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CHAPTER 30

Quick Quizzes
1.

on 4. 0 109 J t on = 1. 2 1014 J. The mass (c). The total energy released was E = 30 103 t
equivalent of this quantity of energy is
m= E 1. 2 1014 J = = 1. 3 103 kg ~ 1 g 2 2 8 c 3. 0 10 m s

)(

2. 3. 4.

(a). This reaction fails to conserve charge and cannot occur. (b). This reaction fails to conserve charge and cannot occur. (c), (e). The proton and the electron each have spin s= 1 2 . The two possible resultant spins after decay are 1 (spins aligned) or 0 (spins anti-aligned). Neither equal the spin of a neutron, s= 1 2 , so spin angular momentum is not conserved. The are no leptons present before the proposed decay and one lepton (the electron) present after decay. Thus, the decay also fails to conserve lepton number.

441

C H A P T E R

3 0

Problem Solutions
30.1
1 0

n+

235 92

141 56

Ba +

92 36

K r+ 3 1 0n

To conserve both charge and the total number of nucleons, it is seen that this reaction r ons in addition to the other fission products. must yield 3 neut

30.2

The energy released in the reaction

1 0

n+

235 92

98 40

Zr +

135 52

Te + 3 1 0 n is

2 Q = ( m ) c2 = m 235 U 2m n m 98 Zr m 135 Te c

= 043 924u 2(1. 008 665u ) 97. 912 0u 134. 908 7 u 5 M eV u ) 235. ( 931.
= 192 M eV

30.3

The energy released in the reaction

1 0

n+

235 92

88 38

Sr +

136 54

Xe + 12 1 0 n is

2 Q = ( m ) c2 = m 235 U 11m n m 88 Sr m 136 Xe c

= 043 924u 11(1. 008 665u ) 87. 905 618u 135. 907 215u 5 M eV u ) 235. ( 931.
= 126 M eV 30.4 Three different fission reactions are possible:
1 0

n+ n+ n+

235 92

U 90 38 Sr + U 90 38 Sr + U 90 38 Sr +

144 54

Xe + 21 0n
1 Xe + 3 0 n

144 54

Xe Xe Xe

1 0

235 92

143 54

143 54

1 0

235 92

142 54

1 Xe + 4 0 n

142 54

30.5

(a) With a specific gravity of 4.00, the density of soil is = 4000 kg m 3 . Thus, the mass of the top 1.00 m of soil is

kg m = V = 4000 3 (1. 00 m m

)(

2 1m 43560 f t 62 107 kg = 1. 3. 281 f t 2

442

C H A P T E R

3 0

At a rate of 1 part per million, the mass of uranium in this soil is then

mU =

1. 62 107 kg m 2 kg = = 16. 106 106


235

(b) Since 0.720% of naturally occurring uranium is part (a) is

U , the mass of

235

U in the soil of

m 235 U = 7. 20 103 m U = 7. 20 103 (16. 2 kg) = 0. 117 kg = 117 g


30.6 At 40.0% efficiency, the useful energy obtained per fission event is

Eevent = 0. 400( 200 M eV event 60 1013 J M eV = 1. 28 1011 J event ) 1.


The number of fission events required each day is then

00 109 J s 8. 64 104 s d t 1. 75 1024 event sd N = = = 6. 11 1. 28 10 J event Eevent


Each fission event consumes one
m = N m atom
235

)(

U atom. The mass of this number of

235

U atoms is

63 kg d = 6. 75 1024 event sd 044 u ) 1. 66 1027 kg u ( 235. = 2.


In contrast, a coal-burning steam plant producing the same electrical power uses more than 6 106 kg d of coal.

30.7

The mass of

235

U in 1.0-kg of fuel is 0.017 kg, and the number of

235

U nuclei is

N =

m m atom

044 u ) ( 1. 66 10 ( 235.

0. 017 kg

27

kg u

35 1022 = 4.

At 208 MeV per fission event and 20% efficiency, the useful energy available from this number of fission events is
E = 4. 35 1022 event s 60 1013 J M ev 20) = 2. 9 1011 J ) 1. ( 208 M eV event ( 0.

443

C H A P T E R

3 0

From W ork = Fdrag s= E , the distance the ship can travel on this 1.0-kg of fuel is

s=

2. 9 1011 J E 9 103 km (or about 1800 miles) = = 2. 9 106 m = 2. 5 0 10 N Fdrag 1.

