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January 2010











Machine vision
The next generation of eco-friendly
cars is just around the corner.
Whats next for electric motors?
Cell division
Opinions differ on batteries so
which technology will prevail?
Audi E-tron
A green R8 supercar is on the production
agenda. Exclusive early details revealed
Wolfgang Strobl
General manager of
CleanEnergy, BMW
Mark Smith
CEO, Molycorp
Whats new?
Volkswagen L1
Mercedes electric SLS
BMW EfficientDynamics
Volvo plug-in hybrids
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January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
The German OEM is very serious
about project L1 and a production
version of this lightweight diesel
hybrid will be launched in 2013.
We bring you the early details
In a shock move, the gullwing
wonder is going electric
An electric car based on the R8? Well its not just
a dream: the eco-friendly powertrain technologies
on show are being readied for mass production
Faster than an M3 Coup but far
more frugal than a 1 Series
diesel, BMWs latest technology
demonstrator is green and mean
Working closely with energy
provider Vattenfall, the Swedish
car maker is aiming to launch
plug-in hybrids within three years
144: BIG END
Our opinion on the Mini E, Toyota
Prius III, and new Honda Insight
With the next generation of
eco-friendly vehicles due, we
look at which electric motor
designs are leading the way
Clean public transport is high on
the agenda in the USA, so our
man stateside, Jim McCraw,
travels from east to west
coast to get the inside story
Are hybrid systems going to
rule the transmissions market?
Its all change in the battery
sector with new designs and
state-of-the-art systems
Making up the Design Challenge
at the LA Auto Show, could these
revolutionary sketches provide
the key for true sustainable
transportation around the world?
14 64
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
It has been a spectacular year for the
automotive industry. Weve had government
bailouts and Chapter 11 lings in North
America, and shock takeovers and new car
families being formed in Europe. And
although nancial matters have been at the
forefront, 2009 will also be remembered as
the year that hybrid and electric vehicles
jumped from being a nice little niche idea to
a group of technologies that are getting the
car industry moving again.
Everybody who is anybody is investing
time and money into the above from the
big General in the USA to wacky battery cell
inventors in the Far East. I really do believe
that the industry as a whole is nally in true
pursuit of creating sustainable transportation
and the irony is that this chase comes at
the most chaotic of chaotic times.
Innovations such as range-extender
powertrains, diesel hybrids, plug-in hybrids,
full electric systems, and hydrogen fuel cells
are all being developed, tweaked, tested and
readied as I write. And all this at a time
when theres less money in the R&D pot,
and when every dollar, euro, and yen
counts. For that, the automotive industry
must be applauded, because unlike any
other industry, it is standing up to those
that are so quick to shoot it down.
Lets be clear: we are far away from
creating vehicles that emit no emissions,
but the type of concepts and powertrain
technologies proled in the following pages
are proof that the automotive world, from
car giant to lowly widget supplier, is
responding and responding fast.
There was a time not so long ago that
being eco-friendly in the automotive world
Editor Dean Slavnich
Chief sub-editor Alex Bradley
Sub-editor William Baker
Editorial assistant Bunny Richards
Proofreaders Frank Millard,
Christine Velarde
Art director Craig Marshall
Art editor Ben White
Design Team Louise Adams, Andy Bass,
Anna Davie, James Sutcliffe, Nicola Turner,
Julie Welby
Production manager Ian Donovan
Production team Joanna Coles, Carole
Doran, Lewis Hopkins, Emma Uwins
Contributors Brian Cowan, Matt Davis,
Adam Gavine, Max Glaskin, Maurice Glover,
Burkhard Goeschel, James Gordon,
Graham Heeps, Jonathan Lawson, Mike
Magda, Jim McCraw, Greg Offer, Keith
Read, John Simister, Saul Wordsworth
CEO Tony Robinson
Managing director Graham Johnson
Sales and marketing director
Simon Edmands
Circulation manager Adam Frost
Contact us
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
Abinger House, Church Street, Dorking,
Surrey, RH4 1DF, UK
tel: +44 1306 743744
fax: +44 1306 742525
editorial fax: +44 1306 887546
Annual subscription
66 for two issues
published by
UKIP Media & Events Ltd
meant being dull. Boring. Even mind-
numbing. Well, scratch that, because being
green just got a whole lot sexier. We already
have the likes of Tesla and Fisker, but now
the Germans have clambered on board this
bandwagon, giving us stunning technology
demonstrators such as the Audi E-Tron, the
BMW Vision EfcientDynamics, and the
Mercedes SLS eDrive, which sources in
Stuttgart say will be launched in 2013.
Such products will surely only encourage
consumers to buy green.
So although there will be those who
remain critical of the automotive world,
I say that all those engineers who are
working on sustainable transportation
should stand tall for bringing to market
such innovative, world-saving technologies.
And all this during a period of nancial
uncertainty. Hats off to you.
Dean Slavnich editor
72: Battery validation services
75: Hybrid functionality
79: Global partner
83: Accelerating battery testing
86: Total power and control
88: Flywheel hybrids gain traction
90: Hard cell
92: Safety measures
94: Advanced coatings
96: Bus stop power for clean buses
98: Meeting industry expectations
100: Power creation
102: Battery partners
104: Advances with CFD
106: Back to the future
108: Cell formation
110: Battery coolant heat exchanger
112: Test bench breakthrough
114: Powertrain partner
116: Driveline control
118: Battery operated
120: Fully charged
122: Battery-grade lithium supply
124: Hybrid rally success
126: Off-the-shelf innovation
128: Powering innovation
130: Products and services in brief
January 2010
e l e c t r i c &
h y b r i d v e h i c l e t e c h n o l o g y i n t e r n a t i o n a l
r y
1 0
Machine vision
The next generation of eco-friendly cars is just around the corner. Whats next for electric motors?
Cell division
Opinions differ on batteries so which technology will prevail?
Audi E-tron A green R8 supercar is on the production
agenda. Exclusive early details revealed
Wolfgang Strobl
General manager of
CleanEnergy, BMW
Mark Smith
CEO, Molycorp
Whats new?
Volkswagen L1
Mercedes electric SLS
BMW EfficientDynamics
Volvo plug-in hybrids
Power lines
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International
magazine, ISSN 1460-9509, is published twice a year by
UKIP Media & Events Ltd, Abinger House, Church Street,
Dorking, Surrey, RH4 1DF, UK.
The views expressed in the articles and technical papers are those
of the authors and are not endorsed by the publisher. While every
care has been taken during production, the publisher does not
accept any liability for errors that may have occurred. This
publication is protected by copyright 2009. ISSN 1460-9509
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International. Printed by
William Gibbons & Sons Ltd, Willenhall, West Midlands, UK.
BMWs general manager of
CleanEnergy on building cars
powered by hydrogen, despite
announcing plans for numerous
hybrid and electric applications
Molycorps CEO discusses
North Americas only mine
for rare earths
AVL Electric Motor Testbeds serve for developing, optimizing
and validating electric motors for hybrid and electric
vehicles as well as the related power electronic systems.
AVL ELEctri c Motor tEstbEd
dri Vi ng ELEctri fi cAti on. fAst And Effi ci Ent
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010


: D















January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
realize a 42:58 distribution
a ratio thats further enhanced
with the cabin of the E-tron
being shifted as far forward as
possible, leaving ample room
on the rear axle to place the
470kg battery unit, inverter,
and power electronics.
Audi says that the top speed
has been limited to 200km/h
(125mph), as the amount of
energy required by the four
electric motors increases
disproportionately to speed
levels. Through combining the
electric drive system with an
advanced battery, E-trons range
is rated at 154 miles in the
NEDC combined cycle.
The battery block has a total
energy content of 53kWh, with
Audi claiming that the usable
portion is restricted to 42.4kWh
in the interest of service life.
Audi engineers adopted a
liquid-cooling approach for the
battery and the pack.
The energy storage unit is
charged with household current
(230V, 16A) via a cable and
plug. With the battery fully
discharged, charging time is
between six and eight hours.
The inductive charging station
which is similar to the charge
systems used for electric
toothbrushes can be placed in
the parking garage or inside the
caption caption caption
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
So it would seem that the
time is nigh for Audis
Vorsprung durch Technik
mantra to be applied to a brave
new eco-friendly automotive
world. Arguably the most
stunning EV development of
this year, E-tron has managed to
set the pulses of motorheads
racing while getting the green
thumbs up from eco-worriers.
First, the essentials: four
asynchronous motors with a
total output of 313bhp
(230kW) give this Quattro
concept true supercar status:
E-tron sprints to 100km/h from
standstill in 4.8 seconds. The
huge torque output 4,500Nm
(yes, you read that correctly)
helps to ensure that the two-
seater takes 4.1 seconds to go
from 60km/h to 120km/h. Two
of the electronic motors, which
have their own individual
cooling system, are mounted
behind the rear axle. The other
two motors are located on the
front axle, with their cooling
system arranged in front of
them. Such a layout helps to
Featuring four asynchronous motors
that generate a total power output of
313bhp, Audis E-tron is an eco-friendly
EV with supercar performance levels
Through combining the electric drive
system with an advanced Li-ion battery,
E-tron boasts a range of 154 miles
house and is activated
automatically when the vehicle
is docked. The battery is also
charged while the vehicle is in
motion through the regenerative
braking. Audi engineers are
said to be also working on an
innovative wireless charging
solution for future EVs.
Bringing the E-tron to a halt
are four lightweight, ceramic
brake discs. An electronic brake
system makes it possible to
tap into the recuperation
potential of the electric motors.
A hydraulic xed caliper is
mounted on the front axle, with
two novel electrically actuated
oating caliper brakes mounted
on the rear axle. These latter
calipers are actuated not by
mechanical or hydraulic transfer
elements, but by wire, which in
turn helps to further eliminate
friction losses.
Additional technical features
include an innovative heat
pump that is used to efciently
warm up and heat the interior
of the vehicle, where most other
EVs are equipped with electric
supplemental heaters. A high-
efciency climate control system
works with the thermal
management system to cool the
interior of the E-tron as well as
to control the temperature of
the high-voltage battery.
Despite such complex
powertrain technologies, E-tron
tips the scales at just 1,600kg. A
lot of the weight saving is due to
the combination of aluminum
and carbon ber-reinforced
composite material, a
concoction that Audi will soon
start using on production
vehicles. Add-on parts of the E-
tron, such as the doors, covers,
sidewalls, and roof are made of
ber-reinforced plastic.
Its said that fewer than 1,500
electric vehicles are currently
registered in Germany which
Audi says is proof that EVs are
still yet to pierce the mass
market. Although E-tron
remains a concept, the word on
the Ingolstadt grapevine is that a
product that harnesses some of
the technologies E-tron boasts
might be ready for
commercialization by 2014. It
would seem that Vorsprung
durch Technik is denitely
going green! E&H
Through combining the electric drive
system with an advanced battery,
E-trons range is rated at 154 miles
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
In an effort to push forward with the notion of electromobility, Audi has
teamed up with the German Ministry for Education and Research to
create the E-performance project. We are trying to nd a concept
that requires no compromises, says Michael Dick, member of the
board of management at Audi AG. Electromobility means more to us
than just electrifying conventional cars. Instead, we are dedicated to a
holistic approach to all aspects of this topic.
Partly funded by the German federal government, E-performance
also features AEV, Robert Bosch, and several universities, including
Munich, Dresden, and Ilmenau. The partners will focus on all aspects
of EV development throughout the course of the three year program,
but much attention will focus on improving the battery. As the heart
of the electric car, the battery is the focal point of the studies, which
covers topics such as thermal management, capacity, package,
weight, safety, service life, and integration into the vehicles heat and
energy ows, explains Dr Michael Korte, who heads the project. We
are not working on cell chemistry we are relying on our partners for
that. The battery management software will be our know-how.
The German Ministry for Education and Research has set nine
goals, which range from energy storage through to driving dynamics.
Heavily based on the R8, the E-tron is the
latest EV supercar to come out of Germany,
following the likes of the Mercedes eDrive
SLS and the BMW EfcientDynamics concept
Future proof
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
VW is pushing ahead with its revolutionary
L1 dream and the prototype you see
here is being prepared for production
in less than ve years time
body alone constructed of
carbon-ber reinforced plastic
(CFRP) ruled out the dream.
But Piech, as we all know, is
a determined man and seven
years on VWs now-chairman of
the supervisory board continues
to pursue the 1 Liter dream
in the form of the second-
generation of this ingenious
car, now codenamed L1.
The concept represents a
serious step forward into the
future with completely new
technology and design, says
VWs board member in charge
of development, Dr Ulrich
Hackenberg. This revolutionary
concept is close to production
readiness, but it does represent
an enormous challenge to
control costs while producing
the monocoque.
Seven years ago, a new
chapter in automotive history
was written. VWs then
chairman of the board of
management, Dr Ferdinand
Piech, drove the worlds rst car
that boasted a fuel-consumption
driving range of 1 liter of fuel
per 100km. Although the
journey from Wolfsburg to
Hamburg was an insignicant
one, the excursion led to Piech
telling his VW peers that the 1
Liter prototype had to be made
production reality one day soon.
Back then, car makers and
suppliers were awash with
money, but the feedback Piech
got was that the 1 Liter could
not be made. The thinking was
that the prototype was years
ahead of its time and it was far
too expensive. Production of the
Indications from Wolfsburg
are that a market launch in
2013 is not out of the question.
Cost might still be the greatest
hurdle VW needs to overcome,
but theres no doubting that L1
represents one of the greatest
examples of automotive
engineering today.
Weighing just 380kg due to
its CFRP body, L1 boasts a fuel
consumption gure of 1.38
liters of diesel per 100km. Part
of such outstanding fuel
economy comes from the
extremely aerodynamic design
that realizes a Cd rating of 0.195.
In terms of proportions, L1
cannot be compared with
anything on the roads today. It
is 120cm wide, the length is
similar to a VW Fox (381cm),
and its height is akin to a
Lamborghini Murcielago
(114cm). As a result, CO
emissions of the 160km/h L1
are low at 36g/km.
