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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308

(Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), IAEME
215










FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR OF COMPOSITE REINFORCED CONCRETE
T-BEAMS CAST IN STEEL CHANNELS WITH HORIZONTAL
TRANSVERSE BARS AS SHEAR CONNECTORS


Dr. Laith Khalid Al- Hadithy
1
, Dr. Khalil Ibrahim Aziz
2
(Ph.D.) ,
Mohammed Kh. M. Al-Fahdawi
3
(M .Sc)

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Nahrain University , Iraq
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Anbar University , Iraq
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Anbar University , Iraq



ABSTRACT

With the purpose of evaluating the influence of both the size and configurations of
horizontal shear connectors in simply supported reinforced concrete T-beams of webs
partially cast in steel channels, an experimental program was carried out using three large-
scale composite reinforced concrete beam models of the configuration, constituents,
geometry, and interconnection defined above have been manufactured, loaded up-to-failure.
Laboratory observed and measured responses were interpreted to predict the fracture patterns
in addition to the ultimate bending moment capacity, flexural stiffness, and flexural integrity
from variations of the midspan deflection and relative longitudinal end slip with load.
The privilege of the present horizontal-bar shear connector over the traditional
headed-stud style in reinforced concrete T-beams cast in steel channel has been verified and
evaluated by a comparative investigation with the findings of a recent previous experimental
study on such composite reinforced concrete T-beams with the competitive headed-stud shear
connectors , from which beams with new horizontal-bar shear connector have revealed
substantially higher ultimate bending moment capacity ,flexural stiffness and flexural
integrity (represented by the measured relative longitudinal end-slip). Enhancement realized
in the mechanical parameters specified above are 43%, 33% and 33% respectively.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, Composite Structure, T-beam, Steel Channel,
Shear Connecter, Ultimate Load, Horizontal Transverse Bars.


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ISSN 0976 6308 (Print)
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Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), pp. 215-230
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1. INTRODUCTION

The present study deals with the flexural behavior of simply supported composite
reinforced concrete beams shown in Fig 1consisting of T-section reinforced concrete prisms
cast in steel channels with transverse horizontal bars across beam web extending between
opposite holes in the two flanges of the steel channel acting as shear connectors.













The flexural behavior to be studied includes: ultimate flexural resistance, load
deflection relation, moment curvature relation, load- longitudinal slip (at beam ends) relation,
and mode of failure (type and shape).

The suggested study comprises the following aspects:
i.Superiority of the present shear connectors in producing high flexural performance (given
by the five flexural criteria mentioned above) over the corresponding performance of the
traditional headed studs.
ii.Effect of varying the configuration of the longitudinal distribution.
In each of the two above aspects, five specified large scale models of the present type of
composite beam were fabricated, loaded and tested, three of which are discussed in this
paper.

2. REVIEW

Few research dealing with reinforced concrete beams cast in steel channels were
done. Taylor in 1979[1] made an experimental study on a variety of simply supported beams
using two types of testing. Taylor and Burdon, in 1972[2] reported tests on six simply
supported composite beams having the cross section shown in Fig.2 with mild steel channel
as tensile reinforcement.
Yousif, in 1982 [3],made an experimental study by using four simply supported
reinforced concrete T-beam cast in to steel channels ,simulating them as parts of a continuous
beam at support section ,tested to investigate their behavior in shear and in hogging bending.
Test data was critically analyzed to suggest the methods of prediction of shear and flexural
loads, and to explore the possibilities of the application of simple plastic theory for the
analysis of continuous composite reinforced concrete beam.

