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Principle of Busbar Protection

Henri GRASSET
Marketing Products

Lattes, January 2005

Principle of Busbar Protection

> Principle of Busbar Protection - January 2005

HV Application: Busbar Protection


Kirchhoffs Principle applied to a healthy system

I=0

I1

I2

I3

I1 = I2 + I3 I1 - I2 - I3 = 0

> Principle of Busbar Protection - January 2005

HV Application: Busbar Protection - 2


Kirchhoffs Principle applied to a system with a fault
I 0

I1

I2

I3

I1 I2 + I3 I1 - I2 - I3 0 = IF

> Principle of Busbar Protection - January 2005

Differential Bubar Protection Principle


Ii1 S1 Ii2 S2 Ii3 S3 Io1 Ii = Iin Io2 Io3 Io4 Io = Ion Ibias = Ii + Io Idiff = Ii - Io

Simplified Substation Scheme


Import Ii S
> Principle of Busbar Protection - January 2005

Iin = Ion Export Io

High Impedance Principle (P122 & P141)


Stability is entirely due to a stabilising resistor in the circuit. It is a simple, reliable and circulating current scheme (The CTs must have the same ratio & must be of high accuracy - class X) The CT knee point voltage needs to be relatively high Metrosil may be required The CTs are usually not shared with other protections The magnetising current can desensitise the scheme The scheme can be very fast Isolator contacts are needed to switch the full CT secondary current between the zones Extending the scheme is quite simple Buswire supervision can be offered with MVTP relays
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Low Impedance/Biased Principle (MBCZ, P740)


Stability is entirely due to the bias characteristic of the scheme CTs can have different ratios Scheme bias characteristic can cater for lesser accuracy CTs (class 5P) CTs with moderate knee point voltages can be used Metrosils are never required It is easier to share the CTs with other protection Number of // circuits does not affect the primary operating current Tripping is fast Isolator contact are not needed to switch heavy currents. Extending the scheme is simple Self supervision and breaker fail protection is easier to integrate Numerical scheme offers many fault, event and recording capabilities
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Differential Busbar Protection Merz-Price Principle


Busbar P1 P2 I1 S1 S2 I2 S1 S2 I3 S1 S2 I4 Interposing CTs required Ud Rd Flow control Differential elements S1 S2 CTs with different ratios

Bias voltage image of the crossing current Large CTs to avoid saturation & ensure stability Difficult to apply if the system topology is dynamic
> Principle of Busbar Protection - January 2005

Ur

Conventional Scheme Architecture

BB1 BB2 1 or 5 A CT Cabling BB5

BB3

Relay House/ Marshalling Cubicles

DC cabling Trip/close order CB and Isolator status etc. Relay Room Interposing CT

> Principle of Busbar Protection - January 2005

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Double Busbar Configuration

BS Zone 1 Zone 3 Zone 2 Zone 4

BC1 F1 F2 F3 F4

BC2

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