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INTRODUCTION: Piccadily Holiday Resorts Ltd is part of large business house having interests in hotels, resorts, cinema, shopping malls, multiplex, real estate etc. The company is currently operating 'The Piccadily, Lucknow' - A 106 room hotel at Lucknow and 'The Piccadily Hotel, Manali' - A 70 room hotel at Manali, Himachal Pradesh. The Company has major expansion plans in hospitality sector. The Piccadily hotel is conveniently located near the airport and is approximately 7 kms

from the heart of the town Hazratganj. As a privately owned hotel we take pride in offering a personal, efficient and competitive service, at all times. Whether your stay is for business or for pleasure we offer reasonably priced Bed and Breakfast accommodation. All 106 tastefully done up Rooms are equipped with direct dial telephones, high speed internet access, television, tea and coffee making facilities, hairdryers & additional shaving mirror in bathrooms.

The Guest rooms at The Piccadilly Lucknow are well appointed. They offer style & Comfort. All our rooms come with following features.

Slim Television Satellite television

Mini bar

Wireless broadband Internet Access Fresh cut fruits Electronic Safe International direct Dial facility

Oven fresh cookies Good Night Chocolate

Central Air conditioning Complimentary Tea/ coffee maker

Signature Art Work Daily News paper





Include all the above guest amenities. They have an option of King Size or a Twin bed. Executive Room (25 nos)

Include all the above guest amenities

The Executive room on the top floor offers truly luxurious experience with twin bed layout

Additional amenities LCD Television DVD Player Complimentary Beer at Theka Bar Complimentary ironing of two pieces Complimentary Airport Transport transfers Magazines and business paper Additional bath room supplies The room has bright refreshing interiors




Include all the above guest amenities. The Suites come with a spacious lounge and dining room, a lavish bedroom with a King size bed and large wardrobes. Extensive use of leather. The additional amenities include :

Pralines Variety of Dry Nuts Bottle of Indian wine Even the bathroom has a LCD Television. Leisure, Health & Entertainment

Dip into an open-air swimming pool or work out at the hi-tech Gymnasium before relaxing in the Spa-Sauna or getting a makeover at the saloon. Try one of the special skin treatment provided by Indias best skin specialists Mystic Cures Conference Rooms

Accommodating from 20 to 500 persons, we have Nine Conference rooms / Banquet halls for every season and every reason. The additional large terrace with separate entrance provides another delightful option for an evening function.

Synonymous to hospitality, Lucknow offers yet another welcoming attraction "The Piccadily ".

A hub of comfort, entertainment, relaxation and luxury that you would miss even when you're back at home.

It's so close to the airport that you could almost land right here! You are never in too much of a hurry. Heart of the city, Hazratganj, where you are likely to have business while in town, is only 7km away. State-Of-The Art Rooms: For the business travelers our rooms are equipped with facilities such as Slim TVs, Wi-Fi, Instant tea / coffee maker, tasteful furnishing, signature artwork, electronic safe etc. .. Room Tariff : TYPE Published Tariff applicable till September 2012

Standard Room Single Standard Room Double Executive Single Executive Double SUITE (Single/Double) The Piccadily Suite Extra Bed

8,500.00 9,000.00 9,500.00 10,000.00 14,000.00 20000.00 1500.00

Rooms Tariff includes Buffet Breakfast at Coffee shop Tariff valid from 1st Oct. 2011 till 30th Sep. 2012. (TARIFF SUBJECT TO CHANGE). TAXES AS APPLICABLE. Check Out Time : 1200 hours Check In Time : 1400 hours

Walk into The Piccadily and experience the difference. Equipped with the modern service support systems and determined to serve all, we have a dedicated team of professionals to make your event memorable. We are willing to understand your requirements and to make your conferences and events worth remembering. Each one of us is inclined to provide you with nothing else but the best, be it food or services. For all your needs and set ups; we have different halls of varied capacities namely SPRING, SUMMER, AUTUMN, WINTER, FALL, SUNSET, DAWN, MONSOON 01, MONSOON 02 .The landscaped TERRACE is a perfect place for evening functions. Our "Rupee Saver Conference Package" makes good business sense. The packages are specially designed to suit individual needs. All office automation/Conf audio/video equipments are also available. The various packages could be one or all of the following:

The various component of the packages could be one or all of the following :

Morning Tea, Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner. Free use of Conference Hall with basic aids. Use of Business Centre facility at nominal charges.

Conference Tea/Coffee with Cookies (Twice). Audio-Visual aids on rental basis. Transportation/Sight seeing through recognized travel agencies at special rates. Happy hour rates on bulk purchase of liquor. Assistance in Air, Rail booking, airport and railway transfers at nominal charges.











We also cater to your requirements of:

Outdoor functions at The Terrace for up to 500 persons Special arrangements for theme parties Special package for marriage. Kitty party and birthday special packages. We are more than willing to understand your needs/requirements and provide tailor made packages just to suit your needs.

We live by our commitment of AFFORDABLE LUXURY at its best DIMENSION HALLS AUTUMN : 24' X 27' X 7.9' 30 (W/L/H) WINTER : 24' X 27' X 7.9' 30 (W/L/H) SUMMER : 24' X 27' X 7.9' 30 (W/L/H) SPRING : 24' X 27' X 7.9' NA NA NA NA NA 12.00 20 25 20 25 20.00 20 25 20 25 20.00 20 25 20 25 20.00 OF THE THEATRE CLASSROOM SHAPE U ROUND CASUAL BOX

(W/L/H) FALL : 24' X 54' X 7.9' 60 (W/L/H) SUNSET : 45' X 90' X 10'.5" 200 (W/L/H) 4000 SQ.FT(APP.) DAWN : (91' X 70' X 11') 300 6000 SQ.FT.(APPROX) DAWN DINING AREA : (63' X 30' X 10.5') TERRACE(OPEN SPACE) : 500 APPROX. 8500 SQ FT MONSOON I : 50' X 40 X 100 10' (W/L/H) MONSOON II : 60' X 40' X 120 10' (W/L/H) 60 50 70 95 70.00 50 40 60 80 65.00 150 75 125 400 120 60 100 250 50 40 50 40 NA

Spa & Fitness The Spa at The Piccadily is an embrace to total wellbeing. Our Guests come to find peace, harmony and a new sense of wellbeing in this perfect environment for relaxation. State of the art facilities include a beauty Salon, sauna, steam bath, swimming pool & gym. We provide a serene and truly unforgettable experience of pure pampering and relaxation through refreshing massages by our expert and trained therapists who are handpicked for our hotels and resorts. Leisure, Health & Entertainment: Dip into an open-air Swimming Pool, or work out at the hi-tech Gymnasium, before relaxing in the Spa-Sauna, or getting a makeover at the Beauty Salon. Dining

A Coffee Shop with an ambience based on the sea-side theme. Heres a spot you would love to spend your unhurried moments sipping on a variety of beverages and snacking on delicious bites.

