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Textile Research Journal
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DOI: 10.1177/0040517510376271
2010 80: 2223 originally published online 11 August 2010 Textile Research Journal
Hadi Dabiryan, Ali Asghar Asgharian Jeddi and Abbas Rastgo
The influence of frictional energy on the load-extension behavior of plain woven fabrics

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by sabbir hossain on April 26, 2012 trj.sagepub.com Downloaded from
Original article
The influence of frictional energy on
the load-extension behavior of plain
woven fabrics
Hadi Dabiryan
1
, Ali Asghar Asgharian Jeddi
1
and Abbas Rastgo
2
Abstract
Many researches have been performed to present a mathematical model to predict the initial modulus of fabrics. Most of
them were performed without taking friction into account whereas, friction phenomenon can play a very important role
in the mechanical properties of fabrics. In the present study, the load-extension behavior of plain woven fabrics was
investigated with respect to friction. For this purpose, the energy method and Castiglianos theorem were used to derive
the relations. Then a new parameter, frictional energy, was introduced to investigate the effect of friction on the tensile
behavior of fabrics. Thereafter, a mathematical model for predicting the initial modulus of fabrics was generated. The
result of this model was compared with Leafs effort. The results show that the suggested model corresponds to the
experimental data more than previous models.
Keywords
Energy method, frictional energy, load-extension, woven fabrics
Introduction
Analysis of mechanical properties of woven fabrics is
one of the most interesting topics for researchers,
because of its wide applications. Prediction of the
mechanical behavior of fabrics needs to employ com-
plex mathematical formulas. The geometry of weaves is
somewhat complicated and it needs to be carefully
modeled to obtain realistic results. Dierent methods
have been used to understand the behavior of woven
fabrics.
16
Grosberg and Kedia,
1
by considering the
extreme cases of gray and completely relaxed fabrics,
showed that the theoretical initial load-extension
deductions were in accord with experimental ndings.
Many other researchers
37
generated dierent models
to predict tensile properties of plain woven fabrics. Leaf
and Kandil
2
presented an analysis of initial load-exten-
sion behavior of plain woven fabrics using Castiglianos
theorem as shown below:
E1

12B
1
p
2
p
1 l
3
1
sin
2
1
1
B2 l
3
1
cos
2
1
B1 l
3
2
cos
2
2
_ _
1
where p is thread spacing, B is bending rigidity, l is
modular length of yarns and is weave angle. In the
above notations, suces 1 and 2 distinguish the warp
and weft directions, respectively.
They saw that values of theoretical initial modulus
are considerably larger than those of obtained experi-
mentally.
2
However, they found a good agreement
between theory and experiments by using the weave
angle calculated from the thread rigid model of
Pierce.
8
Then they expressed that there is an inconsis-
tency in this procedure in that two fabric models have
been used, one to derive the expression for initial mod-
ulus and another to estimate the weave angles, the
resulting agreement between theory and experiment
does seem to justify it. It is necessary to investigate in
more detail the eects of yarn compression and
1
Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez Avenue, Iran.
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tehran, Iran.
Corresponding author:
Ali Asghar Asgharian Jeddi, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez
Avenue, Tehran 15914, Iran
Email: ajeddi@aut.ac.ir
Textile Research Journal
80(20) 22232229
! The Author(s) 2010
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DOI: 10.1177/0040517510376271
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by sabbir hossain on April 26, 2012 trj.sagepub.com Downloaded from
extension, and it is hoped that this will form the subject
of a further paper. It should be noted that in all of the
deformations of yarns and bers in fabric structure,
friction has an important role especially in elastic defor-
mation. For simplicity in all above studies, the eect of
friction has been ignored, whereas it has an undeniable
eect on the mechanical behavior of fabrics. As a
result, in most of the predictions, the values are not
in accord with the experimental results.
In the present study, we have tried to calculate the
eect of friction on the load-extension behavior of plain
woven fabric, in order to consider the eect of internal
forces as frictional resistance. For this purpose, the ini-
tial Youngs modulus of plain woven fabrics, derived
by Leaf and Kandil,
1
was developed by considering the
friction by using Castiglianos theorem. In this
research, we assumed that:
(i) The cross-section of yarns is circular.
(ii) The yarns are inextensible.
(iii) The yarns are incompressible.
Theoretical
One of the convenient methods to investigate mechan-
ical and structural properties of fabrics is the energy
method. Analysis by the energy methods is simple
because energy is a scalar quantity, which can be
summed numerically. In this study, because of concen-
trating on the eect of friction, and for simplicity, the
reciprocal eect of yarn properties is ignored. When the
fabric is subjected to the extension, due to interlacing of
weft and warp in the structure of the fabric, the exten-
sion, bending and compression deformations occur in
the yarns. Therefore, the total consumed energy (U
T
) is
equal to the sum of strain energies as follow:
UT
UE
UB
UC
2
where:
U
E
: the strain energy of extension of yarns
U
B
: the strain energy of bending of yarns
U
C
: the strain energy of compression of yarns
In this case, the strain energy consumed for each
deformation can be calculated using following
equations:
2
UE

