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Grammatical Underpinnings -

English Schools of Thought - descriptivism prescriptivism referring to the structure of a language as it is actually used referring to the structure of a language as certain people think it should be used

Important English Linguistic Terms - Grammar Related (General) - () language grammar the method of human communication the system and structure of a language, consisting of syntax and morphology, and sometimes also semantics and phonology the branch of linguistics concerned with the correct arrangement of words and phrases to form sentences the branch of linguistics concerned with the formation of words the branch of linguistics concerned with meaning the branch of linguistics concerned with systems of sounds

syntax

morphology semantics phonology

Syntax Related (Specific) - () composition punctuation literary style usage clause sentence paragraph do-support do the formation or construction of ones writing the marks used in writing to define and separate elements the style (use of literary devices) used in ones writing the directions; the rules of use a syntactic unit consisting of a subject and a predicate an independent clause a section of writing dealing with a single theme adding the auxiliary verb do to normal verbs in non-declarative contexts the omission of words that are understood from contextual clues the reversal of the normal order of words (as in questions)

ellipses inversion

Morphology Related (Specific) - () morpheme bound morpheme free morpheme affix a unit of a language that cannot be further divided a morpheme only occurring when bound to a root word a morpheme only occurring by itself a morpheme that attached to a lemma to form a new word (a type of bound morpheme) a morpheme added to the start of a word to form a derivative a morpheme added to the end of a word to form a derivative a unit of a language consisting of one to several words; applied to a family of words related by morphology or semantics the primary lexical unit of a word that carries the semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller elements (lexical root) the dictionary form (headword) of a lexeme (inflectional root; stem) the vocabulary of a language the body of words used in a language a single, distinct meaningful element of speech or writing a small group of words existent together as a conceptual unit morphemes that differ in pronunciation but are semantically identical (ex. the plural s being read as s, z, or iz) a morpheme that has syntactic characteristics of a word but depends phonologically on another word or phrase (ex. s)

prefix suffix lexeme

root word

lemma

lexicon vocabulary word phrase allomorph

clitic

Semantics Related (Specific) - () context the parts of something written or spoken that immediately precede and follow a word or passage and clarify its meaning a statement of the exact meaning of a word a spoken or written representation a word that restricts or adds to the sense of a word a noun phrase that renames a noun right beside it

definition description modifier appositive

anaphora

when the meaning of a word (ex. pronoun) is dependent on another referential element a noun phrase or clause to which an anaphor (ex. pronoun) refers to a word formed from the initial letters of other words; an abbreviation a word that has a similar meaning to another word a word that has an opposite meaning to another word a word that is spelled the same as another word, but has a different meaning a word that is pronounced the same as another word, but has a different meaning a word formed from an associated sound a word formed evoking an impression of certain sensations or sensory perceptions; an ideophone (ex. bang) a word adopted from another language with little to no modification

antecedent

acronym

synonym antonym homonym

homophone

onomatope mimetic word

loanword

Phonology Related (Specific) - () phoneme vowel consonant syllable a distinct unit of sound in a language a/e/i/o/u all letters other than a / e / i / o / u a phoneme that has one vowel sound, with or without surrounding consonants a sound formed by the combination of two vowels in a single syllable a sound formed by the combination of two consonants with no intervening vowels the way words are pronounced a mode of pronunciation of a language, usually associated with a particular nation, locality, or social class a form of language that is particular to a specific region or a social group

diphthong

consonant cluster

pronunciation accent

dialect

intonation tone

the rise or fall of the voice in speaking to indicate meaning the use of pitch in language to distinguish grammatical or lexical meaning the degree of lowness or highness of a tone the arrangement of sounds according to duration and stress the emphasis laid on timing to indicate meaning the emphasis laid on words to indicate meaning the ability to express oneself easily, articulately, and accurately sounds given during a conversation to indicate comprehension Syntax Related (Clauses) - ()

pitch rhythm duration stress fluency back-channeling

independent clause

a clause containing a subject and a predicate that can act as a sentence a clause, generally containing a subordinate conjunction, that is dependent on the main (independent) clause a clause containing a relative pronoun a clause adding essential information to what it modifies (ex. that) a clause adding non-essential information to what it modifies (a parenthetical expression offset by commas) (ex. which)

subordinate clause

relative clause restrictive clause

non-restrictive clause

Syntax Related (Sentences) - () Types - declarative sentence interrogative sentence exclamatory sentence imperative sentence

a sentence that makes a statement; ends with a period a sentence that asks a question; ends with a question mark a sentence that conveys emotion; ends with an exclamation mark a sentence that gives a command or makes a request; ends with a period or an exclamation mark

