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1. Introduction 2. Power transfer with RF signals : reminders 3. Impedance Smith Chart : reminders 4. Admittance Smith Chart 5. Equivalent impedance resolution 6. Matching impedances step by step 7. Matching illustration on Maxim mixer MAX2680 2 2 4 13 16 18 20

MAXIM France Field Application Engineering Technical article Jan 2000 KCC/AH Page 2 / 23

1. Introduction a. When dealing with practical implementation of radio applications, there are always some tasks that appear nightmare for many of us : need to match the difference impedances of the interconnected blocks : antenna to LNA, RFOUT to antenna, LNA output to mixer input, etc The matching task is required mainly for a proper transfert of signal and energy from a "source" to a "load". The load can be then a source for a next block, etc b. At high radio frequencies, the spurious (wires inductances, interlayers capacitances, conductors resistances, etc are important non-predictible contributors for the matching network building. Above few tenth of MHz, theortical calculations and simulations are often not enough anymore. And in-situ RF lab measurements along with tuning work have to be considered for obtaining final correct values. The computations values are required to set-up the type of the structure and target components values. c. There are many possible ways to "do impedance" matching : i. Computer simulations : complex to use since such simulators are dedicated for many stuffs and not only for impedance matching ! One has to be familiarized with many input data to be entered on right formats and be expert to find the useful data among the tons of results coming out ! In addition, one has to recognize that circuit simulators are usually not pre-installed on the notebook. ii. Manual computations : tedious due to the length ("kilometric") of equations and the complex nature of the numbers to be manipulated. iii. Feelings : these can be acquired only one has already many years devoted only for the RF domains. In short term, this is for super-specialist ! iv. Smith Chart. This present article concentrates on the Smith Chart method : the main target here is to refresh its construction background and summarize practical ways to use it by some practical illustration such as finding matching network components values. Of course matching for maximum power transfer is not the only stuff one can do with Smith charts : optimization for best noise figures, quality factors impact, stability analysis, etc, can be effectivelly covered. These aspects will be handled in an other arcticle (ref : Alphonse Harter). 2. Power transfer with RF signals : reminders a. Before to efficiently introduce the Smith Chart utilities, it is recommended to have a short refreshment on wave propagation phenomenons when Ics wires between ICs on a design are in RF conditions (above 100 MHz). This can be true at many cicumstancies such as in RS485 line, between a PA and an antenna, between a LNA to a donwconverter mixer, etc b. Maximum power transfer It is well known that for getting a maximum power transfer from a source to a load, the following condition must happen :

MAXIM France Field Application Engineering Technical article Jan 2000 KCC/AH Page 3 / 23

Rs + j.Xs = RL j.XL Zs

Rs E

Xs ZL

XL

RL

In this condition, the energy transferred from the source to the load is maximalized. In addition to an efficient power tranfer, this condition is required if one wants to avoid reflection of energy from the load back to the source; this is particularly true for high frequency environments like video lines applications or RF & microwave networks.

MAXIM France Field Application Engineering Technical article Jan 2000 KCC/AH Page 4 / 23

3. Impedance Smith Chart : reminders a. It appears as a circular plot with a lot of interlaced circles on it. It has been "invinted" by a certain Mr Phillip Smith at the Bell Lab in the 1930's. When correctly used, matching impedances with apparent complicate structures can be made without any computation. The only effort to do is to be able to read and follow values along circles. b. The Smith chart is a polar plot of the complex reflection coefficient (also called gamma and symbolized by ), or more mathematically defined as : the 1- port scattering parameter s or s11 c. How is the Smith chart constructed ? We start from the load where the impedance must be matched. Instead of considering its impedance directly, one expresses its reflection coefficient L. which is an other manner to characterize a load (such as admittances, gain, transconductances, etc The L is more useful when dealing with RF frequencies. So : we know the reflection coefficient is defined as the ratio between the reflected voltage wave and the incident voltage wave :

ZO

L =

Vrefl Vinc

Vinc Vrefl ZL

The amount of reflected signal from the load is depending on the degree of mismatch between the source impedance and the load impedance. Its expression has been defined as follow : L =

Vrefl Z L Z O = = r + j. I Vinc Z L + Z O

(equ 2.1)

Since the impedances are complex numbers, the reflection coefficient is a complex number too. In order to reduce the number of unknown parameters, it is useful to freeze the ones that appear often common in the application. Here Zo (the characteristic impedance) is often a constant and a real industry normalized value : 50 , 75 , 100 , 600 , etc We can then define a normalized load impedance : z = ZL/Zo = (R + jX) / Zo = r + jx (equ 2.2)