30.8

The total energy released was

E = 20 103 t on 4. 0 109 J t on = 8. 0 1013 J,


and the number of fission events required was

)(

N =

E Eevent

8. 0 1013 J = 2. 4 1024 13 60 10 J M eV ( 208 M eV ) 1.

The mass of this number of

235

U atoms is

94 kg m = N m atom = 2. 4 1024 044 u ) 1. 66 1027 kg u ( 235. = 0.


30.9 The total energy required for one year is

E = ( 2000 kW h m ont h) 3. 60 106 J kW h (12. 0 m ont hs) = 8. 64 1010 J


The number of fission events needed will be

8. 64 1010 J N = = = 2. 60 1021 , 13 Eevent ( 208 M eV ) 1. 60 10 J M eV E

and the mass of this number of

235

U atoms is

m = N m atom = 2. 60 1021 044 u ) 1. 66 1027 kg u ( 235.

01 g = 1. 01 103 kg = 1.
2 3 The energy released in the reaction 1 1 H + 1 H 2H e + is

30.10

2 Q = ( m ) c2 = m 1H + m 2 H m 3 H e c

49 M eV = 007 825u + 2. 014 102u 3. 016 029u 5 M eV u ) = 5. 1. ( 931.


444

C H A P T E R

3 0

30.11

(a) (b)

4 2

4 H e+ 2 H e

8 4

Be + C
+

8 4

4 Be + 2 H e

12 6

(c) The total energy released in this pair of fusion reactions is


2 Q = ( m ) c2 = 3m 4 H e m 12 C c

27 M eV = 002 602u ) 12. 000 000u 5 M eV u ) = 7. 3( 4. ( 931.


30.12 (a) (c) (e)
H + C
13 7

1 1

12 6

N N
0 +1

+
+

(b) (d) (f)

13 7

13 6

+
15 8

0 +1

e+
+
4 + 2 He

13 6

C +1 1H O
15 7

14 7

14 7

N +1 1H N + 1 1H

15 8

e+

15 7

12 6

30.13

2 3 4 The energy released in the reaction 1 H + 1 H 2 H e+ 1 0n is

2 Q = ( m ) c2 = m 2H + m 3H m 4 H e m n c

= 014 102u + 3. 016 049u 4. 002 602u 1. 008 665u 5 M eV u ) 2. ( 931.

= 17. 6 M eV 1. 60 1013 J M eV = 2. 81 1012 J


The total energy required for the year is

E = ( 2000 kW h m ont h)(12. 0 m ont hs yr) 3. 60 106 J kW h = 8. 64 1010 J yr


so the number of fusion events needed for the year is

N =

8. 64 1010 J yr E 07 1022 event s yr = = 3. 12 81 10 J event Q 2.

30.14

(a) From KE =

1 2 3 m vrm s = kB T , the rms speed is 2 2

3 1. 38 10 23 J K 4. 00 108 K 3kB T 23 106 m s = = 2. vrm s = m 014 u ) 1. 66 10 27 kg u ( 2.

)(

445

C H A P T E R

3 0

(b) t=

d 0. 10 m = = 4. 5 108 s or ~108 s vrm s 2. 23 106 m s

30.15

(a) Hydrogen contributes 2 18 or 1 9 of the mass of a water molecule. Therefore the


mass of hydrogen in the oceans is

mH =

32 1021 kg m w ater 1. = = 1. 47 1020 kg 9 9

Of this mass of hydrogen, 0.0300% is deuterium, or

m d = 0. 0300 10 2 1. 47 1020 kg = 4. 40 1016 kg


The number of deuterium nuclei contained in the oceans is then

)(

N =

4. 40 1016 kg md = = 1. 32 1043 m atom ( 2. 014 u ) 1. 66 1027 kg u

Two deuterium nuclei are consumed in each occurrence of the reaction 2 2 3 1 1 H + 1H 2H e + 0n , so N 2 such events will be possible. With an energy release of Q = 3. 27 M eV per event, the total energy available is