Forms - affirmative sentence negative sentence double negative sentence

a positive sentence a negative sentence a sentence that contains two negatives (making it positive)

question sentence indirect question sentence negative question sentence Complexity - simple sentence compound sentence

a question sentence a question in reported speech a question sentence beginning with a negative

a sentence consisting of an independent clause a sentence consisting of two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction a sentence consisting of an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses a sentence consisting of two or more independent and dependent clauses

complex sentence

compound-complex sentence

Composition - subject

the noun phrase of the sentence (a word or group of words that functions in a sentence as the subject, object, or prepositional object) the verb phrase of the sentence (a finite verb with its dependent(s)) a noun phrase that has the same reference as either the subject or the object a noun phrase dependent on a finite verb a noun phrase that is the recipient of the action of a transitive verb (ex. I gave a present.) a noun phrase that refers to someone or something that is the recipient of the action of a transitive verb, but is not the direct object (ex. I gave him a present.)

predicate

complement

object direct object

indirect object

Sentence Patterns - There are five basic sentence patterns in English

SV SVC SVO SVOC SVOO

- I exploded. - I am smart. - I do my homework. - I keep my room clean. - I gave my friend a gift.

Syntax Related (Punctuation) - () Basic Symbols - symbol ; sign

a mark or character used as a conventional representation of an object, function, or process a symbol used in writing or printing a pictograph a character representation of the sounds used in speech upper-case; capital letters lower-case; small letters the first letter of a name or word an arithmetical value, expressed by a word or symbol a symbol denoting a number an empty space the space left between letters the dot placed about the i and j (ex. [ ])

mark; sign glyph letter majuscule letters minuscule letters initials number numeral blank space kerning space tittle Fonts - font print cursive bold italics underline

a set of type of particular face and size a writing format with non-joined characters a writing format with joined characters a writing format with thick characters a writing format with slanted characters a writing format with underlined characters

Diacritic Marks - diacritic acute accent breve caron; hek

a glyph added to a letter to denote pronunciation [ ] (vowel is pronounced; vowel is stressed) [ ] (vowel is shortened) [ ] (c, r, s, and z are pronounced ch, sh, rzh, and zh, respectively) [ ] (c pronounced is s rather than k) [ ] (indicates an omitted s) [ ] (vowel is pronounced separately) [ ` ] (vowel is pronounced; vowel is stressed) [ ] (vowel is lengthened; m or n is omitted) [ ~ ] (n is palatalized)

cedilla circumflex diereses; umlaut grave accent macron tilde

Everyday Symbols - ampersand angle brackets apostrophe arrow mark asterisk commercial at; at symbol backslash brace bracket caret colon comma ellipsis points em dash M

[&] [<];[>] [] [] [*] [@] [/] [{];[}] [[];[]] [^] [:] [,] [] []

en dash exclamation mark hyphen

[-] [!] [-] [#] [(];[)] [%] [.] [?] [];[] [;] [/] [_]

number, pound, or hash sign parenthesis percent sign period; full stop question mark quotation mark semicolon solidus; slash underscore

Uncommon Symbols - Cent sign Centigrade symbol copyright mark dagger Dollar sign double dagger Fahrenheit symbol feminine symbol flat masculine symbol minutes, feet music note paragraph symbol

[] [ C ] [] [] [$] [] [ F ] [] [ ] [] [] [] []

seconds, inches sectional mark sharp vertical line

[] [] [] [|]

Mathematic and Logic Symbols - addition (plus) sign angle approximate sign decimal point degree sign division sign equal sign greater-than sign

[+] [ ] [];[] [.] [] [] [=] [>] [] [ ] ; [ ] ; [ < ] ; [ ] ; [ ] ; [ ] ; [ ] ; [ > ] ; [ ] [] [ ] [ ] [] [<] [] [ ] [ ] [] [-]

greater-than-or-equal-to sign inequality sign

integral sign is parallel to is perpendicular to lemniscate; infinity sign less-than sign less-than-or-equal-to sign much-greater-than sign much-less-than sign multiplication sign negative sign

not-equal-to sign pi plus-or-minus sign root symbol subtraction (minus) sign

[] [] [] []

