark of Xylem Inc. or one of its subsidiaries.
2000 Xylem Inc. B-360E January 2000
Xylem Inc.
8200 N. Austin Avenue, Morton Grove, Illinois 60053
Phone: (847) 966-3700 Fax: (847) 965-8379
www.xyleminc.com/brands/bellgossett
B-305G
Series 1531 Pumps
THE INDUSTRY STANDARD IN END SUCTION PUMP DESIGN
2
Standard Design Features
1. Self-flushing mechanical seals ensure maximum
seal face lubrication, heat dissipation and debris
removal without vulnerable, external flush tubing.
As much as 25 percent of the total pump flow
continuously flushes the seal faces.
2. Back pull-out design allows one service tech ease
of maintenance.
3. Aluminum bronze shaft sleeve construction is
standard. Special sealing between the sleeve and
shaft prevents corrosion of the shaft by the pumped
fluid.
4. Enclosed, balanced impeller for quiet, vibration
free performance. Impellers are precision fitted to the
shaft and positively locked with a shaft key.
5. Heavy duty cast iron volute construction for 175
PSI working pressure.
6. Jacking bolts provide ease of volute disassembly.
7. Gauge tappings on the suction and discharge
flanges along with volute vent and drain tappings
are standard.
8. Hydrostatic testing of each pump is standard.
Series 1531 Close - Coupled Pumps
Optional Equipment
All iron construction Vertical mounting Footed volute
Bronze casing wear ring Mechanical seal construction
3
Series 1531 Selection Charts
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
7
0
8
0
9
0
1
0
0
2
0
0
3
0
0
4
0
0
5
0
0
6
0
0
7
0
0
8
0
0
9
0
0
1
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
7
0
8
0
9
0
1
0
0
2
0
0
3
0
0
4
0
0
5
0
0
6
0
0
7
0
0
8
0
0
9
0
0
1
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
5
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
200
300
400
500
T
O
T
A
L

H
E
A
D
,

f
t
.

o
f

w
a
t
e
r
CAPACITY, gpm
3500 RPM
1750 RPM
1150 RPM
60 Hz
50 Hz
4
Series 1531 Performance Curves
5
Series 1531 Dimensions
FIGURE 1
Standard working pressure 175 PSI (12 BAR). Flanges drilled and faced per 125# ANSI Standards*.
GAUGE TAP
DISCHARGE
SUCTION
GAUGE TAP
CP
A
AB
Z
DD
X
Dimensions are subject to change. Not to be used for construction purposes unless certified.
1
Varies with motor manufacturer.
PUMP DIMENSIONS FIGURE 1 INCHES (MM)
SIZE OF PUMP
AND
DISCHARGE SUCTION DD X Z AB (MAX)
1
A (MAX)
1
CP (MAX)
1
1
1
/4 AC (NPT) 1
1
/2 NPT 4
3
/4 (121) 5 (127) 4
1
/2 (114) 10
3
/4 (273) 10
1
/2 (267) 25
1
/2 (648)
1
1
/2 AC (NPT) 2 NPT 5 (127) 6 (152) 4
5
/8 (117) 10
3
/4 (273) 12
1
/2 (318) 32
1
/4 (819)
2 AC 2
1
/2 5
1
/2 (140) 6
1
/2 (165) 4
3
/4 (121) 10
3
/4 (273) 12
1
/2 (318) 34
1
/2 (876)
2
1
/2 AB 3 5
13
/16 (148) 6 (152) 4
11
/16 (119) 10
3
/4 (273) 12
1
/2 (318) 35
1
/4 (895)
3 AC 4 6
1
/4 (159) 6 (152) 5 (127) 12
5
/8 (321) 14 (356) 36
1
/8 (918)
4 AC 5 6
7
/8 (175) 7
1
/2 (191) 5
3
/4 (146) 15
1