Although aerodynamics have
played a key part, its the
powertrain setup thats the star
of this show. L1 combines, to
great effect, a small-capacity
TDI engine, an E-motor, and a
seven-speed DSG transmission
all three systems located at the
rear of the vehicle.
The main driving source is a
completely redeveloped two-
cylinder turbo-diesel unit that
operates in two different modes,
depending on load conditions.
In the standard Eco mode, the
TDI develops 27ps at
4,000rpm. In Sport mode, a
further 12ps is generated. The
diesels maximum torque output
The new L1 features a small-capacity TDI engine, an E-motor and a
seven-speed DSG transmission. The result is a fuel consumption
gure of 1.38 liters per 100km. Emissions are at a mere 36g/km
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
Just as revolutionary as the powertrain setup of the L1 is its
interior design. With one seat behind the other, entry into this
future VW passenger car is similar to that of a glider: through a
roof cover, hinged at the side. For this second-generation
prototype, every component has been redesigned, says VW
chief, Hackenberg.
A special chassis with aluminum components was developed
and the CFRP technology from F1 racing was transferred to
automotive production. Theres no doubting that the use of
CFRP is just as important as the powertrain setup of L1. Out of
the total 380kg curb weight of L1, a mere 124kg can be
attributed to body weight. Of this, 64kg are taken by the
monocoque, which includes the integrated passenger seat,
28kg is the weight of the entire CFRP exterior skin, 19kg is for
the canopy, 9kg for the drivers seat, and 4kg for the LED lights.
is 100Nm at 1,900rpm. A VW-
developed stop/start system has
been added to increase efciency.
L1 is a real-world, drivable
prototype, so the diesel engine
is more than a vision on paper.
As it is based on the recently
launched 1.6-liter TDI engine
that powers two of the VW
BlueMotion models the Golf
and Passat it should come as
no surprise that the L1 diesel
heart shares identical tech specs
as its bigger brother: cylinder
spacing is 88mm, bore is
79.5mm, and stroke is 80.5mm.
The two powertrains have
common subsystems, including
special piston crowns, to reduce
emissions and have multi-
injection and individual
orientations of the specic
injection jets. The two engines
also have EGR, an oxidation
catalytic converter, and a DPF.
Other noteworthy features of
the small diesel include an
aluminum crankcase that was
constructed with high precision
to achieve very low friction
losses, and an oil pump that was
designed to operate at
maximum oil pressure of 4.0
bar, which contributes further
to engine efciency.
L1 also has an innovative
engine cooling system. The
prototypes external water pump
is controlled by engine
management, and cooling is
only activated when the engine
operating conditions require it.
A second electric water pump is
activated only when needed,
providing the cooling required
for the starter generator and the
power electronics in a separate
water circulation loop operating
at an even lower temperature.
The hybrid module is
integrated into the DSG
housing. Located between the
engine and transmission, the
unit consists of a 14ps electric
motor clutch. The E-motor is
supplied with energy from a
lithium-ion battery at the front
of the car. An electronic power
control module, operating at
around 130V, manages the ow
of high-voltage energy deriving
from the battery and to the E-
motor. In parallel, the vehicles
low-voltage electrical system is
supplied with 12V through a
DC/DC converter.
The E-motor can support the
diesel engine in conditions such
as electronic load-point shifting
and during acceleration. VW
says that the module can supply
40% additional torque over the
entire engine speed range.
Whats more, the E-motor can
propel the L1 over short
distances by itself. E&H
Weighing just 380kg, an L1 production car is on its way says VW chief Hackenberg
The all-new Mercedes-Benz AMG has
been welcomed with rave reviews from the
media. But before the production car had
been unveiled, Mercedes and its AMG
division, which created the spectacular
gullwing machine, had conrmed that an
electrically driven version, dubbed eDrive,
was in development. This electric supercar
could be in production as soon as 2013.
Two years ago a dedicated alternative
vehicle group was created within AMG to
work on this groundbreaking car.
Four electric motors positioned near the
wheels (not hub motors, to reduce unsprung
mass) and coupled to a gearbox on each axle
provide the drive with a combined peak
power output of 392kW and a maximum
torque of 880Nm. Each wheel can be
accelerated individually, which should
benet the eDrives dynamics. The 400V
battery is topped up under braking.
The packaging is much more complicated
than a conventional drivetrain, explains
project chief Wolf Zimmermann. Every
motor has its own inverter and we have a
big battery pack down the middle, so we
had to increase the size of the tunnel a little
to accommodate it. Removing the engine,
gearbox and fuel tank creates space for more
battery packs; there are six in all.
As development of the regular SLSs
packaging began, consideration was also
given to the eDrive car, with appropriate
spaces reserved for the at-that-time
unspecied motors, batteries, and gearboxes.
Indeed, Zimmermann acknowledges that the
pace of development in the eld is such that
questions still remain as to the exact source
and specication of at least some of these
items, although its possible a JV between
Daimler and Evonik Industries could provide
the battery technology.
Zimmermann revealed to E&H that he was
still being pitched by potential motor
suppliers at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show.
However, what is already certain is that this
no-compromise electric supercar will also not
compromise on safety.
All the high-voltage electric items are
integrated inside the standard crash zones,
assures Zimmermann. We want to do a
vehicle without any crash safety compromises,
whether its European or US crash tests.
At the moment our test car has 48kWh of
energy so the range is about 200-250km,
although of course it decreases if you drive
fast. But this is a modular concept: the
motors and gearboxes are the same in the
front as in the back, and could easily be
adapted for use in other vehicles.
From the development thinking, its really
on the edge, continues Zimmermann. Its
not easy: if you want 400kW then you go
with 400V, which at the moment is the
maximum voltage in vehicles, so we have
1,000A. But the car is now built up and
everything is working as we expected; well
drive it this year, and in 2010 well do some
testing. E&H
Mercedes-Benz has unveiled the SLS AMG, complete with
gullwing doors. Even better, theres an electric version on its way
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
The eDrive SLS will have four electric motors that are
positioned near the wheels, generating 880Nm of torque
Mercedes plans to launch an electric
version of the stunning SLS in 2013
Transmission expansion
Allison Transmission has been awarded
a US$62.8 million grant from the US
Department of Energy to continue with its
efforts to develop and manufacture a cost-
effective commercial hybrid truck system.
In a separate announcement, the former
GM company has also conrmed plans to
open a new 18,868m2 production plant
early next year to better serve OEMs in
Chennai, India, where the US supplier has
been based for more than 40 years.
Chairman and CEO Lawrence E. Dewey
said the investment in the plant was proof
that the company is targeting growth in
developing countries. It is important to
strengthen our local presence in India
to support our growing in-country
operations, says Dewey. It is one of the
worlds largest economies and a global
supplier of commercial vehicles, and
our investment comes at a time when
global demand for our fully automatic
transmissions continues to increase.
Indian base for Romax
Romax Technology is scheduled to open
a center of excellence for CAD and CAE
in late 2009 in Pune, India. With Indias
automotive and transmission markets
growing, Romax plans to expand its
existing highly skilled team to over 50
employees within the next few years.
Allison continues to push ahead with all-new,
state-of-the-art hybrid transmissions development
Imagine if you were given the task of
developing a powertrain that would help to
ensure the vehicle its housed in will have the
same sporting performance as a BMW M3
and be more environmentally friendly than a
frugal 1 Series diesel. Well, that was the brief
BMW chiefs bestowed upon their powertrain
team earlier this year. The result? A 2+2
seater with plug-in hybrid, diesel technology.
The Vision EfcientDynamics concept is
powered by a three-cylinder turbodiesel and
two electric motors that help to ensure
356bhp and max torque of 800Nm. In the
real world, this translates to a 0-62mph
sprint in 4.8 seconds, and top speed has
been capped at 155mph. On the eco-friendly
front, the concept emits 99g/km of CO
on combined mode its good for 75.1mpg.
The M3-beating power output is realized
by combining a fuel-efcient three-cylinder
turbodiesel with one electric motor on the
front axle and one on the rear axle.
Combining these units not only ensures
minimum power losses but also enables all-
wheel drive to take place in all-electric mode.
Displacing 1.5 liter on three cylinders, the
turbodiesel engine rides on the cusp of the
downsizing trend due to its small capacity in
combination with a turbocharger. Its
compact dimensions mean the miniature
diesel powerplant ts perfectly on the front
of the rear axle of the concept. Fuel is
injected by the latest generation of common-
rail direct injection. The singular turbo
features variable-intake geometry to help
maximize efciency. As a result, engine
power output is 163bhp with 290Nm of
torque, and this power is conveyed to the
rear axle by means of a DCT.
CPT unveils new
stop-start technology
Engineers at Controlled Power Technologies
(CPT) have developed the worlds rst
bespoke Belt-driven Integrated Starter
Generator (B-ISG) that makes use of a
conventional 12V electrical system and is
capable of starting a 2-liter diesel engine.
CPTs technical breakthrough has resulted
in an innovative 12V B-ISG with the high
torque and power necessary to restart,
quickly, smoothly and more frequently,
most modern diesel and petrol engines.
According to CPT, this means it can offer
a more advanced solution to existing stop-
start systems, which are all based on
modications to a conventional starter
motor or conventional alternator. And it
can do so without resorting to the high
cost of developing a higher voltage
system. The production-ready SpeedStart
technology addresses three of the major
challenges of existing stop/start systems;
it is twice as fast as a conventional starter
motor or alternator, the restart is
exceptionally quiet and offers excellent
renement, and most importantly it is
powerful enough to cope with a driver
having a sudden change of mind when
the stop-start system is already stopping
the engine. The
SpeedStart system
can deliver a 5%
reduction in fuel
consumption and
over the new
drive cycle.
Honda conrms CR-Z hybrid
Hondas new CEO, Takanobu Ito, has
announced plans to begin sales of the
CR-Z sports hybrid model in Japan in
February 2010. The CR-Z concept car
made its world debut at the 40th Tokyo
Motor Show in 2007. By combining this
new model with the current Insight and
Civic Hybrid, Honda will further enhance
its line-up of compact hybrid models,
powered by Hondas compact,
lightweight, and efcient Integrated Motor
Assist (IMA) system. The IMA system will
also be introduced into the award-winning
Honda Jazz within the next few years.
CPTs Speedstart technology can reduce
fuel consumption and CO
emissions by 5%
The downsized IC engine is supplemented
by two electric motors. On the rear axle sits a
second-generation full-hybrid system that
derives from the technology introduced in
the BMW ActiveHybrid 7 production model.
Operating as an electric motor, the compact
electric power unit is positioned between the
combustion engine and the DCT. It develops
25kW and is able to reach a peak of 38kW.
Maximum torque is 290Nm. The electric
motor acts as a generator that feeds electric
power to the lithium-polymer battery in the
car, ensuring that electric energy developed
in this manner is gained without any
additional consumption of fuel.
The Vision EfcientDynamics concept
features a second electric motor that acts on
the front axle. This power unit, a hybrid-
synchronous motor, offers permanent output
of 60kW and peak torque of 220Nm. An
extra 84kW of power is made available for a
period of up to 30 seconds, and for a further
10 seconds the electric motor is even able to
develop 104kW.
The energy cells in BMWs Vision
EfcientDynamics concept are housed in a
chassis element running from the front to
rear, through the middle of the car. The front
unit is the lithium-polymer complex, which
is an ongoing development of the Li-ion
battery that BMW insists is the most efcient
system for storing a high level of electrical
energy for maximum performance.
Vision EfcientDynamics comes with a
total of 98 lithium-polymer cells, each
offering a capacity of 30Ah and developing
output of 600A, at a voltage of 3.7V. For a
period of 30 seconds, each cell is even able to
develop maximum output of 1,200A. E&H
It might be more powerful than an M3, but scratch the surface
of this BMW concept and youll nd lots of green technologies
Honda will launch the CR-Z hybrid early next year
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Vision EfcientDynamics combines a
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One of the green production stars of the
Frankfurt Motor Show 2009 was the Volvo
C30 1.6-liter DRIVe, a vehicle that records a
gure of just 99g/km. The use of stop/
start technology, along with combustion and
engine-management improvements, enable
this car to run for up to 1,380km (857 miles)
on a single tank, and return 3.8 liters/100km
(74.3mpg). But the unveiling of the C30 was
just an appetizer ahead of the technological
main course that the Swedish manufacturer
served up the week after the show.
Volvo is targeting further reductions of
levels to 80g/km by 2020, and one of
the cars that will help it to reach these lowly
levels is a plug-in hybrid version of the V70
wagon. The combination of diesel engine,
50kW electric motor, and 12kWh battery
combine to offer a driving range of 1,200km,
and fuel economy of 1.9 liters/100km
(148.6mpg). The average CO
gure is a
mere 49g/km.
The Swedish auto maker has now decided
to switch its focus from a full hybrid to the
plug-in variety, the seeds of which were
planted with the ReCharge C30 concept
shown in 2007. In the same year, Volvo
formed a joint venture with Vattenfall, the
Swedish energy supplier, to test and develop
plug-in technologies. The V70 will be the
partnerships rst vehicle when it enters
production in 2012.
The base engine for the system is the
familiar 2.4-liter I5 diesel, which produces
Lotus reveals range extender
Lotus Engineering has unveiled its Range
Extender engine. In a series hybrid vehicle,
the Range Extender engine is attached to
an electricity generator and provides a
highly efcient source of energy to power
the electric motor directly or charge the
vehicles battery. The battery can also
power the electric motor, which enables
the design of a drivetrain that has low
emissions, optimized performance, and
acceptable range. The Lotus Range
Extender engine features an innovative
architecture comprising an aluminum
monobloc construction, integrating the
cylinder block, cylinder head, and exhaust
manifold in one casting. This results in
reduced engine mass, assembly costs,
package size, and improved emissions,
and engine durability. The three-cylinder
1.2-liter Range Extender engine is
optimized between two power generation
points, giving 15kW of electrical power at
1,500rpm and 35kW at 3,500rpm via the
integrated electrical generator. The engine
uses an optimized two-valve port-fuel
injection combustion system
to reduce cost and mass.
Euro suppliers sign hybrid deal
Two leading German suppliers have
agreed to work together to further develop
hybrid drive systems for commercial
vehicles. According to the deal, ZF and
Continental who already have in place a
similar agreement for passenger car
vehicles will realize electrically assisted
driving of hybrid buses and trucks, says
Jorg Grotendorst, head of Continentals
hybrid electric vehicles powertrain division.