With this simplification, we can rewrite the reflection coefficient formula : L = r + j.i =

Z L ZO ( Z L Z O ) / Z O z 1 r + j.x 1 = = = Z L + ZO ( Z L + Z O ) / Z O z + 1 r + j. x + 1

(equ 2.3)

Here one can see the direct relationship between load impedance and its reflection coefficient. Unfortunnally the complex nature of the relation is not practically useful. The Smith chart is a kind of graphical representation of the

Impedance matching and Schmitt Chart : practical aspects consideration

MAXIM France Field Application Engineering Technical article Jan 2000 KCC/AH Page 5 / 23

above equation. In order to build the chart, the equation must be re-written in order to extract standard geometrical figures (likes circles or stray lines). By reversing the (equ 2.3) :

z = r + jx =

1 + L 1 + r + ji = 1 L 1 r ji

By equalling the real parts and the imaginary parts of (equ 2.5) we obtain 2 independent new relations :

r=

2 r

(equ 2.6)

x=

(equ 2.7)

r + r.r2 2.r.r + r.i2 = 1 r2 i2 r2 + r.r2 2.r.r + r.i2 + i2 = 1 r (1 + r ). 2.r.r + (r + 1). = 1 r 2.r 1 r r2 .r + i2 = r +1 1+ r 2 2.r r r2 1 r 2 r2 .r + + = i 2 2 r +1 1+ r (r + 1) (r + 1)

2 r 2 i

(equ 2.8) (equ 2.9) (equ 2.10) (equ 2.11) (equ 2.12)

(r

r 2 1 r r2 1 ) + i2 = + = 2 r +1 1 + r (1 + r ) (1 + r ) 2 r 2 1 2 ) + i2 = ( ) r +1 1+ r

(equ 2.13)

(r

(equ 2.14)

MAXIM France Field Application Engineering Technical article Jan 2000 KCC/AH Page 6 / 23

This above relation is a parametric equation, in the complex plan (r,i), of a circle centred at coordinate (r/r+1 , 0) and having a radius of 1/(1+r).

i r =0 (short) r =1 The points situated on a circle are all the impedances characterized by a same real impedance part value. For example, the circle R=1 is centred at coordinate (0.5;0) and having a radius of 0.5. It include the point (0,0) which is the reflection zero point (the load is matched with the characteristic impedance). A shortcircuit as load gives according to the formula a circle centred at coordinate (0.0) and having a radius of 1. 0.5 1 r = (open) For a open-circuit load, the circle is degenerated as a single point (circle centred at coordinate 1,0 and having a radius of 0) : this correspond to a maximum reflection coefficient of 1 : all the incident wave is totally reflected) r

Some particular cases to be noticed : All the circles have one unique same intersecting point at the coordinate (1,0) The 0 ohms circle (r=0; no resistive part) is the biggest one The infinite resistor circle is reduced to one point at (1,0) There is no negative resistors (if r <0, then we are in face of amplifier or oscillators) Changing a resistor is just to select an other circle corresponding to the new r value By developing (equ 2.7) :

2 r 2 i

(equ 2.15) (equ 2.16) (equ 2.17) (equ 2.18) (equ 2.19)

MAXIM France Field Application Engineering Technical article Jan 2000 KCC/AH Page 7 / 23

This above relation is a parametric equation, in the complex plan (r,i), of a circle centred at coordinate (1 , 1/x) and having a radius of 1/x.

The points situated on a circle are all the impedances characterized by a same imaginary impedance part value x. For example, the circle x=1 is centred at coordinate (1;1) and having a radius of 1. All circles (constant x) include the point (1,0) 0.5 r In difference with the real part circles, x can be positive or negative : this explain the duplicate mirror circles at the bottom side of the complex plan. All the circles centres are placed on the vertical axe intersecting the point 1. 1

Some particularities to be noticed : The zero-reactance circle (thus a pure resistive load) is just the horizontal axis of the complex plane. The infinite reactance is a degenerated circle to one point situated at (1,0). All constant reactance circles have the same unique intersecting point at (1,0) Positive reactances (inductors) are on circles on the half upper part of the chart, while negative reactances (capacitors) are on the half bottom part of the chart Changing a reactance is just then to take an other circle of the family corresponding to the new value x.

