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1.2 Sense of Touch 1. Skin is the sensory organ that can detect touch, pain, pressure, heat and cold 2. Consists of 3 main layer: a) epidermis outer layer b) dermis inner layer c) fatty layer - insulator 3. Structure of human skin

4. Function of different receptors: a) pain receptors - detect pain b) touch receptors - detect light touches c) heat receptors - detect heat d) cold receptors - detect cold e) pressure receptors - detect pressure

1.3 Sense of Smell 1. Nose is the sensory organ for smell that can detect chemicals in the air. 2. Smell receptors located at the top of nasal cavity. 3. The nasal cavity lined with mucous that is important to dissolve chemicals 4. Structure of human nose.

5. Detection of smells => Chemicals in the air enter the nasal cavity, dissolved in in the mucus to stimulate smell receptors. => Smell receptord produce impulse and send the messages to the brain. => Brain interprets the messages => Smell identified

1.4 Sense of Taste 1. The tongue is sensory organ related to the sense of taste 2. 4 basics taste: sweet, salty, sour and bitter

3. The surface of tongue covered with taste buds.

4. Each taste bud contains many taste receptors. 5. Saliva dissolve chemicals to be detect by taste receptors 6. Sense of taste is helped by sense of smell 1.5 Sense of Hearing 1. Ears are the sensory organs of hearing that can detect sound. 2. Human ears has 3 main parts: a) Outer ear; pinna, ear canal, eardrum b) Middle ear; ossicles (hammer, anvil & stirrup), oval window and Eustachian tube. c) Inner ear; cochlea, auditory nerve and semicircular canals.

1.6 Sense of Sight

1. Sensory organs for sight are the eyes, which sensitive to light.

2. The wall of the eyeball is made up of 3 layers: a) Sclera tough, outer layer b) Choroid black, middle layer c) Retina sensitive to light, innermost layer

1.7 1.7.1 1. 2. Take place Plane

Understanding Reflection when light rays and fall mirrors and on the

light refraction surface metals of an opaque are

and of object good and bounce light

sight light off it. reflectors


3. Flat and smooth surface reflects light in regular patterns (regular reflection)

4. Irregular surfaces like paper and cloth will reflects scattered in different directions of reflected light.(diffused reflection)

5. The law of reflection states: i) angle of incidence = angle of reflection i=r ii) Incident ray, reflected ray and normal are at the same plane

6. .

Applications a)

of Periscopes b) c)


reflection used in


light submarines Kaleidoscope Mirrors

7. 8. 9.

Refraction The A)

of speed

light of of

occurs occur light light



travels the when

through speed light light to

different of enters a a

media a less

at light


angle changes medium medium medium

Refraction speed

when decreases when less increases

denser dense denser












ii) Angle of incident is bigger than the angle of refraction

B) i)

From The

Denser light

to refracted

less away

dense from

medium normal

ii) Angle of incident is smaller than the angle of refraction

11. Phenomena of the refraction of light:

1.7.2 Vision defects and ways to correct them 1. 2. The Normal thickness vision of the can lens is see changed close when and looking near at near objects or distant clearly object

3. Focusing object:

4.Short-sightedness a) See near objects clearly but distant objects are

(myopia) blurred.

b) c) The eyeball is too long






5. Correcting short-sightedness

6. a) b) c) d) Eyeball too short Cant The

Long-sightedness See focus eye distant on lens objects near too

(hypermetropia) clearly object thin

7. Correcting long-sightedness

8. Comparison between short-sightedness and long-sightedness

9. Caused by the Image irregular cannot formed surface of be the cornea focused distorted and or lens at not not Image same

Astigmatism evenly curved time clear.

- Can be corrected by wearing cylindrical lenses

1.7.3 A. Blind spot the

Limitation point B. Caused The C. Give 3 Both brain by disturbances cannot i) eyes Smaller dimensional Most (3D), field can predators in interpret Stereoscopic to the and accurately where the optic nerve enters Optical

of the retina; going monocular front of of estimate distance and the not sensitive to sent the bye to

sight light brain eye. vision vision head Overlapping vision accurately human illusions information

impulses the


ii) One Wider eye at Do each

Monocular side not field of of the

vision head overlap vision










- Most prey

1.7.4 -

Device Example of device

to to

overcome overcome limitation of

limitation sight:

Magnifying glass



1.8 Understanding sound and hearing 1. Properties of Sound - Sound is form of energy - Produced by vibrations - When and object vibrates, kinetic energy is changed to sound energy. - Medium (solid, liquid, gas) is needed for sound to travel. - Sound cannot travel through vacuum. - Sound can be reflected by hard and smooth surfaces. (metal, glass, brick wall) - Reflection of sound is called echoes - Soft and porous surface can absorb sound. (carpets, curtains, cotton, sponge 2. Hearing defects - temporary loss - the earwax in the auditory canal block sound waves. - total hearing loss - ossicles fused together, damaged cochlea by local infections or by exposured to loud sound. 3. Ways to rectifying hearing defects - uses syringes and warm water to remove wax - puntured eardrum can be repair by surgery - implanted electronic gadget

4. Limitation of Hearing

5. Ways to overcome hearing limitations Earphones Stethoscope

Loud Speaker

6. Stereophonic hearing - Ability to hear using both ears Enables Important to for detect the the survival direction of of animals the sound for accurately prey especially

1.9 The stimuli and responses in plants 1. Two A. Tropism i) Shoot grow (negative phototropism) Response towards light Growth response Occurs 4 Phototropism of (positive plant phototropism) while in slowly, a particular not types towards root grow away direction noticeable : light light light types of responses: tropism and nastic movement.

ii) -

Geotropism Response of plant


gravity gravity

- Roots grow downwards (positive geotropism) and shoot grow upwards (negative geotropism)

iii) hydrotropism)

Hydrotropism Response of plant


water water

- Root grow towards water (positive hydrotropism) and shoot grow away from water (negative

iv) Root

Thigmotropism Plant grow response away from

towards solid

touch touch objects

or or such as

contact contact stones

- Stem or tendrils grow towards the objects that come into contact with.

B) Response Does not - Example: Mimosa pudica, Venus fly trap part depend of plant on Movement the

Nastic towards touch, of is light the direction

Movements and heat stimulus reversible

2. Importance of plant responses Plant To depend ensure on plant phototropism to get get their sunlight for basic need. photosynthesis.

- Geotropism and hydrotropism enables the plant to obtain water and minerals salt.