As the systems supplier, ZF will be
responsible for all work in relation to the
system integration for the hybrid system,
and Conti will supply key components.
205bhp. The 150kg, 12kWh lithium-ion
battery is currently supplied by Enerdel, but
according to Johan Konnberg, V70 plug-in
hybrid project director, when the next-
generation prototypes arrive at the end of
2009, they will use packs from elsewhere to
compare the performance. That is not the
only unknown surrounding the battery pack.
The range in electric power only mode is
50km with the 12kWh pack, Konnberg
explains. But in three years, a battery of the
same size and weight will produce 14kWh,
and then we can either extend the range, or
take down the dimensions of the battery if
we think that 50km is enough.
It seems the latter is most likely as Volvos
claimed range of 50km will meet the needs
of 75% of European drivers. The 230V, 10A
battery will have a charging time of four to
six hours. The powertrain is set up to run on
pure electric power initially for up to 50km,
before the diesel engine kicks in. Top speed
in electric mode is 100km/h. E&H
It looks as though Volvo will be one of the rst auto makers
to launch an EV intended to be more than just a niche product
ZF and Conti will work on CV hybrid drive systems
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Volvos V70 plug-in hybrid demonstrator makes use of a 2.4-liter I5 diesel and a lithium-ion battery from Enerdel
Volvo is aiming to launch a plug-in hybrid model by 2012
The Lotus range
extended technology
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Hydrogen is vastly more interesting
to me as a solution, although I am
always reminded of how much it
would cost to get that particular
infrastructure assembled
Just where are we headed these days anyway? Since
fuel prices shot through the roof in June 2008 and then
plummeted back down soon after to record lows, green
engineers and their boardroom masters moving the
chess pieces have been scrambling to gure out what
exactly to invest in as we all sprint forward into the
cleaner Next Big Thing.
But whats it going to be? And are any of the ideas
truly green? And if they are green, how much will it
cost the pioneers of the chosen technology to seize the
marketing momentum? Will the next leaders need to
sell everything below cost for years in order to
popularize the technology or should we charge the
right and fair price for it from the word go?
So many questions and nobody has the answers. We
are swirling in a speculative goose chase that is guided
by the true thought that anything greener is better. But
I must ask, is greener better? Can those millions of
battery packs really be 100% recycled once they stop
holding a sufcient charge? If the vision of millions of
plug-in EVs comes true, how will all of that added
energy be produced from the public grid?
Ive driven the Mitsubishi i-MiEV, the Honda FCX
Clarity, and the BMW ActiveHybrid 7 and
ActiveHybrid X6. Kids, were getting pummeled
with all of it, and were going to have to show the
chess masters the way, because it seems to me that
theyre not entirely sure what to do.
Personally, I am disappointed over the apparent
abandonment of hydrogen propulsion by Honda, GM,
and others in favor of electricity. Hydrogen is vastly
more interesting to me as a solution, although I am
always reminded of how much it would cost to get
that particular infrastructure assembled.
Honestly, green is good, but every one of the current
explorations is a massive gamble. And if we all go nuts
for one technology, is it necessarily good if production
and energy providers then nally build the appropriate
network? How much of our tax expenditure will it take
to incentivize these players to give us this long-awaited
infrastructure? And how long will governments
incentivize the purchase of these vehicles by using our
own tax revenues to cover those big incentives? It all
becomes a delicate circle of debit and credit, much like
cash for clunkers-style programs. They all promise
immediate upswings but ensure the eventual death of
the companies that too enthusiastically encourage such
baiting games.
Im getting tired of the endless conga line of 500-unit
test eets stretching from Tokyo to Los Angeles. It
proves to me without any doubt that small capacity IC
engines will be driving all the worlds economies for at
least another 50 years. I mean, I really do love the
green thinking, but capitalism requires public
companies to make big money for shareholders who
are the most blatant fair-weather friends ever invented.
Cleaning up operations and powertrains costs a lot of
money, and if it affects the bottom line, then even the
greenest investor will turn environmentally blas.
On the whole, I must say that hybrids do not
enthrall me, but the three-cylinder 1.2-liter range-
extending motor made by Lotus Engineering that well
see in prototype form in June 2010 is a big leap in the
direction for making hybrids the potential banner
wavers for the next generation. And if the Chevy Volt
wants to be sure to wow us by the time its on the
market, GM might want to think about changing tack
and be the rst to use the Lotus solution.
And does hydrogen really need to be 20 years off as
everyone ponticates? And when will diesel hybrids
go beyond the showcar stage? Like I said, all show and
no go bores me at this point. We need doers and not
another steady stream of marketing-driven experiments
and test eets that never intend to go beyond that. E&H
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I envisage a number of technologies
being developed in readiness for the
next wave of regulations. Biofuels
will re-emerge as a contender,
but not as we currently know them
Theres been much change in the past 12 months
economically and technologically and I expect just as
much will happen in 2010, so let me take this moment
to indulge and make a few predictions.
As were entering a new decade, Ill stick my neck
out and gaze as far ahead as 2020. I predict that the
notion of sustainable transportation will remain center
stage, with the demand for more efcient vehicles
growing. As a result, vehicles that run on alternative
fuels will remain high on the agenda. This will partly
be in response to pressure from the increasingly
powerful green lobby in government; there will also be
a reaction to emissions reduction stipulations imposed
around the world in response to Copenhagen. We
already know what this will look like in Europe, with
car makers facing nes for producing vehicles with
ratings of more than 90g/km by 2020.
The easy way to meet the targets in the short term is
to downsize, decrease weight, improve aerodynamics,
and produce smaller and more efcient combustion
engines. For most vehicle sizes this might be enough,
but larger luxury vehicles will need a bit more. I would
also stake my reputation on predicting that legislation
will be proposed that demands even greater reductions
in emissions beyond 2020. Therefore, I envisage a
number of technologies being developed in readiness
for this next wave of regulations. Biofuels will re-
emerge as a contender, although not as we currently
know them. The biofuels of the future will be made
using non-food crops, such as waste wood, which can
be turned into liquid fuels by gasication and Fischer-
Tropsch synthesis, producing a clean fuel that can be
burned in small, efcient range extender engines.
Another contender is algae biofuels a technology that
doesnt compete for arable land and converts
abundant solar energy into a hydrocarbon fuel via
algae. Oil companies such as Exxon and BP have waded
into biofuels recently, and are investing in this area.
Articial CO
sequestration has also been suggested
sucking CO
out of the atmosphere and using it to
produce fuel but this concept is a long way off.
On the downside, I predict a fall in the hype for
EVs, or to be accurate, pure battery electric vehicles.
I do expect improvements to be made with battery
technology, especially with cost. But the fundamentals
are such that the volume and weight of the batteries
needed for a decent range will always be excessive, and
consumers and manufacturers will soon realize the
downsides of going it alone with batteries. However,
the savior of EVs will be range extenders, and I expect
the rise of the plug-in hybrid to be exponential. Some
recent research I did based on UK driving behavior
shows that a modest 5-15kWh battery will enable you
to drive 80-90% of the time using electric power, and a
law of diminishing returns requires batteries three or
four times larger, heavier, and more expensive, to gain
the remaining 10-20%.
Im not the only one who has seen the obvious. Lotus
Engineering has developed a three-cylinder 1.2-liter
range extender engine as an off-the-shelf product for
series hybrids. Made from a monobloc and weighing
only 56kg, it can provide 35kWe with an integrated
electrical generator while running on petrol, methanol
or ethanol. In a Jaguar XJ, it produces 120g/km of CO
but imagine what it could achieve in a smaller car.
Other car makers such as Volvo and Volkswagen are
developing diesel plug-in hybrids, and AVL and Frazer-
Nash are focusing on range extender Wankel engines.
Which leads me to hydrogen fuel cells. Expect to see
the rst round of commercially available fuel cell
vehicles toward the end of the decade, but in only
limited numbers. As a result, theres no doubt in my
mind that this decade will be the battle of the range
extenders and plug-in series hybrids. E&H
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
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Good vibrations
With so many types of hybrid and electric vehicle motor systems available,
car makers have never had it so good. But which design will dominate?
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
For more than a decade,
Matt Johnston, CEO of Light
Engineering, based in
Indianapolis, USA, has been
working to exploit the
advantages of replacing silicon-
steel with amorphous-iron in
PM motors. Its a difficult
technology, he admits, but the
benefits seem to be worthwhile.
New nanocrystaline or
amorphous-iron materials have
one-tenth of the losses of silicon
steel, he explains.
As a result, Johnston is
optimistic that electric motor
development will accelerate
further. In ve years time the
PM sector will be continuing to
mature in terms of the motors
and the controls. This will be
driven by the EV marketplace.
And costs are coming down,
too: I heard gures recently
from leaders in the power
semiconductor industry
indicating that the market has
been reducing costs at a rate
of 10-12% per quarter.
Johnston sees huge potential
for the development of
integrated gate bipolar
transistors (IGBTs), which he
claims are equal to the cost
of the motor, or even 40-50%
more. For this reason, he
acknowledges the argument
for using induction motors:
The induction motors control
system is much lower in cost
and much easier to manage,
says Johnston, who also believes
that under certain circumstances
there could be a resurgence of
interest in induction motors.
In the meantime, the Light
Engineering CEO is predicting
advances in materials for power
semiconductors: Theres a lot of
work going on to increase their
thermal efficiency. If they can
get more power, and make less
heat in an IGBT, their loss per
kilowatt decreases.
According to Johnston, the
high-technology diesel-hybrid
derivatives could potentially
monopolize the market. When
that happens I think youll take
the best engine technology, the
best battery technology, and the
best electric motor technology
and try to merge that into the
best value proposition. Right
now there are so many business
plans and so much compromise
that I dont have a lot of
confidence that any particular
vehicle manufacturer has really
grasped this whole thing. If you
took out all the subsidies, and
let the free market determine
breakthroughs in electric motor
design, especially for lower-cost
manufacturing. These designs
typically come out of the
universities, he says. Oxford
University, for example, has the
Oxford Yasa electric motor,
which, as well as being easier to
manufacture, arguably has some
of the best motor performances
of any motor in the world.
In five years time we will
have seen some of these new
designs come through. The cost
of motors will have come down
as a result of better production
methods and, of course, the
higher volumes that are likely.
The cost of controllers
sometimes more than that of
the motor is, says Karlstrom,
a result of the kilowatt rating
or the horsepower output of
the drivetrain. The higher
the horsepower, the lower the
percentage [of overall cost]
taken up by the controller. The
break point is somewhere
around 4-5kW. Below that, the
motor is less expensive than the
controller; above that it is more
expensive than the controller.
Karlstrom believes the current
development of controllers
is likely to result in tight
integration of the motor and
If you took out all the subsidies,
and let the market determine
itself, the innovation road
map would be very different
New Insight is said to be the worlds rst
affordable hybrid. By reducing the size of
the electric motor and IMA system, Honda
managed to decrease development overheads
itself, the innovation road map
would be very different.
One of the major names in
power controls is Sevcon, which
is headquartered in the UK and
has facilities in the USA, France,
South Korea, and Japan, and
works with many electric motor
producers. Its vice president of
global sales, Bjorn Karlstrom,
confidently expects
Light Engineerings SmartTorq line of
electric motors offers impressive power
density and energy efciency levels
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
Turbines never made it as a primary propulsion unit for road
vehicles. But an Israeli company is banking on its microturbine
design becoming a popular range-extender for EVs.
ETV Motors, formed less than two years ago to research
and develop the concept, is currently fabricating prototype
microturbines that will be ready to start trials early in 2010.
These will be much more advanced designs than the original
unit demonstrated in ETVs converted Toyota Prius concept-
prover. The companys chief operating ofcer, Arnold Roth, says
no timeframe for production-readiness has been drawn up, but
he condently expects to be ready to consider production
during the latter part of 2010.
The company is currently assessing market opportunities and
is looking at all world markets. It is thinking about small-scale
production and manufacture, but licensing has not been ruled
out. Were taking a wait-and-see approach, says Roth.
Licensing and manufacturing are among several possibilities
currently being considered by management.
Using off-the-shelf electric motors, the advantages of ETVs
microturbine drivetrain include very high thermal efciency over
IC engines, compact dimensions in terms of volume and weight,
and low emissions without aftertreatment, says Irad Kunhreich,
manager of integration and projects. It is also very quiet. The
turbine is not like a jet using thrust it is simply turning a
generator and is quieter than a typical diesel engine. Fuels
suitable for the microturbine include CNG and biofuels.
controller in one housing. With
this you eliminate certain wiring
costs and some of the costs
associated with a housing for
the controller. Another
important aspect of a combined
motor/controller is that each
component tends to have the
same design life and reliability
expectations as well as being
optimized. If you buy a motor
from one company and a
controller from another, both
companies will have built
products that are widely
applicable so there are a lot of
overheads in each product.
The use of efficient switching
technology in controllers is also
having a positive effect. We
now have efficiency ratings of
around 98% controllers are
actually more efficient than
motors these days. And
in terms of new materials,
Karlstrom sees ceramic and
composite materials playing a
key role in the future.
Sevcons manufacturing guru
is Pete Barrass. The major
problem he sees involves
cooling: Theres no industry
standard, he states. Electric
motors are more efficient the
cooler they are, and with a
standard cooling system you
could have one motor design
that would better suit all
applications. A commonality of
design would reduce costs.
Cooling options include
water, forced air, and oil. The
advantage of oil, explains
Barrass, is that you can pass it
directly across the windings
the part of the motor that
requires the most cooling.
Vapor-phase cooling is another
option, but this needs additional
equipment to condense the gas
back to liquid. As a result,
Barrass says power densities in
EVs are just not high enough to
justify vapor-phase cooling.
The challenge of hybrid
vehicles is that the IC unit runs
Renault is committed to bringing to market a range of electric
vehicles by 2015, so the French car maker continues to work
tirelessly in developing optimal electric motor technology
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at up to 90C (194F) a level
that is far hotter than the
electric motor prefers. IC
engines are able to cope with
great temperature swings from
start-up, frequently twice a day,
so the problem then becomes
whether the electric motor can
match the IC lifetime.