1. 32 1043 N 44 1030 J 27 M eV ) 1. 60 1013 J M eV = 3. E= Q = ( 3. 2 2

(b) The time this could supply the worlds electrical energy needs is

t=

3. 44 1030 J E = = 4. 92 1015 100 7. 00 1012 J s

1 yr 56 108 yr = 1. s 7 3. 156 10 s

30.16

Minimum energy is released when both the proton and the antiproton are at rest before annihilation. In that case the energy released is Em in = 2( E0 ) proton . To conserve momentum, the two photons must go in opposite directions with equal magnitude momenta. Therefore, E = Em in 2 = ( E0 ) proton = 938. 3 M eV , so

f=

E h

3 M eV ) ( 1. 60 1013 J M eV ) ( 938. 6. 63 1034 J s

26 1023 H z , = 2.

and

00 108 m s c 3. 32 f m = = 1. 32 1015 m = 1. 23 26 10 H z f 2.
446

C H A P T E R

3 0

30.17

Note that pair production cannot occur in a vacuum. It must occur in the presence of a massive particle which can absorb at least some of the momentum of the photon and allow total linear momentum to be conserved. When a particle-antiparticle pair is produced by a photon having the minimum possible frequency, and hence minimum possible energy, the nearby massive particle absorbs all the momentum of the photon, allowing both components of the particle-antiparticle pair to be left at rest. In such an event, the total kinetic energy afterwards is essentially zero and the photon need only supply the total rest energy of the pair produced. The minimum photon energy required to produce a proton-antiproton pair is
E = 2( ER ) proton = 2( 938. 3 M eV ) 1. 60 1013 J M eV = 3. 00 1010 J

Thus,

f=

E h

3. 00 1010 J 53 1023 H z = 4. 6. 63 1034 J s

and

00 108 m s c 3. 662 f m = = 6. 62 1016 m = 0. 53 1023 H z f 4.

30.18

The total kinetic after the pair production is


KEtotal = E 2( ER ) proton = 2. 09 103 M eV 2( 938. 3 M eV ) = 213 M eV

The kinetic energy of the antiproton is then

KEp = KEtotal KEp = 213 M eV 95. 0 M eV = 118 M eV


30.19 The time for a particle traveling at (almost) the speed of light to move this distance is
t= d 3. 0 1015 m = = 1. 0 1023 s 8 c 3. 00 10 m s

The estimate of the time for a strong interaction is then ~1023 s

447

C H A P T E R

3 0

30.20

The uncertainty principle limits the time the virtual proton can exist as
t= h 2 h 6. 63 1034 J s = = = 7. 03 1025 s 13 2 E 2 938. 3 M eV 1. 60 10 J M eV ( ) 2 m pc

The maximum distance the virtual proton could travel in this time is

d = c( t 00 108 m s 7. 03 1025 s = 2. 11 1016 m ) = 3.


The estimate of the range of this force is therefore ~1016 m

)(

30.21

The maximum lifetime of the virtual Z 0 boson is found from the uncertainty principle to be
t= h 2 h 6. 63 1034 J s 1 1027 s = = = 7. 10 2 ER 2 ( 93 G eV ) 1. E 60 10 J G eV

The maximum distance the particle could travel is then

dm ax = c( t 00 108 m s 7. 1 1027 s = 2. 1 1018 m ) = 3.


The range of the weak interaction is then estimated to be ~1018 m 30.22 With zero momentum before the decay, conservation of momentum requires the two photons go in opposite directions and have equal magnitude momenta. The energy of each photon is then

)(

E =

( ER )
2

135 M eV 5 M eV = 67. 2

30.23 Reaction (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)


p+ p + + e

Conservation Law Violated

Le :( 0 + 0 0 + 1) ; and L :( 0 + 0 1+ 0) C har ge,Q : ( 1 + 1 + 1+ 1)

+ p p+ +
p+ p p+ +
p+ p p+ p+ n

Bar yon N um ber ,B : (1+ 1 1+ 0)


Bar yon N um ber ,B : ( 1+ 1 1+ 1+ 1)
Char ge,Q : ( 0 + 1 0 + 0)
448

+ p n + 0

C H A P T E R

3 0

30.24

(a) + + p K + + +

Baryon number, B : Charge, Q :

0 + 1 0 + 1
1+ 1 1+ 1 0 + 1 0 + 1 1+ 1 1+ 1

B = 0 Q = 0 B = 0 Q = 0

+ + p + + +

Baryon number, B : Charge, Q :

(b) Strangeness is conserved in the first reaction: S:

0 + 0 1 1

S = 0

The second reaction does not conserve strangeness: S:

0+ 0 0 1

S = 1

at he st r ong orel ect r om agnet i ci nt er act i ons This reaction cannotoccurvi


?+ p n + +

30.25

Conservation of charge Conservation of Baryon number Conservation of electron-lepton number Conservation of muon-lepton number Conservation of tau-lepton number

Q + e 0 + e or

Q = 0

B + 1 1+ 0 or
Le + 0 0 + 0 or

B = 0
Le = 0

L + 0 0 1 or
L + 0 0 + 0 or

L = 1
L = 0

The particle having these properties is a neutral, antimuon lepton. It is the .


The relevant conservation laws are Le = 0 , L = 0 , and L = 0 . (a) + 0 + e+ + ? (b) ?+ p + p + + (c)
0 p + + ?

30.26

Le = 0 0 0 1+ Le , so Le = + 1

L = 0 L + 0 1+ 0 + 0 , so L = + 1 L = 0 0 0 + 1+ L , so L = 1

449

C H A P T E R

3 0

+ (d) + + ?+ ?

L = 0 0 1+ L , so L = + 1
L = 0 1 0 + L , so L = 1

One particle must be with L = + 1, while the other is with L = 1


30.27 The relevant conservation laws are Le = 0 , L = 0 , and L = 0 .
(a) + + ?

L = 0 0 1+ L , so L = 1

(b) K + + + ? (c)
?+ p n + e +

L = 0 0 1+ L , so L = + 1
Le = 0 Le + 0 0 1, so Le = 1 Le = 0 Le + 0 0 + 1, so Le = + 1

e
e

(d) ?+ n p + e (e) (f)


?+ n p +

L = 0 L + 0 0 + 1, so L = + 1

e + ?+ ?

L = 0 1 0 + L , so L = + 1
Le = 0 0 + 1+ Le , so Le = 1

One particle must be with L = + 1, while the other is e with Le = 1.


p + + 0 p+ p p+ p+ 0 p+ p p+ +

30.28

(a) (b) (c)

vi ol at es Bar yon num ber

1 0 + 0

B 0

Can occur -al lconser vat i on l aw s obeyed vi ol at es Bar yon num ber

1+ 1 1+ 0

B 0

(d) + + + (e) (f)


n p + e + e

Can occur -al lconser vat i on l aw s obeyed Can occur -al lconser vat i on l aw s obeyed vi ol at es Bar yon num ber

+ + +n

0 0+ 1

B 0

30.29

(a) + p 2 0

notal l ow ed -vi ol at es Bar yon num ber


450

C H A P T E R

3 0

(b) K + n 0 + + (c)
K + 0

st r ong i nt er act i on - obeys all conservation laws S = + 1 , all other conservation laws obeyed may occur via

w eak i nt er act i on but not strong or electromagnetic interactions


(d) + 0

S = + 1 , all other conservation laws obeyed may occur via

w eak i nt er act i on but not strong or electromagnetic interactions


(e) 0 2 All conservation laws are obeyed. Photons are the mediators

of the electromagnetic interaction. Also, the lifetime of the 0 is consistent with the ect r om agnet i ci nt er act i on . electromagnetic interaction. May occur via el 30.30 With zero momentum before the decay, conservation of momentum requires the two pions go in opposite directions with equal magnitude momenta. Since the pions have the same rest energy and momentum, they also have the same kinetic energy, KE = Q 2 , where
2 Q = ( m ) c2 = 7 M eV 2(139. 6 M eV ) 5 M eV 497. = 218. m K 0 2m c =

The total energy of each pion is


E = ER + KE = 139. 6 M eV + 218. 5 M eV = 248. 9 M eV , 2

so

E 248. 9 M eV 1 783 = = = 1. 2 6 M eV ER 139. 1 ( v c)


2 8278c v = c 1 1 2 = c 1 1 (1. 783) = 0.

The speed is then


0 p +

30.31

(a)

St r angeness: 1 0 + 0 St r angeness: 0+0 1+ 1 St r angeness: 0+0 + 1 1 St r angeness: 0+0 0 1 St r angeness: 2 1+ 0 St r angeness: 2 0 + 0


451

S 0 S = 0 S = 0 S 0 S 0 S 0

(b) + p 0 + K 0 (c)
p + p 0 + 0

(d) + p + + (e) (f)


0 +
0 p+

C H A P T E R

3 0

30.32

(a)

K + + p ? + p The strong interaction obeys all conservation laws.