/8 (384) 16 (406) 40
5
/8 (1032)
5 A 6 7
7
/8 (200) 8
1
/2 (216) 6
1
/4 (159) 15
1
/8 (384) 16 (406) 42 (1067)
1
1
/4 BC (NPT) 1
1
/2 NPT 6
1
/8 (156) 8 (203) 5
1
/2 (140) 12
5
/8 (321) 14 (356) 35
1
/8 (892)
1
1
/2 BC (NPT) 2 NPT 6
1
/4 (159) 6
1
/2 (165) 5
3
/4 (146) 15
1
/8 (384) 16 (406) 36
3
/8 (924)
2 BC 2
1
/2 6
1
/8 (156) 7 (178) 5
7
/8 (149) 15
1
/8 (384) 16 (406) 39 (991)
2
1
/2 BB 3 7
1
/4 (184) 6
3
/4 (171) 6 (152) 15
1
/8 (384) 16 (406) 39
1
/8 (994)
3 BC 4 7 (178) 7
1
/2 (191) 6
1
/8 (156) 15
1
/8 (384) 16 (406) 40 (1016)
4 BC 5 8
5
/8 (219) 8 (203) 7 (178) 10
3
/4 (273) 12
1
/2 (318) 36
3
/8 (924)
5 BC 6 9
1
/2 (241) 10 (254) 7
1
/2 (191) 12
5
/8 (321) 14 (356) 37
1
/8 (943)
6 BC 8 10
3
/8 (264) 10
1
/2 (267) 8
1
/4 (210) 15
1
/8 (384) 16 (406) 43
1
/2 (1105)
2 E 3 7
5
/8 (194) 8 (203) 6
1
/2 (165) 10
3
/4 (273) 12
1
/2 (318) 39
1
/4 (997)
3 E 4 8
1
/2 (216) 9
1
/2 (241) 7
3
/8 (187) 10
3
/4 (273) 12
1
/2 (318) 35
1
/2 (902)
4 E 5 9
1
/4 (235) 9
3
/4 (248) 7
1
/4 (184) 12
5
/8 (321) 14 (356) 35 (889)
5 E 6 9
5
/8 (244) 10
1
/2 (267) 7
15
/16 (202) 15
1
/8 (384) 16 (406) 38 (965)
6 E 8 10
7
/8 (276) 11 (279) 8
15
/32 (215) 15
1
/8 (384) 16 (406) 40
5
/8 (1032)
6
1531-F OPTION
BYPASS FLUSH LINE
INTERNALLY FLUSHED SEAL
1531-S OPTION
FLUSH SINGLE SEAL
STUFFING BOX CONSTRUCTION
STANDARD OPTIONAL
Cast Iron Volute All Iron Construction
Alloy Steel Shaft Bronze Casing Wear Ring
Bronze Shaft Sleeve Stainless Steel Shaft Sleeve
Internal Flushed Seal Bypass Flush Line
Stuffing Box Configuration
Buna/Carbon-
Ceramic Seal (Standard Configuration only)
EPR/Tungsten Carbide-Carbon Seal
EPR/Silicone Carbide-Silicone Carbide Seal
Stuffing Box Configuration
EPR/Tungsten Carbide-Carbon Seal
SEAL SELECTION GUIDE
STANDARD CONFIGURATION
Buna/Carbon-Ceramic PH Limitations 7-9; Temperature Range
-20 to +225F
EPR/Tungsten Carbide-Carbon PH Limitations 7-11; Temperature
Range -20 to +250F
EPR/Silicone Carbide-Silicone Carbide PH Limitations 7-12.5;
Temperature Range -20 to +250F
Recommended for use on closed or open systems which are
relatively free of dirt and/or other abrasive particles.
STUFFING BOX CONFIGURATION
Flushed Single Seal
EPR/Tungsten Carbide-Carbon PH Limitations 7-11; Temperature
Range -20 to +300F
Recommended for use on closed or open systems which may contain
a high concentration of abrasives. An external flush is required.
Flushed Double Seal
EPR/Carbon-Ceramic PH Limitations 7-9; Temperature Range 0 to
+250F
Recommended for use on closed or open systems which may contain
a high concentration of abrasives. An external flush is required.
Packing
Braided Graphite PTFE-PH Limitations 7-9; Temperature Range 0 to
+250F
Recommended for use on closed or open systems which require a
large amount of makeup water, as well as systems which are subjected
to widely varying chemical conditions and solids buildup.