An eating place with a capacity of 50 persons, it serves the sumptuous delights that have made Frontier Food the toast of the world.

The bar is a heady cocktail of business and pleasure raise to toast to the good times!

Promotion Take a weekend break into deep pool and soothe those ailing nerves Our Special designed pampering packages for both of you @ Rs. 6500/- nett.

Room Double Check-In Saturday Check Out Sunday @ evening by 5 pm 6500/nett.

Includes Breakfast Two Major Meals (Fixed

Rs. Menu)

Free usage of Gym / Swimming Pool

Room Dbl. Breakfast Check-Out Monday @ Check-In Morning Saturday Breakfast 12000/nett.

Two Major Meals (Fixed Menu) Free usage of Gym / Swimming Pool

after Rs.

20% Discount on F&B & 30% Discount on Laundry Free extra bed for Children below 12 years.

Comfort Services

Take a Dip into the Crystal Blue Swimming Pool located at the Lobby Level.

Punjab - North-West Frontier Cuisines

The North-West Frontier has always caught our imagination. For a variety of reasons; we'll give you one more reason!

Marine Room - Multi-cuisine coffee shop

Savour the delectable flavours from around the globe!

INTRODUCTION TO THE HOTEL INDUSTRY According to the British laws a hotel is a place where a bonafied traveler can receive food and shelter provided he is in a position to for it and is in a fit condition to receive. Hotels have a very long history, but not as we know today, way back in the 6th century BC when the first inn in and around the city of London began to develop. The first catered to travelers and provided them with a mere roof to stay under. This condition of the inns prevailed for a long time, until the industrial revolution in England, which brought about new ideas and progress in the business at inn keeping. The invention of the steam engine made traveling even more prominent. Which had to more and more people traveling not only for business but also for leisure reasons. This lead to the actual development of the hotel industry as we know it today.

Hotel today not only cater to the basic needs of the guest like food and shelter provide much more than that, like personalized services etc. Hotels today are a Home away from home.

CLASSIFICATION OF HOTEL Hotel can be classified into different categories or classes, based on their operational criteria. For example the type of accommodation they provide, location of the property, type of services provided, facilities given and the clientele they cater to can help categories hotels today. Hotels today are basically classified into the following categories: 1 Market segment: Economy / limited services hotel Mid market hotel All suite hotels Time-share hotels Condotel / Condiminium Executive hotels Luxury / Deluxe hotels Property type:

o Spas

Traditional hotel Motels Bread and break fast inns Commercial hotel Chain hotel Casino hotel Boutique hotels Resorts

o Conference resorts 2 According to size: Small hotels [150 rooms] Medium hotels [up to 299rooms] Large hotels [up to 600rooms]

Other classification can be based on: a) Market segment b) Property type c) Size

d) Level of services e) Owner ship and application f) Plans g) Type of patronage h) Length of guest stay i) Location etc

MARKET SEGMENT Economy hotel: It provides efficient sanity private rooms with bath. The furnishing and decor are acceptable to majority of travelers. Food and beverage service may or may not be available. Mid market hotels: They offer comfortable accommodation with private on premises bath. Food and beverage services and uniformed bell staff. They offer above average luxury.

All Suite hotels: It offers separate sleeping and living areas along with a kitchenette and a stocked bar, and offer class service.

First class hotels: They are luxury hotels with exceptional decor better than average food and beverage service, uniformed bell services. They often have 2 or 3 dining rooms, swimming pool, spas etc.

Deluxe hotels: They are better and offer more specialized services than first class hotels. They also provide limousine services. PROPERTY TYPE Traditional hotels:

They have the basic concept of rooms with break fast, bell desk services and the other usual services.

Motels: They are located on highways. Guest is given parking right outside their rooms. The usually have a gas station / workshop attached to them. Resorts: They are usually situated in tourist locations like on rivers, mountains, jungles, or the sea. They give more privilege to sports activities leisure and recreation activities like manages, sightseeing, adventure sports, etc. Resident hotels: Where guest stay for longer duration, stay like weeks, months even years. Casino hotels: They are hotels usually in tourist spots and mainly cater to people who are on holidays. Casino hotels like the name suggest offer gambling facilities along with accommodations. SIZE Small hotel up to 150 rooms Medium hotels 150 to 299 rooms Large hotels 299 to 600 rooms

Extra large hotels above 600 rooms

LEVEL OF SERVICES: World-class services: They target top business executives and provide service s that cater to needs of such people like lap tops in the rooms, business center, sectarian services. Mid range services: They appeal to the larger segment of traveling public [tourist]. The services provided by the hotel are moderate and sufficient to budgeted travelers. Economy / Limited services hotel: They provide comfortable and inexpensive rooms and meet the basic requirement of the guest. These hotels may be large of small in size depending on the kind of business they get. The key factor behind the survival of these hotels is that they are priced very low and are in the budget of most of the travelers.


They have no application with other properties. They have their own management and are single properties with one owner. Chain hotels: They impose certain minimum standards, levels of service, policies and procedures to be followed by their entire establishment. Chain hotels usually have corporate offices that monitor all their properties and one management runs these properties. That is all the hotels under the chain are completely owned and run by the chain itself. Franchisee hotels: The franchisee grants the entities, the right to conduct business provided they follow the established pattern of the franchisee, maintains their standards, levels of service, practice their policies and procedures.


Awarding of class is done by the HRACC in India. These are a few things listed down that are taken into consideration while awarding star category to any hotels. Number and types of rooms the hotel has Elegant and comfortable surroundings Rooms efficiency Cleanness and sanitation Staff size and specialization Range and level of services Number of Restaurants Bars and Beverage services Concierge services Accessibility to entertainment Availability of transportation Spa and swimming pool facility Reservation and referral services.