() [ - ] *****

because congruence for all if and only if (iff) if then is proportional to is similar to there exists therefore

[ ] [] [ ] [ ] [ ] [] [] [ ] [ ]

Parts of Speech - the categories to which a word is assigned in accordance with its syntactic functions Noun - a word or words (other than a pronoun) identifying people, places, things, and ideas, or naming a particular one of them common noun proper noun a noun used for a class of objects or a concept a noun used for an individual person, place, or thing; requires a capital letter a noun that denotes something material or tangible a noun that denotes some concept or something intangible a noun that consists of more than one lemma a countable noun that denotes a group a common noun that can be modified by a numeral, occurs in both singular and plural forms, and accepts articles and other determiners a common noun that cant be modified by a numeral, doesnt occur in singular and plural forms, and doesnt accept articles or other determiners a noun in its singular form a noun in its plural form

concrete noun abstract noun compound noun collective noun countable noun

non-countable noun

singular noun plural noun

Pronoun - a word or form substituted for a noun or a noun phrase personal pronouns 1st person form 2nd person form 3rd person form nominative case pronouns oblique case pronouns pronouns associated with a grammatical person (1st, 2nd, 3rd form) the speaker the addressee a third party the category of pronouns that serve as the grammatical subject (I) the category of pronouns that serve as the grammatical object (a combination of the accusative case (object of a transitive verb) and the dative case (object of an intransitive verb; giving) ) (me) the category of pronouns that are preceded by their antecedents within the same clause (myself)

reflexive case pronouns

possessive determiners

the category of determiners that modify nouns by attributing possession (my) the category of pronouns that indicate possession (mine) the category of pronouns that point out a referent (this, that, these, those) the category of pronouns that function in a syntactic context, rather than a semantic one (ex. It is sunny today. ; There is a desk.) the category of pronouns that ask which referent is meant (what, which, who, whom, whose) the category of pronouns that refer back to a previously mentioned referent (that, which, who, whom, whose) the category of pronouns that refer to a general referent (ex. no one, everyone, someone, anyone, one)

possessive pronouns demonstrative pronouns

expletive pronouns

interrogative pronouns

relative pronouns

indefinite pronouns

Verb - a word or phrase describing an action, state, or occurrence, and forming the main part of the predicate of a sentence; denotes gender, person, number, tense, aspect, mood, and voice finite verb non-finite verb full infinitive verb bare infinitive verb lexical verb auxiliary verb an inflected verb a non-inflected verb the infinite form of a verb with to the infinite form of a verb without to all verbs except for auxiliary verbs a verb that is used in forming and expressing the tenses, aspects, modalities, moods, and voices of other lexical verbs (the most important for tense are: be, do, and have) a verb that requires an object a verb that does not require an object a verb that asserts that one of its arguments shows progressive action; they have defined duration (ex. go, play, eat, etc.) a verb that asserts that one of its arguments has a particular property; they have undefined duration (ex. be, know, feel, etc.) a verb whose conjugation follows typical grammatical inflections

transitive verb intransitive verb dynamic verb

stative verb

regular verb

irregular verb

a verb whose conjugation doesnt follow typical grammatical inflections a word (verb) used to link the subject of a sentence with its predicate a verb consisting of another element, usually an adverb or preposition (ex. break down, cut up, go out, etc.) 1st verb form; the uninflected form of the verb 2nd verb form; the past simple inflected form of the verb 3rd verb form; the form of a verb that used in forming the perfect and passive tenses and sometimes as an adjective 4th verb form; the form of a verb used in forming the continuous tenses and sometimes as an adjective when one adds an s to the end of the verb in the 3rd person singular present tense to inflect a verb the contracted form of two or more words a derived form of a verb that functions as a noun

copula verb

phrasal verb

base form past simple tense past participle

present participle 3rd person singular present

conjugate contraction gerund

Adjective - a word or phrase naming an attribute and used to modify or describe a noun (order by: size, age, color, material) * adjectives come before a noun; multiple coordinate (equal) adjectives require separation by commas * if an adjective list ends with a coordinate conjunction it diverts focus from the adjective to the modified element coordinate adjective cumulative adjective adjectives that modify the same noun (are of equal rank) adjectives that appear together, but modify different elements (are of unequal rank) the uninflected form of the adjective a syntactic construction that serves to express a comparison between entities or groups of quality, quantity, or degree (if more than two syllables add less / more) a syntactic construction that serves to express a degree that is greater than any other possible degree of the given descriptor (if more than three syllables add least / most)