MAXIM France Field Application Engineering Technical article Jan 2000 KCC/AH Page 8 / 23

Now, to complete our Smith Chart, we superpose the 2 circles families and one can see that every circle of a family does intersect ALL the circles of the other family. Thus knowing the impedance in the for of r + jx, the plot gives immediately the corresponding reflection coefficient : one has only to find the intersection point of 2 circles : one circle corresponding to the value r and one circle corresponding to value x. The opposite operation is also trivial : knowing the reflection coefficient, find the 2 circles passing both on that point and read the values r and x corresponding to the found circles.

i

0.5

Now we can do following tasks (the list is not complete) : Situate any impedance as a spot on the Smith Chart Find the reflection coefficient for a given impedance (and knowing the characteristic impedance) Find the impedance when knowing Convert impedance to admittance and vice-versa Find equivalent impedance Find components values for a wanted reflection coefficient (in particular find elements of a matching network)

MAXIM France Field Application Engineering Technical article Jan 2000 KCC/AH Page 9 / 23

Since the Smith Chart resolution technique is basically a graphic method, the precision of the solutions depends a lot on the graph definitions. Here below we joined a typical Smith Chart used by all the RF engineers :

MAXIM France Field Application Engineering Technical article Jan 2000 KCC/AH Page 10 / 23

Example 1 : situate on the Smith chart and by considering a characteristic impedance of 50 ohms, the here below listed impedances. Z3 = j200 ohms Z4 = 150 ohms Z1 = 100 + j50 ohms Z2 = 75 j100 ohms Z5 = open-circuit Z6 = short-circuit Z7 = 50 ohms Z8 = 184 j900 ohms First thing to do : normalize first the impedance (division by the characterise impedance) : z2 = 1.5 j2 z3 = j4 z4 = 3 z1 = 2 + j z6 = 0 z7 = 1 z8 = 3.68 j18 z5 =

MAXIM France Field Application Engineering Technical article Jan 2000 KCC/AH Page 11 / 23

Example 2 : Direct extraction of reflection coefficient on the Smith Chart. Solution : Once the impedance point well situated on the plot (intersection point of a constant resistor circle and of a constant reactance circle), just read the rectangular coordinates : projection on the horizontal axis will give r (real part of the reflection coefficient) and the projection on the vertical axis will give i (imaginary part of the reflection coefficient).

Constant resistor r

Constant reactance x

Example 3 : Take the 8 cases handled in example 1 and extract their corresponding directly on the Smith Chart. 1 = 0.4 + 0.2j 5 = 1 2 = 0.51 - 0.4j 6 = -1 3 = 0.875 + 0.48j 7 = 0 4 = 0.5 8 = 0.96 - 0.1j

MAXIM France Field Application Engineering Technical article Jan 2000 KCC/AH Page 12 / 23

Working with admittance The Smith Chart is built by considering impedance (resistor and reactance). Adding elements in series are trivial : they correspond to moves along circles. Unfortunally, summing elements in parallel needs some additional consideration in the Smith Chart. We know that by definition, Y = 1/Z and Z = 1/Y. The admittance is expressed in Mho or -1 (in the older time as Siemens or S). Of course, since Z is complex, Y is also complex. Y = G + j.B where G is called conductance and B the susceptance of the element. One has not to conclude that G=1/R and B=1/X !!! which are wrong ! By normalising by y = Y/Yo : y = g + j.b What happen with the reflection coefficient ? =

Z L Z O 1 YL 1 YO YO YL 1 y = = = Z L + Z O 1 YL + 1 YO YO + YL 1 + y

One can see the expression for is opposite in sign compared to its expression with z : (y) = -(z) Thus, if we know z, by inverting the signs of , we found a point situated at the same distance to (0,0) but in the opposite direction. The same result can be obtained by making a rotation of 180 angle around the centre point.

z i 180 -r r

Of course, while Z and 1/Z do represent exactly a same component, the new point appears as a complete different impedance (different point in the Smith chart, different reflection value, etc). That is because the plot is an impedance plot and the new point is in fact an admittance. The value read on the chart has then to be read as mho. This method is OK for making conversion, but not enough to make circuit resolution when dealing with elements in parallel.