Star category of hotels [India] One star Two star Three star Four star Five star Five star deluxe [*] [**] [***] [****] [*****] [***** deluxe]

THREE STAR CATEGORIES: For a hotel to be recognized as a three star property the architectural features and general features of the building should be very good there should be adequate parking facilities. At least 50% of the rooms must be air-conditioned. Also the ambience and decor of the place must be ecstatic. They should provide reservation and information facility apart from reception, information, bell service at least two gourmet dining facility should be available. The establishment may or may not have banqueting facility. They should provide high levels of personalized services. The staff must be well-trained and proper standards for hygiene and sanitation must be followed. Also all properties have to keep in mind that proper waste management is done.

FIVE STAR CATEGORIES: Five star category is only allotted to properties, which have all the qualities of a three star property and a few additional. Like the entire property must be centrally air-conditioned. The building of the property must be an attractive one. All the rooms must be spacious. The property must have proper banqueting facility, business center. Proper and well-maintained pool and health club a spa is optional.

The property must have 24 hour coffee shop, round the clock room service, a bar, and a minimum of 1 gourmet restaurant. The staff must be highly trained and a degree of specialization must be shown. State of art Equipments must be used and the facility provided in the rooms must be sophisticated.

Hotel Guest Rooms

Guest Room Procedures for Hotel Guest Rooms When you check into a hotel room, remember you were not the first person to sleep there. There are rules when it comes to keeping the place where you stay neat and tidy. 1. Significance

It might surprise you to know there are no "blanket" rules regarding the cleanliness of hotel guest rooms. That said, some states have guidelines regarding lighting or heating. Bed

Bedsheets are changed between guests at most hotels. If you are staying for an extended period of time, expect your sheets to be changed about once every three days. There are no rules regarding how often the comforter should be changed and/or washed. Bathroom

The Guest Room staff will change towels each day if guests leave them on the floor. Housekeepers will also clean the toilet and mirrors, and wipe around the sink. They might also run a cloth over the floor if necessary and wipe the inside of the shower. Sleeping Area

Housekeepers might not clean this area daily. If there is something on the floor, they might run the vacuum as they see fit. Replacement Practices

While rules vary from one property to the next, housekeepers will generally replace plastic cups, ice bucket liners and soaps if guests have used them.

Operating Procedures

One of the most important elements to a hotel's success is how clean the rooms are kept. Guests are unlikely to return to a hotel that isn't clean, and even less likely to recommend it to other people. Most hotels avoid this by following certain hotel Guest Room operating procedures that ensure every room is clean and safe for guests. 1. Tidying

Most day-to-day Guest Room at a hotel involves procedures for tidying the room. When a guest has not yet checked out, housekeepers are usually required to follow a shorter list of procedures. These include making the beds, replacing used towels with clean ones, vacuuming the floor, removing trash and emptying ash trays. Daily Guest Room may also include replacing certain items in the room, such as toilet paper, tissues and bath products. In rooms that have a minibar, housekeepers may restock the bar on a daily basis as well.

2. Cleaning Linens

Many of a hotel's Guest Room procedures take place outside the guest rooms. This includes washing bedding and towels. Hotel housekeepers use high-temperature washers that disinfect as they wash, along with strong soaps and whitening agents.

Because of the high cost of washing linens, along with the large amount of water the procedure uses, some hotels offer guests the option of not having their linens washed daily. Bedding may be left on the bed unless a guest removes it or specifically asks for it to be laundered. Some hotels also follow a policy of only replacing towels left in designated areas so that guests can choose to reuse towels. 3. Disinfecting

Between guests, hotels follow a more stringent Guest Room procedure to prepare a room. This usually involves all the tasks of daily Guest Room, along with a thorough vacuuming and the replacement of sheets and pillowcases. This is also when housekeepers disinfect a room using powerful cleansers. Besides keeping the toilet, sink and shower free of germs, housekeepers also clean other surfaces such as tabletops, remote controls and doorknobs. Housekeepers will also remove anything left behind by the previous guests and restock the room with stationary, comment cards and other paperwork.

Guest Room Procedures Why should we pay attention to Guest Room at work? Effective Guest Room can eliminate some workplace hazards and help get a job done safely and properly. Poor Guest Room can frequently contribute to accidents by hiding hazards that cause injuries. If the sight of paper, debris, clutter and spills is accepted as normal, then other more serious health and safety hazards may be taken for granted. Guest Room is not just cleanliness. It includes keeping work areas neat and orderly; maintaining halls and floors free of slip and trip hazards; and removing of waste materials (e.g., paper, cardboard) and other fire hazards from work areas. It also requires paying attention to important details such as the layout of the whole workplace, aisle marking, the adequacy of storage facilities, and maintenance. Good Guest Room is also a basic part of accident and fire prevention. Effective Guest Room is an ongoing operation:

it is not a hit-and-miss cleanup done occasionally. Periodic "panic" cleanups are costly and ineffective in reducing accidents. What is the purpose of workplace Guest Room?

Poor Guest Room can be a cause of accidents, such as: tripping over loose objects on floors, stairs and platforms being hit by falling objects slipping on greasy, wet or dirty surfaces striking against projecting, poorly stacked items or misplaced material cutting, puncturing, or tearing the skin of hands or other parts of the body on projecting nails, wire or steel strapping To avoid these hazards, a workplace must "maintain" order throughout a workday. Although this effort requires a great deal of management and planning, the benefits are many. What are some benefits of good Guest Room practices?

Effective Guest Room results in: reduced handling to ease the flow of materials fewer tripping and slipping accidents in clutter-free and spill-free work areas decreased fire hazards lower worker exposures to hazardous substances better control of tools and materials more efficient equipment cleanup and maintenance better hygienic conditions leading to improved health more effective use of space reduced property damage by improving preventive maintenance less janitorial work improved morale How do I plan a good Guest Room program? A good Guest Room program plans and manages the orderly storage and movement of materials from point of entry to exit. It includes a material flow plan to ensure minimal handling. The plan also ensures that work areas are not used as storage areas by having workers move materials to and from work areas as needed. Part of the plan could include investing in extra bins and more frequent disposal.

