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History of hadith

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Hadith
adth - ()

History[hide]

Prophetic Period Post-Prophetic Period Categories[hide]

asan

af

Maw

Maqlb

Terminology[hide] a

asan

Musnad

Muttail

af Muallaq

Mursal

Mual

Munqai

Munkar Shdhdh

Muarib

Maw

Mutawatir Ahaad

Mashhur

`Aziz

Gharib

Marfu` Mawquf

Maqtu'

Isra'iliyat Collections[hide] Sunni[hide]

Al-Kutub Al-Sittah - (The six books)

Sahih Al-Bukhari ( ) Sahih Muslim ( )

Al-Sunan Al-Sughra ( ) Sunan Abi Dawood ( ) Sunan Al-Tirmidhi ( )

Sunan Ibn Maja ( Others

Muwatta Imam Malik

Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (780855) Sunan Al-Darimi (868)

Shama'il Muhammadiyah often referred to as Shamaail Tirmidhi (9th Century)

Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah (923) a Ibn ibbn (965)

Al-Mustadrak Alaa Al-aan Al-Mawd't Al-Kubr (11281217) Ra As-lin (12331278) Mishkat Al-Masabih (1340) Talkhis Al-Mustadrak (12741348) Majma Al-Zawa'id (13351405) Bulugh Al-Maram (13721449) Kanz al-Ummal (16th century) Zujajat al-Masabih (19th century) Minhaj us Sawi (20th century) Muntakhab Ahadith (20th century) Shi'a[hide]

Al-Kutub Al-Arb'ah - (The four books)

Kitab Al-Kafi ( )

Man La Yahduruhu Al-Faqih ( ( Tahdhib Al-Ahkam ( (

Al-Istibsar ( ) Others

The Book of Sulaym Ibn Qays (7th Century)

Al-Sahifa Al-Sajjadiyya (678713) Sharh Usul al-Kafi (?1081) Nahj Al-Balagha (10th Century) Was'il Al-Sha (17th century) Bihar Al-Anwar (17th century) Haqq al-Yaqeen (17th century) Ain Al-Hayat (17th century)

Qalam-e-Mowla (?)

Daim al-Islam (?)

Ibadi[hide]

Al-Jami' As-Sahih

Tartib Al-Musnad Mu'tazila[hide]

Comments on the Peak of Eloquence (?1258) Related Articles[hide]

Hadith studies

Biographical evaluation

Ahl Al-Hadith

Jihad in Hadith Criticism of Hadith

Category

Portal

Traditions regarding the life of Muhammad and the early history of Islam were passed down both orally and written for more than a hundred years after the death ofMuhammad in 632. According to Muslims, the collection of hadith or sayings by or about the prophet Muhammad was a meticulous and thorough process that began right at the time of Muhammad. Needless to say hadith collection (even in the written form) began very early on from the time of Muhammad and continued through the centuries that followed.[1] Thus, Muslims reject any collections that are not robust in withstanding the tests of authenticity per the standards of hadith studies. This article goes through the historical evolution of the hadith literature from its beginning in the 7th century to present day.
Contents
[hide]

1 Writing in the Pre-Islamic Period 2 Prophetic Period

2.1 Writing of hadith

3 Post-prophetic period

3.1 The beginning of systematic hadith collection

3.1.1 Early written hadith collections

4 Canonical texts 5 Contemporary Analysis

6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 Notes

[edit]Writing

in the Pre-Islamic Period

Prior to the advent of Islam, memorization was the primary means of conveyance of information amongst the Arabs.[2] There were, however, some instances of writing present at that time, including promissory notes, personal letter, tribal agreements and some religious literature.[3] There were very few Arabs that could read or write in the beginning of Muhammad's era: The majority were unlettered, and according to Sunni traditions, so was Muhammad.[4]

[edit]Prophetic

Period

According to Ibn Hajar, During the Prophets lifetime and into the time of the Companions and older Followers, the narrations of the Prophet were not transcribed in a systematic manner. This was due to two reasons. The first, was that early on they had been prohibited from doing so, as has been established in Sahih Muslim,[5] lest the hadith become confused with the Quran. The second was due to expansive capability of their ability to memorize and because the majority of them were unable to write.[6] A possible explanation of aforementioned hadith is that the majority of the companions were illiterate with only a few individuals from them able to write. If they were to write, it was unrefined, not conforming to the written alphabet. Thus, the prohibition was due to the fear of erring while writing.[7] Another is that the prohibition was of writing the Quran with other than it in one place so as to avoid the two from becoming mixed up confusing the one reading it. As for writing in its entirety having been prohibited, then this was not the case as we see from another hadith, 'Convey what I say.' Present within the command to convey is permission to write and record.[8]

[edit]Writing

of hadith

Despite this, there are a number of hadith that indicate the permissibility if not encouragement to write down hadith. From them:

The hadith of Abd Allah ibn Amr who said, I used write everything I heard from the Prophet wanting to preserve it. The Quraysh then prohibited me from doing so, saying, Do you write down everything? And the Prophet is human who speaks while angry and pleased? So I refrained from writing and then mentioned this to the Prophet. He gestured to his mouth and said, Write, by the one in whose hand is my soul! Nothing emanates from this except the truth.[9]

Among the prisoners of war taken at the Battle of Badr those who were literate were released after each taught ten Muslims how to read and write.[4][10] Sahih Bukhari states that Abd-Allah ibn Amr wrote down his hadith.[11]

A man came to Muhammad and complained about his memory, saying: O Messenger of Allah: We hear many things from you. But most of them slip our minds because we cannot memorize them. Muhammad replied: Ask your right hand for help.[12] Muhammad meant that he should write down what he heard.