base degree comparative degree

superlative degree

Determiner - a word or phrase determining the kind of reference a noun phrase has * determiners are a relatively new part of speech; overlap exists between determiners, pronouns, and adjectives * some countable nouns can be treated as non-countable, taking a preposition instead of an article indefinite article an article that introduces a noun phrase and implies that the reference is nonspecific; used only with singular, countable nouns (a, an) an article that introduces a noun phrase and implies that the reference has already been mentioned, is about to be defined, is unique, or is common knowledge (the) the absence of an article in a noun phrase and implies that the reference is general, indefinite, or proper (ex. Coffee is popular. ; I like cats. ; I am John.) a determiner that quantifies a noun phrase (ex. some, little / few, much / many, a lot of, etc.)

definite article

zero article

quantifier

Adverb - a word or phrase naming an attribute and used to modify or describe a verb, adjective, adverb, or phrase (main types: manner, place, time, degree, frequency, attitude / comment, linking, viewpoint, restrictive / additive) (order by: place, manner, time) * most adverbs are generally placed after the object of a transitive verb or immediately after an intransitive verb * adverbs of frequency are placed between the subject and the verb, or between the auxiliary verb and the finite verb base degree comparative degree the uninflected form of the adverb a syntactic construction that serves to express a comparison between entities or groups of quality, quantity, or degree (if more than two syllables add less / more) a syntactic construction that serves to express a degree that is greater than any other possible degree of the given descriptor (if more than three syllables add least / most)

superlative degree

Preposition - a word or words forming a complement with a noun phrase and expressing a relation to another element in the clause adposition preposition postposition particle a general term for prepositions, postpositions, etc. a word or morpheme placed before the noun phrase it governs a word or morpheme placed after the noun phrase it governs a catch-all term for non-inflectable lexemes that encode grammar

Conjunction - a word or words connecting sentences or clauses and coordinating words in the same clause coordinating conjunction a conjunction placed between words, phrases, clauses, or sentences of equal rank (and, but, or, nor, so, for, yet) a conjunction, similar to a coordinating conjunction, where an additional element appears before the first of the items being linked (bothand, notbut, eitheror, neithernor) a conjunction relating clauses; they make the clause in which they appear into a dependent (subordinate) clause (ex. after, before, since, until, because, in order for, although, though, whereas, if, even if, that, where, when, why, how, whether, etc.)

correlative conjunction

subordinate conjunction

Interjection - a word or phrase making an exclamation Um Cheers!

Functions of English - Tense - the grammar of time past present future the concept of before the concept of now the concept of after Aspect - the movement of time indefinite (simple) progressive (continuous) perfect perfect progressive habitual (imperfect) () () () () () discrete time on-going discrete time action spanning tenses, duration, and course; and facts and results on-going, perfect aspect actions done regularly (English does not have this aspect)

Modality - the attitude of the speaker auxiliary verbs causative verbs habitual intensive inversion necessity volitional can / could; shall / should; will / would; may / might; must / mote; be able to, about to get, have, let, make keep, used to, would do be get to, have to, had better, need to, ought to let, dare - etc. () Mood - the expression of modality indicative conditional subjunctive imperative infinitive normal time if statements counterfactuals, desires, dreams, doubts, hypotheses, necessity, purpose, similar ideas, suggestion, and wishes commands verb lemma

Voice - the relationship between the subject and action * the passive voice always requires the past participle of the finite verb active passive the subject undertakes the action the action is being received by the subject I see him. He is seen (by me).

