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Biotechnology Interactive Assignment Visit the websites listed below.

Go through the animations on each page and use the information to answer each question. Information about each topic can also be found in your textbook in Chapter 8. Learn about Restriction enzymes at the Dolan DNA Learning Center http://www.dnalc.org/ddnalc/resources/restriction.html 1. Where/How do restriction enzymes cut DNA? -The restriction enzymes cut the sugar-phosphate backbones of the DNA strands. EcoRI is a restriction enzyme that cuts unevenly, leaving overhangs or sticky ends. 2. Where does EcoRI cut? -Sugar-phosphate backbones of the DNA. 3. Which type of ends is left after the cut? -sticky ends 4. What enzyme joins the ends back together? -Ligase Learn how to extract DNA from The Biotechniques lab at the University of Utah http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/units/biotech/extraction/ 1. What are three reasons you would need to extract DNA from a human? -Genetic testing, Body identification, Analysis of forensic evidence 2. Cheek cells are collected using a ____________ swab. -Cheek Swab 3. What is the purpose of the lysis solution? -It helps separate 4. What does the salt solution do? What does the microcentrifuge do in this step? -It causes the proteins and other cellular debris to clump together. It balances the centrifuge 5. What does isopropyl alcohol do? What does the microcentrifuge do in this step? -Allows you to see the DNA with the naked eye. Allows the DNA to sink to the bottom Learn about PCR from the Dolan DNA Learning Center http://www.dnalc.org/ddnalc/resources/pcr.html 1. What does PCR stand for? -Polymerase Chain Reaction 2. What happens in the first step? What temperature is this step of the procedure at? -it starts with a denaturing step. The samples are heated to 94-96 degrees Celsius 3. What happens next? What is the temperature of this step? -The left and right primers to anneal to their complementary sequences. Temp. 50-65 degrees Celsius 4. What enzyme is used to extend the primers? What is the temperature of this step? -Taq polymerase. -72 degrees Celsius 5. How many cycles are in a typical PCR procedure? How many copies of the target sequence are made? -5 cycles. 1073741764 Learn about Gel Electrophoresis from The Biotechniques lab at the University of Utah http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/units/biotech/gel/ 1. What technique allows you to sort DNA fragments by size? -Electrophoresis

2. What does the gel have in it that allows DNA to move through? -A fliter 3. Which end of the gel does the DNA migrate to? -the opposite end that it started out at 4. What is agarose made of? What is buffer made of? -Dried powder similar to gelatin but made from seaweed 5. What is the comb used for? -to separate the gel 6. Why do we need to stain the gel? -it makes the DNA easier to see 7. Estimate the size of the bands from top to bottom and enter them here: Top Band 1=6000 Middle Band 2 = 3500 Lower Band 3 = 1500