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Determination of Spatio-Temporal changes in Rainfall and its relationship with Vegetation cover, Land Surface Temperature over Cuddalore district of Tamilnadu.

J.Janiel*, Mrs.S.S.Revathy**, S.Suresh Babu***

*Student, M.Tech Remote Sensing, **Lecturer, ***Professor and Head of the Department Department of Civil Engineering

Adhiyamaan college of Engineering, Hosur-635109, Tamilnadu, India.

Email:*jani.engine2@gmail.com,**revathy_er@yahoo.co.in,

***sunisurp@gmail.com

Abstract: Climate change refers to the relatively abrupt shift in the weather patterns over an area or the whole earth. In other words it is the statistical aggregate of weather conditions over a period of Time, Precipitation, Temperature, Wind, Cloudiness, Storms, etc. Among these climatic events Rainfall is the primary index ever thought by farmers and climatic analyzers as it determines the cropping pattern of an area. Rainfall is greatly influenced by Vegetation cover and Land surface temperature. In this study an attempt has been made to understand rainfall variation and its relationship with vegetation cover, Land surface temperature over Cuddalore district of Tamilnadu. The study is based on twelve years 2000-2011 of monthly rainfall data for 18 rain gauge stations. NDVI technique has been used for observing vegetation cover. Thermal bands of LANDSAT TM, ETM+ have been used for retrieving surface temperature values.

Keywords:

ERDAS 9.1

Remote Sensing, GIS, Climate change, Rainfall variability, Arc GIS 10,

Introduction:

Rainfall

variation

analysis

helps

in

Monsoon depressions and cyclonic storms

identifying

the

spatial

and

temporal

are the most important synoptic scale

distribution of rainfall over the study area.

disturbances which play a vital role in the

In this study an attempt has been made to analyze relationship between

Space- time distribution of rainfall over India (Sikka, 1977). Normalized

vegetation

cover

and

land surface

Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) is

temperature.

Rainfall

is

a

crucial

agro-

found to be well correlated with physical

climatological factor in the seasonally arid parts of the world and its analysis is an

climate variables

including

rainfall,

temperature and evapotranspiration in a

important

perquisite

for

agricultural

wide range of environmental conditions

planning in India, Alak Gadgil (1986).The study of rainfall pattern is very important for the agricultural planning of any region.

(Cihlar et al.,) 1992. Climate, Soil, Topography are the factors that control the growth and vigor of vegetation cover.

In general

climatic factors are the most

influential

among

the

above factors.

Climatic factors such as rainfall and Surface temperature determine the

availability

of

moisture

for

physical,

biological and chemical activities occur in

plants that ultimately lead

to

a

healthy

plant (Houghton et al

., 2001). Ishappa

Munniyappa Rathod et al., have done a

study on

the spatial

analysis of rainfall

variation in

Coimbatore

district

of

Tamilnadu using GIS. They have analyzed

long time average of monthly and annual

rainfall

for

33

rain

gauge stations for

a

period

of

49

years.

Similarly High/low

rainfall domain mapping using GIS at

Salem

district,

Tamilnadu,

India

have

been made by B.Gurugnanam et al .,.In

this study GIS is effectively used to interpolate rainfall for various analyses and prepare thematic maps.

Study area:

The area under study is Cuddalore district of Tamilnadu, India. Cuddalore district is

bounded on the north by Villupuram district, on the east by Bay of Bengal, on the south by Nagapattinam district and

Perambalur district

on

the

west.

The

geographical

extent

of

the

district

is

between 11°11’ and 12°35’ Northern latitudes and 78°38’ and 80°00’ Eastern

longitudes. Cuddalore is predominantly an

agricultural

district

with

the

coastline

stretching from Pondicherry Union territory in the North to the mouth of river Coleroon in the south. Economy of

Cuddalore district is dependent

on

agriculture whose total cultivable area is

around

2,72,159

hectares.