The costs of this investment could be offset by the elimination of repeated handling of the same material and more effective use of the workers' time. Often, ineffective or insufficient storage planning results in materials being handled and stored in hazardous ways. Knowing the plant layout and the movement of materials throughout the workplace can help plan work procedures. Worker training is an essential part of any good Guest Room program. Workers need to know how to work safely with the products they use. They also need to know how to protect other workers such as by posting signs (e.g., "Wet - Slippery Floor") and reporting any unusual conditions. Guest Room order is "maintained" not "achieved." This means removing the inevitable messes that occur from time to time and not waiting until the end of the shift to reorganize and clean up. Integrating Guest Room into jobs can help ensure this is done. A good Guest Room program identifies and assigns responsibilities for the following: clean up during the shift day-to-day cleanup waste disposal removal of unused materials inspection to ensure cleanup is complete Do not forget out-of-the-way places such as shelves, basements, sheds, and boiler rooms that would otherwise be overlooked. The orderly arrangement of operations, tools, equipment and supplies is an important part of a good Guest Room program. The final addition to any Guest Room program is inspection. It is the only way to check for deficiencies in the program so that changes can be made. The documents on workplace inspection checklists provide a general guide and examples of checklists for inspecting offices and manufacturing facilities. What are the elements of an effective Guest Room program? Dust and Dirt Removal In some jobs, enclosures and exhaust ventilation systems may fail to collect dust, dirt and chips adequately. Vacuum cleaners are suitable for removing light dust and dirt. Industrial models have special fittings for cleaning walls, ceilings, ledges, machinery, and other hard-to-reach places where dust and dirt may accumulate.

Dampening floors or using sweeping compounds before sweeping reduces the amount of airborne dust. The dust and grime that collect in places like shelves, piping, conduits, light fixtures, reflectors, windows, cupboards and lockers may require manual cleaning. Special-purpose vacuums are useful for removing hazardous substances. For example, vacuum cleaners fitted with HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filters may be used to capture fine particles of asbestos or fibreglass. Compressed air should not be used for removing dust, dirt or chips from equipment or work surfaces. Employee Facilities Employee facilities need to be adequate, clean and well maintained. Lockers are necessary for storing employees' personal belongings. Washroom facilities require cleaning once or more each shift. They also need to have a good supply of soap, towels plus disinfectants, if needed. If workers are using hazardous materials, employee facilities should provide special precautions such as showers, washing facilities and change rooms. Some facilities may require two locker rooms with showers between. Using such double locker rooms allows workers to shower off workplace contaminants and prevents them from contaminating their "street clothes" by keeping their work clothes separated from the clothing that they wear home. Smoking, eating or drinking in the work area should be prohibited where toxic materials are handled. The eating area should be separate from the work area and should be cleaned properly each shift. Surfaces Floors: Poor floor conditions are a leading cause of accidents so cleaning up spilled oil and other liquids at once is important. Allowing chips, shavings and dust to accumulate can also cause accidents. Trapping chips, shavings and dust before they reach the floor or cleaning them up regularly can prevent their accumulation. Areas that cannot be cleaned continuously, such as entrance ways, should have anti-slip flooring. Keeping floors in good order also means replacing any worn, ripped, or damaged flooring that poses a tripping hazard.

Walls: Light-coloured walls reflect light while dirty or dark-coloured walls absorb light. Contrasting colours warn of physical hazards and mark obstructions such as pillars. Paint can highlight railings, guards and other safety equipment, but should never be used as a substitute for guarding. The program should outline the regulations and standards for colours. Maintain Light Fixtures Dirty light fixtures reduce essential light levels. Clean light fixtures can improve lighting efficiency significantly. Aisles and Stairways Aisles should be wide enough to accommodate people and vehicles comfortably and safely. Aisle space allows for the movement of people, products and materials. Warning signs and mirrors can improve sight-lines in blind corners. Arranging aisles properly encourages people to use them so that they do not take shortcuts through hazardous areas. Keeping aisles and stairways clear is important. They should not be used for temporary "overflow" or "bottleneck" storage. Stairways and aisles also require adequate lighting. Spill Control The best way to control spills is to stop them before they happen. Regularly cleaning and maintaining machines and equipment is one way. Another is to use drip pans and guards where possible spills might occur. When spills do occur, it is important to clean them up immediately. Absorbent materials are useful for wiping up greasy, oily or other liquid spills. Used absorbents must be disposed of properly and safely. Tools and Equipment Tool Guest Room is very important, whether in the tool room, on the rack, in the yard, or on the bench. Tools require suitable fixtures with marked locations to provide orderly arrangement, both in the tool room and near the work bench. Returning them promptly after use reduces the chance of being misplaced or lost. Workers should regularly inspect, clean and repair all tools and take any damaged or worn tools out of service. Maintenance

The maintenance of buildings and equipment may be the most important element of good Guest Room. Maintenance involves keeping buildings, equipment and machinery in safe, efficient working order and in good repair. This includes maintaining sanitary facilities and regularly painting and cleaning walls. Broken windows, damaged doors, defective plumbing and broken floor surfaces can make a workplace look neglected; these conditions can cause accidents and affect work practices. So it is important to replace or fix broken or damaged items as quickly as possible. A good maintenance program provides for the inspection, maintenance, upkeep and repair of tools, equipment, machines and processes. Waste Disposal The regular collection, grading and sorting of scrap contribute to good Guest Room practices. It also makes it possible to separate materials that can be recycled from those going to waste disposal facilities. Allowing material to build up on the floor wastes time and energy since additional time is required for cleaning it up. Placing scrap containers near where the waste is produced encourages orderly waste disposal and makes collection easier. All waste receptacles should be clearly labelled (e.g., recyclable glass, plastic, scrap metal, etc.). Storage Good organization of stored materials is essential for overcoming material storage problems whether on a temporary or permanent basis. There will also be fewer strain injuries if the amount of handling is reduced, especially if less manual materials handling is required. The location of the stockpiles should not interfere with work but they should still be readily available when required. Stored materials should allow at least one metre (or about three feet) of clear space under sprinkler heads. Stacking cartons and drums on a firm foundation and cross tying them, where necessary, reduces the chance of their movement. Stored materials should not obstruct aisles, stairs, exits, fire equipment, emergency eyewash fountains, emergency showers, or first aid stations. All storage areas should be clearly marked. Flammable, combustible, toxic and other hazardous materials should be stored in approved containers in designated areas that are appropriate for the different

hazards that they pose. Storage of materials should meet all requirements specified in the fire codes and the regulations of environmental and occupational health and safety agencies in your jurisdiction. Storage Good organization of stored materials is essential for overcoming material storage problems whether on a temporary or permanent basis. There will also be fewer strain injuries if the amount of handling is reduced, especially if less manual materials handling is required. The location of the stockpiles should not interfere with work but they should still be readily available when required. Stored materials should allow at least one metre (or about three feet) of clear space under sprinkler heads. Stacking cartons and drums on a firm foundation and cross tying them, where necessary, reduces the chance of their movement. Stored materials should not obstruct aisles, stairs, exits, fire equipment, emergency eyewash fountains, emergency showers, or first aid stations. All storage areas should be clearly marked. Flammable, combustible, toxic and other hazardous materials should be stored in approved containers in designated areas that are appropriate for the different hazards that they pose. Storage of materials should meet all requirements specified in the fire codes and the regulations of environmental and occupational health and safety agencies in your jurisdiction. Importance of Guest Room

Guest Room is the department that deals essentially with cleanliness and all ancillary service attached to that.

