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Journal of Materials Science and Engineering A 2 (3) (2012) 372-376

D DAVID
D
DAVID

PUBLISHING

Research Regarding the Testing of a New Type of Rotating Machine with Profiled Rotors

Nicolae Băran, Ionela Mihaela Căluşaru and Antonios Detzortzis

Faculty of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, CO 060042, Romania

Received: January 18, 2012 / Accepted: February 15, 2012 / Published: March 10, 2012.

Abstract: The purpose of the research is to theoretically establish the simple characteristic diagrams of the rotating machine and to verify them by experiments. In order to reach this goal, the scheme of an experimental setup was elaborated, as well as its constructive solution. The final part of the paper presents the method of the measurements to be performed. The experimental data are processed and compared to the theoretical ones.

Key words: Rotating machine, profiled rotors, rotating piston.

1. Introduction

The machine is in fact a patent-based rotating

volumetric pump [1]; the paper will highlight the

influence of constructive and functional parameters on

the theoretical power of the machine.

This type of rotating machine is “reversible”,

meaning that it can function as working machine

(pump, fan or blower) or as force machine (hydraulic

motor, steam motor or burning gas motor) [2-4]. When

the machine is used as working machine, the motor

torque M = F·b·sinα reaches its maximum value during

a complete rotation, because the angle (α) between the

force (F) and the arm (b) equals 90 ° .

The motor torque is almost fully used for increasing

the fluid pressure from intake (p 1 ) to discharge (p 2 ). If

the machine is used as force machine, p 1 > p 2 and

mechanical power that could be converted to electric

power are obtained at the machine shaft level.

In the following sections, the rotating machine will

be studied as working machine, namely as rotating

volumetric pump with profiled rotors.

Corresponding author: Nicolae Băran, Ph.D., professor,

machines. E-mail:

research

n_baran_fimm@yahoo.com.

field:

working

2. Computation of the Fluid Flow Rate and of the Theoretical Driving Power for the Rotating Volumetric Pump

The machine consists (Fig. 1) of two identical rotors (2, 5) of special shape, which rotate with the same angular speed inside a casing (1,4). The fluid contained in the available volume V u , which is the space between the pistons, the lower casing (1) and the lower rotor (2), will be transported to the discharge chamber after a 180º rotation. Two such volumes will be transported from intake to discharge during a complete rotation of the shaft (9):

V

u

2

 R

2

c

2

   R

2

2

r

3

l(m /rot)

(1)

The casing radius (R c ) is computed as sum of the rotor radius (R r ) and of the piston height (z):

(2)

R c = R r + z (m) Eqs. (1) and (2) lead to:

(3)

The volumetric flow rate discharged by a sole rotor of length l (m) and angular speed n (rpm) will be equal to:

V

u



lz(z

3

2 R )(m /rot)

r

V u



lz

z

2R

r

n

60

3

(m /rot)

(4)

Because the machine has two identical rotors, the

Research Regarding the Testing of a New Type of Rotating Machine with Profiled Rotors

373

of a New Type of Rotating Machine with Profiled Rotors 373 Fig. 1 The functioning principle

Fig. 1 The functioning principle of the rotating volumetric machine. 1-lower casing; 2-lower rotor; 3-intake chamber; 4-upper casing; 5-upper rotor ;6-rotating piston; 7-driven shaft; 8-discharge chamber; 9-driving shaft ; 10-cavity where the piston of the upper rotor enters.

fluid flow rate transported by the machine will be equal to:

(5)

It can be noticed from Eq. (5) that the machine flow rate linearly increases with l, R r and n.

For a total increase of pressure (between intake and

[mH 2 O],

the theoretical power (P m ) needed in order to drive the machine will be equal to:

discharge) expressed using Δp (N/m 2 ) or H

V

m

=

2V

u

= p

lz

(

z

+

2R

r

)

¥

n

30

(m

3

/ s)

II-Volumetric pumps (for instance the gear pump, the pump with profiled rotors etc.). For the new type of machine, starting from the relations previously established for flow rate (5) and for power (6), we notice that the following theoretical characteristic diagrams can be built:

; if the discharge pressure is kept

constant, a line is obtained. Another line is

subsequently obtained if the discharge pressure is

modified.

= f (Dp) ; a line is obtained if the angular

speed is kept constant n = ct. If the angular speed is subsequently modified, the flow rate will be also modified, as well as P m . For the chosen constructive solution [7, 8] and built in the laboratory the following parameters are known:

(1)

V

m

=

f (n )

(2)

P

m

Ÿ Rotor length: l = 0.05 m;

Ÿ Height of the rotating piston: z = 0.03 m;

Ÿ Rotor radius: R r = 0.05 m;

Ÿ Motor speed can be modified in the range of

200-300 rpm; if the motor speed is increased over 300 rpm, the water speed at intake increases over 0.89 m/s, that is not recommended in the specialty literature [5, 9].