Challenges of global resources
on various fronts also concern
Barrass: If the world were to
convert to 30% electric vehicles,
all powered by lithium batteries,
there would be a problem
finding that much lithium on
the planet.
Another problem is the
availability of silicon wafers for
the power electronics which,
in vehicles, use a substantial
number of silicon wafers. This is
especially true of high-power
electronics that use a great area
of silicon chip. You need a lot of
silicon wafer to control a
100kW converter for use in a
car. Barrass says there isnt
enough capacity in the world
to produce silicon wafers and
process them into the power
output modules.
Sevcons marketing man has
a third concern: the number of
skilled people. There is already
a shortage of skilled power-
electronics and motor-control
engineers in the world, and if
the EV market ramps up in the
way that some people think it
will, that shortage is going to
become more apparent. There
wont be enough engineers who
know how to design these
things for production.
Christian Pronovost, product
engineer of power technologies
at Canadas pioneering TM4
organization, which was spun
off by Hydro-Quebec in 1998,
is certain that with all their
advantages, PM motors are
likely to form the backbone
of future development and
automotive applications.
We are convinced that
synchronous PM is the leading
technology for hybrid and
electric automotive application,
he says with authority.
AC synchronous with coil
excitation is not a preferred
If the world were
to convert to 30%
electric vehicles, all
powered by lithium
batteries, there
would be a problem
nding that much
lithium on the planet
Phase Timing Advancement (PTA) is a development from UQM
Technologies, based in Colorado, USA, that has become very
important to the company. UQM is approaching its 50th
anniversary and started life making dune buggies, but in the late
1970s it turned its focus to electric cars and motors.
PTA is a big part of our intellectual property, says Jon Lutz,
vice president for technology. It enables us to reduce the
losses in the inverter by eliminating pulse width modulation,
which is what the power electronics do to chop the DC voltage
and create the AC waveform that the motor needs. By
minimizing the switching losses we can increase the amount of
current we can run through our power devices and that enables
us to get more out of our systems for a given size of IGBT.
The follow-on work includes Full Wave Commutation an
extension of PTA that enables UQM to dramatically increase
the power output of its system. Lutz adds, Its important as
manufacturers want to move larger vehicles at a quicker rate.
Imminent future developments include renement of the
motor electromagnetic circuit, he continues. We focus on PM
machines but, as we develop those machines, we are adding
different sources for torque production to improve the electric
motor. On the electronics side, the building blocks that we
incorporate in our controllers keep getting better and the real
effort is the work going into both the power devices and
semiconductor systems.
Despite being far lighter, the E-motor in the third generation Prius
generates 20% more power than the system in the previous model
Producing 150kW and 220Nm of
torque, the electric motor system
in the Mini E concept ensures a
0-62mph sprint time of 8.5 seconds
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
solution, because of the brushes
needed to activate the rotor, and
switched reluctance motors
have the drawback of being less
efficient and requiring a very
small air gap that increases the
mechanical complexity.
Pronovost also sees a possible
future for wheel motors. As
vehicle hybridization levels
rise, the motor technologies
must deliver increasingly
efficient motors and thats
where PM motors excel. On
high-end vehicles we will see
added performance that can be
provided by electrification of
the powertrain.
This is an area where wheel
motors can bring additional
features, such as the 4WD,
independent torque control,
and stability algorithms. So we
might see wheel motors starting
to emerge among the centrally
located electric motors for
parallel through the road
hybrids and 4WD fully
electric vehicles.
Heinzmann has been in
existence for more than 110
years, although wheel motors
(used in many applications that
range from wheelchairs to three-
wheeled motorized rickshaw-
type vehicles) are a relatively
new specialty for it. Frank
Bhler, product manager for
the companys electric drives
division, believes that the
rickshaw-type vehicles have
a big future ahead of them
especially throughout Asia
because of the rising fuel costs
and the increasing number of
cities banning non-electric
vehicles. There is a big
opportunity for hub motors,
which are integrated to save
space, says Bhler. Their
disadvantage is that they dont
have much flexibility in speed
or range. However, for these
types of vehicles, its not such
a problem.
Heinzmann is not in the
passenger car market but it has
considerable presence in the off-
road market, manufacturing
wheeled loaders, fork trucks,
and hydraulic excavators. For
these we have developed a
hybrid system, explains Bhler.
We believe that for these
vehicles, the fuel saving is much
higher than for passenger cars
because of their load profile. A
forklift, for instance, has high
peaks of power demand when
accelerating or lifting heavy
loads, and this load profile is
ideal for hybrids.
The Heinzmann system
employs permanent magnet
motors for their compact size
relative to efficiency and power
output, and diesel- or LPG-
powered generators running at
optimum efficiency. Bhler
discounts fuel cells as a future
alternative to IC generators on
the grounds of cost.
Current engineering and
technical challenges, he says,
include the high cost of lithium-
iron batteries, especially 400V
size. Although costs will come
down, Heinzmanns current
focus is on 80V systems
Bhler thinks that it will be five
to six years before 400V systems
become more widespread. E&H
One high-tech supplier on the right track is EVO Electric. Based
in Woking, UK, it has developed an array of motors, generators,
and hybrid drivetrains, some of which have already been
applied to technology demonstrator vehicles.
Based on axial ux technology, EVOs electric motors and
generators offer over 30% increased power density over
existing conventional radial ux motors. EVOs CTO, Dr Michael
Lamprth, says this results in a considerable cost reduction and
performance gain for hybrid and electric vehicles.
Key features of the AF motor/generator range include high
power and torque at speeds of up to 5,000rpm, high efciency
of 96.5% at 3,600rpm, and a modular design thats scalable
from 75-225kW. If thats not impressive enough, the short
length and at conguration of EVO Electric machines makes
them suitable for use as in-wheel hub motors. EVO Electric is
developing in-wheel motors based on the AF-140 and the
AF-150 larger diameter designs, in addition to EVOs
development of smaller diameter designs for range extenders
and other applications.
As well as being able to eliminate gearboxes, shafts, and
transmissions (reducing total part count and costs), in-wheel
motors also enable regenerative breaking to be maximized and
individual wheel torque output to be controlled.
Heinzmann is developing
wheel motor and electric
drive technologies for the
fork lift truck segment
There is a big opportunity
for hub motors, which are
integrated to save space
BMW engineers have come up with several electric motor designs in the last two years
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
The Sustainable Vehicle
Engineering Centre
The Sustainable Vehicle Engineering Centre, based in the
School of Technology at Oxford Brookes University,
is where engineering and science come
together to help the motor industry meet the
sustainability challenges of the future.
Our research concerns the whole
lifecycle of the vehicle, from raw
materials to design, powertrain,
fuels, manufacturing, disassembly,
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A particular focus currently
is on electric vehicles and
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We provide:
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Short courses Market forecasting
Seminars and conferences.
Further information:
e. t. +44 (0) 1865 484400
Whats moving you?
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Advanced Electric Motors and Generators
// Axial Flux technology for the highest power and torque density
// 220Nm, 75kW (nominal) with 600Nm launch torque - at only 40kg
// High efciency - up to 96.5%
// Larger models (140kW+) also available
Electric Power and Drive Systems
// Generator sets
// Drive systems for hybrid and electric vehicles
// Integrated hybrid drivetrain solutions
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Words: Jim McCraw
With their combination of good durability, fuel
savings, quiet operation and clean running,
the 21
century hybrid bus is proving
worthy of great investments across the USA
Just a few years ago, the
idea of a public transit bus
carrying two drive systems
one diesel and one electric
seemed preposterous, to say
the least. Too expensive, they
said. Too complex, they said.
And far too costly to keep
running, they said.
But if you take a look at the
numbers from one of the major
suppliers of hybrid bus
technology, it looks as though
the critics were wrong.
Although a typical US-style
diesel hybrid bus, capable of
carrying around 40 passengers
comfortably, will cost around
US$200,000 more than a
regular diesel bus, the payoff
in increased fuel economy in a
large eet, drastically reduced
emissions, and the much lower
operating noise, seems worth
the investment to a great many
city and regional governments
across the USA, as well as the
transit authorities.
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
The AIT Mobility Department provides a highly sophisticated, multi-disciplinary de-
velopment environment for electric drives and alternative vehicle concepts. This de-
velopment environment comprises modelling and simulation on vehicle and compo-
nent level, design of electric machines and power electronics up to development of
intelligent control strategies. Special emphasis is given to electrical energy storage
systems, covering the evaluation of appropriate cell technologies, the design of the
battery system including its management and the development of safety concepts.
Electric drive prototypes are realised in cooperation with our industrial partners and
validated and optimised at our Hardware-in-the-loop test beds. By that this compre-
hensive development environment for electric drives and systems supports time and
cost effcient development processes for the automotive industry.
SimuIate future drives. Drive future innovation.
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AIT Austrian Institute of
sterreichisches Forschungs- und
Prfzentrum Arsenal Ges.mb.H.
Giefinggasse 2, 1210 Vienna, Austria
DI Helmut Oberguggenberger
Electric Drive Technologies
T +43 (0) 50 550-6662
Principle provider
Daimler Bus, based in
Greensboro, North Carolina, is
by far the largest purveyor of
hybrid buses in the world,
with some 2,200 passenger
transporters already in service
and the order book bulging with
orders for 850 more all of
which accounts for about 60%
of the diesel hybrid bus market.
Daimler Bus, which makes
Orion, Setra, and Sprinter
buses for everything from
cross-country luxury touring
to municipal transit and airport
shuttle services, operates
completely differently to its
largest competitor.
Daimler builds the buses and
then works with BAE Systems
to install its HybriDrive hybrid
technology in its line of Orion
VII transit buses, systems that
replace lead-acid or Ni-MH
batters with lighter, more
efcient lithium-ion batteries.
Daimler Bus says that the
replacement of older batteries
with lithium-ion in the Orion
VII series saves as much as 1.5
tons of weight per bus. With a
six-year design life, the lithium-
ion batteries save maintenance
and tooling costs, as well as fuel
costs, brake life, and battery
replacement overheads while
pushing up occupancy and fuel
mileage. The company says that
with lithium-ion batteries, fuel
economy increases from about
3mpg to more than 5mpg, and
that each bus will save its
system operator 30,000 gallons
of fuel over the lifetime of each
bus, plus 300 tons of CO
1 ton of NOx per bus.
Solid relationship
Daimler and BAE Systems
started their partnership in
1996, put their rst buses into
service in 1998, and have
accumulated more than 100
million miles of passenger
service so far. Statistics show
that their eet has saved
around 5,000,000 gallons of
diesel fuel and reduced carbon
dioxide emissions by more
than 50,000 tons as of the third
quarter of 2009.
Depending on the
application, the propulsion
system can be installed
longitudinally or transversely in
the chassis, with the batteries
stored on the roof along with
the control electronics package.
The Daimler/BAE system is a
series installation using a fairly
small but efcient Cummins
5.9-liter diesel V8 engine.
Daimler Buss Bryan Allen
says that New York City,
Toronto, Seattle, and Houston
are major centers of hybrid bus
operation for the company. The
city of San Francisco is the
companys largest-volume
customer, operating the third
largest eet of hybrid buses in
North America after New York
and Toronto. The New York City
Transit Authority (NYCTA)
statistics show that the Daimler
hybrid buses in service are
averaging almost three times
the reliability of conventional
diesels with a mean time
between failure (MTBF) of
approximately 12,000 miles.
NYCTA also reports that its
1,200-strong eet of diesel
hybrid buses has accumulated
more than 20 million miles of
operation, adding about 45,000
miles every day, and has saved
more than 2,000,000 gallons
of diesel fuel while decreasing
harmful carbon emissions by
26,000 tons so far.
San Franciscos various
governmental and transit
agencies, which always lean left
and green, have committed to
a program that will yield zero
emissions from public transit
by 2020, and San Francisco is
looking at additional ways to
lower emissions, including the
adoption of B20 biodiesel fuels
for both diesel and hybrid buses
as well as a small experimental
eet of buses using hydrogen
fuel cells. The San Francisco
Municipal Transit Authority
(SFMTA) says that its hybrid
buses are designed to reduce
particulate emissions by 95%,
nitrogen oxides by 40%, and
greenhouse gas emissions by
30% compared to traditional
diesel transit buses. And all
this comes with a combined
overall fuel economy
improvement of 30%.
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
Above and below: The Mercedes-Benz Citaro FuelCELL was unveiled in 2009. Daimler says that thirty of these new buses, which
have a range of 155 miles, will be going into service by the end of 2010, with the rst 10 going to the city of Hamburg in Germany
Orion hybrid buses feature hybrid drive
diesel-electric propulsion systems
Daimlers Orion buses make use of
hybrid technology from BAE Systems
New Citaro G BlueTec Hybrid Mercedes-
Benz buses in operation in Germany
The range-topping Setra bus from
Daimler has won numerous awards
We provide electric drivetrain technology
for environmentally friendly, sustainable mobility.
BRUSA Elektronik AG
CH-9466 Sennwald
Branching out
When General Motors
committed its resources to a
hybrid program several years
ago, its stated intent was to start
its programs with a vehicle that
could move the most people
with minimal emissions output,
while also downsizing its
systems. Working with its then
Allison Transmission division,
it did just that, deploying eets
of diesel hybrid transit buses
in the cities of New York,
San Francisco, and Denver.
Its hybrid systems proved to
be robust and efcient so almost
immediately afterward, GM
started to produce much smaller
hybrids, single- and two-mode
units in SUV and pickup trucks,
followed by hybrid technology
for some Chevrolet and Saturn
passenger cars. Unlike Daimler,
which builds its own chassis
and body around the BAE
hybrid systems, Allison supplies
the complete hybrid system,
electronic controls, and driver
controls to various bus
Allison Transmission, which
was a part of General Motors
between 1929 and 2007, was
sold to two venture capital
groups Carlisle and Onyx
in 2008. Allison has delivered
2,648 hybrid bus propulsion
systems to date. The systems
consist of the same type of
Panasonic Ni-MH storage
batteries used in the Toyota
Prius, plus power electronics,
innitely variable controllers,
and drive motors. They are
capable of either series or
parallel operation in low-speed
and high-speed modes.