l.T
2
2z
3
UB

l.M
2
2B
4
UC

d.v
2
2,
5
where:
T: tension in the yarn
l: yarn length in unit-cell of fabric
z: Youngs modulus of yarn
M: applied bending moment
B: exural rigidity of yarn
v: inter yarn force
d: diameter of the yarn
g: compression rigidity of yarn
Based on the straight-line model
2
consider a unit
cell of plain woven fabric (Figure 1).
Suppose the fabric is deformed only by force F
1
per
unit width along the warp direction. The forces f
1
acting on the individual warp yarns can be obtained by:
f
1

1
,n
1
6
where the n
1
is the warp density.
When the deformation takes place, the force v
1
will
be generated along the line H
1
H
2
between the threads.
The tension in the yarn A
1
H
1
is:
T f
1
cos 1
v
1
sin 1
_ _
Also, the bending moment at a point on A
1
H
1
at a
distance S from A
1
is approximately
M f
1
sin 1
v
1
cos 1
s
From the static consideration, we can say v
1
v
2
.
According to the geometry of the fabric and equations
35 we can write:
2
UE

l1
f
1
cos 1
v
1
sin 1

2
2 z1
7
A
1
A
2 H
1
B
1
B
2
f
1
H
2
P
2
/2
f
1
v
1

1
l
1
/2
(h
1
d
1
)
C
v
1
Figure 1. Unit cell of plain woven fabrics under uni-axial
extension.
2
l
1
: warp modular length A
1
H
1
B
1
; p
1
: warp
thread-spacing A
2
B
2
; h
1
: warp amplitude 2CH
1
;
1
: warp
weave angle CA

2
H
1
.
2224 Textile Research Journal 80(20)
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UB

l
3
1
f
1
sin 1
v
1
cos 1

2
24 B1
8
UC

2v
2
1
D1
,
1
9
In general, by summation of U
E
, U
B
and U
C
, we can
calculate the total consumed energy.
Calculating the frictional energy during
the fabrics extension
Friction is the force that holds together bers in a spun
yarn and the interlacing threads in a fabric.
9
If the fric-
tion is too low, the yarn strength will fall, and the
dimensional stability of fabric will be reduced. This
issue shows the role of friction in mechanical behavior
of textiles. As it is implied from equation (2), the whole
of the consumed energy is used for deforming the
fabric, whereas a part of energy is always used for over-
coming the friction during dierent deformations. For
simplicity, friction is ignored in most of the previous
studies. Signicant dierences between theoretical and
experimental results suggest that the eect of friction is
undeniable. Hence we dene a new parameter to cover
this idea named as Frictional Energy. The frictional
energy is a part of total energy which is used to over-
come friction during deformation of fabrics. So we can
rewrite the equation (2) as follows:
UT
UE
UB
UC
Uf
10
where, the U
f
is the frictional energy.
It is clear that during dierent deformations, the
friction should be overcome. So the U
f
is resolved to
dierent components as below:
Uf
Ufe
Ufb
Ufc
11
where:
U
fe
: consumed energy to overcome the friction during
extension
U
fb
: consumed energy to overcome the friction during
bending
U
fc
: consumed energy to overcome the friction during
compression
When the yarns bend or extend, bers slip past each
other, and also yarns slip on each other during the
extension of the fabric.
Therefore, in two regions of the fabric structure,
energy should overcome the friction. These are:
i) region between bers during slippage in yarn
structure
ii) region between yarns at intersection points in fabric
structure
Calculating energy to overcome friction between
yarns during fabric extension (yarn slippage)
To calculate the consumed energy to overcome the fric-
tion between yarns during extension of fabric, we can
use Amontons law. As it can be seen in Figure 2, the
friction force acting on the contact surface of yarns is
equal to:
T1
f
1
cos 1
v
1
sin1
. e
2j1
12
So, by substituting the equation (12) in equation (3),
the consumed energy to overcome friction between
yarns during yarn slippages in fabric extension will be
obtained by:
Ufe
Ufe1