P

m

P

m

= p

= p

lz

(

lz 2R

(

r

2R

+

r

z

)

+

¥

z

)

¥

n

D

30

n

30

¥r

H O

2

p(w)

g H(w)

(6)

In order to build the theoretical characteristic

 

 

diagram

V

m

=

f (n)

, the computation formula for the

(7)

flow rate is rearranged in the following equation:

It can be noticed from Eq. (6) that the driving power of the machine is directly proportional to the constructive elements (l, R r , z ), to the angular speed (n) and to the pumping speed (H).

3. Theoretic Establishment of Some Characteristic Diagrams of the Working Rotating Machine

In continuation it is considered that the working machine will function as rotating volumetric pump. It is known from specialty Refs. [5, 6] that the pumps classify in two categories:

I-Non-volumetric pumps (for instance the centrifugal pump, the axial pump);

V

m

= p ¥

0.05

¥

0.03(0.03

+

2

¥

0.05)

n

30

(m

3

/ s)

(8)

(9)

The following values are chosen: n = 200, 220, 240,

260, 280 and 300 rpm. Data presented in Table 1

results that Eq. (9) is applied to these values. The obtained data is used to obtain the characteristic

V m

=

0.0204

¥

10

- 3

¥

n (m

3

/ s)

 

diagram

V

m

=

f (n)

.

In Fig.

2,

V

m denotes the theoretical flow rate

transported by the machine; measurements will be

Table 1

Values of n.

 

n (rpm)

200

220

240

260

280

300

m

(l/min) 244.92

269.41 293.90

318.39

342.88

367.38

V

374 Research Regarding the Testing of a New Type of Rotating Machine with Profiled Rotors

of a New Type of Rotating Machine with Profiled Rotors Fig. machine: 2 The  V

Fig.

machine:

2

The

V

m

theoretical

f (n)

characteristic

diagram

of

performed in order to establish the real flow rate (

of the fluid.

the

V

r

)

It can be thus computed the volumetric efficiency of

the machine:

 

v

V

r

V

t

(10)

v is needed for the computation of

the actual efficiency of the machine. To establish the dependence

Eq. (6)

must be written as follows:

(11)

A medium angular speed of 220 rpm is chosen. The

angular speed will remain constant during the test.

(12)

(13)

where p is the pressure increase achieved by the pump (bar). In laboratory conditions, it is possible to obtain a pressure increase of at most: Δp = 1 bar 10 mH 2 O. 5 points are chosen in the variation range of Δp: 0.20; 0.21; 0.22; 0.23; 0.24 bar.

A medium angular speed of 220 rpm is chosen. The

angular speed will remain constant during the test. For the first value of Δp, it is obtained that :

(14)

The other values are similarly computed and can be found in Table 2.

The data in Table 2 lead to the graphical representation

of the function

The value of



P

m

f (p) ,

p(W)

220

30



p(W)

P

Vm

P

m



0,05 0,03(0,03

0045P

m

2 0,05)

P

m,1

5

0.0045 p 0.0045 0.2 10 90(W)

1

P

m

f (p) .

In Fig. 3, P m denotes the useful power of the machine; if the power absorbed from the line system is measured using the wattmeter kit, the actual efficiency of the machine can be computed.

4. Setup Description

In order to establish the characteristic diagrams of the rotating volumetric pump, a closed circuit setup Fig. 4 was build in the laboratory of the Chair of Thermotechnics, Thermic Machines and Refrigeration Plants. Potable water from the water supply is used as

working fluid; the level of water in the tank is indicated

by the level glass indicator (2) and is of about 1 m. The

water is suctioned from the tank (1). The increase of pressure achieved by the pump (10) is measured using

a differential manometer (15). The flow rate is

measured with an electromagnetic flow meter (11).

The increase of pressure between intake and discharge is modified using the ball valve (13). The instruments collocated on the setup circuit allow

the measurement of fluid pressure, temperature and

flow rate. The rotation speed of the electric motor and the

absorbed electric power can be as well measured and regulated.

Table 2.

Values of Δp

p (bar) 0.20

0.21

0.22

0.23

0.24

Pm (W)

90.0

94.5

99.0

103.5

108.0

0.24 Pm (W) 90.0 94.5 99.0 103.5 108.0 Fig. machine: 3 The P m theoretical 

Fig.

machine:

3

The

P

m

theoretical

f (p) .

characteristic

diagram

of

the

Research Regarding the Testing of a New Type of Rotating Machine with Profiled Rotors

375

of a New Type of Rotating Machine with Profiled Rotors 375 Fig. 4 Sketch of the

Fig. 4 Sketch of the experimental setup for testing the rotating volumetric pump with profiled rotors. 1-liquid tank; 2-level glass indicator; 3-filling pipe; 4-closing valve; 5-thermometer; 6- manometer; 7-electric motor; 8-dispozitiv de reglare a turatiei ALTIVAR 58; 9-digital manometer; 10-volumetric pump; 11-electromagnetic flow meter; 12-emptying fitting; 13-control valve; 14-discharge pipe; 15-differential manometer.