The

total

geographical area of the district is 4283 sq.km with a coastline of 68 kms. The

average summer and winter temperatures

of Cuddalore is 41°C, 20°C.The annual

normal

rainfall (in

mm)

for Cuddalore

district during North East monsoon (Oct- Dec), South West monsoon (July-Sep), Winter and Summer are 651, 410, 3.4 and 160.8. Cuddalore district falls under Zone II East coast plains and hills is the Agro- Climatic region & zone.

In general climatic factors are the most influential among the above factors. Climatic factors such as

Figure

1:

Study area

with

Rain gauge

stations.

Data used:

 

1.

Rainfall

data

of

18

rain

gauge

stations for

a period

of

12

years

were obtained from District Statistical office, Cuddalore.

2.

LANDSAT TM, ETM+ images for the study area during 2001 April, 2010 March.

3.

Toposheet of Tamilnadu from SOI,

for extracting boundary of Cuddalore.

Software used:

  • 1. Arc GIS 10

  • 2. ERDAS 9.1

  • 3. Microsoft Excel.

Methodology:

Software used: 1. Arc GIS 10 2. ERDAS 9.1 3. Microsoft Excel. Methodology: Figure 2: Methodology

Figure 2: Methodology

Tamilnadu toposheet was collected from

the Survey

 

of

India

and

was

geo

referenced

in

order

to

extract

the

boundary.

Monthly

Rainfall

data

for

a

period

of

12

years

(2000-2011)

were

obtained from District Statistical office,

Cuddalore.

The

trend

of

Rainfall

was

calculated and was represented by Mean,

Standard

deviation,

Coefficient

 

of

variability. The rainfall variability thematic

map was done using “Kriging”

interpolation technique.

Software used: 1. Arc GIS 10 2. ERDAS 9.1 3. Microsoft Excel. Methodology: Figure 2: Methodology
Figure 3: Mean annual rainfall and
Figure
3:
Mean
annual
rainfall
and

Standard deviation.

Software used: 1. Arc GIS 10 2. ERDAS 9.1 3. Microsoft Excel. Methodology: Figure 2: Methodology

Table 1: C.V and Annual mean data.

Interpolation technique known as Kriging was employed for analyzing the long term mean annual rainfall of Cuddalore district. Result showed that Lalpet has received the highest amount of rainfall of about 1651 mm and Kattumylore has received the lowest amount of rainfall of about 874.69 mm. Chidambaram, Annamalai nagar, Bhuvanagiri, Kattumanarkoil, Cuddalore, Pantruti, Keelacheruvai, Toluthur, Sethiathope have received mean annual rainfall of more than 1400 mm.

Vanamadevi anaicut, Veppur, Lakkur have received rainfall less than 1200 mm.

Figure 4: Spatial distribution of mean annual rainfall over Cuddalore district (2000-2011).
Figure
4:
Spatial
distribution
of
mean
annual
rainfall
over
Cuddalore
district
(2000-2011).

The coefficient of variation in Rainfall over Cuddalore district was interpolated as thematic map using Kriging technique from the spatial analysis tool module of Arc GIS software. The thematic map obtained clearly showed that Pantruti, Toluthur, Sethiathope, Srimushnam, Cuddalore, Vanamadevi anaicut are highly subjected to rainfall fluctuation. Areas such as Chidambaram, Bhvanagiri, Lalpet, Kattumylore, Veppur, Pelandurai experience less rainfall fluctuation.

Fig 5: Coefficient of variation in rainfall over Cuddalore district (2000-2011).
Fig
5: Coefficient of variation
in rainfall
over
Cuddalore district (2000-2011).

Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI):

The study is based on determining the relationship between Rainfall, Vegetation cover and Land surface temperature. In this paper the Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) which is a simple numerical indicator is used. It helps to analyze remote sensing measurements, and access whether the target being observed contains live green vegetation. NDVI analyses for 2001 and 2010 were done. The change in vegetation cover was limited only at some areas and that too was very low. Analysing the NDVI of 2001 and 2010, the results clearly showed that areas such as Pantruti, Srimushnam, Vanamadevi anaicut, Cuddalore have high vegetation cover. Lalpet, Kattumanarkoil, Bhuvanagiri, Chidambaram, Annamalai

nagar, Sethiathope are the areas that are under less vegetation cover.