Charge: Baryon number: Lepton numbers: Strangeness:
+1 + 1 Q + 1

Q = + 1e

0 + 1 B + 1 0+ 0 L + 0
+ 1+ 0 S + 0

B = 0
Le = L = L = 0
S = +1

The missing particle is a positive meson B = 0 and Le = L = L = 0 with strangeness S = + 1. This must be the K + , so this is an elastic scattering process. (b) ? + Weak interactions obey all conservation laws except conservation of strangeness. For it, S = 0, 1 . Charge: Baryon number: Lepton numbers: Strangeness:

1 Q 1

Q = 0

+1 B + 0 0 L + 0
3 S + 0

B = +1

Le = L = L = 0
so S = 0, 1 S = 2, 3,or 4

The missing particle is a neutral baryon ( B = + 1) with strangeness S = 2, 3,

or 4 . From Table 30.2, the only particle with these properties is the 0 .
(c)
? + + Weak interactions obey all conservation laws except conservation
+ +

of strangeness. For it, S = 0, 1 . Charge: Baryon number: Lepton numbers:

+ 1 Q + 1+ 0

Q = 0

0 B + 0+ 0
0 Le + 0 + 0

B = 0
Le = 0

0 L 1+ 1
0 L + 0 + 0

L = 0
L = 0

Strangeness:

+ 1 S + 0 + 0
452

so S = 0, 1 S = 0,+1,or + 2

C H A P T E R

3 0

The missing particle is a neutral meson B = 0 and Le = L = L = 0 less massive than the K + (to conserve energy). This must be the .
0

30.33

(a)

0 + +
Charge: Baryon number: Lepton numbers,

1 0 1+ 0 + 1 + 1+ 0 + 0 Le :

Q = 0
B = 0 Le = 0 L 0 L = 0

0 0+ 0+ 0 0 0 + 1+ 1 0 0+ 0+ 0
2 1+ 0 + 0

L :
L :
Strangeness: (b) K 0 2 0 Charge: Baryon number: Lepton numbers,

S 0

0 0+ 0 0 0+ 0
Le :

Q = 0
B = 0 Le = 0 L = 0 L = 0 S 0

0 0+ 0 0 0+ 0 0 0+ 0
+ 1 0 + 0

L :
L :
Strangeness: (c)
K + p 0 + n

Charge: Baryon number:

1+ 1 0 + 0

Q = 0 B 0

0 + 1 1+ 1

453

C H A P T E R

3 0

Lepton numbers,

Le :

0+ 0 0+ 0 0+ 0 0+ 0 0+ 0 0+ 0
1 + 0 1+ 0

Le = 0
L = 0

L :
L :
Strangeness: (d) 0 0 + Charge: Baryon number: Lepton numbers,

L = 0
S = 0

0 0+ 0 1 1+ 0
Le :

Q = 0 B = 0 Le = 0

0 0+ 0 0 0+ 0 0 0+ 0
1 1+ 0

L :
L :
Strangeness: (e)

L = 0
L = 0

S = 0

e+ + e + +
Charge: Baryon number: Lepton numbers,

1 1 1 1 0+ 0 0+ 0
Le : 1+ 1 0 + 0

Q = 0
B = 0 Le = 0 L = 0 L = 0 S = 0

L :
L :
Strangeness:

0 + 0 1 1 0+ 0 0+ 0 0+ 0 0+ 0

454

C H A P T E R

3 0

(f)

p+ n 0 +

Charge: Baryon number: Lepton numbers,

1+ 0 0 1 1+ 1 1+ 1 Le :

Q = 0 B = 0

0+ 0 0+ 0 0+ 0 0+ 0 0+ 0 0+ 0
0 + 0 + 1 1

Le = 0
L = 0 L = 0 S = 0

L :
L :
Strangeness: 30.34 proton 0 1 e

strangeness baryon number charge

u u d total 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 2e 3 2e 3 e 3 e

strangeness baryon number charge

neutron 0 1 0

u d d total 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 2e 3 e 3 e 3 0

30.35

The number of water molecules in one liter (mass = 1000 g) of water is

1000 g N = 6. 02 1023 m ol ecul es m ol = 3. 34 1025 m ol ecul es 0 g m ol 18.