When Rafi ibn Khadij asked Muhammad whether they could write what they heard from him, the answer came: Write, no harm!.[13] Another sources quotes Muhammad advising: "Record knowledge by writing."[14]

During the conquest of Mecca, Muhammad gave a sermon. A man from the Yemen, named Abu Shah, stood up and said: "O Allahs Messenger! Please write down these [words] for me!" Muhammad ordered: "Write for Abu Shah!"[15]

Muhammad sent a letter which contained commandments about the blood money for murders and injuries and the law of retaliation to Amr ibn Hizam.[16] This letter was handed down to his great grandson, Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad.[4] Among other things, like some of his letters other head of states[citation needed], some scroll transferred to Abu Rafi was handed down to Abu Bakr ibn Abd Al Rahman ibn Harith, belonging to the first generation after the Companions.[4]

Ibn Hajar summarized the different ways in which scholars have sought to reconcile those hadith prohibiting the writing of hadith and those permitting it, in the first of which he said, The reconciliation between the two is that the prohibition was particular to the time in which the Quran was being sent down so that it would not become mixed up with other than it and the permission was during other than that time."[17]

[edit]Post-prophetic

period

During the caliphate of Abu Bakr, the Muslim nation had to deal with the rebellion of several apostates. In all likelihood, the apostates began to forge hadiths to suit their purposes. For this reason, Abu Bakr, and his successor, Umar, were very strict in their acceptance of hadiths as authentic, for fear of accepting a forged hadith.[18] Among Sunnis, Umar ibn al-Khattab is the primary locus for many accounts about hadith collection. He is portrayed by Sunnis as desiring to initiate this project but unwilling to do so, fearing that Muslims might then neglect the Qur'an.[19] Umar is also said by Sunnis that, due to fear and concerns, he sometimes warned people against careless narration of hadith.[4]

Muslim historians say that it was the caliph Uthman (the third caliph, or successor of Muhammad, who had formerly been one of Muhammad's secretary's), encouraged Muslims to write down the hadith as Muhammad (in some instances) had encouraged Muslims to do likewise during his lifetime.[20][21][22][23]Uthman's labors were cut short by his assassination, at the hands of aggrieved people who had come to the capital to seek redressal from the Caliph for the wrongs done by his secretary, Merwan ibn Hakam, on 17 June 656 A.D{[24]}.The Muslim community (ummah) then fell into a prolonged civil war, termed the Fitnaby Muslim historians. After the fourth caliph, Ali ibn Abi Talib, was assassinated, control of the Islamic empire was seized by the Umayyad dynasty in 660A.D/40 A.H.{[25]} Illustrating the importance hadith in a written format had earned, Ibn Abbas left behind a camel-load of books, which mostly contain what he had heard from Muhammad and other Sahaba.[4][26] Of the many companions, Abu Hurairah taught hadith to students, one of whom was Hammam ibn Munabbih. Ibn Munabbih wrote down these hadith, the original manuscripts of which are present even to this day in the libraries of Berlin, Beirut and Damascus.[27] Starting the first Islamic civil war of the 7th century, those receiving the hadith started to question the sources of the saying, something that resulted in the development of the Isnad.[19] Muhammad ibn Sirin(d. 110/728) stated:[19] "[the traditionalists] were not used to inquiring after the isnad, but when the fitna occurred they said: Name us your informants. Thus if these were Ahl al-Sunna their traditions were accepted, but if they were heretics, their traditions were not accepted."

[edit]The

beginning of systematic hadith collection

The beginning of the systematic collection and compilation of hadith began during the time of the second generation of Muslims, that of the Followers. Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Ubaydullah, commonly known as ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, was a prolific and prominent hadith narrator from the Followers whom Ibn Hajar identified as a tabi'i.[28] According to Ibn Hajar, Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri was the first to compile hadithat the beginning of the first century after the Migration acting on the order of Umar ibn AbdulAziz. It was after this that the compilation, then the authoring of books of hadith became commonplace, resulting in much good.[29] Umayyad rule was interrupted by a second civil war (the Second Fitna), re-established, then ended in 758, when the Abbasid dynasty seized the caliphate, to hold it, at least in name, until 1517 (the last Caliph was Al-Mutawakkil III 15081517, in Cairo and not in Baghdad). Muslim historians say that hadith collection and evaluation continued during the first Fitna and the Umayyad period. However, much of this activity was presumably oral transmission from early Muslims to later collectors, or from teachers to students. The scholars of the Abbasid period were faced with a huge corpus of miscellaneous traditions, some of them flatly contradicting each other. Many of these traditions supported differing views on a variety of controversial matters. Scholars had to decide which hadith were to be trusted as authentic narrations

and which had been invented for various political or theological purposes. For this purpose, they used a number of techniques in hadith studies.[citation needed] In AH 134 (751/752), paper was introduced into the Muslim world.[30] Generally, Umar II is credited with having ordered the first collection of hadith material in an official manner, fearing that some of it might be lost. Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Hazm and Ibn Shihab alZuhri, are among those who compiled hadiths at `Umar IIs behest.[19]