Figure 6: NDVI image of Cuddalore
Figure
6:
NDVI
image
of
Cuddalore

district,May 2001

nagar, Sethiathope are the areas that are under less vegetation cover. Figure 6: NDVI image of

Figure7: NDVI image of Cuddalore district, March 2010.

Land Surface Temperature (LST):

Temperature is

an important

climatological factor which influences both rainfall and Vegetation cover of an area. LANDSAT TM, ETM+ images are provided with thermal bands. Temperature is stored

as DN values in this band. Converting DN

values

to

degree

Celsius

has

been

achieved

by using

a Model

developed in

ERDAS 9.1.

 

Conversion of Digital number to Temperature:

  • L = LMIN + (LMAX - LMIN) * DN / 255 Where

  • L = Spectral radiance

LMIN =3.200 (Spectral radiance of DN

value 1) LMAX =12.650 (Spectral radiance of DN value 255) DN = Digital Number

Conversion of Spectral radiance to Temperature in Kelvin:

T B= K 2 /ln[(K 1 /L)+1]

Where,

K1= Calibration Constant 1 K2= Calibration Constant TB = Surface Temperature

Conversion of Kelvin to Celsius:

TB = TB -273

Temperature in Celsius was extracted for the year 2001 and 2010.The results obtained from the thermal bands of LANDSAT images showed that areas such as Lalpet, Kattumanarkoil, Chidambaram, Annamalai nagar, Tholuthur experience high Land Surface Temperature and areas such as Cuddalore, Pantruti and

Vanamadevi anaicut experience surface temperature.

low land

Vanamadevi anaicut experience surface temperature. low land Figure 8: LST of Cuddalore district during May 2001

Figure 8: LST of Cuddalore district during May 2001

Vanamadevi anaicut experience surface temperature. low land Figure 8: LST of Cuddalore district during May 2001

Figure 9: LST of Cuddalore district during March 2010

Results:

The thematic map obtained through

Kriging

analysis

clearly

showed

that

Pantruti,

Toluthur,

Sethiathope,

Srimushnam

are

highly

subjected

to

rainfall

fluctuation.

Analyzing

the

long

term mean average rainfall of Cuddalore

district, Lalpet has received the highest amount of rainfall of about 1651 mm and

Kattumylore

has

received

the

lowest

amount of rainfall of about 874.69 mm.

Chidambaram, Annamalai nagar,

Bhuvanagiri,

kattumanarkoil,

Cuddalore,

Pantruti,

Keelacheruvai,

Toluthur,

Sethiathope have received mean annual

rainfall more than 1400 mm. Vanamadevi

anaicut,

Veppur,

Lakkur

have received

rainfall less than 1200 mm.

Conclusion:

Results obtained from Rainfall, NDVI, Land Surface Temperature were visually interpreted. The NDVI results obtained showed that areas under high vegetation cover such as Pantruti, Vanamadevi anicut, Cuddalore were most prone to rainfall fluctuation and experienced low Land surface temperature. Areas under less vegetation cover such as Sethiathope, Bhuvanagiri, Ananmalai nagar and Chidambaram receive high mean annual precipitation and experienced high Land surface temperature. This may be due to convective precipitation. Convective rainfall showers when the area is heated more than its surroundings. They are highly intense and shower for a relatively short period of time. Using correlation techniques such as Geographic Weightage regression can give more accurate results in case of the studying relationship between these three climatic factors.

References:

1]

Alaka

Gadagil,

1986.

Annual

and

weekly

analysis

of

rainfall

and

temperature for Pune:

a

multiple time

series

approach.

Inst.Indian

Geographers.Vol.8.No.1.1986

2] Ishappa Muniyappa Rathod

,

Aruchamy.S, Spatial Analysis of Rainfall

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4] B.Gurugnanam, M. Suresh, M. Vinoth

and

S.

Kumaravel,

High/low

rainfall

domain mapping using GIS at Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India, Indian Journal

Science and

Technology, Vol. 3

No.

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