p
2
f
1
cos 1
v
1
sin 1

2
. e
4j1
2 E1
_ _
13
where E
1
is the initial modulus of the fabric in the warp
direction.
Calculating energy to overcome friction between
fibers during yarn bending
As was mentioned, yarns bend during the extension of
fabric because of interlacing. When yarns bend, bers
in the structure of yarns slip past each other. The nec-
essary moment to overcome a frictional forces is equal
to M
0
which is obtained by equation (14).
7
Hence by
substituting for M
0
in equation (4), we can calculate the
U
fb
. Furthermore, the moment is equal to:
M0

1
8
jvd 14
where:
m: frictional coecient
v: inter yarn force
d: diameter of yarn
By substituting the equation (14) in equation (4) we
have:
Ufb
2 Ufb1

l1
j
2
1
v
2
1
d
2
1
64 B1
15
2
T.e

Figure 2. Friction in yarns passing each other.


9
Dabiryan et al. 2225
by sabbir hossain on April 26, 2012 trj.sagepub.com Downloaded from
Calculating energy to overcome friction between
yarns during yarn compression
As shown in Figure 3 the yarns at the intersection
points are compressed because of internal forces
between yarns. Clearly a frictional force occurs
among bers at contact points during the deformation
of yarn cross sections.
In this case, the frictional force acting on the bers in
a yarns cross section is equal to mv. Substituting this
force in equation (5), U
fc
can be derived. Hence:
Ufc

2
j
1
v
1

2
d
1
2,
1
16
Now, we can use U
fe
, U
fb
and U
fc
to calculate the
frictional energy to overcome the frictions during the
deformation of fabric under uni-axial loading. So, by
substituting the equations (13), (15) and (16) into equa-
tion (11), the frictional energy is obtained:
Uf

p
2
f
1
cos 1
v
1
sin1

2
. e
4j1
2E
1

l1
j
2
1
v
2
1
d
2
1
64 B1

2
j
1
v
1

2
d
1
2,
1
17
Now we can calculate the total energy by substitut-
ing equations (8), (9), (10) and (17) into equation (10):
UT

l1
f
1
cos 1
v
1
sin1

2
2 z1

l
3
1
f
1
sin1
v
1
cos 1

2
24 B1

p
2
f
1
cos 1
v
1
sin 1

2
. e
4 j
1
2 E1

2 v
2
1
d
1
,
1

l1
j
2
1
v
2
1
d
2
1
64 B1

2
j
2
1
v
2
1
d
1
,
1
18
Calculating fabric extension
We know that the distance of the yarn contact points
from the fabric plane, in the longitudinal direction, is
(h
1
d
1
) or (d
2
h
2
) when regarded as a point on
the warp or weft, respectively.
2
Since the yarns remain
in contact, these heights are equal, i.e:
oh1
d
1
od
2
h2

or
oh1
d
1
oh2
d
2
0
When fabric is under uni-axial load, according to
Castiglianos theorem:
o UT
,o v
1
o
h1
d
1
o
h2
d
2

Hence:
o UT
,o v
1
0
which leads to:
l1
f
1
cos 1
v
1
sin1
sin 1
z1

l
3
1
f
1
sin1
v
1
cos 1
cos 1
12 B1

p
2
f
1
cos 1
v
1
sin 1
sin 1
. e
4 j
1 1
E1

4v
1
d
1
,
1

l1
j
2
1
v
1
d
2
1
32 B1

4v
1
j
1
2
d
1
,
1
0 19
This equation can be solved for v
1
, to give:
v
1

f
1
cos 1
sin 1
l
3
1
12 B1

l1
z1

p
2
e
4j
1
E1
_ _
l
3
1
cos 1
2
12 B1
sin
2
1
l1
zi

p
2
e
4j
1
E1
_ _

l1
j
2
1
d
2
1
32 B1

4 d
1
,
1
1
j
2
1

20
The fabric extension in the warp direction is c
1

op
2
/p
2
, so: c
1
p
2
oU
T
/of
1
by Castiglianoss theorem.
Hence, by dierentiation of equation (18) with respect
to f
1
, we can write:
c
1