The standard plays an important role in the reputation of the hotels. One feels comfortable only in the environment which is clean and well ordered, so cleanliness is important for health foremost also for well being.

Accommodation in hotels tend to be the largest part of the hotel, it is the most revenue generating department, the Guest Room department takes care of all rooms is often largest department in hotels.

The rooms in hotels are offered as accommodation to travelers/ guest as individual units of bedroom. Some interconnected rooms are also made which will be helpful to the guest and families. Many hotels offer suits to the guest.

Hotel offer laundry, dry leaning facilities for guest clothes, shoe polishing facilities also.

Hotel aims to make environment comfortable and offer specialised service to the guest.

Hotel offer guest the choice of specialty restaurant, coffee shop. The bar also sells liquors which generate the revenue of the hotel. They are available in banqueting, meeting and private party facilities.

Revenue can be generated from conferencing, meeting, seminar etc.









A health club is a part of facilities of most large hotels especially resort hotels this also include swimming pool and spa facilities.

Hotels try to make the ambiance as pleasant as possible by nice colour scheme, attractive furnishing and a well kept efficient staff.

House keeping is the department determine to a large extent whether guests are happy during stay and in turn mankind they return to the hotel.

The fine accommodation and service are provided to the guest so they are pleased with the hotel. The guest satisfaction is its primary object and the hygiene factor must always be present in the hotel.

In hotels major part of revenue comes from rooms, rooms which is not sold on any night losses revenue forever and reason for poor occupancy can be anything like hygiene factor, cleanliness, lack of modernizing etc. hence main purpose is to improve whole appeal of the room. A guest spend more time alone in his room than any other part of the hotel, so he can check up the cleanliness he wishes to as some of the guest are more health conscious these days. He may check up dusting, in-depth cleaning and losses confidence if properly not done e.g. If drawers are not cleaned he may generally won't feel like putting his clothes down. Decent room supplies are service like quick laundry and dry cleaning service shows guest that hotel is considering his comfort and wishes to please him. not only this from the cleanliness of lobby, public area, restaurant, cloakrooms, the state and cleanliness of uniform the guest can judge a lot about hotel. it can be positive or negative judgement we can conclude that Guest Room department contributes greatly to all guest impression of the hotel. Planning the guest-room floor

By Walter A. Rutes & Richard H. Penner & Lawrence Adams | Planning the typical guest-room floor presents one of the greatest challenges in hotel design. Because guest rooms and suites generally represent between 65 and 85 percent of the total floor area in a hotel or resort, any savings in the planning of a given floor arrangmenr (or grouping of rooms) is multiplied many times. Therefore, a major planning goal in every lodging project should be to maximize the amount of salable guest-room space and keep to a minimum the vertical core, horizontal circulation, and necessary support areas. A chief goal for hotel planners is to find an efficient floor plan for guest rooms In addition, guest-room planning comprises several important architectural objectives. The architect should select a particular plan configuration and orient the building to (1) enhance the appearance and visibility of the structure, (2) reduce energy costs, and (3) accommodate possible future expansion. Should lodging demand increase, the owner may want to add rooms, whether by extending the guest-room wings, adding additional floors, or building a new structure. For many projects the architect needs to consider a configuration and orientation to take advantage of views from the guest rooms. In developing the plan itself, the designer should reduce as much as possible the walking distances for both the guest and the housekeeping staff, provide for support functions, and seek ways to reduce construction cost and non-salable space. Exhibit 1 (overleaf) lists the principal objectives in planning the guest-room floor. The program requirements for the guest-room floors are relatively few: a designated number of guest rooms or suites, conveniently located public and service elevators, exit stairways to meet building codes and provide safe emergency egress, adequate linen storage and vending areas, and small-electricaland telephone-equipment rooms. Myriad variations. The analysis of alternative plan. configurations for the guestroom structure is one of the earliest design studies for a hotel, even before the exact guest-room mix is confirmed. The conceptual program may call for, say, 300 rooms including 15 suites, at a typical size of 350 sq. ft. (32.5 [m.sup.2]). The architect starts with the objective of providing a specific number of guest-room bays of a particular size and, taking into account constraints and opportunities of a particular site, may initially select a double-loaded corridor configuration (i.e., one with rooms on either side), a compact vertical tower, or a spacious atrium structure--each with its myriad variations. Low-rise properties generally are

planned using a double-loaded corridor and may be shaped into an L, a T, a U, or a +, among other configurations. High-rise buildings may follow those patterns; they can be terraced into pyramid-like forms; or they can adjoin a large lobby space so that some of the rooms look into the hot el's interior. The tower plan, in which the guest rooms surround a central core, can be practically any shape, although rectangular or circular are most common. Early atrium configurations, such as that of John Portman's Hyatt Regency Atlanta, were designed on a basic rectangular plan. More recent projects have taken on numerous, complex shapes. The various configurations are illustrated throughout this article. The most appropriate configuration for the guest rooms depends largely on the nature of the building site. In densely populated urban areas, where land costs are high and the site may be relatively small, the ideal arrangement of public and support spaces on the lower floors may be the most critical consideration. Two major planning requirements often dictate both the shape and the placement of the guest-room structure on urban sites. Those requirements are the preferred location of the public and service elevators and of the column-free ballroom. At resort properties, on the other hand, the opposite is true: the functional organization of the hotel's elements is secondary to the careful siting of the buildings to minimize their impact on the site and to provide views of the surrounding landscape or beach. Many resorts feature not a single building but, instead, provide a number of villa structures that greatly reduce the perceived scale of the project, give the guest a greater connection to the site and the recreational amenities, and enhance the sense of privacy. At airport sites, height limitations often dictate the choice of a specific plan--one that packages the rooms into a relatively low and spread-out structure. While the choice of an architectural plan is a function of a balanced consideration of site, environment, and program requirements, the architect must realize that a particular configuration will shape the economics of the project. Not only does the type of plan drive budgetary issues--including the cost of initial construction; furniture, fixtures, and equipment (FF&E); and ongoing energy and payroll expenses--but the choice of a plan also influences the more subtle aspects of guest satisfaction. The design that is most economical to build, for instance, may not provide the best (i.e., most profitable) design solution. A relatively less efficient (and, thus, more expensive) plan type may offer more variety in room types than an efficient construction design, as well as afford a more interesting spatial sequence, shorter walking distances, and other advantages that affect the guest's perception of the value of the hotel experience.