These systems have gone into
hybrid buses in 116 cities in 35
states and provinces in North
America, and 14 cities in other
countries. Allison Transmission,
in partnership with the US
Department of Energy (DOE),
has developed the propulsion
system under the DOEs
Advanced Heavy Hybrid
Propulsion System (AH2PS)
program. The GM Allison
Hybrid Bus delivers a 90%
reduction in nitrous oxide
while achieving 50% better
acceleration than a bus
equipped with a normal diesel
powertrain. AH2PS-developed
technologies were projected to
save 20 million barrels of oil a
year in 2010 and 250 million
barrels a year of oil in 2020.
The Allison hybrid systems,
most coupled to lightweight,
small-displacement Cummins
diesel powertrains, have
accumulated 166 million miles
in daily passenger service so
far, but only two battery
systems out of a possible
300 operating in Seattle and
Washington have reached
their six-year replacement life.
Allison spokesman Chris Collet
says that, taken together, the
Allison diesel/electric hybrid
systems in service have saved
8.8 million gallons of diesel
fuel and kept 87,000 metric
tons of CO
from entering the
atmosphere. The company
recently set a record by
delivering 200 systems in
a single month from its
Indianapolis headquarters.
Allison is proud, Collet says,
that the systems are the same
basic design as the rst ones
introduced when Seattle took
delivery of 235 hybrid buses in
2004 to save on replacement
parts costs.
Above and all below: Hybrid buses from General Motors are in operation across a variety of states and cities in the USA, including New York, Detroit, Seattle and California
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
Allison recently delivered
10 such systems, mounted in
Optare Tempo bus chassis, for a
hybrid bus test program taking
place in one of the busiest and
most complex public transit
systems in the world: London.
The Lord Mayors ofce expects
a 60% reduction in emissions
by 2025 using hybrids.
Tom Stephens, former group
vice president of GM Powertrain
and now the companys vice-
chairman, is under no illusions
about the technology, when he
says, The parallel hybrid
electric system is the most
efcient hybrid architecture
available in the world today. In
addition to bringing the benets
of hybrid electric technology to
commercial vehicles, the Allison
electric drive system is helping
to establish hybrid technologies
as effective, practical, and
commercially viable beyond
mass transit applications.
But where do all of these
municipal and regional transit
authorities get the millions of
dollars they need to buy new
diesel hybrid buses? The answer
is mostly from federal, state, and
local government transportation
and environmental agencies.
President Obamas American
Recovery and Reinvestment Act
(ARRA) totals more than
US$700 billion, of which
US$20 billion is earmarked
for transportation and transit
system improvements. Of that
goldmine, more than US$2
billion is dedicated to the
purchase of hybrid buses, and
that money will lter down to
communities large and small
across the country.
As a result, the US federal
government is engrossed in the
development and proliferation
of hybrid electric buses, as two
of the Obama administrations
highest-ranking transportation
ofcials explained: Hybrid
electric buses cost about
US$150,000 more than a
comparable diesel bus, but
studies show that in the long
run they can be less expensive
under certain operating
situations because of their
lower fuel and maintenance
costs, explains transportation
secretary Ray LaHood. And,
of course, there is the added
benet of lower greenhouse
gas emissions.
On the subject of paying for
expensive eets of equipment
across the country, Peter Rogoff,
administrator of the Federal
Transit Administration, says,
To help transit agencies to
get over that initial hurdle of
paying US$450,000-500,000
for a hybrid electric bus instead
of US$300,000-350,000 for
a comparable diesel bus, were
considering a number of
incentives, including giving
a higher federal share if
companies purchase a hybrid
electric bus than for a diesel.
We also support doing more
research and development
toward reducing the overall cost
of maintaining a hybrid electric
bus eet, he adds.
With such a supportive
infrastructure in place, its easy
to see why the critics that once
criticized the very expensive
hybrid bus technology are
quickly doing U-turns. E&H
Hybrid electric buses cost around US$150,000
more than a comparable diesel bus, but it can be
less expensive under certain operating situations
GMs two-mode hybrid transmission is to be installed in a number of vehicles, such
as the Chevrolet Tahoe, but the same type of technology can also power small buses
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
A handful of US cities were using clean public transit
methods long before there was a national demand for
such systems. In older eastern cities such as Boston
and Philadelphia, electric trolleys have been in
continuous use since the 1920s. Like in many
European cities, these trolleys use steel tracks in the
roadway and overhead electric power delivery lines.
But because developing the infrastructure across the
USA would be so expensive, there is no real future in
electric trolley cars in the country.
There is also in those same cities widespread use of
trackless trolleys transit buses that use the same
overhead lines but run on rubber tires and require
drivers rather than conductors to stop, start, and steer.
The electrical infrastructure is already in place, and the
buses are generally larger and quieter than the trolleys
that run on steel rails.
In smaller cities, there is also growing use of CNG for
transit and smaller regional buses, using conversion
kits for diesel and gasoline engines in everything from
airport-transfer buses to small transit buses.
In even smaller communities, there are experimental
eets of lightweight pure-electric buses such as the
37-passenger UQM/Proterra EB35, which the
companies claim can charge and recharge completely
in around 10 minutes, and reclaim up to 90% of
braking energy for propulsion.
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Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Industry experts agree that DCTs will win most
market share in the next ve years, but will
hybrid transmissions be the long-term choice
for car makers, suppliers and consumers?
Geared for
the future
For many, hybrid transmissions represent the
nal frontier in gearbox development, but
just where does the industry stand in terms
of mass production? E&H investigates
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
Allison Transmission
The technology: Having spun out of General Motors over a year
ago, Allison is now helping to lead the way in developing hybrid
transmissions for the commercial and military sector applications.
The US-based supplier has just taken the covers off its EV drive
unit thats not too different to the companys Torqmatic Series
transmission. Equipped with three planetary gears, two clutches,
and two motors/generators (100bhp) in a concentric arrangement,
the unit enables the front electrical machine to act as a starter.
Designed to be a two-mode
electrically variable transmission
with an input-split range and a
compound-split range, the EV
drive is similar in size and
weight to the Allison 4000
Series automatic and mounts
like the 3000 Series automatic,
simplifying integration into
existing vehicle applications.
Flybrid Systems are the
leading developer of high-
speed fywheel based Kinetic
Energy Recovery Systems
(KERS) for motorsport and
road vehicle application.
Fully mechanical KERS
Electro mechanical KERS (NEW)
Small and light systems
High efciency energy storage
Full vehicle life at full power
Big emission reductions
Low cost

January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
The technology: The worlds
leading producer of CVTs,
Jatco, has recently started to
expand its R&D work to
include hybrid transmissions.
Showcased at this years
Tokyo Motor Show was the
Japanese suppliers new unit
specically designed for hybrid
vehicles. Company ofcials
continue to remain tight-lipped
about the new innovation, but
E&H can reveal the transmission is a parallel type, with one motor
and two clutches, capable of independent drive. Jatco says that
such a setup realizes superior vehicle mounting capability through
housing the motor and clutch in the torque
converter space.
The technology: The worlds largest independent manufacturer
of automotive transmissions, Getrag, used this years Frankfurt
Motor Show to debut two new solutions for hybrid electric
vehicles. Housed in a Mini Clubman demonstrator vehicle,
Getrag unveiled a new DCT featuring an additional electric
motor that the German company says enables the vehicle to
be operated as a hybrid, with the e-motor supporting the IC
engine. As a further development of the hybrid concept, Getrag
also presented an electric Smart ForTwo in which the IC engine
has been replaced by an
electric drivetrain. The
two-speed transmission
also makes it possible
to fully operate the
e-motor at a higher
performance level than
with a single-speed
transmission, enhancing
efciency and increasing
the vehicles range.
The technology: BorgWarners eGearDrive transmission
continues to gather momentum, with the supplier
announcing that its technology will feature in the
all-electric Coda sedan, which is scheduled for
introduction in California in 2010. Ideally suited for
full-performance EVs on either front-wheel drive or
rear-wheel drive transverse driveline applications, the
BorgWarner eGearDrive single-speed transmission
delivers high torque capacity, high efciency, and low
NVH in a compact
package. Paired with
a UQM Technologies
electric propulsion
system, the BorgWarner
eGearDrive unit will
propel the ve-passenger
CODA sedan at highway
speeds while providing
maximum powertrain efciency.
LiFeBATT Lithium Iron Phosphate battery modules are equipped with
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ensure optimum performance. LiFeBATT batteries are a safe, powerful
and reliable energy solution. Offering low maintenance, cost effective and
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Setting new standards in LiFePO4 technology
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U.S. Distribution:
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UK, Ireland, France, Netherlands,
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and Portugal
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Sweden, Denmark, Finland,
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With the release of our second generation cell technology, LiFeBATT are now able to
offer improved Energy and Power type LiFePO4 cells. This combined with our proven cell
management and modular battery system technology, ensures our products exceed the
ever demanding safety and performance criteria of vehicle OEMs.
Our modular, scalable system approach means that we can deliver systems of any
voltage and capacity from 1kWh for a micro hybrid to 200kWh for a full EV bus. The
system can also be configured for use in other applications such as Standby Power,
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Our diverse customer base includes Hybrid, PHEV, HEV, marine propulsion systems and
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Our new Rapid Prototype battery modules and CAN vehicle integration, allow EV
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We offer flexible warranty terms in both time and cycle life in order to meet our
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We are fully licensed by the patent holder Phostech Lithium Inc.
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
Drivetrain Innovations
The technology: This
blossoming R&D company in
the Netherlands has come up
with a new and innovative
transmission development.
Known as the Hybrid CVT,
DTIs module combines the
benets of a mild hybrid CVT
with those of a peak-shaving
ywheel. The advanced module
transforms a pulley CVT into a
fuel-efcient, high-performance, and cost-effective hybrid
transmission. According to the company, the Hybrid CVT has
numerous benets over rival hybrid transmissions, including low
manufacturing and investment cost, a design thats based on
existing transmission designs, low battery power demands and
longer battery life, high ywheel power assist and fast engine
start, high top speed, towing, and electric maneuvering.
The technology: A novel multispeed transmission for EV applications has been
developed by this growing UK-based supplier and early simulation studies
show that the innovation could reduce battery energy consumption by 10%
without there being much increase in cost and packaging. The heart of the
system is a gear-shifting concept, based on twin-shaft principles, which enables
the ratio to be changed with no break in torque delivery. Vocis engineers
are also developing new, high-precision
electromechanical actuators for the unit
that work with the battery voltage to give
improved efciency. If it works the
technology will be installed in demonstrator
vehicles by the end of the year the potential
of the technology could be great, with
benets being zero torque interruption during
shifts, lower additional losses than with a
single-speed transmission, and scalability to
any practical number of ratios.
The technology: ZF is also working hard on hybrid transmissions.
The German suppliers new eight-speed unit might be the rst
multiratio transmission to provide for a stop/start function without
an auxiliary pump, but even so, the company says that installing
a full hybrid version of the eight-speed auto is no problem and
requires no modications to the basic design, with the eight-
speed hybrid box being designed for all current hybrid functionalities.
The electric motor, clutch, torsional vibration damper, and
hydraulics for a full hybrid concept have been tted in the
transmission in a space-saving
package. In fact, ZF insists
that the eight-speed auto as a
full hybrid requires the same
installation space as a
conventional version. Even
a mild hybrid with a starter
generator (ZFs DynaStart)
can be easily installed in
the transmission regardless
of installation space.
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
The technology: Heralded by many analysts as a leader in hybrid
transmissions development, Aisin has been working extremely
hard in this area over the past decade. Two new innovations have
caught the eye this year: the rst is the HR-10F, a 4WD hybrid
transmission that the supplier says realizes vehicle performance
thats on a par with V12 engines but with the fuel efciency of
3-liter class vehicles. The HR-10F also boasts extreme quietness
due to the reduction of radiated sound and vibration transmission
by advanced analyzing technology, making this unit ideal for high-
end, luxury vehicles. Aisins second noteworthy development is a
FWD two-motor hybrid system that features high-performance
inverters within a compact package. The technology operates
due to the transaxle containing
two motors and two inverters for
traction and generation. Higher
output from the generator is
made possible by adopting a
booster and pressure rising
control, and low fuel consumption
control is realized by means of
optimum-engine operation and
brake-energy regeneration.
The technology: The problems
of additional weight and cost
associated with conventional
hybrid-electric powertrains may
be reduced by using simpler
mechanical ywheel systems,
according to full-toroidal traction
drive specialist Torotrak.
Manufacturers striving to reduce
emissions from buses and
urban commercial vehicles have
carried out numerous trials using hybrid-electric powertrains with
regenerative braking. Such systems have a great cost penalty;
in some cases doubling the price of the base vehicle. Torotrak
says a more cost-effective approach is to use ywheel hybrid
technology similar to that developed for Formula 1 racing. As well
as the economic benet, these systems have the potential to
deliver fuel savings of more than 20% over the UK bus test cycle
and to package around the existing powertrain without drastic
redesign of the base vehicle. Compared with conventional
electric hybrids, ywheel-based mechanical hybrid systems offer
a much shorter payback time on investment, explains Torotraks
engineering director, Roger Stone. They are also a fundamentally
more efcient approach as energy remains in the mechanical
state. With electrical regeneration there is an efciency loss at
each state change from mechanical to electrical to chemical
and back again. The basic architecture of a mechanical hybrid is
a lightweight, high-speed ywheel connected via a CVT to the
base powertrain. The CVT accommodates the large speed
variations between the ywheel and the driveline while permitting
the exchange of mechanical energy in either direction.
Schaefer Group and LuK
The technology: Codenamed the Electronic Shift Gearbox,
LuKs concept works by making use of a starter alternator thats
connected to one of the transmission intake shafts, enabling the
alternator to take on several functions. For example, when driving
normally the alternator serves as a replacement for the dynamo. It
may also replace the starter and therefore re the engine into life
via the gearbox, enabling a stop/start function. When braking,
LuKs ESG can disconnect from the engine and use as much as
energy as possible to charge the battery. One noteworthy feature
is that the starter alternator is also able to move an A/C compressor,
driven by the same shaft,
also guaranteeing a pleasant
climate inside the vehicle when
the engine is switched off.