f
1
p
2
l
3
1
sin
2

1
12B
1
_ _
cos
2

1
l
1
z
1

p
2
e
4j1
E1
_ _ _ _

v
1
p
2
cos
1
sin
1
l
3
1
12B
1

l
1
z
1

p
2
e
4j1
E1
_ _ _ _
where, z and g tend toward innity (because it was
assumed that the yarns are inextensible and incom-
pressible). So, by substituting for v
1
, and considering

d
V
V
Figure 3. Deformation of yarns cross-section in compression.
2226 Textile Research Journal 80(20)
by sabbir hossain on April 26, 2012 trj.sagepub.com Downloaded from
the equations F
1
E
1
c
1
and f
1
F
1.
/n
1
, we have (refer
to Appendix):
ax
2
bx c 0 21
where:
x
1
E1
a
p
2
2
sin
2
1
e
4j1
b
p
2 l
3
1
12B
1
cos
2
1

e
4j1
n
1
_ _

p
2 l
1
j
2
1
d
2
1
32B
1
1
cos
2
1
e
4j1
n
1
_ _
c
1
n
1
l
4
1
j
2
1
d
2
1
sin
2
1
12 32 B
2
1
_ _
And, we can write the equation for calculating the
initial modulus of fabric in warp direction as follows:
E1

2a
b

b
2
4ac
p 22
By solving the quadratic equation (22), two values
for E
1
will be obtained, one of which is acceptable.
Experimental
To check the theory and compare the model with the
suggested model by Leaf and Kandil, we use their
empirical data.
2
In this experiment, six series of fabrics
were woven. The warp (R60/2-tex polyester) was
common to all groups, but the weft was varied accord-
ing to the Table 1.
The fabrics were scoured at 95

C for one hour in a


winch containing detergent and sodium carbonate.
They were then hydro-extracted and stentered at
110

