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Compiled by: Satwinder Khunkhun



Tool Efficiency, Quality, Low cost, More production, Tool life, Foolproof, Safety operation

Tool Designer's Responsibilities

Design, Supervision, Procurement (obtain or acquire knowledge), Inspection

Requirements for Tool Designer

1. Able to make mechanical drawings

2. Understands manufacturing methods

3. Creative mechanical ability

4. Knowledge of basic tool design

5. Knowledge of shop technical math thro' practical trigonometry

Types of Jigs

Boring and Drill jigs Drill jigs: 1) Open and (2) Closed or Box jig

Template jigs- no clamps

Sandwich jigs- Plate jig with back plate: for thin and soft parts Angle plate jigs-at right angles also modified angle plate for other angles Box jigs Channel jigs: work held between two sides and clamped by a screw clamp Leaf jigs-small box jigs Indexing jigs-rotary jigs using plunger and reference plate for indexing Trunnion jigs- a rotary jig for very large or odd shaped parts Pump jigs clamping by pumping action Multistation jigs-on multispindle m/c doing different operations at same time

Plate jigs- built in clamps if raised is called Table jig

Compiled by: Satwinder Khunkhun


Types of Fixtures

i. Plate fixtures 2. Angle fixtures 3. Vise jaw fix.- for small parts 4. Indexing fix 5. Multistation fix 6. Profiling fixtures- to guide tools for machining contours that m/c normally can not follow.

Supporting and locating

Basic Rules:

1. Positioning the locators on machined surface

2. Part Tolerances

3. Fool Proofing

4. Duplicate Location

Locating the Work

1. Locating from flat surface: Solid supports, adjustable supports, equalizing supports

2. Locating from an internal diameter: Internal locators: diamond pin, round pin, split contact pin, raised contact pin, single line (thick) contact (spherical)

3. Locating from an external profile: nesting full and partial, Vee locators(round parts), fixed stop locators, installed locators, dowel pins(round, split, grooved), ejectors, spring_stop buttons, spring -locating pins


Basic Rules:

1. Positioning clamps-at most rigid points

2. Tool forces

3. Clamping forces-enough to hold the part against locators.

Types of Clamps: strap, screw, swing, cam action (eccentric, flat spiral, cylindrical), hook clamp (tight places), quick acting clamp, wedge clamp, toggle-action (lever and 3 pivot-points) Power clamps, Chucks and vises, Nonmechanical clamping (magnetic and vacuum chucks). Special clamping operations: Clamping odd shapes (epoxy resins,Low-melt alloys), Multiple clamping devices.

Compiled by: Satwinder Khunkhun


Basic Construction Principles

1. Tool Bodies: cast, welded, built-up

2. Materials: steel, cast iron, aluminum, magnesium, epoxy resins and wood

3. Lead time: cast iron > built-up> welded

4. Preformed materials: flat stock, cast bracket materials, precision ground drill rod, steel sections

5. Drill Bushings: renewable (slip and fixed), press fit, liner

6. Special Purpose: template, oil groove, knurled and serrated, extended range, carbide

7. Installation: arbor press, draw bolt, hammer and punch

8. Fastening devices: cap screws, set screws, thread inserts, nuts and washers, retaining rings, fixture keys (dowel and jig pins)

Design Economy

1. Principles: simplicity, preformed materials, standard components, secondary operations, tolerances and allowances, simplified drawings

2. Tool drawings: use words, symbols, eliminate unnecessary views, use templates and guides, standard parts for clarity only

Economic Analysis

Calculating labor expenses, cost per part, total savings, break even point

Initial Design

Predesign Analysis:

1. Overall size and shape of parts

2. Type and condition of material

Compiled by: Satwinder Khunkhun



Type of m/c operation


Degree of accuracy


No of pieces to be made


Locating and cleaning surfaces: holes, two m/c surfaces at right angle, one m/c and one un m/c, two un m/c rd surfaces at 90 deg.


Type and size of m/c tools


Type and size of cutters


Sequence of operation

Safety is a primary concern in the design of any machine tool. Developing tooling alternatives is the best way to find the near exact design for any particular part. Note taking helps the tool designer recall and remember important data.