Although LuK says this
concept is one for the future,
the German supplier says its
tomorrows world technology
can reduce fuel consumption
by as much as 20% over a
manual gearbox.
BMW Vision
2 0 0 9
An 18-page focus on the changing engine machining and manufacturing sector
Green and mean: Vision Ef cientDynamics an
eco-friendly concept with M3-beating power
Advanced fastening
How new fasteners, screws and bolts are
contributing to powertrain breakthroughs
Downsizing in Detroit
Are GM, Ford and Chrysler nally
prepared to swap V8s for four cylinders?
July 2009
Dr Ulrich Eichhorn Head of engineering, Bentley
Thomas Fritz Director of engineering,
Fisker Automotive
Mathias Wechlin Senior product manager, Conductix-Wampfler
The inside track on tomorrows eco-friendly vehicles from Mercedes
Exclusive interview with Christian Mohrdieck, head of fuel cell and battery drive system development, Daimler
The future for hybrids Is the game already over for diesel hybrid powertrains?
Development technologies A look at how testing programs are evolving to encompass hybrid and electric vehicles
Green motorsport
The story behind the
worlds first ever zero-
carbon grand prix
e l e c t r i c & h y b r i d v e h i c l e t e c h n o l o g y i n t e r n a t i o n a l J u l y 2 0 0 9
e d i a & E v e n t s L t d
case studies Bentley Continental Supersports Mitsubishi MIeV | BYD e6 GM hydrogen fuel cell
Whats new? ZF and Porsches all-new
seven-speed DCT unit
Hyundais innovative
six-speed automatic Who is leading the way
in hybrid concepts?
Franois Gougeon, director
of engineering for transmissions
projects, Renault Jrgen Greiner, head of
product development, ZF Dr Harald Maelger, global
OEM manager, Afton Chemical
Roger Stone, engineering
director, Torotrak
e Find out what the future
holds for the global
transmissions industry INTERVIEWS
Headaches aplenty for engine
makers having to meet
varying legislation Export goods:
Chinas leading car makers are
thinking global with European and
north American markets in their sight
Ken weisman, executive vice
presdient, ricardo shanghai
Hong Chen, president, sAic
John, parker, executive vice president,
Asia pacifc, Ford
How the worlds fastest growing automotive marketing
is embracing new powertrain technologies
For further information contact Simon Willard on
+44 1306 743744 or email at
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Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Words: Max Glaskin
Batteries remain the nal engineering hurdle to overcome
before realizing mass-market electric vehicles, but help
is at hand from several suppliers that are forging ahead
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
Our all-aqueous production process
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With car makers and
governments around the globe
seemingly galvanized by the
idea of batteries providing some
or all of the motive power for a
large number of road vehicles,
battery technologists now have
the motivation to make large,
engineering strides.
Axeon supplies lithium iron
phosphate prismatic cells,
which have an energy density of
just under 100Wh/kg, mainly to
Modec and Allied Vehicles.
Now, in collaboration with
Allied and Ricardo and also
supported by the UKs
Technology Strategy Board to
the tune of US$2.4 million
the company, which is based
in Dundee, Scotland, is
investigating nickel cobalt
manganese (NCM) chemistry
because it promises huge
improvement to 170Wh/kg.
Were looking at cells of up
to 200Ah that are packaged
more efficiently, boasts Dr
Allan Paterson, Axeons senior
electrochemical engineer. They
are very flat and therefore
efficient for heat propagation.
The cell volume would be 40%
less and the mass would be 25%
less these are considerable
gains that would help to move
us from electric delivery vans
to consumer vehicles.
During the next 20 months,
Axeon will engineer and
construct the battery system,
and perform cell testing for
calibration and electronic
system integration. The less
stable NCM chemistry will
require a more sophisticated
and robust management system
and this will be developed by
Ricardo, with Allied providing
a brand new vehicle platform.
But prototypes will still be
the order of the day until
about 2012, according to Mark
Donaghy, the global marketing
manager at Valence, which is
based in Austin, Texas. The US
developer has supplied more
than 76MWh of energy storage
since 2005 the equivalent of
5,000 electric vehicles on the
road using its lithium iron
magnesium phosphate cells. It
takes seven years to design and
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
Batteries might be the biggest engineering challenge that the
automotive industry faces in making electric vehicles mass market,
but just as important are infrastructure and charging points. Yet
unlike the battery conundrum, car makers and suppliers will have to
work with governments, energy suppliers and city/town planners
to ensure that the new, electric breed of eco-friendly vehicles have
the juice to run.
One of the most noteworthy announcements of 2009 was
Better Place agreeing to work with Renault to offer a fast
alternative to public recharging points which will result in a
two-minute battery swap, say the partners. The California-
headquartered developer will distribute at least 100,000 Renault
Fluence ZE saloons in Israel and Denmark by 2016, and will
support Quickdrop locations where a driver can exchange their
depleted power pack for one that is fully charged.
Elsewhere, Coulomb Technologies is striking deals to install
charging points across both the USA and Europe. Within a year of
launching its Chargepoint stations, the company has completed
more than 140 installations on a global basis and has since
announced further contracts in Norway and Germany, as well as
Above: An assortment of different lithium-ion cells from Axeon. The UK-based supplier is now developing cells of up to 200Ah
Below: Valences U-Charge battery modules offer twice the run-time and nearly half the weight of similar sized lead-acid batteries
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becoming Smarts preferred supplier in the USA. In fact, US energy
suppliers such as Coulomb have promised to be extremely proactive
in creating a suitable infrastructure for electric vehicles. The Edison
Electric Institute, which represents 70% of the electric power
industry, has made a impressive ve-point pledge with the overall
goal of advancing transportation electrication. To say that the US
automotive industry wants to lead the way in electrication vehicles
is an understatement.
In Europe, German car makers BMW, Daimler, and Volkswagen
have proposed global standardization for the charging infrastructure,
including one worldwide standard for smart charge communication,
as well as a proposed pathway for harmonizing the two main
standards for AC chargers and infrastructure. Whats needed here
is a worldwide standard that denes down to bit and byte level
what needs to be implemented on both sides, insists Werner
Preuschoff, a senior manager in Daimlers research and advanced
engineering group.
At the same time, in the UK, the Joined-Cities Plan announced by
the Energy Technologies Institute (ETI) aims to help cities across the
nation deploy a cost-effective and compatible network of recharging
points. The US$18 million plan will support the roll-out of a single
national network that will ultimately enable plug-in vehicles to be
build a car and get it into
production so companies are
seriously starting to line up
their programs and suppliers
for seven years from today,
says Donaghy. Some are
even talking about volumes
for 2020, he adds.
Valence is targeting Tier 1s,
including selling licenses to the
intellectual property for its
battery management system
(BMS). There will be no quick
wins in this market, says
Valences marketing manager.
There will be consolidation and
even some OEMs developing
their own technologies.
LiFeBATT has focused on
making two kinds of cells, one
that is power dense and the
other that is energy dense. We
havent gone for the extremes in
either because we want to
provide a cell that we can
guarantee, and that is
commercially viable right
now, explains Ian Goodman
of LiFeBATT at the UK ofce of
the US company that is based
in Danville, Virginia. We do
have an ongoing development
program that includes making
improvements at least every
12 months in our baseline
technology but, again, it is
always going to be slightly
conservative so that the product
can be guaranteed.
LiFeBATT will make more
than one million lithium iron
phosphate cells this year at its
factory in Taiwan. Its power-
dense version is 3.3V, 8Ah, has
a weight density of 80Wh/kg,
and is capable of 200A deep
discharge. In comparison, the
energy dense version is 3.3V,
15Ah and has a weight density
of 105Wh/kg. Somebody has
to be out there pushing the
envelope and to a degree that is
what wed want to do, but
ultimately we have to be
realistic about what people want
right now, says Goodman.
Since 1993, the mainstay of
EVB Technology, a Hong Kong
member of the Gold Peak
Group, has been nickel-metal
hydride batteries, but a great
change began in 2008. People
became more interested in
lithium iron phosphate batteries
so we developed our own, says
EVBs business development
director Kevin Yiu. Customers
find that the performance
characteristics of LiFePO4
appealing but, then after
experiencing its limitations
and the complexity of the
monitoring it requires, they
often switch to Ni-MH. To
manage the battery system
effectively, every single lithium
cell must be monitored for
voltage, temperature, current,
and internal resistance. Ni-MH
batteries, however, can be
monitored by the module,
which includes 10 or 12 cells,
meaning that an EV such as
the Vitrix scooter has 42 data
collection points when powered
by LiFePO4 cells, or just 10 if
the cells are Ni-MH.
It is this monitoring that
makes lithium systems more
expensive. The lithium cells
themselves are cheaper, Yiu
points out. They cost about
US$600-800 per kWh, whereas
NiMH costs US$700-900. But
when you add all the electronic
monitoring and data processing,
the lithium works out at about
20-30% more.
Compact Power, based in
Troy, Michigan, focuses on
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
Above: Compact powers LiPB cell
Left: GM engineer tests a hybrid battery
easily used and recharged
anywhere. Just as impressive is
that ETI has also formed an
advisory group of system
integrators and major vehicle
recharging network providers,
including IBM, Siemens,
Elektromotive, and 365 Energy
to name just a few.
Across the English Channel,
the French government is
investing US$2.2 billion in
infrastructure to support the two
million electric vehicles and
hybrid electric vehicles it wants
to see on French roads by 2020.
The plan is for one million
charging points to be installed
by 2015, with 90% of them
being installed in private homes.
The hope is for the network to
then grow to four million
charging points by 2020.
The Frankfurt Motor Show was the ideal stage for VWs
launch of the E-Up! The 3+1 EV has 240kg of lithium-ion cells
with a capacity of 18kWh, and a claimed range of up to
130km. A ve-hour recharge time is the maximum forecast
from a 230V household outlet, although 80% capacity could
be achieved in an hour. Owners can program the charging
period to benet from cheap electricity prices overnight, and
VW foresees the possibility of controlling charging remotely
via a smartphone. The cells are housed in a tray in the
underbody frame, with heat exchangers and fans to the fore.
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
lithium-ion batteries for HEVs.
Damian Gardley, Compact
Powers director of sales and
marketing, says OEMs are now
talking of demand for hundreds
of thousands of units, and his
company has worked on
programs with GM, Ford, and
Chrysler. Were working on a
program right now to try to
bring an affordable PHEV pack
to market in 2013, therefore
getting pricing down by a factor
of two or four, reveals Gardley.
It should fall considerably from
the current price of US$1,000
per kWh.
And whereas most battery
producers have their
foundations in electronics,
Compact Power is rooted in
chemistry. A lot of our R&D
funding is spent on finding the
next-generation chemistries,
such as manganese spinel, that
may give us higher power
density and more energy,
explains Gardley.
International Battery has also
been focusing on lithium-ion
batteries, in large format to reap
the benefits of scale from 40Ah
and 200Ah. The company has
also opted for water-based
production so that it does
not incur the costs and
environmental hazards of using
solvents. We are chemistry
agnostic, says John Battaglini,
vice president for business
development and sales. We use
lithium iron phosphate and
nickel cobalt manganese, but we
are also looking to implement
other chemistries. As new
materials enter the market, we
are always looking to improve.
One company offering a BMS
technology irrespective of the
chemistry of the lithium-ion
cells is Lithium Balance. It can
take the equivalent of 300 years
work to design one battery
pack, a lot of which is spent
conditioning the pack because
the automotive companies have
come up with an unrealistic goal
of having a 10-year pack life,
says Tunji Adebusuyi, Lithium
Balances marketing manager. If
people believe batteries will get
better and will come down in
price then it might be an idea to
have a goal that is more modest.
Considering that vehicle
owners may want to change
battery packs before the 10-year
warranty expires, Lithium
Balance believes it would be
beneficial if the BMS systems
were sufficiently versatile to
cope with cells other than the
originals. BMS failure will
not be an option, warns
Adebusuyi. E&H
International Battery has been working on Li-ion batteries in large format in order to reap the benets of scale from 40Ah and 200Ah
propels the future
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Over 30 years of experience in the design,
research, and production of lithium-ion batteries,
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Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Lone ranger
Despite announcing plans for numerous hybrid and electric
applications, BMW remains committed to building cars powered by hydrogen
Words: John Challen
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
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Europe: 44.1483.541000
Japan: 81.42.631.8680
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explains Wolfgang Strobl, the
general manager of CleanEnergy
and EfcientDynamics within
BMWs research and technology
group. So in 2000, the
technical status was frozen
and a quality process was
implemented. At the moment,
the engine can be driven by
gasoline, but in the long run
we will optimize the engine
dramatically and focus on
just one fuel: hydrogen.
There is little doubt that the
Hydrogen 7 project is one of the
greatest powertrain challenges
BMW has set itself. Strobl
admits that problems regarding
fuel delivery mean his research
and development team is
currently exploring both
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
While most car makers are
hurriedly pushing through plug-
in electric vehicle programs that
will result in a new breed of
eco-friendly vehicles hitting our
roads within the next ve years,
BMWs hydrogen-fueled vision
remains much the same as it did
at the turn of the millennium.
Now armed with data from four
million test miles completed in
a eet of 100 7 Series sedans
equipped with 6-liter hydrogen-
fed IC engines, BMWs
powertrain engineers are about
to take hydrogen technology to
the next level, in the form of
several new, exciting projects.
In the Hydrogen 7s engine
development, the most
important element is quality,
BMW says that development on its auxiliary power unit (APU)
for fuel cell cars continues despite work on this system
having started over a decade ago with United Technologies.
One fuel cell can provide 100W, which means you need 500
cells for one system, explains Strobl. That is more complex
in the long run, but for replacing the alternator and battery, a
small fuel cell APU would be an interesting development.
Our objective is to do the APU series production
development for the Hydrogen 7. We have solved many
problems recently and have achieved lifetime figures of 5,000
hours, which was one important task. Strobl also claims that
the BMW engineers have got over the hurdle of cold starts
and operating in subzero temperatures. However, as patents
are still pending, nothing can be announced until next year.