MAXIM France Field Application Engineering Technical article Jan 2000 KCC/AH Page 13 / 23

4. Admittance Smith Chart Above, we have seen that every point in the impedance Smith Chart can be converted into an admittance counterpart by making a rotation of 180 around the origin of the complex plane. Thus, an Admittance Smith Chart can be obtained by rotating the whole Impedance Smith Chart by 180. This is great since one has not to build an other chart : the same can be used ! Automatically, the intersecting point of all the circles (constant conductances and constant susceptances) is at the point (-1, 0). With that plot, adding element in parallel becomes trivial. One can also mathematically demonstrate the Admittance Smith chart construction : L = r + j.i = =

1 y 1 g jb = 1 + y 1 + g + jb

(equ 3.1)

y = g + jb =

1 L 1 r ji = 1 + L 1 + r + ji

By equalling the real parts and the imaginary parts of (equ 3.3) we obtain 2 independent new relations :

g=

2 r

(equ 3.4)

b=

(equ 3.5)

g + g.r2 + 2.g.r + g .i2 = 1 r2 i2 r2 + g.r2 + 2.g.r + g .i2 + i2 = 1 g (1 + g ). + 2.g .r + ( g + 1). = 1 g 2.g 1 g r2 + .r + i2 = g +1 1+ g 2 2.g g g2 1 g 2 2 r + .r + + i = 2 2 g +1 1+ g ( g + 1) ( g + 1)

2 r 2 i

(equ 3.6) (equ 3.7) (equ 3.8) (equ 3.9) (equ 3.10)

(r +

g 2 1 g g2 1 ) + i2 = + = 2 g +1 1 + g (1 + g ) (1 + g ) 2 g 2 1 2 ) + i2 = ( ) g +1 1+ g

(equ 3.11)

(r +

(equ 3.12)

MAXIM France Field Application Engineering Technical article Jan 2000 KCC/AH Page 14 / 23

This above relation is a parametric equation, in the complex plan (r,i), of a circle centred at coordinate (-g/g+1 , 0) and having a radius of 1/(1+g).

g =0 (open) i The points situated on a circle are all the admittances characterized by a same real part (conductance) value. For example, the circle g=1 is centered at coordinate (-0.5;0) and having a radius of 0.5. It include the point (0,0) which is the reflection zero point (the load is matched with the characteristic admittance). An open-circuit as load gives according to the formula a circle centred at coordinate (0.0) and having a radius of 1. r

g = (short) -1

For a short-circuit load, the circle is degenerated as a single point (circle centred at coordinate -1,0 and having a radius of 0) : this corresponds to a maximum reflection coefficient of -1 : all the incident wave is totally reflected)

MAXIM France Field Application Engineering Technical article Jan 2000 KCC/AH Page 15 / 23

2 r 2 i

(equ 3.13) (equ 3.14) (equ 3.15) (equ 3.16) (equ 3.17)

Again, this is also a parametric equation of the type (x-a) + (y+b)=R This above relation is a parametric equation, in the complex plan (r,i), of a circle centred at coordinate (-1 , -1/b) and having a radius of 1/b.

The points situated on a circle are all the admittances characterized by a same imaginary part value b. For example, the circle b=1 is centred at coordinate (-1;-1) and having a radius of 1. All circles (constant b) include the point (-1,0) r

-1

MAXIM France Field Application Engineering Technical article Jan 2000 KCC/AH Page 16 / 23

5. Equivalent impedance resolution When solving problem where elements in series and in parallel are mixed together, one can use the same Smith Chart and rotate it at any instant when conversions from z to y or y to z are previously performed before to rotate the chart. The best way to expose the method is to do this through an example : Lets consider the network here below (the elements are normalized with Zo=50 ohm): Serie reactance (x) is positive for inductance and negative for capacitor. While susceptance (b) is positive for capacitance and negative for inductance.

x = 0.9 x = -1.4 x=1

Z=?

b = 1.1

b = -0.3

r=1

x=1 b = -0.3 r=1

x = 0.9 Z=?

b = 1.1

x = -1.4

A B C D Z

Step 1 : We start from the end, which is here a resistor of 1. Since this is in series with an inductor of 1 ohm, the spot on the Smith chart comes immediately : intersection circle r=1 and circle x=1. We mark this point by A Step 2 : The next element is an element coming in shunt (parallel) : we will have to switch into the Admittance Smith Chart (rotation by 180 of the whole plane). Before to do this rotation, first, convert the previous point into admittance : this gives the spot A. Step 3 : Rotate the plane by 180 : we are now in the admittance mode. The shunt element can be added by going along the conductance circle by a distance corresponding to 0.3. This has to be made in the anti-clock wise direction (negative value). After doing this, we obtain point B. Step 4 : We have an element to be inserted in series. This means we need to switch to the impedance Smith Chart. Before to do this, reconvert the previous point into impedance (it was an admittance). This gives the spot B. Step 5 : Rotate the plane by 180 : we are now in the impedance mode. The series element is added by circulating along the resistance circle by a distance corresponding to 1.4. This has to be made in the anti-clock wise direction (negative value). After doing this, we obtain point C.