Fig.1 Cross- section of a typical composite reinforced concrete T-beam with
horizontal shear connectors
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Abdu Al-Razag in 1985 [4], made another experimental study by using six simply
supported reinforced concrete T-beam casts in steel channels, to investigate the behavior of
sagging moment regions. He suggested a computerized method of analysis based on the
theoretical moment-curvature relationship for sagging moment section. By that program, the
computerized methods for the short term deflection at service load can be calculated based on
gross concrete section, neglecting reinforcement.
Abdul-Hussein[5] in 2007 ,presented a three-dimensional finite element analysis to
predict the behavior of composite T-concrete beam with web partly cast in steel channel. The
general purpose finite element software ANSYS (version 9.0) has been used during this
analysis. The nonlinearity of materials due to cracking and crushing of the concrete, yielding
of steel channel and reinforcing bars, and interface at the steel channel-concrete were
considered. The study was performed to study the influence of several parameters such as
strength of concrete, the degree of connection and span/depth ratio on the behavior of load-
deflection curve and the ultimate load.
Al-Hadithy and Al-Kerbooli [6] in 2008, made four reinforced concrete beams of
rectangular cross-section and four corresponding composite ones consisting of reinforced
concrete prisms cast in steel channel with shear connectors were manufactured , loaded ,and
tested in the laboratory to measure mid-span deflections, and to observe fracture criteria. The
reinforced concrete prism of each of the four composite beams is of rectangular cross-section
and identical to its corresponding reinforced concrete beam .A parametric study on the effect
of flange width of the steel channel shows that a 40% increase in the ultimate load capacity
can be realized by a one-third increase in that parameter with a slight decrease in ductility
ratio.
Al-Ta'ai, A.A [7] in 2009, presented study three-dimensional finite element analysis
to predict the behavior of a special form, cost-effective type of composite construction, a
composite reinforced concrete T-beam enclosed by a large steel channel in the entire concrete
web and connected in soffit of the beam by shear connectors with and without construction
joint at flange-web junction. Parametric study includes the influence of parameters on large
steel channel instead of small steel channel for composite reinforced concrete T-beam
without construction joint; including removal of internal reinforcement, thickness of steel
channel, yield strength of steel channel, concrete compressive strength, degree of partial
connection, coefficient of friction, ratio of compressive reinforcement and Poisson's ratio.
This study compared the analytical results from the ANSYS of finite element models with
tested beams for two types of composite reinforced concrete with small steel channel (T-
beam and inverse T-beam), as two beams for each type. The analytical results show good
agreement with the experimental results.
Only two previous published investigations have met (in the present study) regarding
the use of horizontal transverse shear connectors in the initially low-cost concrete beams cast
into steel channel. The target of those two researches was to reduce the cost even further.
Clark and Nelson[8 ] conducted in 1974, the first of those two investigations in
which a push-off test was carried out on transverse-bolt shear connectors (passing through
holes in the flanges of the channel )as defined by Fig 1 to ascertain their strength. The results
of their test are summarized in Table1 in which the values of the maximum load are the
averages from two push-off tests. The tabulated results show that in all cases the failure loads
were appreciable higher than the characteristic strength of the corresponding stud, but
certainly not twice these values.

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Table 1 Results of push off tests by Clark and Nelson
[8]









Thereafter, Cunningham [9] in 1977, carried out a push-off test on another possible
type of transverse shear connectors; the transverse plain bar placed through holes in the
channel which in comparison with the bolt-is significantly cheaper. The results of their
push-off test are given in Table 2.

Table 2-2 Results of Push off by Cunningham
[9]











3. EXPERIMENTAL WORK

3.1 Description of test specimens
Three beams were fabricated, loaded and tested .All the beams were simply supported
having 2000mm whole length and span. A typical model perspective, profile and cross-
section are shown in Fig2 from which it is seen that the flange width and thickness are
350mm and 80mm, respectively. Depth and breadth of the web are 90mm and
80mm, respectively. Depth of the T-beam web part cast in a steel channel of a depth is equal
to the breadth of the reinforced concrete web. Sectional dimension of the used steel channels
are shown in Fig 2 with details of their shear connectors.

3.2 Materials
Normal weight concrete used in the fabricated beams was produced by using Ordinary
Portland Cement (Type1) according to ASTM C150-86[10] produced by Kubasia cement
plant. In addition, the natural normal-weight sand from Al-Anbar west region was used as
fine aggregate, and crushed gravel of 10mm maximum size as coarse aggregate. Both the fine
and coarse aggregates used in the present work are subjected to sieve analysis according to
Iraqi specification. Mix ratio for concrete constituents was 1:2:3 by weight for cement, sand
and gravel, respectively. Water/cement ratio was 0.45 by weight.