Analyzing Alternative Configurations For an operator to realize profits, the design team must maximize the percentage of floor area devoted to guest rooms and keep to a minimum the amount of circulation and service space (e.g., service-elevator lobby, linen storage, vending, and other minor support spaces). Although the architect and developer must not ignore aesthetic and functional issues, a simple comparison among alternative plans of the percentage of space allocated to guest rooms versus nonrevenueproducing space can suggest a set of efficient solutions. The major alternatives among plan types are described in Exhibit 2 (on the previous page). Our analysis of hundreds of different guestroom floor plans shows that some patterns yield more cost-effective solutions than others. The choice of one configuration over another can mean a savings of 20 percent in gross floor area of the guest-room structure and of nearly 15 percent in the total building. For example, the three principal plan alternatives--the double-loaded slab, the rectangular tower, and the atrium--when designed with identical guest rooms of 350 net sq. ft. (32.5 [m.sup.2]), yield final designs that vary from about 470 to 580 gross sq. ft. (44 to 54 [m.sup.2]) per room. Our study also indicates the effect of subsequent minor decisions on the efficiency of the plan--pairing two guest rooms back-to-back, for example, or choosing a double- or single-loaded corridor, grouping public and service elevators, and planning efficient access to end or corner rooms. Because guest rooms account for so much total hotel area, the architect should establish a series of quantitative benchmarks for the efficient design of the guest-room floors. For example, one approach is to set a goal of the median guestroom percentage figure, say, 70 percent for the double-loaded slab. In that case, if the gross area isn't more than 1.42 (the reciprocal of the .70 figure) x the net area, then the plan is relatively efficient. The relative efficiency of typical hotel floors can be compared most directly by calculating the percentage of the total floor area devoted to guest rooms. This varies from below 60 percent in an inefficient atrium plan to more than 75 percent in the most tightly designed double-loaded slab. Clearly, the higher this percentage, the lower the construction cost per room. In turn, a relatively low construction cost offers the developer a range of options: build additional guest rooms, provide larger guest rooms for the same capital investment, improve the quality of the furnishings or of particular building systems, expand other functional

areas such as meeting space or recreational facilities, or lower the construction cost and project budget. The following sections describe the planning decisions that have the most influence on creating an economical plan for each of the basic guest-room configurations. In some plans, the key factor is the number of rooms per floor, while in others the driving factor is the location of the elevator core or the shape of the building. In general, the most efficient configurations to construct and operate are those where circulation space is kept to a minimum--either the double-loaded corridor slab or the compact center-core tower. Slab Configuration The slab configuration includes those plans that are primarily horizontal, including both single and double-loaded corridor schemes (as shown in Exhibit 3). The few planning variables are concerned primarily with the building's shape (straight, Lshaped, or other), the layout of the core, and the position of the fire stairs. The architect must consider the following issues relating to a slab pattern. * Corridor loading. Given site conditions, are any single-loaded rooms appropriate? * Shape. Which particular shape (e.g., straight, L, courtyard) best meets site and building constraints? * Core location. Should the public and the service cores be combined or separated, and where in the tower should they be positioned? * Core layout. What is the best way to organize public and service elevators, linen storage, vending, and other support areas? * Stair location. How can the exit stairs best be integrated into the plan? The high degree of efficiency found in the slab plan arises primarily from doubleloaded corridors. Single-loaded schemes, in contrast, require 5- to 8-percent-more floor area for the same number of rooms. Therefore, one should employ a singleloaded design only where external factors militate, such as a narrow site dimension or the availability of spectacular views in one direction. While slab plans constitute the most efficient design category, various approaches can nevertheless further tighten the layout. Configurations that bury the elevator and service cores in interior corners, for instance, accomplish this task. They reduce the non-guest-room area, reduce the building perimeter, and increase the opportunities for creating architecturally interesting buildings. The offset-slab plan, for example, is especially economical because the public and service elevator cores share one area and, in addition, they do not displace any guest rooms from the

building perimeter. The knuckle configuration, which bends at angles, creates the potential for interestingly shaped elevator lobbies, provides compact service areas, and breaks up the slab's long corridors. The core design is complicated by the need to connect the public elevators to the lobby and the service elevators to the housekeeping and other back-of-house areas. This often necessitates two distinct core areas at some distance from each other, although in many hotels those areas are located side by side. One common design is to position the elevator core in the middle third of a floor to reduce walking distances to the farthest rooms. Most often the vertical core is fully integrated into the body of the tower, but the designer may occasionally add the core to the end of a compact room block or extend it out from the face of the facade. The final layout of the core is another factor that determines a plan's efficiency. In most slab-plan hotels, the vertical cores require space equivalent to two to four guest-room modules. One goal is to keep the core to a minimum, and the plan's efficiency improves when the core displaces the smallest number of guest-room bays. Our comparison of many projects shows that the vertical core displaces fewer guest-room bays when the service areas are located behind the public elevators than when those areas are beside or at some distance from the public elevators. Many of the more efficient configurations also feature a distinct elevator lobby. Such a foyer space helps to isolate nearby guest rooms from the noise and congestion of people waiting for the elevator. Also, plans that incorporate an elevator lobby generally have fewer awkwardly shaped rooms, thereby providing a more uniform guest-room design. Building codes generally require emergency-exit stairs to be located at opposite ends of the building. Each such stair tower might simply replace the last guest room on the corridor. But, instead, the architect may be able to integrate the stairs within the building, as part of an elevator core, at an "inside corner" where the building turns, or within the usual bathroom zone of a guest-room bay (where the bathroom is part of an oversized room or suite). Careful placement of the stairs provides one more opportunity to create a more efficient overall plan by reducing gross floor area, compared with simply attaching the stair tower to the end of the building. One factor that limits the number of rooms on the guest-room floor is the typical code requirement for hotels with automatic sprinklers that there be no more than (typically) 300 ft. (91 m) between exit stairs. Therefore, another goal in planning the repetitive guest-room floor is to create a layout that does not require a third fire