Tool Drawings


Tool drawings (Prepared as either Assembly or Detailed drawings) differ from standard production drawings in the amount of detail shown. Toolmakers are highly skilled technicians. Therefore they need less detailed information on drawings.

TIPS: to reduce the time and expense of preparing drawings:

Use words on drawings to replace drawn details.

Reduce no. of views.

Use symbols where ever possible.

Use templates and guides to save drawing time.

Describe standard parts: by name, part # and size rather than entire detail.

Supplementary Symbols: MMC, LMC, RFS, (diameter), S, R, SR (spherical radius),

(23 )reference dimension,

basic dim., 23 not to scale(NTS) dim


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Three Areas to consider: Workpiece design, Workpiece processing, and Workholder design. BENEFITS:


Lower overall production cost


Lower tooling expenses


Reduced lead-times


Increased production speed, higher production volume, and fastest production changeovers.


Simplify the workpiece design if possible to make manufacturing easier.

Study the manufacturing processes to reduce the overall cost of the product.

Select suitable materials, use widest possible tolerances, standardize where possible, reduce

production steps and minimize handling.

Workholder design: use commercial components to reduce cost of building jigs or fixture and always keep the design as simple as possible.

Golden Rule of Workholding: Grab the workpiece one time, and don't turn it loose until you are finished with all operations.

Workholder Classifications: 1) Dedicated, 2) Temporary, and 3) Modular workholders.

For NC control: Tombstones, Subplates, Universal holding fixtures, and Pallet systems.

Optimal Workholder Design

The workholder design should:

Be a universal design to be usable for more than one workpiece. Cut lead-time in design and construction of workholder. Cut cost of designing and building. Capable of being easily built by both skilled and semiskilled. Be reusable, easily modified and should not become obsolete.

Be economical

for any number of work pieces and

pay back the investment within short time.


Must provide and maintain necessary accuracy (Quality) for the life of the production run.

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Three general forms: Ferrous, Nonferrous, and Nonmetallic.

Adaptability, Durability and Economy must be considered

before selecting any material for a tool.

Properties of tool materials: Hardness, Toughness, Wear resistance, Machinability, Brittleness, Tensile strength, and Shear strength.

Factors controlling properties of metallic materials: Alloying elements, Thermal or Mechanical treatment (i.e. heat treatment or forging etc.).


Cast Iron, Carbon Steel, Alloy Steel, and Tool Steel.

Cast Iron: Preformed sections are cheaper and more efficient than to cast a tool body for a

majority of jig and fixture work. Carbon Steel: Primary (best overall) material of tool design because of its ease of fabrication, low cost, availability, and versatility. The machinability and weldability of these materials decreases with increased carbon content. They are available in different shapes and conditions. Three main types of carbon steels are:


Low carbon steels: for structural parts of a jig or fixture where not critical wear or stress occurs;


such as baseplates or supports. Carbon content is between .05 and .30 %. It can be case hardened, easily machined, and welded or joined. Medium carbon steels: for structural parts which require more strength such as clamps, studs, nuts,


and where toughness is desired. The carbon content is between .30 and .50 %. It can be but more difficult to case harden, machine, and weld or join. It is expensive and should be limited to areas where it would be most effective. High carbon steels: for structural parts which are subjected to the most wear such as drill bushings,

locators, wear pads, and supports. Carbon content is between .50 and 2.0 %. They are easy to harden but difficult to machine, and weld or join. Alloy steels: Generally not used for tool construction because of their added cost. Alloying elements when added to a material, change or modify the material and make a predictable change in its properties. Very common elements are C, S, P,Mn,Ni,Cr,Mb,Vd,Tung,Si,Bo,Al,Pb,Cu,Co.

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Tool steels: are made to exact standards for specific type of service where tool parts are highly stressed or that must have a higher wear resistance. The superior properties of tool steels have made them popular. Very predictable and reliable because of tighter control during manufacture.


Aluminum, Magnesium, and bismuth alloys have the advantage of lightweight, stability, machinability, and workability. As the demand for low-cost versatile tooling increases, the use of nonferrous tool material is increasing.

Aluminum: Primary forms used for tool design are Al tool plates and Extrusions. It is normally

ordered in the condition needed to avoid unnecessary treatments. It can be welded or joined. Magnesium: This is very lightweight, faster to machine and versatile, and has a high strength-to-

weight ratio. The one drawback to using magnesium is the potential fire hazard. Bismuth alloys: used primarily in the form of low-melt alloys for many special workholding devices, such as nests or vise jaws.