Diameter of
bolt(mm)
Over size of
holes(mm)
Maximum load per
shear connectors
(kN)
12
12
12
16
0.4
1.6
2.4
1.6
69
72
68
110
Diameter of
bolt(mm)
Over size of
holes(mm)
Maximum load per
shear connectors
(kN)
12
12
12
16
0.4
1.6
2.4
1.6
69
72
68
110
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3.3 Constitutional properties
According to B.S.1881 [11], 100mm concrete cubes representative to the three beams
were tested for compression at age of 28 days. Corresponding values for the modulus of elasticity
E
c
were computed according to Eq.17 , page 45 in ref. [11]. The mechanical properties of the
concrete , steel channels. horizontal shear connector and reinforcing steel bars for the three
beams are given in Table 3.











Fig.2 Typical Beam




























Beam M1(uniform close
shear connector
Beam M2(non-uniform
shear connector
)
Beam M3(uniform
shear connector
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Details of the steel channel and horizontal shear connector

Table 3: Mechanical properties of used material


Concrete
(28days age)
Reinforcing Steel
Bars
Steel Channel
and shear
connector
f
cu
E
c
f
y
f
u
E
s
f
y
f
u
E
s
B
e
a
m

M
a
r
k

M1 38.05 27610
4
1
4

4
8
6

2
1
0
0
0
0

3
1
7

4
0
0

1
9
3
2
0
0

M2 33.227 26645
M3 25.154 25030
(all number are in MPa)
Transverse Bar
Fig.2: Details of the tested beams (All dimensions are in mm)
350
A-A : Typical beam cross-section
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3.4 Fabrication and casting
Plate 1 show the steel channels with the horizontal shear connectors ,while plate
2shows a typical test specimen before casting of concrete, from which it is realized that the
cages of reinforcement were first placed at their appropriate positions in the framework
(each consisting of the permanent steel channel and two attached temporary vertical plates
aligned with flanges of the steel channel ) after lubricating the inside vertical temporary faces
and before placement of concrete for easy removal of the side forms after hardening of the
concrete mix. Positioning of the transverse bolts by passing through precisely located holes in
the flanges of the steel channel was subsequent to the positioning of the reinforcement cage.










Plate 1 :The steel channel with horizontal transverse bars as shear connectors







Plate2: Typical specimen before casting of showing the three constituents prior to casting
;i.e. the steel channel, the horizontal shear connectors, and reinforcement

4. INSTRUMENTATION AND TESTING PROCEDURE

A convenient test frame was available in the heavy structures laboratory in the
University of Technology. The tests were done using the 2500 kN capacity Universal Testing
Mechine shown in plate 3. The test prototypes were subjected to a central 1- m length
uniformly distributed load applied at the top (compression) surface of the prototype. Two
series of steel I-Joists with rollers, steel plates and rubber pads were employed as a load
transfer device for the four prototypes .Details of the test setup are shown in Fig3 . Three dial
gauges having the smallest division of 0.01 mm were employed for each test prototype to
measure the mid span deflection and the two relative longitudinal end slips at concrete - steel
channel web interfaces at each load increment.
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Fig 3

The testing machine has three scale loads :
2500kN) with a capacity of 2500
dimensions of the testing machine make it more adequate to test actual models in addi
large scale models. These features of testing machine satisfy the test requirements of such
stiff and highly interactive composite structural systems.
















Plate 3: The universal testing machine

5. PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS

The mechanically measured (by deflectometers) displacements in the laboratory
are the consecutively increasing midspan deflections and the horizontal relative end
steel-concrete interfaces with the monotonic increasing
previously shown in Fig3. Those measured displacements are shown in
respectively .
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Fig 3 Test set-up for loading of beam
The testing machine has three scale loads : 0 to 500kN, 0 to 1500kN and (
2500kN as shown in Plate 3. The high capacity, stiffness and
dimensions of the testing machine make it more adequate to test actual models in addi
large scale models. These features of testing machine satisfy the test requirements of such
stiff and highly interactive composite structural systems.

: The universal testing machine ( 8551M.F.L.system)
INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
The mechanically measured (by deflectometers) displacements in the laboratory
are the consecutively increasing midspan deflections and the horizontal relative end
concrete interfaces with the monotonic increasing loads applied up to failure as
. Those measured displacements are shown in Figs. 4 and 5
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308
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kN and (0 to
The high capacity, stiffness and
dimensions of the testing machine make it more adequate to test actual models in addition to
large scale models. These features of testing machine satisfy the test requirements of such
The mechanically measured (by deflectometers) displacements in the laboratory
are the consecutively increasing midspan deflections and the horizontal relative end-slips at
loads applied up to failure as
Figs. 4 and 5 ,
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0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
L
o
a
d