stair. Experienced hotel architects have established techniques for maximizing the number of rooms per floor and manipulating the stairs and corridors to increase the building's overall efficiency. Tower Configuration Tower plans are the second major category of guest-room-floor layouts (as shown in Exhibit 4). These generally comprise a central core surrounded by a singleloaded corridor of guest rooms. The tower's exterior architectural treatment can vary widely, depending on the geometric shape of the plan (e.g., square, crossshaped, circular, triangular). Tower plans exhibit different characteristics than those of the slab, but towers still raise a similar series of questions for the designer: * Number of rooms: How many guest rooms economically fit a particular layout?; * Shape: Which shape is most efficient and permits the desired mix of rooms?; * Corridor: How is hallway access to corner rooms arranged?; and * Core layout: How are the elevators, linen storage, and stairs organized? Unlike the other plan configurations, selection of the tower shape creates specific limitations on the number of rooms per floor. For the most part, towers can accommodate between 16 and 24 rooms, depending on the guest-room dimensions, the number of floors, and the optimum core size. With only 16 rooms, the core would barely be large enough for two or three elevators, two egress stairs, and minimum amounts of storage. On the other hand, designs with more than 24 rooms become so inflated and the core so large that the layout becomes highly inefficient. The efficiency of most guest-room configurations improves as the number of rooms on a floor increases, with little or no expansion in the core or buildingservice areas. With the tower plan, the opposite is true. The analysis of a large sample of hotel designs shows that, surprisingly, the fewer the number of rooms per floor, the more efficient the layout. This is true because the core, by necessity must be extremely compact and, as a result, the amount of corridor area is kept to a bare minimum. Inefficient layouts, on the other hand, often result from adding rooms and from extending single-loaded corridors into each of the building corners. The shape of the tower has a direct effect on the structure's appearance and perceived scale. The efficiency of the plan is also a direct result of the shape, because of the critical nature of the corridor access to the corner rooms in the rectangular towers and the design of the wedge-shaped guest room and bathroom in the circular towers. Those plans that minimize the amount of circulation and, in

addition, create unusual corner rooms exemplify the best in both architectural planning and interior layout. For circular tower plans, the measures of efficiency are judged by the layout of the room, in addition to the core design. Typically, the perimeter of the wedge-shaped guest rooms is about 16 ft. (4.9 m), whereas the corridor dimension may be less than 8 ft. (2.4 m), thus challenging the designer's skill to plan the bathroom, entry vestibule, and closet. While the design of the core in both rectangular and circular towers is less critical than the arrangement of guest rooms, certain specific issues have to be resolved. Generally, the core is centrally located, and the vertical elements are tightly grouped. Small hotels (i.e., those with only 16 rooms per floor) usually do not feature an elevator lobby, and the guests in rooms opposite the elevators must tolerate noise from guests waiting for the elevator. In a few cases, the core is split into two parts, creating roughly an H-shaped circulation zone, effectively providing an elevator lobby on each floor. The two fire stairs can be efficiently arranged in a scissors configuration (if permitted by code) to conserve space. In tower plans with 24 or more rooms per floor, the central core becomes excessively large. Some hotel architects introduce a series of multistory "sky lobbies" to make this space a positive feature, or add conference rooms on every guest floor. The efficient design of hotel towers requires the simultaneous study of the core and an imaginative layout to meet the demand for ultra-high-rise mixeduse structures. Atrium Configuration Atriums constitute the third major category of guest-room floor plans (see Exhibit 5). As we mentioned above, the present-day atrium design was introduced by architect John Portman for the Hyatt Regency Atlanta in 1967. The atrium prototype had been used successfully late in the nineteenth century in both Denver's Brown Palace (still in operation) and San Francisco's first Palace Hotel, which was destroyed in the 1906 earthquake and fire. By far the least efficient of the plans we are highlighting here, the generic atrium configuration has the guest rooms arranged along single-loaded corridors, much like open balconies overlooking the lobby space. The following issues must be addressed by the architect: * Shape: What configuration of rooms best fits the site and can be integrated with both public and back-of-house area needs?; * Guest-room location: Should any guest rooms look into the lobby?;

* Public elevators: How are scenic or standard elevators best arranged?; * Corridor: How can the amount of single-loaded corridor space effectively be reduced?; and * Service core and stairs: Where are service areas best located and integrated into the building design? Practically all atrium hotels feature glass-enclosed elevators that provide the guest with an ever-changing perspective of the lobby activity, as well as add animation to the space itself. In some cases, scenic elevators are placed opposite conventional ones, creating two distinct experiences for the guest. The location of the service elevators, housekeeping-support functions, and emergency-exit stairs, while needing to be integrated into the plan, are not particularly critical to the efficiency of the guest-room floor. In addition to the open lobby, each atrium hotel is distinguished by the plan of the guestroom floors. While the basic prototype is square, many of the recent atrium designs are irregularly shaped to respond to various site constraints. This sculpting of the building contributes to creating a distinctive image for the hotel, which is a primary goal in selecting the atrium configuration. Recognizing the atrium's inefficiency, architects have sought ways to gain the prestige benefits of the atrium while increasing its efficiency. One technique that has been successful in several hotels is to combine a central atrium with extended double-loaded wings, as was done at the Hyatt Regency hotels in Cambridge (Massachusetts) and Dallas. This approach effectively draws together the architectural excitement of the atrium space (on a smaller and more personal scale than in the large hotels) with the desirable economies of the double-loaded plan. However, many developers and architects believe that the atrium design has become a cliche--and also recognize its tremendous cost premium--and seek other means to create a memorable building and guest experience. Defining the Guest-room and Suite Program After the architect establishes the conceptual design, including a basic configuration for the guestroom floors, the team needs to refine and modify the earlier thumbnail guest-room program to fit the architectural concept--or shape the building to accommodate the nuances of the program. The room mix is based on the initial market study and, more important, on the advice and experience of the hotel-operating company. The guestroom program defines the typical room module (key dimensions and bathroom configuration), the mix of room furnishings (e.g., single king bed, two double beds), and the variety of suites. The proposed room