[edit]Early written hadith collections


List of collections of hadith, in chronological order: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Hazm Musannaf of ibn Jurayj ?-? CE Musannaf of Ma`mar bin Rashid ?-? CE Sahifah Hammam ibn Munabbih 670720 CE Musannaf of `Abd al-Razzaq al-San`ani c. 700 CE Muwatta of Malik bin Anas 760795 CE Sufyan al-Thawri

[edit]Canonical

texts

The efforts culminated with Ibn al-Qaisarani's formalization of the Sunni cannon into six definitive collections,[31][32][33] after having received impetus from the establishment of the Sunnah as the second source of law in Islam, particularly through the efforts of the famous jurist Muhammad ibn Idris alShafi'i.[19] The method of criticism and the conclusions it has reached have not changed significantly since the ninth century. Even much of modern Muslim scholarship, while continuing to debate the validity or authenticity of individual hadiths or perhaps the hadiths of a particular transmitter, employs the same methods and biographical materials.[19] The classification of Hadith into sahih (sound), hasan (good) and da'if (weak) was firmly established by Ali ibn al-Madini (d. 234 AH).[34] Later, al-Madini's student Muhammad al-Bukhari authored a collection that he stated contained only sahih hadith.[34] al-Tirmidhi was the first traditionist to base his book on al-Madini's classification.[34]

[edit]Contemporary

Analysis

In 1848, Gustav Weil, noted that Muhammad al-Bukhari deemed only 4,000 of his original 300,000 hadiths to be authentic.He was soon followed by Aloys Sprenger, who also suggests that many of the hadiths cannot be considered authentic.[19] However, this demonstrates a limited understanding by Non Muslims, of Bukhari's criterion for his Sahih. This is clarified by other statements of Bukhari in which he

made it clear that he considered all of the hadith in his authentic, but not all authentic hadith are included in his Sahih. Al-Dhahabi quoted Bukhari as saying, "I have memorized one hundred thousand authentic hadith and two hundred thousand that are not authentic.'[35] Ignaz Goldziher was a large contributor of innovative theories to the West. The subsequent direction the Western debate took, a direction which has focussed on the role of hadiths in the origin and development of early Muslim jurisprudence, is largely due to the work of Joseph Schacht.[19] The Common-Link Theory, invented by Joseph Schacht and widely accepted in modern scholarship, argues that hadith authorities knowingly and purposefully placed traditions in circulation with little care to support these hadiths with satisfactory isnads (chains of transmitters). G. H. A. Juynboll, Michael Cook and other Schachtians subsequently embraced and elaborated upon this theory. In 2006, Fahad A. Alhomoudi in his thesis On the Common -Link Theory[36] challenges the accuracy of Schachts founding theory. Because of the interconnectedness of Schachts many theses about hadith and Islamic law, the findings of Alhomoudis thesis did not only challenge the significant Common -Link Theory in legal hadith studies, but also open the door for scholars to question other important theories held by Schacht and his followers with regard to larger issues in Islamic legal history. The Turkish government's Diyanet leri Bakanl has commissioned a team of scholars at Ankara University to draft a new compilation of hadith that would omit numerous hadith considered historically inauthentic by these scholars.[37]

Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Ubaydullah ibn Shihab alZuhri

Died

AH 124 (741/742)

Ethnicity

Arab

Era

Islamic golden age

Region

Damascus

Main interest(s)

Hadith, sra

For the geographer from Al-Andalus see Mohammed Ibn Abu Bakr al-Zuhri Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Ubaydullah ibn Shihab al-Zuhri[1] (Arabic: ) (died AH 124/741-

2), usually called simply Ibn Shihab or al-Zuhri. He was a central figure among the early collectors of sra.

Contents
[hide]

1 Life 2 Relationship with the Umayyads 3 Views

o o

3.1 Sunni view 3.2 Non-Muslim view

4 Notes 5 Further reading

[edit]Life
Ibn Sa'd[2] has an account purporting to be in al-Zuhri's own words describing how he left his home in Madinah, went to Damascus to seek his fortune and was recruited into the administration of the CaliphAbd al-Malik. The Caliph observed that his father had supported Ibn al-Zubayr against him in the recent civil war. But the Caliph's policy toward the Zubayrites was reconciliation and his father's politics were not held against him. No connected account of al-Zuhris life after that has come down to us. There is no evidence he ever again lived in Madinah. Abd al-Malik died in AH 86 (705 CE) and al-Zuhri continued to serve the Umayyid court the rest of his life. He died in AH 124 (7412 CE). In the initial conversation with Abd al-Malik the names of earlier Islamic scholars whom al-Zuhri had come in contact with in Madinah are mentioned: 'Abdullah ibn Tha'laba al-'Adawi (though he is disparaged),Said ibn al-Musayyib, Urwah ibn Zubayr, 'Ubaydullah ibn 'Abdullah ibn 'Utba, Abu Bakr ibn 'Abdul-Rahman ibn al-Harith, Kharija ibn Zayd ibn Thabit and 'Abdul-Rahman ibn Yazid ibn Jariya. There are many stories about the strength of al-Zuhri's learning and all the scholar's in the west who were alive when he died quoted from him in their own works.[2] Some sources, but not Ibn Sa'd, say that he had a son named Ahmad ibn Abu Bakr al-Zuhri.[citation needed]