Each molecule contains 10 protons, 10 electrons, and 8 neutrons. Thus, there are
34 1026 el ect rons , N p = 10N = 3. N e = 10N = 3. 34 1026 pr ot ons,

and

N n = 8 N = 2. 68 1026 neut r ons

Each proton contains 2 up quarks and 1 down quark, while each neutron has 1 up quark and 2 down quarks. Therefore, there are
36 1026 up quar ks , and N u = 2N p + N n = 9. 70 1026 dow n quar ks N d = N p + 2N n = 8.

455

C H A P T E R

3 0

30.36
0 Particle 0 Particle

strangeness baryon number


charge
30.37

0 1

d
0 13

s
1 1 3

total 1
0
0

strangeness
baryon number
charge

0 -1

0
0

e 3

1
0

u 0 13

d
0 13

s -1 13

total -1
1
0

e3

2e 3 e 3 e 3

Compare the given quark states to the entries in Table 30.4: (a)
(c)
s uu = +
sd = K 0

(b)
(d)

ud =

ssd =

30.38

(a)

2 2 1 i pr ot on ge = e + e + + e = e . This is the ant uud : char 3 3 3

2 1 1 i neut r on ge = e + + e + + e = 0 . This is the ant (b) udd : char 3 3 3


30.39 Net Quarks (Before and After) 1 up, 2 down, 0 strange 3 up, 0 down, 0 strange
1 up, 1 down, 1 strange

Reaction (a) (b) (c)

At Quark Level
ud + uud ds + uds

+ p K 0 + 0 + + p K + + +
K + p K + + K 0 +

ud + uud us + uus

us+ uud us + ds + s s s

(d) p + p K 0 + p + + + X

uud + uud ds + uud + ud + X

To conserve the net number of each type quark, the quark composition of particle X must be 1u, 1d,and 1s, or uds . This particle is a 0 or a 0 .

456

C H A P T E R

3 0

30.40

The quark composition of the proton is uud , while that of the neutron is udd . Thus, neglecting binding energy,

m p = 2m u + m d and m n = m u + 2m d ,
giving
mu = 2m p m n 3 = 2 938. 3 M eV c2 939. 6 M eV c2 3

3 M eV c2 = 312.

and

7 M eV c2 m d = m p 2m u = 938. 3 M eV c2 2 312. 3 M eV c2 = 313.

30.41

The reaction is 0 + p + + + X , or on the quark level, uds+ uud uus+ 0 + ?. The left side has a net 3u, 2d,and 1s. The right side has 2u, 0d,and 1s, leaving

1u and 2d missing. The unknow n par t i cl ei s a neut r on,udd.


Baryon and strangeness numbers are conserved. 30.42 The reaction + p K 0 + 0 is ud + uud ds + uds at the quark level.

ks bot h bef or e and af t ert he r eact i on There is a net1u and 2d quar


For the reaction + p K 0 + n , or ud + uud ds + udd , there is a net

1u and 2d bef or et he r eact i on and 1u, 3d,and 1 ant i st r ange quar k af t er w ar ds


This reaction does not conserve the net number of each type quark. 30.43 The total momentum is zero both before and after reaction. For minimum incident kinetic energy, all particles will be left at rest after the reaction. The energy release in the reaction p + p p + n + + is
2 Q = ( m ) c2 = 3 939. 6 139. 6) M eV = 140. 9 M eV m p m n m + c = ( 938.

Thus, to conserve energy, each incident proton must have kinetic energy

KE =

140. 9 M eV Q 45 M eV = = 70. 2 2

457

C H A P T E R

3 0

30.44

vat i on ofchar ge (a) + p + + 0 is forbidden by conser


vat i on ofel ect r onl ept on num ber , (b) + e is forbidden by conser

conser vat i on ofener gy , and conser vat i on ofm uonl ept on num ber
(c)

vat i on ofbar yon num ber p + + + + is forbidden by conser


e + e , we add three electrons to both
0 1

30.45

3 4 To the reaction for nuclei, 1 1H + 2 H e 2 H e + 1 1 3 2 4 2

0 +1

sides to obtain H at om + H eat om H eat om + masses of the neutral atoms to compute


2 Q = ( m ) c2 = m 1 H + m 3 H e m 4 H e 2m e c

e+

0 +1

e + e . Then we use the

= 007 825+3. 016 029 4. 002 602 2( 0. 000 549) 5 M eV u ) 1. u ( 931. 8 M eV = 18.
For the partial reaction, + + e 2 , the lepton numbers before the event are L = 1 and Le = + 1. These values must be conserved by the reaction so one of the emerging neutrinos must have L = 1 while the other has Le = + 1. The emerging particle are
and e .