In the Hydrogen 7s engine
development, the most
important element is quality
Having overcome several major engineering
challenges and undertaken eet trials in
California, BMW is now ready to move to the
next stage with its hydrogen-fueled vision
BMW is currently looking at optimizing the weight of the Hydrogen 7s tank system
compressed and liquid
hydrogen forms. And whichever
route the company takes
will affect storage, so tank
development is a priority
for Strobl: We are currently
running a research program to
optimize the weight of the tank
system, using a high-pressure
gas tank and a liquid hydrogen
gas tank system.
The combination of both
technologies enables the tanks
to have better boil-off rates.
The normal lightweight liquid
hydrogen system will always be
a problem for customers who
dont drive regularly [because of
evaporation rates], and for those
customers we are developing
another system, which is a
combination of a hydrogen tank
Rumors from Munich suggest that the next hydrogen car will be based on a 3 Series
and a pressurized tank system.
According to Strobl, this latter
tank can extend boil-off times
from 3 days to 10 days.
The tanks are constructed of
a combination of steel and
carbon-reinforced plastics,
and BMW is currently testing
different combinations, with the
nal product likely to appear in
two years time. The specic
volume for the cryogenic
pressurized tank will be similar
to Hydrogen 7s [8kg/170-liter]
tank, says Strobl. For each
type of hydrogen storage we
need four times the volume
used for gasoline and up to
seven times the volume needed
for compressed hydrogen, either
at 350 bar or 700 bar.
Strobl says the aim is to use
no more than 1kg of hydrogen
per 100km, giving a theoretical
range of 800km.
Although rumored to be
based on a 3 Series, the next
BMW hydrogen car has not yet
been ofcially decided, but one
thing is certain: it wont be
another 12-cylinder-powered
vehicle, says Strobl. In
2000, we needed a big car
to accommodate the extra
hydrogen tank. We needed a
bigger engine for bi-fuel
operation and we were looking
at 30-50kW of power per liter,
which meant the 6-liter engine
in the Hydrogen 7 Series offered
around 190kW. We will most
likely replace the 12-cylinder
engine with a smaller, four-
cylinder engine.
But results from BMWs recent
evaluations show that there is a
possibility that the engine could
be smaller still. Our research
on single cylinder data has
enabled us to reach maximum
power output of 100kW per
liter of engine displacement,
reveals Strobl. Our specic
value is normally the number of
kilowatts per liter of engine
displacement, and we reached
50kW on a single cylinder
(500cc), which means we
reached 100kW per one liter
of engine displacement.
You usually need two
cylinders for one liter.
Based on the
existing engine in the
Hydrogen 7, this
would give the car
600kW and nearly
1,000bhp! We are
aiming for a 100-
200kW engine, so a
two- or three-cylinder
engine will be enough
in the long term. E&H
BMW will trade the current 12-cylinder
for a smaller four-cylinder in the next
hydrogen technology demonstrator
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Before the excitement of fuel cells is fully realized, BMW like
many others is investing time and capital in creating hybrid
products. The plug-in Vision EfcientDynamics concept may
have been the star attraction at the Frankfurt Motor Show, but
for Strobls colleague Wolfgang Nehse, department manager
in charge of drivability and functional assessment, the main
focus is the ActiveHybrid 7 Series and X6 models. The two
vehicles use different hybrid systems, with the 7 Series
deploying the same mild hybrid architecture that features in
Mercedes S400 petrol-electric. Perhaps most noteworthy is
that the ActiveHybrid 7 is the rst car in the world to combine
a V8 petrol engine, a three-phase synchronous electric motor,
and eight-speed transmission (supplied by ZF). Meanwhile,
the full hybrid ActiveHybrid X6 features two electric motors
one mounted on each axle and can run in electric-only
mode at up to 60km/h for up to 3km.
Nehse explains why two different systems were used in the
cars: packaging and driver preference. One reason we
decided to use the (mild hybrid) system in the 7 Series was
because there is not much room in a normal limousine. The
battery pack needed to allow the possibility of electric-only
driving, says Nehse, which would take up too much valuable
space in the trunk. It was a case of a 40-liter battery pack,
versus 120-liter.
The other reason [for the two systems] is that with a four-
wheel-drive car you can recuperate energy with all four
wheels; with a two-wheel-drive [in the sedan] there is only
one driven axle, so you dont need as much power from the
generator or electric engine.
These two vehicles highlight BMWs hybrid capabilities, but
Nehse is also aware of future goals and products. The next
step will be to introduce a hybrid version of the 5 Series,
probably using the 7 Series mild hybrid system. Based on
the savings of up to 20% that are made on the ActiveHybrid
models, Nehse says a hybridized 5 Series would consume as
much fuel as a current 3 Series.
Batteries are a major talking point at BMW, with Ni-MH
cells in the X6 and Li-ion for the 7 Series. And then there is
lithium polymer, as seen in the stunning EfcientDynamics
concept. Lithium polymer is too early in its development at
the moment to be used on these cars, warns Nehse. Nickel-
metal hydride and lithium-ion are both on the market. We
know with lithium technology there is a high power output
and maybe in turn this technology will have a bigger capacity
to drive effectively. If we look at all the cars able to drive with
electric energy, they all use Ni-MH. At the moment this is the
only way to drive electronically, but using lithium technology
we are developing other systems, ultimately to ensure future
hybrid cars have safe batteries.
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Home run
Famed for Silicon Valley, California now boasts the only US mine
with the vital ingredients to power hybrid and electric vehicles
To the untrained eye, it is
just another Californian colliery,
but Molycorps mine at
Mountain Pass is remarkable,
for it is the only one in the USA
that contains rare earths, two of
which - neodymium and
lanthanum are vital to global
hybrid and electric vehicles
Demand for these precious
resources is growing by the day.
Take the worlds most famous
hybrid and electric vehicle, the
Toyota Prius, for example. Each
Prius is powered by a
permanent magnet direct
current (PMDC) motor that
requires 2.2 lb of neodymium in
its electric motor magnets and
30 lb of lanthanum in each
battery. In fact, demand is so
great for these rare earths that
Molycorps CEO, Mark Smith,
to China to be converted into
metals, explains Smith. But
when private investors bought
out Chevron last year, it became
evident that, if we were going to
compete with China, we would
need to put an infrastructure in
place that would enable us to
convert the raw mined material
into a nished product. From
2012, well have the technology
in place to convert the rare
earth ore into oxide form and
the oxide into metal.
Smith, who has been
employed within the mining
industry for more than 20 years,
believes that Molycorps
decision to enter into a joint
venture with Arnold Magnets
will strengthen the companys
hand even further. Arnold will
prove invaluable, in both the
production and the marketing
phases, says the CEO.
For instance, each OEM that
enlists our services will have
slightly different recipes for
their magnets. Therefore, when
the metals are being ground up
into powder form, pressed, and
then heated into their nal
form, it is useful for us to be
able to seek the advice of a
major magnet distributor.
predicts that production will
increase threefold in just three
years time.
Our annual turnover right
now is around US$15 million,
but by 2012, we expect prots
to increase by US$300 million.
That will mean increasing the
workforce from 120 workers to
over 1,000 staff to ensure that
we produce the 40,000 tons of
rare earths every year needed to
satisfy car makers and Tier 1
suppliers alike.
But Molycorp, which was
purchased by a private
investment group last October,
realized that in a market where
97% of the worlds supply of
rare earths comes from China, it
would have to take further steps
to ensure its long-term survival.
Currently, the rare earths we
extract from the ground are sent
Mark Smith, CEO of Molycorp, helped
to nalize the JV with Arnold Magnets
Bosch Rexroths HRB system
is being tested on refuse trucks
in New York City and Berlin
Words: James Gordon
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
Located in California, Molycorps mine is the
only one in the USA that contains rare earths
Furthermore, their knowledge
of the big OEMs and major Tier
1s is what will really give us an
important edge.
With China consuming two-
thirds of its rare earth
production, Smith believes that
Molycorp is carving out a very
lucrative niche for itself: Every
year the Chinese government
limits rare-earth exports,
meaning that demand for the
minerals becomes even greater.
By becoming a manufacturer
of clean technology products
rather than just an extractor, we
will become a major player in
the chemical element market
and that can only be a good
thing for hybrid electric vehicle
Although Molycorps plant
will not be fully operational for
another three years, car makers
from across the world have been
lining up to place orders. The
interest has been phenomenal,
admits Smith. I can conrm
that weve been contacted by
every major automotive OEM
and we are due to have face-
to-face discussions with a
major US auto manufacturer
Furthermore, we have letters of
intent from many of the major
Tier 1 suppliers.
But due to our location on
the USAs west coast, and the
fact that Honda and Toyota are
the market leaders when it
comes to electric and hybrid
vehicle development, I would
expect most of our product to
be shipped to Japan.
And Molycorp is so condent
that it has the US section of the
minerals market cornered that it
is even recommending that
OEMs seek out the services of
rival mining operations.
Of course, we will never turn
car makers away, insists Smith.
However, if demand continues
to rise over the next two
decades, our production levels
at Mountainpass will simply be
unable to meet such demands.
Therefore, we are now
having to encourage OEMs to
approach other mines in
countries such as South Africa,
Australia, and China. That way,
those highly prized arcane
minerals that are so fundamental
in the production of hybrid
electric vehicles will remain
rare, but not extinct. After all,
the future of green technology
depends on them. E&H
Every year the
Chinese government
limits rare-earth
exports, meaning
that demand for the
minerals becomes
even greater
Despite Molycorps plant not being fully functional for another three years, car makers from across the world have been lining up to place orders for the rare earths material
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
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hybrid & electric vehicles
MWP Battery with Blance Kirchhoff Plate (B.K.P)
Higher nternal-Resistance(m) Lower nternal-Resistance(m)
Charge Time
(Unit: 1 sec)
Working: 16 sec Rest: 24 sec Cycle: 8
27C Engine Start Discharging Test
(700A Duty Cycle)
Entadespanuung bei verschiedenen SOCs,
bei RT, lmax=700A Giant Lion 12V/26Ah
Giant Lion 12V/26 Ah
450-460 W/kg
1100 W/Lit
18 sec. mittlere spezifische gravimetrische Entlade-
und Ladeleistung @ 70% SOC und 25
18 sec. mittlere spezifische volumetrische Entlade-
und Ladeleistung @ 70% SOC und 25
200Amp 3Minutes Quick Charge
Contact: Giant Lion Know-How Co., Ltd. Email:
Possible solutions of the Energy Independence and Security Act
For Stop-Start For PIug-In Hybrid Engine Generator Set Start
Physical Principles
12V/26AH Sealed VRLA Battery
Test Sample: MWP Power Battery
High CouIomb Discharge
Quick Charge
Application: Li/FePO4 Li/MnO2
Ni-MH VRLA {battery w/ two
terminals or four terminals)
Quick Charge Quick Charge Quick Charge Quick Charge
198 sec
From SOC 20% Up To 83%
For Stop-Start System
For B.E.V. PIug-In Hybrid
For H.E.V. F.C.E.V.
For Base Station UPS
For Renewable E.S.D.
Uninterruptible Combustion & Booster System (UCBS)
For Stop-StartFor Plug-In Hybrid Engine Generator Set Start
Possible solutions of the Energy Independence and Security Act
Shorten the starting time of engine
Fuel saving and pollution reduction when engine starts
Fuel saving and pollution reduction when battery voltage is low
Reduce the starting wear of engine
Use for emergency booster engine start
without UCS
with UCS
Battery Voltage
For gasoline engine
Assist start the engine in winter
low-temperature environment for
automobile, stop-start, engine
generator emergency start...
gnition or injection device with
constant voltage auxiliary electric
storage device.
Preventing degraded performance
of ignition or injection device by
battery voltage drop due to
motor-starting high current.
Engine Combustion System
with Bettery
Equipped with UCBS
Equipped with Ultra
Equipped with Double
Battery Capacity
Start time needed
HC reduction value
0 %
= 20 %
< 20 %
< 20 %
Start Battery Terminal Voltage in Engine starting
w/o UCBS w/ UCBS
10 20 30 40 50 60 cycle
Giant Lion Know-How Co., Ltd.
104 106
V106 V106
V600 V600
V104 V104
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
Life science
Could these eye-catching visuals which make up the
LA Auto Shows Design Challenge hold the
key to true sustainable transportation?
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
In the years leading up to 2030,
electrication of the nations highways
leads to the creation of a new
ultra-efcient, high-speed network
called the GRID. Nissans ON-GRID
compliant vehicle for the year 2030
is the V2G (Vehicleto-Grid), which
boasts low cost, dynamic styling and
quality construction. Nissans
comprehensive and affordable range
of GRID access plans (similar to
mobile phone plans) will help make
the V2G a market leader.
Power for Mobility. Powering the Future.
Celgard pioneered some of the first separators for lithium batteries
more than 20 years ago. Today we are supporting the next generation
of lithium-ion batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles. Celgard is a
global leader among lithium battery material suppliers, recognized
as a trusted source for highly-engineered microporous separators
that are critical components of lithium-ion batteries.
Korea Japan China Europe USA
Long Cycle Life
High Rate Capability
High Temperature Stability
Global Technical Support
20+ Years of Reliable Supply
Microporous Separators for Lithium-Ion Batteries.
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
In an world of increasingly global commercial goods, is it really possible to
be one of a kind? Emerging technologies, such as genetic integration and
advanced adaptive polymers, will shatter the current paradigm of what is
now considered unique. Advanced adaptive polymers, capable of shifting
shape, color or even material properties, when coupled with the users
genetic code (DNA), will enable a vehicle to function not only as transportation,
but rather be an extension of the user, evolving in parallel with the user
throughout his or her life. Ownership will become more about the fulllment
for the driver through time and less about fulllment of a products lifespan.
The longer the vehicle is with its owner, the more time it has to evolve to
meet the users needs.