mix is intended to reflect the estimated demand from the individual business, group, and leisure market segments. Design development of the guest-room floors to meet the specific requirements of the program is among the earliest steps in refining the conceptual design. The design team studies a wide range of possible modifications, including changing the width of the guest-room module, the number of bays per floor, the location and layout of the elevator and service cores, and the arrangement of suites. To avoid misunderstandings, the following definitions should be used: * Key: A separate, rentable unit; * Guest-room bay: The typical guest-room module; * Structural bay: The dimension between two structural columns, typically equal to the width of one or two guest rooms; and * Suite: Combination of living room and one or more bedrooms. Generally, a hotel's management thinks in terms of keys, or the total number of individual guest-room units available for sale. A suite containing a living room that connects to two bedrooms totals three keys if the parlor has a full bathroom and convertible sofa and the bedrooms can be locked off. But the same arrangement is only two keys if the living room cannot function as a room on its own and must be sold with one bedroom. Large suites often are described in terms of the equivalent number of guest-room bays so that a hotelier may refer to a four-bay suite containing a two-bay living room and two connecting bedrooms. Architects, on the other hand, often refer to the individual rooms and to structural bays, the former being the basis of the contract documents and the latter a chief component of cost estimates for the guest-room portion of the hotel. During the development phases, feasibility consultants project revenues and expenses, occupancy percentages, and average room rates based on the number and type of guest-room keys. In addition, both parking requirements and zoning ordinances (used to control project size and density) are usually based on the key count. However, clarification is essential to avoid possible misunderstandings and delays. Exhibit 6 illustrates an example of a typical guest-room and suite program and the use of the terms "key" and "bay." Documenting the Guest-room Mix Throughout the late design phases the architect and other design-team members continually modify details of the guest-room structure, in response to the owner's or operator's input, or as the result of changes in the public and service areas on the lower floors. But often changes in the guest rooms occur when the designs are

fleshed out for the building's mechanical and electrical distribution systems, elevator cores, or stair towers. Because it is important that the team be able to keep an accurate count of the total bays and keys, the architect or interior designer should prepare and regularly update a guest-room-mix analysis. Exhibit 7 illustrates one typical approach for documenting the guest-room mix. The technique presented here forces the architect or interior designer to make a number of conscious decisions: * Architectural shape: Categorize each room by its shape or configuration; * Bed type: Label each room by its bed type; * Connecting rooms: Indicate adjoining guest rooms; * Suite locations: Position and label any suites; * Guest-room numbers: Assign final room numbers; and * Key and bay analysis: Develop and maintain a summary table of keys and bays by architectural shape or bed type. Documenting the room count confers a number of advantages. To begin with, the design team can test the schematic design against the major element in the space program--the required number of guest rooms--and initiate any necessary changes at the earliest point in the conceptual design. Second, the documentation establishes a format that allows the designers readily to analyze the guest-room mix and maintain a precise record of the guest-room count through the later design phases. Third, details of the repetitive guest-room block can be considered at a relatively early phase. For example, the architect can study possible pairing of rooms to increase the number of back-to-back bathrooms and to establish a repetitive pattern of setbacks at the guest-room doors. Finally, the interior designer can identify any potential problems, such as odd-shaped rooms, that might not easily accommodate the necessary furnishings and amenities. In addition, other members of the team can offer better input when changes to the gues t-room tower are fully documented through the different design phases. For instance, the engineering consultants can review the major systems in the guest-room tower--the elevators, HVAC, and communications systems, for example--in the same context as the rest of the design team. Walter A. Rutes (not pictured), FAIA, is chair of 9 Tek Ltd., a hotel-design consulting firm ( Richard H. Penner, M.S., is a professor of property-asset management at the Cornell University School of Hotel Administration (

A teacher of hotel design at New York University, Lawrence Adams is an architect in New York City ( EXHIBIT 1 Guest-room planning objectives Siting and orientation * Site the guest-room structure to be visible from the road. * Orient guest rooms to enhance views. * Assess the relative visual impact and construction cost of various guest-room configurations. * Position the guest-room structure to limit its structural impact on the ballroom and other major public spaces. * Consider solar gain; generally north--south exposures are preferable to east--west exposures. Floor layout * Organize the plan so that the guest rooms occupy at least 70 percent of gross floor area. * Locate elevators and stairs at interior locations to use the maximum possible length of outside wall for guest rooms. * Develop the corridor plan to facilitate guest and staff circulation. * Place the elevator lobby in the middle third of the structure. * Place the service elevator, linen storage, and vending in a central location. * Plan corridor width at a minimum of 5' 0" (1.5 m), but consider the option of 5' 6" (1.65 m). * Design guest bathrooms back-to-back for plumbing economies. * Locate handicap-access guest rooms on lower floors and near elevators.

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star properties have 5 to 7 dining rooms, a bar, 24-hour coffee shop, banqueting facility. Spas, fitness centers, business centers etc

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CONCLUSION: Although yield management may be ethical, it may not be viewed as fair by the guest. A study of perceived fairness of yield management demonstrated that many common yield management techniques were viewed as highly un acceptable by survey respondents Unacceptable practices 1. Offering insufficient benefits in exchange for restrictions 2. Imposing to severe a restriction on discounts 3. Not informing of customers of change in requirements to receive price discounts Acceptable prices 1. 2. 3. 4. Availability of information concerning price option A suitable discount offered for cancellation restrictions Reasonable restrictions for a discounted rate Different prices for products perceived by a customer as different

Yield management should be based on sound marketing plan so that it helps in developing long term sound relations with the customers. A balance should be maintained between short term gains & long term relationships.

The staff must be well trained to explain the differences in ratesFor example sometimes a customer staying longer might be charged higher than the guest staying for few days, one might expect a concession for longer stays because longer stays may take a guest in a period of high occupancy where rate is high. Hotels should be able develop fences to prohibit customers from one segment receiving prices intended for other. For example a business traveler exhibit less elastic behavior towards price as compared to leisure traveler then a hotel can ask for 30 day advance reservation for Friday & Saturday night stay this will effectively fences out business travelers to pay higher prices to stay during business weeks with little or no advance reservation. Yield management system should be developed in consensus with transient demand so that it does not result in customer dissonance while turning away a customer. In the end I would like to say that yield management if used properly can provide extra revenue to hotels & benefits to customer also.