30.46

30.47

(a)

e +

vat i on ofm uonl ept on num ber Violates conser vat i on ofel ect r onl ept on num ber and also conser

(b) (c)

n p + e + e

vat i on ofel ect r onl ept on num ber Violates conser vat i on ofchar ge Violates conser vat i on ofel ect r onl ept on num ber Violates conser vat i on ofbar yon num ber and also conser

0 p + 0

(d) p e + + 0

(e)

0 n + 0

vat i on ofst r angeness num ber by 2 uni t s Violates conser


Even weak interactions only violate this rule by 1 unit

458

C H A P T E R

3 0

30.48

Assuming a head-on collision, the total momentum is zero both before and after the reaction p + p p + + + X . Therefore, since the proton and the pion are at rest after reaction, particle X must also be left at rest. Particle X must be a neutral baryon in order to conserve charge and baryon number in the reaction. The rest energy this particle is
E0X = 2 E0p + 70. 4 M eV E0p E0 + = E0p E0 + + 140. 8 M eV ,

or

E0X = 938. 3 M eV 139. 6 M eV + 140. 8 M eV =939. 5 M eV

r on Particle X is a neut

30.49

(a) Suppose each 235 U fission releases 208 MeV of energy. Then, the number of nuclei that must have undergone fission is

N =

t ot alr el ease 5 1013 J 5 1024 nucl ei = = 1. ener gy per f i ssi on ( 208 M eV ) 1. 60 1013 J M eV

(b) The mass of this number of

235

U atoms is

6 kg m = 1. 5 1024 044 u ) 1. 66 1027 kg u ( 235. 0.


30.50 The neutron initially has KEi = 2. 0 106 eV and, after n collisions, has final kinetic 039 eV . If one-half of the kinetic energy present before a collision is lost energy KE f = 0. in that collision, then
n l n KE f KEi l n KEi KE f 1 = KE f = KEi , giving n = 2 l n (1 2) l n2

or

n=

l n 2. 0 106 eV 0. 039 eV l n2

) = 25. 6 or

26 col l i si ons

30.51

(a) The proposed decay p e+ + has 1 baryon before and zero baryons afterward.

Bar yon num beri s notconser ved in this decay.

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(b) Since the total momentum is zero both before and after the event, the photon and the positron must travel in opposite directions with equal magnitude momenta. Therefore, p = pe or

E c

2 2 ERe Ee

2 2 , giving E2 = Ee ER e.

(1)

From conservation of energy, ERp = Ee + E or Ee = ERp E . Substituting into


2 2 equation (1) from above gives E2 = ERp , which reduces to 2ERpE + E2 ERe
2 2 3 M eV ) ( 0. 511 M eV ) ( 938. = 469 M eV 2( 938. 3 M eV )

E =

2 2 ERp ERe

2ERp

The momentum of the photon is then p =

E c

= 469 M eV c

(c) The positron energy is Ee = ERp E = ( 938. 3 469) M eV = 469 M eV Then, =

Ee and the speed of the positron is ERe


1 E = c 1 Re , E
e 2

v = c 1

511 M eV 0. 999999 4 c = 0. or v = c 1 469 M eV


63 10 ( 6.

30.52

(a)

L=

( h 2 ) G
c
3

hG = 2 c3

34

J s 6. 67 1011 N m

2 3. 00 10 m s
8

)(

kg2

61 1035 m L = 1.

(b) T =

L 1. 61 1035 m 38 10 44 s = = 5. c 3. 00 108 m s

This is approximately equal to the duration of the ultra-hot epoch. (c) Yes.