[edit]Relationship

with the Umayyads

Some accuse al-Zuhri of having flattered the Umayyads. He taught the son of Caliph Hisham (died AH 125/743). but this does not mean that he supported the Umayyads uncritically. His relationship with the heir to the caliphate Walid (ruled for one year 125 after al-Zuhri's death) was so bad that Walid was only restrained from killing him by the Caliph's intervention.[2]

[edit]Views [edit]Sunni

view

Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri is regarded as one of the greatest Sunni authorities on Hadith. The leading critics of Hadith such as Ibn al-Madini, Ibn Hibban, Abu Hatim, Al-Dhahabi and Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani are all agreed upon his indisputable authority. He received ahadith from many Sahaba (Companions) and numerous scholars among the first and second generations after the Companions narrated from him. In his famous letter to Malik ibn Anas, Laith ibn Sa`d writes: Ibn Shihab would give many contradicting statements, when we would meet him. While if any one of us would ask him something in writing, he, in spite of being so learned, would give three contradictory answers to the same question. He would not even be aware of what he had said about the issue in the past. This is what prompted me to give up what you do not approve of [i.e. quoting a narrative on the authority of ibn Shihab].[3]

[edit]Non-Muslim

view

Harald Motzki regards al-Zuhri as reliable.[4]

Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Hazm


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Hazm (Arabic: ( ) died 120/737) was an 8thcentury Sunni Islamic scholar based in Madinah.[1] He is among those who compiled hadiths at Umar IIs behest.[2] Umar asked him to write down all the hadiths he could learn in Madinah from 'Amra bint 'Abd al-Rahman, who was at the time the most respected scholar of hadiths narrated by Aisha.[3]

Musannaf ibn Jurayj


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2010)
Musannaf of ibn Jurayj is a book by Islamic scholar ibn Jurayj, one of the earliest hadith collections.

Sahifah Hammam ibn Munabbih


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sahifah Hammam ibn Munabbih is perhaps one of the earliest known hadith collections,[1] by 8th century scholar Hammam ibn Munabbih. It has been translated, in the 20th century, by Muhammad Hamidullah.

Muwatta Imam Malik


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hadith
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History[show]

Categories[show]

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Collections[show]

Related Articles[show]


The Muwaa (Arabic:

Category

Portal

) is the first written collection of hadith comprising the subjects of Muslim law,

compiled and edited by the Imam, Malik ibn Anas.[1]Malik's best-known work, Al-Muwatta was the first legal work to incorporate and join hadith and fiqh together. The work was received with wide praise. Abu Bakr ibn al-`Arabi said: "The Muwatta is the first foundation and the core, while al-Bukharis book is the second foundation in this respect. Upon these two all the rest have built, such as Muslim and al-Tirmidhi."
Contents
[hide]

1 Description 2 History 3 Authenticity 4 Composition of al-Muwatta 5 Distinguishing characteristics 6 Commentaries on Al-Muwatta 7 References 8 External links

[edit]Description

It is considered to be from the earliest extant collections of hadith that form the basis of Islamic jurisprudence alongside the Qur'an.[2] Nonetheless, is not merely a collection of hadith; many of the legal precepts it contains are based not on hadith at all. The book covers rituals, rites, customs, traditions, norms and laws of the time of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It is reported that Imam Malik selected only about 1% of authentic Ahadith for inclusion into the Muwatta, from the corpus of 100,000 narrations available to him. Thus, the book has been compiled with great diligence and meticulousness.[3]

[edit]History
Due to increase in juristic differences, the Caliph of the time, Ab Jafar Mansr, requested Imam Malik to produce a standard book that could be promulgated as law in the country. The Imam refused this in 148 AH, but when the Caliph again came to Medina in 163 AH, he was more forceful and said: O Ab Abd Allh, take up the reign of the discipline of fiqh in your hands. Compile your understanding of every issue in different chapters for a systematic book free from the extremism of Abd Allh b. Umar, concessions and accommodations of Abd Allh b. Abbs and unique views of Abd Allh b. Masd. Your work should exemplify the following principle of the Prophet: The best issues are those which are balanced. It should be a compendium of the agreed upon views of the Companions and the elder imms on the religious and legal issues. Once you have compiled such a work then we would be able to unite the Muslims in following the single fiqh worked by you. We would then promulgate it in the entire Muslim state. We would order that no body acts contrary to it. [4] Historical reports attest that another Abbs caliph Hrn al-Rashd too expressed similar wishes before Imm Mlik who remained unmoved. He, however, compiled Muwatt, keeping before himself the target of removing the juristic differences between the scholars.