K
N
Deflections (x 0.01 mm)
beam M1
beam M2
beam M3
as
defined
in Fig.2
It may be noticed here that values of the ultimate crushing stress (i. e .characteristic strength;
Fcu) of the concrete are not same for the three investigated beams - as given in Table 3. To
find out the exclusive effects of the horizontal shear connectors amounts and distributions on
flexural behavior and integrity the observed load values are modified ( then presented in Figs
.4 and 5 ) to eliminate the effect of variation in F
cu
values. The modifications are done by
multiplying the observed load value of the concerned beam by the ratio () obtained by the
following relation:


..(1)


where:
f
cu,o
= Characteristic strength of concrete of beam M3
f
cu,i
= Characteristic strength of concrete of beam M-i concerned , i =1 , 2 or 3 .
= Beta.
Laboratory test results presented in Figs. 4and5 have then been interpreted to
quantitatively bring out the enhancements achieved in the principal properties within the two
main studied mechanical properties of composite reinforced concrete beams , namely ;
"Flexural Behavior" and "Integrity" due to introducing horizontal shear connectors of various
amounts and distributions .


Fig 4: Load~Mid-span deflection curves for the three composite reinforced concrete T-beams
with 8mm-diameter horizontal transverse shear connectors.
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0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 20 40 60
L
o
a
d


K
N
Longitudinal slip at ends x

Fig.5: Load relative end-slip curves for the three composite reinforced concrete T
with 8mm-diameter horizontal transverse shear connectors.

Subsequent observed behavior of loading process (after failure)
for which a view for a typical tested beam is given in
45
O
inclined symmetric failure surface including portions of crushed concrete in the compressed
flange of the T-beam.















Plate 4: Fracture Pattern for a Typical



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80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220
Longitudinal slip at ends x0.01mm
beam M1
beam M2
beam M3
slip curves for the three composite reinforced concrete T
diameter horizontal transverse shear connectors.
Subsequent observed behavior of loading process (after failure) is the resulting fracture pattern
for which a view for a typical tested beam is given in Plate 4 . The dominant fracture pattern is a
inclined symmetric failure surface including portions of crushed concrete in the compressed
: Fracture Pattern for a Typical Tested Beam
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308
April (2013), IAEME
220 240
slip curves for the three composite reinforced concrete T-beams
is the resulting fracture pattern-
. The dominant fracture pattern is a
inclined symmetric failure surface including portions of crushed concrete in the compressed
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6. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

6.1 Measured Response
They are represented by the load- midspan deflection and the load~longitudinal end
slip relationships exhibited in Fig 4 and 5, respectively.

a) Drawn from Fig4 is the fact that model M1 gives the higher resistance (ultimate bending
moment) and flexural stiffness, where mid-span deflections at the ultimate stages of
models M2 and M3 are lower by 15% and 30% , respectively than that of model M1.
b) Concerning the longitudinal end relative slip at interfaces (which refers to the flexural
integrity of the composite beam), its value for M1 (at load level of M2 and M3) is the
least, where it is about 84% and 44% of those given byM2and M3, respectively. These
are inspected from Fig 5.

6.2 Observed responses

c) Observation of Fig5: Since differences between deflection and relative end-slip responses
between model M1 and M2 are relatively small, and M2 consumes about 60% the
number of the costly shear connector of model M1, model M2 is regarded as the
optimum model (among the three compared ones).
d) Mode of failure. With reference to plate 4 all of the tested prototypes failed due to
compression failure. Here concrete crushing occurred at some points in the flange within
the flange central compression zone directly beneath the 1-m length uniformly distributed
load (resembling the fracture pattern obtained in a previous experimental investigation on
beams of the same type but with headed stud shear connectors [12] ) . A symmetric two
sided inclined fracture surface begun at each of the two ends of the partial uniform load .