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Answers to Even Numbered Conceptual Questions


2. The two factors presenting the most technical difficulties are the requirements of a high plasma density and a high plasma temperature. These two conditions must occur simultaneously. Notice in the fusion reactions discussed in the text that the most commonly formed byproduct of the reactions is helium, which is inert and not radioactive. They are hadrons. Such particles decay into other strongly interacting particles such as p, n, and with very short lifetimes. In fact, they decay so quickly that they cannot be detected directly. Decays which occur via the weak force have lifetimes of 1013 s or longer; particles that decay via the electromagnetic force have times in the range of 1016 s to 1019 s. Each flavor of quark can have three colors, designated as red, green, and blue. Antiquarks are colored antired, antigreen, and antiblue. Baryons consist of three quarks, each having a different color. Mesons consist of a quark of one color and an antiquark with a corresponding anticolor. Thus, baryons and mesons are colorless or white. The decays of the neutral pion, eta, and neutral sigma occur by the electromagnetic interaction. These are the three shortest lifetimes in the table. All produce photons, which are the quanta of the electromagnetic force, and all conserve strangeness. Momentum must be conserved in this annihilation process. If the electron and positron have low speeds, the momentum before annihilation is essentially zero. Production of a 02 M eV c, far greater single photon of energy 1.02 MeV would leave momentum of 1. then any momentum that may have existed before annihilation. The only way to conserve both energy and momentum simultaneously is to produce two photons of equal energy traveling in opposite directions. 14. A neutron inside a nucleus is stable because it is in a lower energy state than a free neutron and lower in energy than it would be if it decayed into a proton (plus electron and antineutrino). The nuclear force gives it this lower energy by binding it inside the nucleus and by favoring pairing between neutrons and protons. A neutron will lose significantly more kinetic energy when it collides with a particle having nearly the same mass than it would in a collision with a very massive particle such as a lead or iron nucleus. Every water molecule contains two hydrogen atoms, each having mass approximately equal to that of the neutron. Therefore, water makes an excellent shield against neutrons or moderator of neutrons. Electrons participate in gravitational, electromagnetic, and weak interactions. As leptons, they do not participate in strong interactions. Protons participate in all four fundamental interactions. Neutrons also participate in all four interactions. While neutrons are electrically neutral, they do have magnetic dipole moments, and are therefore affected by electromagnetic forces.

4. 6.

8.

10.

12.

16.

18.

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Answers to Even Numbered Problems


2. 4. 6. 8. 10. 12. 14. 16. 18. 20. 22. 24. 26.
28.

192 MeV
144 54

Xe ,

143 54

Xe ,

142 54

Xe

2. 63 kg d
0.94 kg 5.49 MeV (a) (a)
13 7

N (b)

13 6

(c)

14 7

(d)
~108 s

15 8

(e)

15 7

(f)

12 6

2. 23 106 m s

(b)

2. 26 1023 H z , 1.32 fm

118 MeV
~1016 m

67.5 MeV (b) (a) The second reaction violates conservation of strangeness number. It cannot occur via the strong or electromagnetic interactions.

(b)

(c)

(d)

and

(a) violates conservation of baryon number (b) can occur (c) violates conservation of baryon number (d) can occur (e) can occur (f) violates conservation of baryon number

30. 32. 34.

0. 827 8 c
(a)
K
+

(b)

(c)

strangeness baryon number charge

proton 0 1 e

u u d total 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 2e 3 2e 3 e 3 e

strangeness baryon number charge

neutron 0 1 0

u d d total 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 2e 3 e 3 e 3 0

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36.
0 Particle 0 Particle

strangeness baryon number


charge
38. 40. 42. (a)

0 1

d
0 13

s
1 1 3

total 1
0
0 (b)

strangeness
baryon number
charge

0 -1

0
0

e 3

1
0

u 0 13

d
0 13

s -1 13

total -1
1
0

e3

2e 3 e 3 e 3

e, antiproton

0, antineutron

m up = 312. 3 M eV c2 , m dow n = 313. 7 M eV c2 (neglecting binding energies)


First reaction: Net of 1 up and 2 down quarks before and after. Second reaction: Net of 1 up and 2 down quarks before, but 1 up, 3 down, and 1 antistrange quark afterwards. (a) conservation of charge (b) conservation of electron-lepton number, conservation of energy, and conservation of muon-lepton number (c) conservation of baryon number

44.

46.
48. 50. 52.

and e
a neutron 26 collisions (a)
1. 61 1035 m

(b)

5. 38 1044 s

(c)

Yes

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464