English Verb Conjugations - the 24 basic tenses (depending on the definition of tense), plus the conditional mood and the subjunctive mood The Past Tense - 4 Conjugations past simple used for: I spoke.

asking about time, past actions with a given time, definite past actions without a given time I had spoken.

past perfect (pluperfect) used for:

past actions that occurred before other actions in the past; the past in the past I was speaking.

past progressive used for:

describing the past, past actions in progress, past developing situations, interrupted past actions I had been speaking.

past perfect progressive used for:

describing longer actions or situations in the past that had been going on continuously up to the past reference time (may or may not have continued) The Present Tense - 4 Conjugations

present simple used for:

I speak.

commentaries, directions / instructions, facts, habits, present stories I have spoken.

present perfect used for:

general experiences (), completed past actions carried out in an unfinished time period at utterance (), describing something that began in the past and is still true at utterance (may or may not continue) (), describing past actions with present results () (for for periods, since for points of time) (been implies finished, gone implies unfinished) I am speaking.

present progressive used for:

actions in progress at utterance, developing situations, frequent or regular actions, temporary actions I have been speaking.

present perfect progressive

* with the present perfect progressive, the emphasis is on the action or activity, not the result or completed action used for: describing an incomplete and ongoing activity (likely to continue), describing a recently completed and uninterrupted activity with present results

ex: * Ive eaten three cakes today. * Ive been eating cakes today.

(present progressive) (present perfect progressive)

The Future I Tense - I 4 Conjugations * other modal verbs such as shall or may can be used in place of will, changing the meaning slightly future I simple used for: I I will speak.

future facts and certainties, spontaneous decisions at utterance, assumptions or speculations, promises, predictions not based on evidence, threats I I will have spoken.

future I perfect used for:

actions that will have been done, completed, or achieved at some point in the future; the past in the future I I will be speaking.

future I progressive used for:

future actions that will be in progress, predicting the present, polite inquiries (non-influencing), referring to future events that are fixed or decided I I will have been speaking.

future perfect I progressive used for:

describing how long something will have been continuing by a certain time (usually uses by) The Future II Tense - II 4 Conjugations

* the large difference between will and be going to is one of intention; be going to is used to express forethought or intention, decisions made before utterance, and predictions based on evidence future II simple future II perfect future II progressive future II perfect progressive II II II II I am going to speak. I am going to have spoken. I am going to be speaking. I am going to have been speaking.

* the present simple tense and the present progressive tense can also be used to express future tense ex. * I leave tomorrow. * Im leaving tomorrow.

(present simple)

used for:

formal situations, impersonal tone, timetables and schedules definite arrangements, decisions without a time frame

(present progressive)

used for:

The Past-Future I & II - I & II 8 Conjugations * other modal verbs such as should or might can be used in place of would, changing the meaning slightly * the usages of the past-future tenses mirror those written above for the future I and future II tenses; the difference between would and was / were going to mirrors the difference between will and be going to past-future I simple past-future I perfect past-future I progressive past-future I perfect progressive I I I I ***** past-future II simple past-future II perfect past-future II progressive II II II I was going to speak. I was going to have spoken. I was going to be speaking. I was going to have been speaking. I would speak. I would have spoken. I would be speaking. I would have been speaking.

past-future II perfect progressive II used for:

expressing the idea that, from a past perspective, something would happen in the future; the future in the past

The Conditional Mood - Terminology - protasis a clause containing the condition in the conditional mood (a type of dependent clause) a clause containing the consequence in the conditional mood (a type of independent clause) a factual conditional sentence (realis / ) a hypothetical, but possible, conditional sentence () a counterfactual conditional sentence (irrealis / )

apodosis

implicative sentence predictive sentence

speculative sentence

Sentence Patterns - * other modal verbs can be used in place of will and would zero conditional used for: if/when + present tense, present tense If I eat, I die. ; When I eat, I die.

actions and facts that are irrefutable; if and when can be used interchangeably (other mixes are possible, though less common; ex. If the alarm activated, a fire burned somewhere. ) if + present tense, will + [ ~ ] If I eat, I will die.

first conditional used for:

situations in the present and future that are possible, certain, or probable, once the condition has been satisfied if + past simple, would + [ ~ ] If I ate, I would die.

second conditional used for:

present or future un-reals (counterfactuals / hypotheticals) that are presently not true and unlikely ever to be true (often the subjunctive mood is used to express this sentiment) if + past perfect, would + past perfect If I had eaten, I would have died.

third conditional used for:

hypothetical past actions or non-actions and their hypothetical past consequences or results (often the subjunctive mood is used to express this sentiment) if + past perfect, would + [ ~ ] If I had eaten, I would die

mixed conditional (3rd / 2nd ) used for:

hypothetical past actions or non-actions and their hypothetical present consequences or results (often the subjunctive mood is used to express this sentiment) (other mixes are possible, though less common)

* modals are generally not found in the protasis, but this is possible; generally they would act in a modal-based, rather than tense-based, context ex. * If the aspirins will cure it, Ill take a couple tonight. * If you will excuse me, I must be leaving now.