[edit]Authenticity

Part of a series on

Sunni Islam
Beliefs

Monotheism Prophethood / Messengership Holy Books Angels

Judgement Day Predestination

Five Pillars

Declaration of Faith Prayer Charity Fasting Pilgrimage

Rightly Guided Caliphs

Abu Bakr Umar ibn al-Khattab Uthman ibn Affan Ali ibn Abi Talib

Schools of Law

Hanafi Maliki Shafi'i Hanbali Zahiri

Extinct Schools of Law

Awza'i Laythi Thawri Jariri

Schools of Theology

Maturidi Ash'ari Athari

Movements

Barelvi Deobandi Salafi

Hadith Collections

Al-Kutub Al-Sittah Sahih al-Bukhari Sahih Muslim Al-Sunan al-Sughra Sunan Abu Dawood Sunan al-Tirmidhi Sunan ibn Majah

Imam Malik composed the 'Muwatta' over a period of forty years to represent the "well-trodden path" of the people of Medina. Its name also means that it is the book that is "many times agreed upon"- about whose contents the people of Medina were unanimously agreed. Its high standing is such that people of every school of fiqh and all of the imams of hadith scholarship agree upon its authenticity. The Muslim Jurist, Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi`i famously said, "There is not on the face of the earth a book after the Book of Allah which is more authentic than the book of Malik."[5] Over one thousand disciples of the Imm have transmitted this work from him. This has resulted in differences in the text in various instances. There are thirty known versions of the work of which the most famous is the one transmitted by Yahya al-Laithi.

[edit]Composition

of al-Muwatta

Al-Muwatta consists of approximately 1,720 hadith divided amongst the following hadith terminology as follows:[2]

600 marfu` hadith 613 mawquf hadith 285 maqtu' hadith 222 mursal hadiths

[edit]Distinguishing

characteristics

Amin Ahsan Islahi has listed several distinguishing characteristics of the Muwatta: [3] 1. Its briefness (in size) yet comprehensiveness (in coverage) 2. Imam Malik does not accept any marf hadth (ascribed to the Prophet) if it is not verbatim transmission of the words of the Prophet (he even gave consideration to letters, prepositions and particles like ww, t, b etc. in them) 3. No acceptance of Hadith from any innovator - this is a stricter standard than many other muhaddithun 4. Highly literary form of the classical Arabic. This helps readers develop the ability to understand the language of the prophetic traditions.

[edit]Commentaries

on Al-Muwatta

Due to the importance of the Al-Muwatta to Muslims it has often been accompanied by commentaries, mostly but not exclusively by followers of the Maliki school.

Al Tamhid by Yusuf ibn abd al-Barr is organized according to the narrators which Malik narrates from, and includes extensive biographical information about each narrator in the chain.

al-Istidhkar, also by Ibn Abd al-Barr is more of a legal exegesis on the hadith contained in the book than a critical hadith study, as was the case with the former. It is said that the Istidhkar was written after the Tamhid, as Ibn Abd al Barr himself alludes to in the introduction. However, through close examination it is apparent that the author made revisions to both after their completion due to the cross referencing found in both.

The explanation of Al-Suyuti, who although a follower of the Shafi`i school, wrote a small commentary to the Al-Muwatta.

Al-Musaffa Sharh al-Muwatta, Shah Wali Allah Dahlawi (al-Musaffa Sharh al-Muwatta in Persian). Shah Waliullah attached great importance to the Muwatta and penned another commentary in Urdu too.

Al-Muntaq sharh al-Muwatta of Abu al-Walid al-Baji, the Andalusian Mlik Qd, (Ab al-Wald Sulaymn ibn Khalaf al-Bj, al-Muntaq sharh Muwatta Mlik, edited by Muhammad Abd al-Qdir Ahmad At, Beirut: Dr al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1420/1999) Sharh al-Muwatta' has two versions: al-Istifa' and its abridgment al-Muntaqa.[6]

Awjz-ul-Maslik il Muwatt' Imm Mlik is a Deobandi commentary written by Muhammad Zakariya al-Kandahlawi. He began the work in 1927 in Medina while only 29 years old.

Sharh Muwatta al-Malik by Muhammad al-Zurqani. It is considered to be based on three other commentaries of the Muwatta; the Tamhid and the Istidhkar of Yusuf ibn Abd al Barr, as well as the AlMuntaqa of Abu al-Walid al-Baji.

Al-Imla' fi Sharh al-Muwatta in 1,000 folios, by Ibn Hazm.[7] Sharh Minhaaj by Subki.[8] Sharh Muwatta by Ali al-Qari

Musannaf of Abd al-Razzaq


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Musannaf of Abd al-Razzaq is a very early book of Hadith that was collected by Abd ar-Razzaq asSanani. It not only contains a huge number of hadith attributed directly to Muhammad, but also from the Sahaba and early Muslim scholars. The title roughly means "The Categorized", which suggests the nature of this hadith collection, as it is arranged according to categories of Fiqh.[1]
Contents
[hide]

1 History behind this Book 2 Sources 3 Reliability

4 Notes

[edit]History

behind this Book

The book of Hafiz Al-San'ani, Musannaf of Abd al-Razzaq was lost and mixed up with other books, and could not be differentiated for almost 1100 years until it was arranged and edited by the great Indian Scholar Muhaddith-e-Kabir Hazrat Maulana Habib al-Rahman al-Azmi (Rahmatullah Alaih). Maulana Habib al-Rahman who has worked on numerous books of Ahadith was famous for his vast knowledge of the hadith. It took him almost 20 years to complete this great historical work for which he is a insanely loved and respected person among the scholars around the world. The book was published in Beirut.