For operating temperatures above 250F a cooled flush is required and is
recommended for temperatures above 225F for optimum seal life. On closed
systems cooling is accomplished by inserting a small heat exchanger in the
flush line to cool the seal flushing fluid.
Flush-line Filters and Sediment Separators are available on special request.
PUMP DIMENSIONS FIGURE 2 INCHES (MM)
SIZE OF PUMP
AND
DISCHARGE SUCTION DD X Z AB (MAX)
1
HA (MAX)
1
CP (MAX)
1
2G 3 10 (254) 9 (229) 7
1
/4 (184) 11
1
/2 (292) 14 (356) 31
7
/8 (810)
3G 4 10 (254) 9
1
/2 (241) 8 (203) 14
5
/8 (371) 15
3
/4 (400) 34
1
/16 (865)
4GB 5 11 (279) 10 (254) 8
9
/16 (217) 14
5
/8 (371) 15
3
/4 (400) 36
1
/16 (916)
5G 6 12 (305) 13 (330) 9 (229) 14
5
/8 (371) 22
1
/2 (571) 36
5
/16 (922)
6G 8 12 (305) 14 (357) 9
5
/16 (236) 14
5
/8 (371) 22
1
/2 (571) 37
1
/16 (941)
8G** 10* 14
3
/8 (365) 17
5
/16 (440) 0 15
7
/8 (403) 27
1
/2 (698) 40
27
/64 (1026)
Dimensions are subject to change. Not to be used for construction purposes unless certified.
1
Varies with motor manufacturer.
*8G suction flange drilled and tapped per ANSI B16.1 standard.
**8G is Stuffing Box Configuration only.
Consult Publication B-360 Performance Curves for required horsepower.
Series 1531 Dimensions
FIGURE 2
GAUGE TAP
DISCHARGE
SUCTION
GAUGE
TAP
CP HA
AB Z
DD
X
Series 1531 Construction features and options
7
Series 1531 Construction features and options
DESCRIPTION BRONZE FITTED PUMP ALL IRON PUMP*
1 Shaft Steel SAE 1144 Steel SAE 1144
2 Volute Cast Iron ASTM #A159 Cast Iron ASTM #A159
3 Impeller Cast Bronze ASTM #B854 Cast Iron ASTM #159
4 Shaft Sleeve Aluminum Bronze ASTM #B111 #304 Stainless Steel ASTM #A312
5 Impeller Key #304 Stainless Steel #304 Stainless Steel
6 Impeller Washer 1531 Brass Stainless Steel
7 Impeller Lock Washer #304 Stainless Steel #304 Stainless Steel
8 Impeller Cap Screw #304 Stainless Steel #304 Stainless Steel
9 Volute Gasket Cellulose Fiber Cellulose Fiber
10 Seal Assemblies
Standard Seal
Bellows Buna N Buna N
Faces Carbon-Ceramic Carbon-Ceramic
Metal Parts Brass Stainless Steel
Spring Stainless Steel Stainless Steel
For Stuffing Box
10AFlushed Single
O-Rings EPR EPR
Faces Carbon-Tungsten Carbide Carbon-Tungsten Carbide
Metal Parts Stainless Steel Stainless Steel
Spring Stainless Steel Stainless Steel
10B Flushed Double
O-Rings EPR EPR
Faces Carbon-Ceramic Carbon-Ceramic
Metal Parts Stainless Steel Stainless Steel
Spring Stainless Steel Stainless Steel
Packed
Packing Graphited Braided Yarn Graphited Braided Yarn
Gland Bronze Cast Iron
Lantern Ring Filled TFE Filled TFE
*All Iron Construction NOT available in G sizes.
Bell & Gossett is a trademark of Xylem Inc. or one of its subsidiaries.
2011 Xylem Inc. B-305G November 2011
Xylem Inc.
8200 N. Austin Avenue
Morton Grove, Illinois 60053
Phone: (847) 966-3700
Fax: (847) 965-8379
www.xyleminc.com/brands/bellgossett