5. Method of Measurement

For the experimental establishment of the

it is necessary to

perform the following operations:

(1) The tank (1) is filled with water (Fig. 4) till h 1 m; the valve collocated at the pump intake is opened. (2) After the filling of the circuit, the pump is aerated and its shaft is manually rotated in order to check that it is not blocked. (3) The valve (13) is completely opened.

(4) The pump is started, its rotation speed is adjusted

that

passes through the electromagnetic flow meter is

read.

(5) The rotation speed of the pump is subsequently

adjusted to 240, 260, 280, 300 rpm; the flow rates

to a value of n = 220 rpm and the flow rate

characteristic diagram Vm f (n)

,

V

m ,1

V

m,2

V

m ,3

,

V

m,4

,

V

m ,5

are read. The experimental data are

processed and compared to the theoretical ones

(Table 3).

The data from Table 3 lead to the graphical

shown in

Fig. 5. The theoretical and experimental results prove a

representation

of the

function V m

f (n)

satisfying coincidence.

For the experimental establishment of the

P f (p) the following steps

characteristic diagram

are needed:

m

The steps 1, 2 and 3 are like above.

(4) The volumetric pump is opened. The rotation

speed is adjusted to a mean value of n = 220 rpm. (5) Using the control valve (13), a pressure increase of 0.2; 0.22; 0.23; 0.24 bar is established; the values of P m are read.

, The experimental data are processed and compared to the theoretical ones (Table 4).

Table 3

Values of

V

m

and V r

n (rpm)

 

200

220

240

260

280

300

m

(l/min)

 

244.92

269.41

293.90

318.39

342.88

367.38

V

V r

(l/min)

 

233

257

281

304

332

353

Table 4

Values of P m and P r .

p (bar)

0.20

0.21

0.22

0.23

0.24

P m (W) P r (W)

90.0

94.5

99.0

103.5

108.0

127.0

130.9

133.3

137.5

140.0

376 Research Regarding the Testing of a New Type of Rotating Machine with Profiled Rotors

of a New Type of Rotating Machine with Profiled Rotors Fig. 5 The experimental characteristic diagram

Fig. 5

The experimental characteristic diagram of the

 

machine:

V

m

f (n)

.

   machine: V m  f (n) . Fig. 6 The experimental characteristic diagram of

Fig. 6

The experimental characteristic diagram of the

machine:

P

m

f (p) .

The

obtained

data

characteristic diagram

P

m

The

graph

shown

are

used

to

obtain

the

f (p) .

 

in

Fig.

6

indicates

an

approximately linear increase of the power absorbed by the machine with the pressure increase of the pump.

6. Conclusions

(1) The purpose of the researches was reached, because a number of characteristic diagrams for this new type of machine were experimentally built; therewith the performed measurements allow establishing the volumetric efficiency and the actual efficiency of the machine. (2) The measurement results are highly accurate due to the fact that the instruments (thermometer, manometer, flow meter, counter) were calibrated and digitally displaied the measurement values.

(3) Both the rotating machine with profiled rotors and the constructive solution of the setup are original, fact that increases the value of the work and allows expanding the research in the field of rotating machines with profiled rotors.

Acknowledgments

The

work

has

been funded by the Sectoral

Operational Programme Human Resources Development 2007-2013 of the Romanian Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Protection through the Financial Agreement POSDRU/107/1.5/S/76903.

References

[1] N. Băran, G. Băran, Steam rotating motor, Patent no. 111296 released by the State Office for Inventions and Trademarks OSIM Bucharest.

M. Marinescu, N. Băran, V. Radcenco, Technical Thermodynamics, Vol. I,II,III, Matrixrom Publishing House, Bucharest, 1998. (in Romanian)

[3] N. Băran, P. Răducanu, Bases of technical thermodynamics, vol.3, Technical thermodynamics (in Romanian), POLITEHNICA PRESS Publishing House, Bucharest, 2010.

[4]

[2]

A. Motorga, The Influence of Functional and Constructive Parameters on the Performance Rotating Machines with Profiled Rotors, Politehnica Press Publishing House, Bucharest, 2011.

[5] M. Exarhu, V. Tcacenco, Bases of the Experimental

[6]

Research of Hydraulic and Pneumatic Machines, Bucharest, 1990. (in Romanian) M. Exarhu, V. Tcacenco, Guide for the Laboratory of

[7]

Hydraulic Machines, Bucharest, 1994. (in Romanian) N. Băran, D. Besnea, D. Duminică, Research on

[8]

establishing the outline of the rotor profile for a new volumetric rotating pump, Mecatronica 4 (2004) 24-27. N. Băran, O. Donţu, D. Besnea, A. Costache, Constructive

[9]

elements and technological procedures used in the construction of a new type of rotary compressor, Romanian Review Precision Mechanics, Optics and Mecatronics 25 (2004) 261-268. C. Iamandi, V. Petrescu, Fluid Mechanics, Didactical and Pedagogical Publishing House, Bucharest, 1979. (in Romanian).