MAXIM France Field Application Engineering Technical article Jan 2000 KCC/AH Page 17 / 23

Step 6 : Again, there is a shunt element, same operations as already described above (conversion into admittance followed by plane rotation of 180. Then apply move by distance 1.1 in the clock-wise direction, since the value is positive, along the constant conductance circle). We obtain point D. Step 7 : Recon version into impedance prior to add the last element (series inductor). We obtain the asked value : z situated in the intersection of circle resistor 0.2 and circle reactance 0.5 : thus z = 0.2 +j0.5. If the system characteristic impedance is 50 ohms, then Z = 10 + j25 ohms

MAXIM France Field Application Engineering Technical article Jan 2000 KCC/AH Page 18 / 23

6. Matching impedances step by step This is the reverse operation of finding equivalent impedance of a given network. Here, the impedances are fixed at the 2 access ends (often the source and the load). The task is to design the network to be inserted between them in order to insure impedance matching. Apparently, it looks like as easy as finding equivalent impedance, but the problem is that there may exists infinite ways (i.e. matching networks) to realize a same matching. Other inputs can be provided or fixed : filter type structure, quality factor, limited choice of element values, etc The approach is to add series and shunt elements on the chart until the desired impedance is achieved. Graphically, it appears to find the way to link 2 spots on the Smith Chart. The best method to explain the approach is to illustrate the tasks with the help of a practical example :

Matching network ZS = 25 - j15 ZL = 100 j25 C=?

Vs

L=? Z* = 25 + j15

Here the problem consists to match a source impedance Zs to a ZL load at the operation frequency of 60 MHz. The network structure has been fixed as a low pass L type. An other manner to see the problem is to say how to force the load to appear like an impedance of value = Zs* (complex conjugate of Zs). Step 1 : First normalize the different impedance values. If not given, choose the value in the same range than load/source values (question of readability on the Smith chart). Here we take Zo = 50 ohms Thus zs = 0.5 j0.3 and z*s = 0.5 + j0.3 zL = 2 j0.5 Step 2 : Situate the 2 points on the chart. We mark A for zL and D for Z*. Step 3 : The first element connected to the load is a capacitor in shunt : conversion in admittance (see previously described methodology). We obtain a point A. Step 4 : Detect the arc portion that the next point will appear after the connection of the capacitor C. Since we dont know the value of C, we dont know where to stop. We know the direction (C in shunt means in the clock-wise direction in the admittance Smith chart). The point B will be an admittance. Since the next element is a series element, the point B has to be back converted in impedance. Thus a point B will be obtained. This point B has to be situated in the same resistor circle than D. Graphically, there is only one solution from A to D but the intermediate point B (and hence B) needs to be localized by test-and-try until one falls on the point D.

MAXIM France Field Application Engineering Technical article Jan 2000 KCC/AH Page 19 / 23

Step 5 : after having found the points B, B, we can then measure the lengths of arc A-B and arc B-D. The first gives the normalised susceptance value of C and the second gives the normalised reactance value of L. After apprx 15 minutes , one found the points B and B : The arc A-B measures b = 0.78 and thus B = 0.78 * Yo = 0.0156 mho Since .C = B, then C = B/ = B/(2..f) = 0.0156/(2..60.106) = 41.4 pF The arc B-D measures x = 1.2 and thus X = 1.2 * Zo = 60 ohm Since .L = X, then L = X/ = X/(2..f) = 60/(2..60.106) = 159 nH

MAXIM France Field Application Engineering Technical article Jan 2000 KCC/AH Page 20 / 23

7. Impedance matching illustration on Maxim mixer MAX2680 Practical application on MAX2680-MAC2681-MAX2682 which are down converters mixers able to handle input RF signal on the range 400MHz to 2.5GHz into output IF frequencies from 10 MHz to 500 MHz. The external matching networks on the RF input and IF output ports determine their operation modes. Their structures and elements are various and quasi infinite. The applications nature (i.e. Q-factor, needs to pass or filter out DC, range limits of components, etc) will fix the best choices. In their datasheet, a typical matching structure has been proposed with elements values for some standardized frequencies : Input RF at 400 MHz, 900 MHz, 1950 MHz and 2450 MHz Output RF at 45 MHz, 70 MHz and 240 MHz The question many of us are asking or will ask is : how to proceed if the application used other frequencies ? The above highlights on impedance matching will help us to handle the issue : Let us first consider the proposed IF output matching network :