[edit]Sources
The hadith in the Musannaf come mainly from three people: Ma'mar Ibn Rashid (d. AD 770), Ibn Jurayj, and Sufyan al-Thawri. There are also relatively small numbers of hadith from Sufyan Ibn 'Uyayna, Abu Hanifa, and Malik Ibn Anas among a large number of other people. Most of them are said to have been compilers of hadith books in their own right.

[edit]Reliability
An article by Harald Motzki appeared in the Journal of Near Eastern Studies that mentioned the Musannaf of `Abd al-Razzaq al-San`ani as a source of authentic ahadith of the first century AH. The conclusion of the author was, "While studying the Musannaf of `Abd al-Razzaq, I came to the conclusion that the theory championed by Goldziher, Schacht, and in their footsteps, many others myself included which in general, reject hadith literature as a historically reliable sources for the first century AH, deprives the historical study of early Islam of an important and a useful type of source."[2]

Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal is a collection of Hadith collected by the famous Sunni scholar Ibn Hanbal to whom the Hanbali madhab of Sunnis is attributed.
Contents
[hide]

1 Description 2 See also 3 References 4 External links

[edit]Description

Front cover of Musnad Imam Ahmad Ibne Hanbal.

It is said by some that Ibn Hanbal made a comment in regards to his book which read as follows: "There is not a hadith that I have included in this book except that it was used as evidence by some of the scholars." Certain Hanbali scholars, such as Abu'l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi claimed that the Musnad contains hadiths that are fabricated by interpolation (i.e. the narrator jumbling up information, mixing texts and authoritative chains), which were said to be nine Hadiths by some, or fifteen Hadiths by some others. However, it is agreed that the hadith that are suspected to be fabricated are not new hadiths that are creations of a dubious narrator's imagination.[1]

Sunan al-Darimi
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Sunan al-Darimi (Arabic:

Category

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) or Musnad al-Darimi by `Abd Allah ibn `Abd al-Rahman al-

Darimi (181H255H) is a hadith collection considered by Sunnis to be among the prominent nine collections: the Al-Kutub al-Sittah, Al-Muwatta and the Musnad of Imam Ahmad. Despite its title as a Musnad, it is not arranged by narrator in the manner of other Musnads, such as that of Tayalisi or Ibn Hanbal. It is arranged by subject matter in the manner of a book of Sunan, like the Sunan Ibn Majah.

[edit]Conveyance
Darimi transmitted these hadiths to `Isa ibn `Umar al-Samarqandi; date of death unknown, but presumably after 293 AH. Thereafter it passed to:

`Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Hamawiya al-Sarkhasi (293381 AH) `Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Muzaffar al-Dawudi "Jamal al-Islam" (374467 AH) Abu'l-Waqt `Abd al-Awwal ibn `Isa ibn Shu`ayb al-Sijizzi (458553 AH)

[edit]Published

editions

Arabic Wikisource has original text related to this article: Sunan al-Darimi

Edited by Husayn Salim Asad, Dar al-Maghni, 1420 AH / 2000 CE, p. 151-3

Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah


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Mukhtasar al-Mukhtasar min al-Musnad al-Sahih, in short Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah, is a collection of hadith by Ibn Khuzaymah

Contents
[hide]

1 Content 2 Views 3 Published edition 4 References

[edit]Content
Its chapters cover prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, and the Zakat tithe.

[edit]Views
Among the Sahih collections after Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, it is regarded highly along with Sahih Ibn Hibbaan and Sahih Abi 'Awana.

[edit]Published

edition

It has been edited by Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami, and published by al-Maktab al-Islami in Beirut.

Sahih Ibn Hibbaan


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Sahih Ibn Hibbaan

Author(s)

Muhammad ibn Hibban ibn Ahmad al-Tamimi al-Busti

Language

Arabic

Subject(s)

hadith

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a Ibn ibbn (

) is a collection of hadith by Sunni scholar Ibn Hibban. It has the

distinction of being one of small number of collections intended by the respective authors to contain only authentic hadith. The author of this Sahih is Abu Hatim Muhammad ibn Hibban ibn Ahmad al-Tamimi al-Busti(ar), from Bust in Khorasan. He was a prominent Shafi'i hadith specialist and prolific author who died in 965 CE.[1]
Contents
[hide]

1 Overview

1.1 Authenticity

2 Derivative Works

o o

2.1 al-Ihsan 2.2 Mawarid al-Zam'an

3 References

[edit]Overview
The actual name of this collection is al-Taqasim wa al-Anwa`, however, it is commonly referred to as Sahih ibn Hibban. The author utilized an innovative method in the arrangement of this work as it is not arranged in topical chapters nor is it based upon a musnad arrangement and is therefore difficult to navigate.[1] Instead, it was arranged first by bab, or chapter, and then under each chapter, by naw`, or type. The book opens with a lengthy introduction.[2] The Sahih remains in its entirety as of the late Nineteenth Century or early Twentieth Century, according to al-Kattani, who died in 1926.[1]

[edit]Authenticity

According to al-Kattani, "it has been said that Ibn Hibban, after ibn Khuzaymah, authored the most authentic hadith collection, after Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim".[1] However, al-Suyuti spoke more definitively when saying that Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah was the most authentic collection after Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, followed by Sahih Ibn Hibban which, in turn, was more authentic than AlMustadrak alaa al-Sahihain.[3] This means that Sahih Ibn Hibban is the fourth most authentic hadith collection.