C for one minute.This treatment eectively set


the fabrics. For measuring the Shear modulus of
yarn, they used KES apparatus. The yarn exural rigid-
ity was measured on the Shirley Bending tester. The
warp and weft thread-spacing in the fabrics, were mea-
sured by counting the number of repeat units in a 5 cm
length of fabrics, and the modular lengths were mea-
sured on the Shirley crimp tester. These data are sum-
marized in Table 2.
The initial fabrics modulus in the warp direction, E
1
,
was determined by extending the fabrics on the
INSTRON cross-head which was driven at 2 cm/min.
2
The tangent at the origin to the resulting load-elonga-
tion curve was taken as a measure of the initial modulus
of the fabrics. Then by putting the geometrical param-
eters of the fabrics (Table 2) in the equation (20), the
initial modulus of fabrics with respect to friction was
calculated. The frictional coecient was chosen accord-
ing to the type of bers.
8
Also, for calculating the initial
modulus of fabrics regardless of friction, the data from
table 1 were put in equation (1). The results of experi-
mental and theoretical initial modulus are presented in
Figure 4. As it is obvious from this gure, by consider-
ing the eect of friction in analyzing the load-extension
behavior of woven fabrics, the predicted results of ini-
tial modulus correspond more to the experimental
values in comparison with the values of initial modulus,
regardless of the friction.
Also, it can be seen in Figure 4, the trend of the
improved model corresponds more to the experimental
Table 2. Experimental data
2
Fabric
group
Fabric
no.
p
1
(mm)
p
2
(mm)
l
1
(mm)
l
2
(mm)
B
1
(mN.mm
2
)
B
2
(mN.mm
2
)
X 1 0.485 0.588 0.700 0.514 5.62 6.06
2 0.488 0.624 0.758 0.515 5.62 6.06
3 0.485 0.713 0.835 0.508 5.62 6.06
Y 1 0.490 0.677 0.798 0.514 5.62 7.05
2 0.492 0.739 0.871 0.515 5.62 7.05
3 0.495 0.849 0.983 0.513 5.62 7.05
Z 1 0.494 0.779 0.939 0.508 5.62 8.16
2 0.494 0.839 1.022 0.507 5.62 8.16
3 0.491 0.691 0.847 0.509 5.62 8.16
A 1 0.476 0.589 0.704 0.504 4.44 4.44
2 0.587 0.794 0.827 0.616 4.44 4.44
3 0.549 0.532 0.606 0.615 4.44 4.44
B 1 0.556 0.548 0.598 0.623 4.44 4.25
2 0.591 0.637 0.722 0.622 4.44 4.25
3 0.594 0.756 0.832 0.624 4.44 4.25
C 1 0.568 0.465 0.509 0.621 4.44 2.96
2 0.577 0.538 0.597 0.639 4.44 2.96
3 0.571 0.662 0.730 0.608 4.44 2.96
Table 1. Details of weft yarns used
2
Fabric
group
Nominal
linear
density(tex)
Weft specifications
Twist
(turns/cm) Material
Spinning
Method
X R60/2 Cotton Ring 6.0
Y R74/2 Cotton Ring 5.2
Z R98/2 Cotton Open-end 4.4
A R60/2 Polyester Not Known 4.0
B R60/2 Polyester-cotton Not Known 4.2
C R46/2 Polyester-cotton Not Known 7.1
Dabiryan et al. 2227
by sabbir hossain on April 26, 2012 trj.sagepub.com Downloaded from
data than the Leafs model. As was mentioned, we con-
sider the uni-axial load-extension behavior of fabrics
with respect to the friction, while Leaf and Kandil
2
investigated the fabric load- extension behavior regard-
less of the friction eect. Thus the friction is more eec-
tive than the reciprocal eect of weft yarn properties.
Conclusion
It can be inferred from the results that friction has an
important role in the mechanical properties of textiles.
It is clear that by omitting the friction parameter the
predicted results correspond less to the experimental
data. Hence a suitable method to consider the eect
of friction on mechanical behavior of fabrics is the
energy method. The benet of this method is that the
energy is a scalar value; therefore the calculations can
be performed very simply. Since, a part of total energy
is always consumed to overcome the friction in the dif-
ferent regions of fabrics, it is necessary to create a term,
nominated as frictional energy. By considering the eect
of friction, an improved model for the initial modulus
of woven fabrics showed that the predicted results cor-
responded to experimental more than those which
ignored the eect of friction. Based on results obtained
from this study, the eect of friction between compo-
nents of fabric, yarns and bers, on load-extension
behavior, is more important than the reciprocal eect
of yarns. For more precision, investigation of the recip-
rocal eect of weft yarn along with the eect of friction
will form the subject of further papers.
References
1. Grosberg P and Kedia S. The mechanical properties of
woven fabrics; Part I: The initial load-extension modulus.
Textile Res J 1966; 36: 7179.
2. Leaf GAV and Kandil KH. The initial load-extension
behavior of plain-woven fabrics. J Textile Inst 1980; 71:
17.
3. Shahpurwala AA and Schwartz P. Modeling woven fabric
tensile strength using bundle theory. Textile Res J 1989;
59: 2632.
4. Kollegal MG and Sridharan S. A simplified model for
plain woven fabrics. J Composite Materials 2000; 34:
17561786.
5. Xue P, Cao J and Chen J. Integrated micro/macro-
mechanical model of woven fabric composite under large
deformation. Composite Structures 2005; 70: 6980.
6. Yitong Z and Yuxin X. Nonlinear micro-mechanical
model for plain woven fabric. Acta Mechanica Solida
Sinica 2003; 16(2): 134140.
7. Grosberg P. The mechanical properties of woven fabrics;
Part II: The bending of woven fabrics. Textile Res J 1966;
36(3): 205211.
8. Pierce FT. Geometry of cloth structure. J Textile Inst
1937; 28: T4596.
9. Morton WE and Hearle JWS. Physical properties of tex-
tile fibers Manchester: Academic Press, The Textile
Institute, 1993, Vol. 2, p.611.
Appendix
Calculation of E
1
is as follows:
v
1
f
1
A
B
E
[
N
/
c
m
]
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
1
21.9 17.8 15.9 16.8 14 11.2 11.4 9.5 13.9 9.8 5.4 11 13.7 8.4 6.3 18.1 12.8 4.5
14.3 9.4 14.2 15.9 15.5 14.6 13.7 10.6 14.9 9.2 9.1 12.7 24 13.3 11.7 23.2 18 12
19.1
Improved model
Experimental
Leaf 17.6 20.7 21.7 22.1 24.4 23.5 23.9 21.6 15 13.1 12.7 14.1 9.3 9.9 13.5 10.5 9.3
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Figure 4. Comparison of different models with experimental values of initial modulus of fabrics.
2228 Textile Research Journal 80(20)
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where:
A cos 1
sin1
l
3
1
12 B1