Zs

C2 L1 R1 Load ZL 50

IF Matching network

Zs is the IF output stage internal impedance (Thevenin equivalent) that needs to be matched with the external line of 50 . The Zs has been given for the 3 different devices and for the 3 standard IF frequencies : Zs MAX2680 MAX2681 MAX2682 IF = 45 MHz 960-j372 934-j373 670-j216 IF = 70 MHz 803-j785 746-j526 578-j299 IF = 240 MHz 186-j397 161-j375 175-j296

The datasheet contains a table with elements values for the same above defined 3 standard IF frequencies : IF Matching L1 C2 R1 IF = 45 MHz 390 nH 39 pF 250 IF = 70 MHz 330 nH 15 pF Open IF = 240 MHz 82 nH 3 pF open

Let us verify on the Smith chart the data for the MAX2680 at IF = 240 MHz. First step : Choose the characteristic impedance : here Zo = 50 , compute the normalized values zL and zs*. Here we have zL = 1 and zs* = 3.72 + j7.94 Step 2 : Plot the zL and zS* on the chart

MAXIM France Field Application Engineering Technical article Jan 2000 KCC/AH Page 21 / 23

Step 3 : Start from zL, turn anti-clock wise (because capacitor in series thus negative reactance) of a quantity still to be determined. The end point must be situated on the constant r=1 circle in a such way that the L1 shunt (anti-clock wise rotation in the admittance chart) will end to zs*. Optionally, shunt R1 must be added if the intermediate point is to far for reaching zs*. The operations are illustrated in the following Smith Chart.

MAXIM France Field Application Engineering Technical article Jan 2000 KCC/AH Page 22 / 23

The arc A-B gives the value of the capacitor C2 The arc C-D gives the value of the inductor L1 It is not necessary to add the shunt resistor R1 in this case. Value of arc A-B measured on the plot : r = 4.5 units, thus Z = 50 * 4.5 = 225 ohms Thus C2 = 1/(225*) = 1/(225*2**f) = 1 / (225*2**240 106) = 2.94 pF Value of arc C-D measured on the plot : s = 0.3 units, thus Z = 50/0.3 = 167 ohms Thus L1 = 167 / = 167 / (2**f) = 167 / (2**240 106) = 110 nH The same manipulations for MAX2681 give same results since the impedance is quasi identical. For the MAX2682, an identical set of operations on the Smith Chart give 3.7 for the arc BC and 0.37 for the arc CD. These results for C2 = 3.6 pF and L1=89 nH Values are thus very close for a same IF frequency on the 3 products MAX2680, MAX2681 and MAX2682 At IF = 70 MHz, the arc lengths AB and CD are very close to the cases at IF = 240 MHz, these end then with C2 = 12 pF and L1 value is 310 nH At IF = 45 MHz, the shunt resistor is required if we want to avoid too big inductance. The price to pay is a little bit a degradation of the Q factor. The shunt resistor allows a decrease in constant g circle in the Admittance Smith chart. One can observe both the AB and the CD arcs are shorter than the situation without the shunt. After the manipulation on the chart, one can measure arc AB = 1.65 (resulting in a 42 pF value for C2) and arc CD = 0.5 (resulting on an inductor value L1 of 351 nH). The case at 45 MHz is illustrated in the hereafter Smith Chart. After having placed the Zs and the ZL spots on the chart, start from ZL (point A : r=1, x=0) and we know the first element is a series capacitor : thus next point is B situated somewhere on the circle r=1. The point B transformed into admittance must give a point C situated 180 phase. As explained above, it will be added a shunt resistor : converted into conductance, it corresponds to subtract a value. We choose (apprx) 250 ohms (0.2 mho normalized conductance). It is a shift of point C into D along a constant susceptance circle starting from C. One D is obtained, its recon version into impedance must fall into Zs (point E). We measure arc AB : 1.65 meaning 82.5 ohms at 45 MHz and giving C2 = 42 pF We measure then arc CD : 0.45 meaning 111.1 ohms at 45 MHz and giving L1 = 390 nH By considering also the need to use standardized components values, one find the data given in the datasheet.

MAXIM France Field Application Engineering Technical article Jan 2000 KCC/AH Page 23 / 23

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