(first conditional, will as the future I tense) (first conditional, will as function of volition)

The Subjunctive Mood - * The subjunctive is generally used in the aforementioned second, third, and mixed conditionals in formal (written), archaic, proverbial, etc., contexts; multiple tenses and aspects are possible * The subjunctive can often undergo inversion when, in other moods, inversion would otherwise be grammatically impermissible ex. I recommend that they not enter. It is important that he have completed it. God save the queen. Be they friend or foe If I were rich, I would be happy. Were I rich, I would be happy. If I had sung a song, I would have been happy. Had I sung a song, I would have been happy. If it should be sunny later, I would be happy. (present simple, negative, 1st person) (present perfect, affirmative, 3rd person) (present simple, affirmative, 3rd person imperative) (present simple, affirmative, 3rd person inversion) (past simple, affirmative, 1st person) (past simple, affirmative, 1st person inversion) (past perfect, affirmative, 1st person) (past perfect, affirmative, 1st person inversion) (future simple, affirmative, 3rd person)

Timeline of Perfect Tense Usage - * Think of the row as some point in time - some reference. Is the story happening in the present, past, or future? * Think of the column as some event - relative to the point in time. Is the event happening at the point in time, before the point in time, or after the point in time? Simple Tenses -
past reference time () present reference time () future reference time ()

event before reference time I will have spoken. () (anterior / ) I had spoken. I have spoken. I am going to have spoken.

event at reference time I will speak. () (simultaneous / ) I would have spoken. event after reference time () I am going to speak. (posterior / ) I would speak. I was going to speak. I am going to speak. I was going to have spoken. I will speak. I will speak. I spoke. I speak. I am going to speak.

Progressive Tenses -
past reference time () event before reference time () (anterior / ) I will have been speaking. I had been speaking. I have been speaking. I am going to have been speaking. present reference time () future reference time ()

event at reference time I will be speaking. () (simultaneous / )


I would have been speaking.

I was speaking.

I am speaking. I am going to be speaking.

event after reference time () (posterior / )

I was going to have been speaking.

I will be speaking. I am going to be speaking.

I will be speaking. I am going to be speaking.

I would be speaking. I was going to be speaking.

Speech - direct speech the reporting of speech by repeating the actual words of the speaker (ex. He said, Im going.) the reporting of speech without explicitly repeating the actual words of the speaker (ex. He said that he was going.) consistency in a clause between the subject and finite verb of the predicate according to gender, person, number, and tense the changing of the tense of a verb (one tense back) in reported speech (in addition, here becomes there, this becomes that, and these becomes those; time expressions also undergo backshifting (ex. today becomes that day)

indirect speech

subject-verb agreement

backshifting

Indirect Statement - A) Are you going? B) He asked, Are you going? C1) He asked if he was going. C2) He asked whether he was going.

(original sentence, present progressive) (direct speech, present progressive) (indirect speech, present progressive) (indirect speech, present progressive)

* indirect statements undergo backshifting and require the inclusion of if or whether; the subject and verb must agree Indirect Question - A) How are you going? B) He asked, How are you going? C) He asked how he was going.

(original sentence, present progressive) (direct speech, present progressive) (indirect speech, present progressive)

* indirect questions undergo backshifting and retain their interrogative word; the subject and verb must agree

Backshifting Table -
past simple past perfect past progressive past perfect progressive past perfect past perfect past perfect progressive past perfect progressive ***** present simple present perfect present progressive present perfect progressive past simple past perfect past progressive past perfect progressive ***** past-future I simple past-future I perfect past-future I progressive past-future I progressive ***** future II simple future II perfect future II progressive future II perfect progressive past-future II simple past-future II perfect past-future II progressive past-future II progressive ***** past-future I simple past-future I perfect past-future I progressive past-future I perfect progressive past-future I perfect past-future I perfect past-future I perfect progressive past-future I progressive ***** past-future II simple past-future II perfect past-future II progressive past-future II perfect progressive past-future II perfect past-future II perfect past-future II perfect progressive past-future II progressive

future I simple future I perfect future I progressive future I perfect progressive