[edit]Derivative [edit]al-Ihsan

Works

Ali ibn Balban (d. 739/1339) rearranged the hadith chapters of Sahih Ibn Hibban according to the topics of jurisprudence and published them as al-Ihsan fi Taqrib Sahih Ibn Hibban.[1]

[edit]Mawarid

al-Zam'an

The unique hadith it contains, those not found in either Sahih Bukhari or Sahih Muslim, are arranged in the order of jurisprudence headings in the book Mawarid al-Zam'an ila Zawa'id Ibn Hibban by Ali ibn Abu Bakr al-Haythami (d. 807/1405).[1]

Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain


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Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain (Arabic:

Al-Mustadrak ala al-Sah hayn) is a five

volume hadith collection written by Hakim al-Nishaburi d. 405H.


Contents
[hide]

1 History 2 Authenticity 3 Abridgment 4 References

[edit]History
He wrote it in the year 393 AH (10021003 CE), when he was 72 years old. It contains 9045 hadith.[1] He claimed all hadith in it were authentic according to the conditions of either Sahih al-Bukhari or Sahih Muslim or both.[2]

[edit]Authenticity
The statement of authenticity was not accepted by a number of prominent later Sunni scholars. Al-Dhahabi, a 14th century Sunni Shafi'i Islamic scholar made an abridged version of the collection named Talkhis alMustadrak where he commented on its authenticity. It has become the habit of scholars today working in the field of hadth, when compiling them and determining their authenticity, to say things like "It is authenticated by al-Hkim and al-Dhahab concurs". In doing so, they are referring to al-Dhahabi's Talkhs, his abridgement of the Mustadrak that is often published along with it in its margins. [3] Dhahabi also wrote:[4] The Mustadrak contains a good number of hadth that conform to the conditions of authenticity of both (alBukhr and Muslim) as well as a number of hadth conforming to the conditions of either one of them. Perhaps the total number of such hadth comprises half the book. There is roughly another quarter of the hadth that have authentic chains of transmission, but that have something else about them or that have some defect. As for the rest, and that is about a fourth, they are rejected and spurious narrations that are unauthentic. Some of those are fabrications. I came to know of them when I prepared an abridgement of the Mustadrak and pointed them out. al-Dhahabi lamented: It would have been better if al-Hakim had never compiled it."[5]

Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, a 15th century Sunni Islamic scholar states that Mawdu'at al-Kubra is as unreliable in its attributing the grade of being "forged" to certain ahadith as al-Hakim's Mustadrak is unreliable in its declaring the grade of "sound" or Sahih to many ahadith.[6]

[edit]Abridgment

The five volumes of Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain

Talkhis al-Mustadrak' is an abridged version of Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain, written by Al-Dhahabi. alDhahabi in his Talkhis al-Mustadrak made an abridged version (a version with omitted material of the collection where he commented on its claimed authenticity). In that version, he added his comments on 1182 hadith. Al-Dhahab in his encyclopedic Trikh al-Islam "The History of Islam" says the following in his biographical entry on al-Hkim, wherein he speaks about his Mustadrak: "Some of those are fabrications. I came to know of them when I prepared an abridgement of the Mustadrak and pointed them out." alDhahab said of it:[7] "|It is a useful book. I had made an abridgement of it that is in considerable need of work and editing." On at least three other occasions, al-Dhahabi citicised hadith he had not commented on in his Talkhs. For example, when speaking about Mu`wiyah b. Slih,[8] he writes: "He is among those narrators whom Muslim accepts but not al-Bukhr. You can see al-Hkim relating this narrator's hadth in his Mustadrak and say: 'This is according to the conditions of al-Bukhr.' He repeatedly makes this mistake." However, when the same statement comes up in his Talkhs, he says nothing about it . There have been many prominent scholars who have assumed that al-Dhahab's silence in his Talkhs indicates his tacit approval of al-Hkim's ruling, scholars of the caliber of al-Suyuti in al-Nukat alBad`t (197) (15th century CE), al-Manw in Fayd al-Qadr, and al-Husayn in al-Bayn wa al-Ta`rf. Many contemporary scholars follow this view as well, but some question that stance.

A Great Collection of Fabricated Traditions


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A Great Collection of Fabricated Traditions, (Arabic:

, Al-Mawt al-Kubr), is a

collection of fabricated hadith collected by Abul-Faraj Ibn Al-Jawzi for criticism.

[edit]Description
The book consists of narrations, presented as hadith, declared fabricated by the author and then arranged by subject. Al-Mawdu'at has been described by Al-Nawawi as including many narrations, occupying approximately two volumes.[1] It consists of some 1847 narrations according to the numbering provided in the latest edition and is currently published in four volumes with ample footnotes providing additional information.

[edit]Criticism
Al-Nawawi criticized the book as containing many hadith which cannot properly be declared mawdo. Some of them are, according to Al-Suyuti, da'if, hasan or evensahih.[1] Ahmad ibn Ali Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani contends, however, that the majority of the narrations in this book are, in fact, fabricated and that those narrations criticized as not actually being fabricated are very few in comparison.[1]

Tahdhib al-Athar

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tahdhb al-thr (Arabic:

) is a collection of hadith by Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Al-Kattani

described it as one of al-Tabari's amazing works, although, he did not complete it.