6.3 Comparison between present study and a recent one
To evaluate the superiority of the horizontal transverse bar shear connector
(presently used in reinforced concrete T-beams cast in steel channels) over the traditional
vertical headed stud , a comparison has been made with one of the models of the
experimental work of Al-Hadithy and Al-Alusi [12]. That model is similar to model M2 of
the present work (even in the distribution of shear connectors). The individual difference is
the use of the traditional vertical headed stud in the previous comparable study [12] .
Diameter of shanks of the previous headed studs and the present horizontal transverse bars
are the same.

a) Flexural stiffness
This comparison is represented by the load~mid-span deflection relationships up to
failure for the two comparative beams which are given by Table (4) and Fig.(6). It is shown
that the maximum ultimate loads for the previous and the present beams are 58 kN and 83kN,
respectively (which means that replacing the formal type of shear connectors by the present
one increases the ultimate flexural capacity of the composite reinforcement concrete beam
by 43%). Moreover, the stiffness of the present model is larger (by 1/0.75=1.33) than the
stiffness of the former one.


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Table 4 Experimental deflection values for various load increments up to failure for beam
model M2 and the corresponding beam model of Ref. [12]

b) Flexural integrity
The longitudinal horizontal slip along planes of interface between the reinforced concrete
web bottom end and the surrounding bottom steel channel is the most direct measurement of the
"Flexural Integrity" of the composite reinforced concrete beam which is necessary to realize the
hoped "composite action . The natural bond between concrete and the steel channel prevents
that slip just in the initial load stage (whenever the bond strength increases, the occurance of slip
will be late). Hence, it can be considered that initial slip is the loss in bond and crushing of
concrete surrounding the interlocking devices.
To evaluate the efficiency of the horizontal transverse-bar shear connectors (in
realizing the flexural integrity of the present reinforced concrete T-beams cast in steel channels)
over the traditional vertical headed stud, a comparison has been made with the same comparative
model of the experimental work of Al- Hadithy and Al-Alusi [12]. This comparison is
represented by the load~end longitudinal slip for the two comparative beams which is given in
Table (5) and Fig.(7).It is shown that the longitudinal end slip of the former model [12]
decreased by 25% when the traditional headed stud is replaced by horizontal transverse bar shear
connector of the same longitudinal distribution and spacing (model M2 of the present work). This
means that the new horizontal shear connector increases the flexural integrity by the same
average percentage.
The reason behind this phenomenon is the attributed to the high flexural stiffness of
horizontal transverse shear connector in the comparison with the vertical headed stud of the same
shank diameter.
In addition, there is a stress concentration near the base of the headed stud. High stresses,
reaching four times the concrete cube strength, are possible here because the concrete is
restrained by the steel flange, the connector and the reinforcement. The two major modes of
failure are crushing of the concrete surrounding the connector (for studs with large diameter) and
connector shearing off at the base (for slender studs). The strength of concrete can influence the
mode of failure, as well as the failure load. It appears that the stud strength is roughly
proportional to the square of its diameter and to the square root of concrete strength[13,14].
Mid span deflection x 0.01mm
Percent P
Partial uniform
load (KN)
1 (modelM2)
(present study)
2
(with Headed stud
[12]

1/2
10% 6 47 48 0.979
20% 12 98 100 0.980
30% 18 143 156 0.910
40% 24 188 238 0.789
50% 30 236 321 0.735
60% 36 305 412 0.740
70% 42 365 511 0.714
80% 48 417 620 0.672
90% 54 518 760 0.681
100% 60 712 1180 0.603
average 0.708

2
0.75

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0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
0 200 400
L
o
a
d


k
N
Table Experimental end- slip values for various load increment up to failure for beam model
M2 and the corresponding beam model of


Fig. 6: Experimental load
~
mid
corresponding beam of

Percent P
Partial uniform
load (KN)
10% 6
20% 12
30% 18
40% 24
50% 30
60% 36
70% 42
80% 48
90% 54
100% 60

(ultimate load head stud)
(ultimate load M2)

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400 600 800 1000 1200
Deflection x 0.01mm
headed stud (Al- Hadithy and Al-Alusi)
horiz. s. c (present study)
slip values for various load increment up to failure for beam model
2 and the corresponding beam model of Ref. [12]
mid span deflection up to failure for beam model M2 and the
corresponding beam of Ref. [12]


End longitudinal slip at interface x
0.01mm
Partial uniform
load (KN)
1
M2
2
Headed stud
[12]
7 3
15 5.4
22 8.5
28 12.5
34 17.5
40 28
46 56
51 84
54 119
61 149
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1400
Alusi)
slip values for various load increment up to failure for beam model
span deflection up to failure for beam model M2 and the