l1
z1

p
2
e
4j1
E1
_ _
B
l
3
1
cos 1
2
12 B1
sin
2
1
l1
zi

p
2
e
4j1
E1
_ _

l1
j
2
1
d
2
1
32 B1

4 d
1
,
1
1
j
2
1

Also, we found that the strain of fabric in warp


direction is:
c
1

f
1
p
2
C
v
1
p
2
D
where:
C
l
3
1
sin
2
1
12 B1
cos
2
1
l1
z1

p
2
e
4 j
1 1
E1
_ _ _ _
D cos 1
sin 1
l
3
1
12 B1

l1
z1

p
2
e
4 j
1 1
E1
_ _ _ _
By assuming that yarns are inextensible and incom-
pressible, and substituting the v
1
in the above equation:
c
1

f
1
p
2
Cf
1
A
B
D
p
2

f
1
p
2
B CA D
B
_ _
where:
BC
l
6
1
sin
2
1
cos
2
1
144B
2
1

p
2 l
3
1
sin
4
1
e
4j
1
12B
1 E1

l
4
1
j
2
1
d
2
1
sin
2
1
12 32B
2
1

p
2
2
sin
2
1
cos
2
1
e
8j
1
E
2
1

p
2 l
3
1
cos
4
1
e
4j
1
12B
1 E1

l
1
p
2
j
2
1
d
2
1
cos
4
1
e
4j
1
32B
1 E1
and:
AD
l
6
1
sin
2
1
cos
2
1
144B
2
1

p
2
2
sin
2
1
cos
2
1
e
8j
1
E
2
1

2p
2
l
3
1
sin
2
1
cos
2
1
e
4j
1
12B
1 E1
hence:
BCAD
p
2 l
3
1
e
4j
1
12B
1 E1

l
4
1
j
2
1
d
2
1
sin
2
1
12 32B
2
1

l
1
p
2
j
2
1
d
2
1
cos
2
1
e
4j
1
32B
1 E1
Therefore:
c
1

f
1
p
2
p
2 l
3
1
e
4j
1
12B
1 E1

l
4
1
j
2
1
d
2
1
sin
2
1
1232B
2
1

l
1
p
2
j
2
1
d
2
1
cos
2
1
e
4j
1
32B
1 E1
l
3
1
cos 1
2
12 B1

sin
2
1
p
2
e
4j
1
E1

l1
j
2
1
d
2
1
32 B1
_
_
_
_
_
_
By considering the equations F
1
E
1
c
1
& f
1
F
1.
/n
1
we can write:
F
1
E
1

F
1
_
n
1
p
2
p
2 l
3
1
e
4j
1
12B
1 E1

l
4
1
j
2
1
d
2
1
sin
2
1
1232B
2
1

l
1
p
2
j
2
1
d
2
1
cos
2
1
e
4j
1
32B
1 E1
l
3
1
cos 1
2
12 B1

p
2
sin
2
1
e
4j
1
E1

l1
j
2
1
d
2
1
32 B1
_
_
_
_
_
_
.
By simplifying this equation:
p
2
2
sin
2
1
e
4j1
_ _
1
E
2
1

_
p
2 l
3
1
12B
1
cos
2
1

e
4j1
n
1
_ _

p
2 l
1
j
2
1
d
2
1
32B
1
1
cos
2

1
e
4j1
n
1
_ __
1
E1

1
n
1
l
4
1
j
2
1
d
2
1
sin
2
1
12 32 B
2
1
_ _
0
or:
a
1
E1
_ _
2
b
1
E1
_ _
c 0
Dabiryan et al. 2229
by sabbir hossain on April 26, 2012 trj.sagepub.com Downloaded from