Wood, Urethane, and Epoxy and Plastic Resins are used for Temporary tools made to run short time.

Wood: is used for limited production tools that do not require precise accuracy. If subjected to

excessive moisture, wood should be sealed and treated to prevent swelling. Special bushings and inserts are either pressed or glued in to the wood. Urethane: is used for nonmar applications or secondary clamping. A urethane pad or block will

transfer the force while preventing the clamp from scratching the part. Epoxy and Plastic resins: Nest and chuck jaws made of this are tough, versatile, and cheap. These ready to use compounds can be used with filler materials, such as glass beads, ground glass, steel filings, stones, or ground walnut shells, for more strength or wear resistance. Resins are lightweight, strong, tough, and nondeforming. They also reproduce shapes with little or no shrinkage. Although special serrated bushings and inserts are available, yet if completely set they can be used for drilling and tapping.

Compiled by: Satwinder Khunkhun


One primary concern in preparing the tool materials is the proper design of the elements that

are to be heat-treated. Both the

tool material and design features

(Unequal mass, sharp

corners, poor surface conditions) must be carefully analyzed to insure desired results.


WELDING: A jig used for welding is normally a fixed-position tool; a fixture is a tool made to

rotate around either a horizontal or vertical axis. Three basic types of jigs and fixtures are:


Tacking jigs and fixtures: are used to hold the parts of an assembly in their proper position so as to


tack weld them together. They prevent warping or distortion of assemblies when welding is complete. Welding jigs and fixtures: are used to hold the parts of an assembly in their proper position for


complete welding. They are normally built heavier than tacking tools to resist the added forces caused by the heat within the part. Holding jigs and fixtures: are used to finish tack-welded assemblies. They must be made rigid enough to prevent warping and distortion.

Basic Tool design considerations Heat dissipation is controlled by either using cutaway portions to prevent rapid heat loss (for good heat conductors) or installing an insert to absorb excess heat (for poor heat conductors). Clamping supports must be provided to prevent distorting the work in a heated condition. Locators should be positioned so that the distortion will cause the part to loosen rather than tighten against the locators. Otherwise install power or manual ejectors into the tool. Foolproofing is very necessary so that the part/assembly will only fit into its proper position. Objectives in Design

General objectives of tool design for welding are:

proper position of parts, repeatability & accuracy,

proper heat control,foolproofing, easy access to all welding areas, rigid locating and clamping, welding

in a flat horizontal plane, and mechanical devices for heavy tools.

INSPECTION FIXTURES: The main requirement of an inspection fixture is accuracy. Two

general types of inspection fixtures are:


Gauging Fixtures: check the part against a known preset standard size and only tells if a part is in

or out of tolerance. Mostly they are used in shop for quick check on the machine.

Compiled by: Satwinder Khunkhun



Measuring Fixtures: actually measure a part and can indicate exactly where and how much a part is out of tolerance. They are often too fragile for shop use and must remain in the inspection room.

Supplement Gauges: Flush-pin, Fixed-limit, and Template gauges.


Flush-pin: gauges are used mostly as depth indicators. Fixed-limit: gauges are used to check the upper and lower limits of size.



Common go-no-go


gauges are: snap, ring, and plug gauges.



Template: gauges are mainly used to check contour forms like radii, angles, or threads. They compare a surface against a master of the exact shape and can easily detect any variation.


Modular fixturing is a workholding system that uses a series of reusable standard components to build a wide variety of special-purpose workholding devices.

Three types are:


Subplate system: uses flat grid plates, angle plates, or multisided tooling block and similar


components as major structural elements. "T"-slot system: uses components with a variety of precisely machined "T"-slots to mount and align each element.


Dowel-pin system: is available with either alternating tapped holes and dowel-pin holes or a combination of the two.

Construction: methods of modular workholder are:

Building the workholder around the part.

Building the workholder around a mockup or model of the part.

Building the workholder to specific dimensions without the part.

Advantages: of modular workholder are:

Reduced lead-time in building workholders.

Reusability of the various components

Versatility of the modular construction.