1/2
2.3
2.7
2.58
2.24
1.94
1.428
0.82
0.607
0.453
0.409
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Fig. 7: Experimental Load ~ end
corresponding comparative

7. CONCLUSIONS

1. Effects of the amount and the
connector is obvious. The use of the
connectors(close near supports and far near mid
bending moment capacity with maintaining the
span wise length moderate (not high).
2. The privilege of the horizontal transverses
studs( used by Al-Hadithy and Al
in steel channels) in increasing the
been evaluated experimentally where
properties have been gained ,respectively.
3. The second main improvement in the flexural behavior achieved by this shear connector
change is the flexural integrity
channel, which is measured by the growth of the longitudinal horizontal end re
slip(between the steel channel and the abutting concrete) with increasing the lateral load. It has
been proved experimentally that the flexural integrity rises by
type replacement (based on investigating the relative en
concrete T-beam cast in steel channels with headed
4. Cracking and ultimate lateral loads :Transition from the case of distant stud distribution (lower
bound)to the case of moderate non
in the cracking and the ultimate lateral load values, respectively. O
the situation of the stud distribution upper bound
decreases in the defined stage loads not exceeding
by 33%.
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end slip relationships for the present beam M2 and The
corresponding comparative experimental beam of Ref. [12]
Effects of the amount and the span- wise distribution of the horizontal transverse
connector is obvious. The use of the non-uniform spanwise distribution of such shear
close near supports and far near mid-span) raises the flexural stiffness and ultimate
ty with maintaining the average number of shear connectors in unit
moderate (not high).
The privilege of the horizontal transverses-bar shear connectors over the traditional headed
Hadithy and Al-Alusi[12] in composite reinforced concrete T
in steel channels) in increasing the ultimate moment capacity and the flexural stiffness
been evaluated experimentally where 43% and 33% percentages in those two flexural
,respectively.
cond main improvement in the flexural behavior achieved by this shear connector
flexural integrity of the composite reinforced concrete T-beam cast in steel
channel, which is measured by the growth of the longitudinal horizontal end re
slip(between the steel channel and the abutting concrete) with increasing the lateral load. It has
been proved experimentally that the flexural integrity rises by 33% with this shear connector
type replacement (based on investigating the relative end-slip in the composite reinforced
beam cast in steel channels with headed-stud shear connectors of Ref. [12]).
Cracking and ultimate lateral loads :Transition from the case of distant stud distribution (lower
bound)to the case of moderate non-uniform stud distribution causes 49% and 45%
in the cracking and the ultimate lateral load values, respectively. Oppositely, transition from
stud distribution upper bound to the moderate distribution
in the defined stage loads not exceeding 11%, whilst reducing stud quantity and cost
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308
April (2013), IAEME
relationships for the present beam M2 and The
distribution of the horizontal transverse-bar shear
distribution of such shear
) raises the flexural stiffness and ultimate
number of shear connectors in unit
bar shear connectors over the traditional headed
inforced concrete T-beams cast
the flexural stiffness has
percentages in those two flexural
cond main improvement in the flexural behavior achieved by this shear connector -type
beam cast in steel
channel, which is measured by the growth of the longitudinal horizontal end relative
slip(between the steel channel and the abutting concrete) with increasing the lateral load. It has
with this shear connector-
slip in the composite reinforced
Ref. [12]).
Cracking and ultimate lateral loads :Transition from the case of distant stud distribution (lower
45% increases
ppositely, transition from
moderate distribution causes slight
, whilst reducing stud quantity and cost
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), IAEME
229

REFERENCES

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[8] Taylor R., Clark D.S.E. and Nelson J.H."Tests on a New Type of Shear Connector for
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[13] Ollgaard, J. G., Slutter, R.G. & Fisher, J. W., Shear Strength of Stud Connectors in Light
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[14] Johnson, R.P. , '' Design of Composite Beam with Deep Haunches'', Proc. Instn. Civ.
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[15] Ansari Fatima-uz-Zehra and S.B. Shinde, Flexural Analysis of Thick Beams using Single
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0976 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 6316.

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), IAEME
230

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The writers of the present work wish to Acknowledge the information provided by the
authors of ref.[12] which forms a part of the research program concerning Behavior and
Properties of T-Section Composite Reinforced Concrete Beams that work (given in ref.[12] )
was submitted to publishing but it has not seen the publishing light yet. (29/5/2011)


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