[edit]Description
Al-Tabari compiled this work as inclusive of hadith, an examination of their authenticity, and the explanation of each. He arranged his work according to the companion narrating it, beginning with Abu Bakr alSiddiq.[1] He completed the hadith of the ten companions promised paradise, Ahl al-Bayt and their clients, as well as a large segment of `Abd Allah ibn `Abbas's hadith.[1] Al-Tabari gathered those hadith he determined to be authentic from each of these companions and discussed the various routes of their individual hadith and any hidden defects.[1] He then discussed theunderstanding of each hadith, the differing opinions of the scholars and their rationale, and the definitions of any unusual terminology.[1] He died in 922 before completing it.[1] Al-Kattani praised Tahdhib as being from the author's amazing works.[1]

References
1. ^
a b c d e f

al-Kattani, Muhammad ibn Ja'far (2007) (in Arabic). al-Risalah al-Mustatrafah (Seventh ed.).

Beirut: Dar al-Bashair al-Islamiyyah. p. 43.

Riyadh as-Saaliheen
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Riyadh as-Saaliheen (

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), translated: "The Gardens of the Righteous", is a compilation of

verses from the Qur'an and hadith by Imam Nawawi.


Contents
[hide]

1 Description 2 Explanation 3 References 4 External links

[edit]Description
In total, it contains 680 hadith divided into 372 chapters, many of which are introduced by verses of the Quran. It contains strong hadiths from Al-Bukhari and Muslim and is well regarded by the scholars of hadith.

[edit]Explanation
Books of commentary on the hadith in Riyadh as-Saaliheen have been written, including the most recent, by Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen d. 1421H. [1]

[edit]References
1. ^ Ibn Farooq's Book Review of Riydh us Sliheen

Masabih al-Sunnah
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Masabih al-Sunnah is a collection of hadith by the Persian Shafi'i scholar Abu Muhammad al-Husayn ibn Mas'ud ibn Mubammad al-Farra' al-Baghawi, from sometime before 516 H. An improved version of this work, Mishkat al-Masabih, has additional hadith, and was the work of another Persian traditionist Al-Tabrizi d. 741H.

[edit]Description

The collection is divided into a number of books which are divided into chapters which are further divided into two separate sections, one for Sahih ahadeeth as labeled by him ( from the collections of Bukhari and Muslim), the second section was for hasan ahadeeth according to his own labelling (from Al-Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud and others). Al-Tabrizi would alter certain ahadeeth positions in his own collection.

[edit]Features

of the Collection

Al-Baghawi omitted the isnads of these ahadeeth but kept the names of the Sahaba to whom the ahadith were traced.

Part of his purpose, as explained in the introduction, was to enlighten Muslims about certain things of which the Quran is silent.

Contains a grand total of 4434 ahadeeth. 2434 are from Sahih section: 325 Sahih Bukhari Only 875 Sahih Muslim Only 1234 from both Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim

Al-Baghawi tells which ahadeeth from the second section of his work are gharib and da'if A number of commentaries were made on this collection. Tuhfat Al-Abrar, Al-Maysir and the commentary by Abd al-Qadir ibn 'Abd Allah al-Suhrawardi.

Bulugh al-Maram
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Bulugh al-Maram

Author(s)

Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani

Language

Arabic

Subject(s)

Ahadith Ahkam Shafi'i

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Bulugh al-Maram min Adillat al-Ahkam, translation: Attainment of the Objective According to Evidences of the Ordinances by al-Hafidh ibn Hajar al-Asqalani(1372 1448) is a collection of hadith pertaining specifically to Islamic Jurisprudence of the Shafi'i madhab. This genre is referred to in Arabic as Ahadith alAhkam.
Contents
[hide]

1 Contents 2 Explanations 3 Translation 4 Other books of Ahadith al-ahkam

[edit]Contents
Bulugh al-Maram contains a total of 1358 hadiths. At the end of each hadith narrated in Bulugh al-Maram, al-Hafidh ibn Hajar mentions who collected that hadith originally. Bulugh al-Maram includes hadith drawn from numerous primary sources of hadith in it including, Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abu Dawud,Jami at-Tirmidhi, Sunan al-Nasa'i, Sunan ibn Majah, and Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal and more.

Bulugh al-Maram holds a unique distinction as all the hadith compiled in the book have been the foundation for Shafi'i Islamic Jurisprudence rulings. In addition to mentioning the origins of each of the hadith in Bulugh al-Maram, ibn Hajar also included a comparison between the versions of a hadith that came from different sources. Because of its unique qualities, it still remains a widely used collection of hadith regardless of school of thought.

[edit]Explanations

Al-Badr al-Tamam by al-Husain ibn Muhammad al-Maghribi Subul al-Salam by Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Amir al-Sana'ni, who abridged al-Badr al-Tamam

[edit]Translation

Bulugh Al-Maram: Attainment of the Objective According to Evidence of the Ordinances , Dar-usSalam; 1st edition (1996), ASIN: B000FJJURU

[edit]Other

books of Ahadith al-ahkam

Tahdhib al-Athar by Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari 'Umdah al-ahkam by Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi Al-Sunan al-Kubra by Ahmad Bayhaqi al-Muntaqa by Majd ibn Taymiyah explained by Muhammad ash-Shawkani in Nayl al-Awtar Sharh Muntaqa al-Akhbar