Like DNA, Hondas Helix concept has three major, distinct conformations:
A, B and Z. A is short and wide for cities that have very tight and
intertwining road systems, where agility and speed enable a vehicle to
navigate chaotic trafc patterns more easily. B is long and low for the
sprawling cities of the world, where large distances allow for high-speed
travel. Z is tall and thin for congested cities of the world, where seating
occupants vertically on two levels has the most volume per minimum
footprint of any vehicle. By using exible and transforming multifunctioning
parts, the Helix adapts and reacts to specic environments and trafc
patterns by changing the orientation of its main capsule for optimal
environmental operation and user functionality. Bio-receptors enable the
vehicle to micro-adjust even further to meet the exact demands of the user
and the environment. The direction of movement stays constant no matter
what conformation the vehicle assumes.
Power for Mobility. Powering the Future.
Celgard pioneered some of the first separators for lithium batteries
more than 20 years ago. Today we are supporting the next generation
of lithium-ion batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles. Celgard is a
global leader among lithium battery material suppliers, recognized
as a trusted source for highly-engineered microporous separators
that are critical components of lithium-ion batteries.
Korea Japan China Europe USA
Long Cycle Life
High Rate Capability
High Temperature Stability
Global Technical Support
20+ Years of Reliable Supply
Microporous Separators for Lithium-Ion Batteries.
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
The OnStar Car Hero is a vehicle
and a game, in that it turns
driving into gaming and
challenges the drivers skills
against the cars autonomous
system. Getting started is easy:
just enter the destination into the
navi app on a smart phone and
the car takes care of the rest. It
lets the driver play along and
try to match the skill level of the
system. As the driver improves,
Car Hero unlocks vehicle
controls to the point where
the autonomous system is
overridden and the driver is in
complete control. As the Car
Hero gamer demonstrates skill
and mastery, the vehicles
transmorphable architecture
turns up the intensity by creating
an increasingly challenging
driving experience. Car Heros
conguration rewards driver
skills by gradually changing
from a four, to three, and then
to the ultimate challenge: a
single wheeled vehicle.
Enchanted by technology, drivers will become accustomed to the
convenience of automation in their vehicles. The next generation
of vehicles will provide autonomy far beyond todays vision.
Although autonomous driving will provide safety, efciency, and
convenience, it can also lead to a detached and sterile driving
experience, so Audi, staying true to its Vorsprung durch Technik
philosophy, showcases two vehicles that are truly engaging in
addition to the aforementioned advancement. The rst is the Audi
eSpira an ultimate technological tour-de-force that functions as
an extension of the drivers body and its senses. Using next
generation vehicle-control logic, eSpira takes even the smallest
body movements and gestures of the driver into consideration to
provide an unsurpassed command of the drive. The most direct,
uid form of vehicle control is only thoughts away. The second
Audi concept is the eOra, a sport vehicle that shares the same
control logic as the eSpira. Extremely dynamic and efcient, eOra
has a small footprint and unmatched agility. Like a downhill skier,
eOra carves the roadscape with precision, and by constantly
adapting to the drivers movements and intentions, the vehicle and
its driver move harmoniously as one with unrivaled dexterity.
Introducing the VMazda a
virtual reality website that acts
as a design playground for
young people, enabling them to
experiment, build and share
their automotive dreams in a
virtual world, at no cost. With
the help of a virtual design
mentor, young car customers
can design their own product
with their concept hitting
production at a rapid pace due
to Mazdas sustainable Direct
Digital Manufacturing plants.
Most customers will pay a low
price (around US$2,000) for the
physical car, while also paying a
monthly bill for the energy his/
her electric car uses. The
Mazda showcased here is a
minimal, lightweight sports
coupe with experimental
shapes, ornate detailing and
a dramatically proportioned
exterior. Most of the digital
communication and information
devices are now integrated into
fashion apparel, eliminating the
need to include these systems
into the vehicle, which makes
this technology demonstrator
purely driver focused.
With the college enrolment rate at an estimated 81%, the youth of
2030 are one of the most intelligent and proactive generations yet.
The Toyota LINK is an affordable, customizable mass transit
vehicle for students with high social networking demands and
continuously evolving preferences. With little-to-no disposable
income, these students are now able to once again enjoy their
commute in a world where transportation has become more
expensive and less appealing. Students can meet at various HUBs
to pick up their LINKs. Once occupied, the LINK seamlessly links
onto a transportation social network, enabling connections
with other drivers to share the commute, trade music, or compare
class schedules. Made with Toyotas newly patented electro-ber
technology, LINK SKINZ can be downloaded to digitally transform
the vehicles shape into a personalized exterior design. In place
of traditional wheels, the LINK drives on Spheres made of an
electroconductive material that converts friction into energy,
recharging the batteries and satisfying the drivers high
standards of a maximized eco-friendly vehicle.
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Aker Wade is electric
vehicle fast charging
US: +1 434 975 6001 Europe: +49 170 40 49 251
We provide hybrid vehicle and renewable energy system simulation, design, engineering,
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System modeling, including performance, energy ef ciency, and emissions t
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Phone: + 1 (313) 730 1800 + 1 (866) 492 3417
Fax: +1 (248) 298-3402
HDS ofers a full range of Green-Tech
consulting, engineering, and design services,
focusing on the advanced transportation
and energy technology sectors.
Hybrid Design Services, Inc.
w w w. H y b r i d D e s i g n Se r v i c e s . c o m
Climate change, rising demand for
energy, and the resulting increase in energy
prices, are forcing the automotive industry
to reduce fuel consumption across all
product ranges. The hybridization and
even full electrication of conventional
powertrains are major steps in this
direction. In electried powertrains, new
components such as traction batteries and
e-motors are implemented, as well as
additional onboard control units that play
a crucial role.
In electried powertrain congurations,
traction batteries are used for storing and
converting electrochemical energy. They
have to meet market requirements such as
long-lasting high power and energy
performance for high-dynamic charge and
discharge processes. New lithium-ion
technology offers the highest capacity at
present, and the size-to-weight ratio of
traction batteries integrated in hybrid
electric vehicles continues to evolve.
The automotive industry copes with the
tasks of optimizing the lifetime, performance
parameters, safety levels and costs of
energy storage systems under restrictive
development timeframes.
AVL provides a range of e-motor, battery,
and hybrid testing solutions on a model-
Introducing traction batteries into
electried powertrains creates uncertainty.
Often the process of building up battery
testing infrastructure turns out to be time
consuming because many stakeholders are
involved. As a result, more customers are
requesting turnkey solutions. That is where
AVLs integrated, plug-and-play battery
testbed can assist suppliers and car makers;
this process follows a ready-to-use design
principle and introduces a new approach
into the battery testing equipment market.
AVLs integrated, plug-and-play battery
testbed features a test laboratory comprising
a battery tester, a climatic chamber for
wide-range temperature simulation, an
installed media supply network, a facility
management interface, a fail-safe testbed
PLC and the AVL Safety Concept, which is
approved by a TV certicate and therefore
meets VdS/COC standards.
The companys testbed is optimized for
supporting the development tasks of
performance evaluation and lifetime
investigations of electrochemical energy
storage systems. The modular, expandable
system is used in a range of applications. It
supports the examination of cells, modules,
or packs, and the overall characterization of
various energy storage systems for different
applications, which can range from scooters
to heavy-duty trucks.
The intelligent testbed layout and
assembly mean that minimal operating
costs are achievable. AVLs battery testbed is
fully checked by in-house specialists before
professional packing and shipping to the
nal destination. Worldwide sales and
services reduce time and effort for delivery
and on-site installation.
OEMs and suppliers have to develop
electric motors for new drive systems.
These electric motors play a central role,
not only in mild, full and plug-in hybrid
vehicles, but also in pure electric vehicles
that use traction batteries or fuel cells as the
onboard power supply. In both cases, the
electric motor acts as a primary drive unit.
For development purposes, engineers are in
need of a complete development and
testing environment for electric motors.
A range of e-motor, battery, and hybrid test solutions on
a model-based approach can cut EV development time
based approach that can reduce overall
development time and costs. Its innovative
battery testing solutions have been
developed using more than 15 years of
expertise in hybrid and battery-specic
engineering topics, and meet the growing
demand for accurate, reliable, and efcient
testing equipment at cell, module and pack.
The advanced AVL battery simulator system
can be upgraded to higher power classes or
extended with the battery tester functionality
Above: The new AVL e-motor testbed technology unit
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Reader Enquiry Card No. 501
A dynamic dynamometer that has equal
capability to brake and drive the electric
motor together with conditioning units
facilitates automated drive cycle
performance and durability testing. The
integration of power analyzers such as
Yokogawa WT3000 and others into the
electric motor testbed automation system
makes it possible to execute fully
automated test runs for all important test
procedures. Different electric motor types
such as integrated starter generator, belt-
driven starter generator, and axle drives can
be tested without modication of the
testbed by using an intelligent pallet
system. The testbed dynamometer
converter and the high-performance battery
simulator converter are recovering all the
energy within the intermediate DC voltage
bus shared by both converters. This
solution allows efcient operation on the
power grid, thereby saving energy and
enabling environmentally friendly
operation. AVL electric motor testbeds
function as complete development, testing,
verication, and validation environments
for electric drives and are used for
determining and analyzing electrical,
mechanical, and thermal characteristics.
Functionality, reliability, and endurance
tests as well as cold-start performance
measurements are implemented under real
operation conditions. The selection of
mechanical and electrical measuring
techniques affects the optimal functioning
of the electric motor test solution.
Typically, the testbeds comprise a DC
supply unit to power the electric motor/
inverter system, a dynamometer with
integrated control system, a exible
automation system, a conditioning unit,
and an optional climate chamber. The
highly dynamic dynamometer and the unit
under test are connected via a torsionally
stiff driveshaft connection. The torque
output is measured by a high-precision
torque ange that is integrated in the
driveshaft connection. By integrating a
high-performance battery simulator, power
can be supplied to the unit under test for
emulation of the traction battery behavior
in a real vehicle, concerning performance
and durability. As part of the automated
test runs, a fully integrated high-precision
power analyzer can be used, which has the
capacity to measure the efciency levels of
the electric motor or evaluate overall torque
speed characteristics.
Furthermore, the possibility to execute
and store data, especially for creating power
and efciency maps of electric motors and
converters, is served by integration of the
power analyzer. The test eld approach is
supported by a test eld management
system. The integration of AVLs Virtual
Proving Ground Technology provides a
time and cost-efcient development and
testing environment for transferring
integration optimization and validation
tasks to earlier development phases.
Different features and models can be used
in this environment. The unit under test
is integrated into a virtual driving
environment and tested in reproducible
driving maneuvers. An intelligent pallet
system is essential for the most productive
use of the testbed. Based on an air cushion
system that provides easy movement inside
the climatic chamber, fast alignment and
media docking are made possible within
only 30 seconds.
Existing testbeds, such as for engine,
powertrain, or transmission, can be
updated for new testing purposes with
best-in-class features using customized
upgrade packages.
The powertrain and the energy storage
systems are developed in separate projects
and the traction battery is not available at
the powertrain testbed. So the development
engineer has to consider alternative sources
for powering electric components such as
the e-motor/inverter system at the testbed.
For these applications, a battery simulator
and corresponding equipment for
improving usability and safety at the
testbed, such as a power distribution unit
and a discharge unit, are applied.
The simulator replaces the real battery
and emulates its behavior based upon
accurate battery simulation models.
Depending on the battery simulator,
engineers may choose between a simple or
an advanced battery model, or decide in
favour of an interface for applying
customer-specic models. A major request
is intuitive software and a high automation
level, both making the simulation task
effective, but easy.
In addition to this, the equipment has to
be exible, as for example the AVL battery
simulator can be upgraded to higher power
classes or extended with the battery tester
functionality. E&H
Left: Hardware-in-the-loop testing takes place
Below: AVLs advanced battery testbed container
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
Leuven BE - Boca Raton FL - Budapest HU - Shanghai PRC
Visit us at or contact
Formation and Test Solutions
for HEV and EV Batteries
For cells or modules
Individual traceability per cell or module
Consistent high volume throughput
Automated material handling and cell connection
Integrated safety features for lithium formation
Turn-key system delivery, installation and support
Integrated grading, aging, degassing and other processes
Electrication of automotive vehicles
is a fast-growing trend. However, the
operating environment of vehicles in the
public transportation sector is very different
to passenger car applications. The PPSE
hybrid powertrain system is designed to
hybridize vehicles in the public
transportation sector and its main feature is
Aachen, Germany (Forschungsgesellschaft
Kraftfahrwesen mbH, Aachen) to evaluate
the performance potential of the PPSE
system. For test purposes the powertrain
was simulated in a 52-seater Urbino 18 bus
chassis running under the UITP SORT cycle
and the Stuttgart route 42 driving cycle.
The main components of PPSE hybrid
powertrain system, which integrates the
electrical driving capability into the
conventional powertrain, are a clutch unit
and two electrical units that provides much
less power capacity than the onboard IC
engine. Figure 1 illustrates the architecture
of PPSE powertrain system. The operating
principle of PPSE powertrain is illustrated
in Figure 2, and this illustration shows the
engine running at low fuel consumption
operating region, with the clutch unit
The mechanical power output from IC
engine fully drives the generator to generate
the electrical energy to the traction motor
for vehicle motion. When the vehicle is
driving at high speed, the clutch unit is
engaged, with the mechanical power of the
engine running at high efciency levels to
drive the vehicle directly.
Switching the clutch unit is based on
vehicle speed and a sensor signal based on
A main battery-free, PPSE hybrid powertrain with a stop/start
function is proving its worth after being simulated to a 52-seater bus
the elimination of the main battery pack,
utilizing two electrical units and an
enhanced starting battery. This enables the
compact PPSE hybrid powertrain to
provide competitive performance at an
affordable hybridization cost.
For the verication of the PPSE concept,
Giant Lion Know-How JV with fka in
Left: Giant Lions PPSE hybrid powertrain is
designed for large transportation vehicles
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
Vehicle Curb Weight 18,500 kg
Vehicle Max Weight 5,500 kg
Vehicle Engine Diesel, 250kW, 2,275 rpm max
Generator 180kW, 2,600 rpm max, PM synchron
Motor spec. 170kW, 1,140 rpm max, Asyn. motor
Battery spec. 24V/440Ah, Lead Acid Start battery
Batt. Energy content 10,56 kWh
Max. Battery power 36kW
Battery weight 190 Kg
The PPSE hybrid powertrain now features stop/start technology
engine torque value. The all-important
feature of the PPSE system is that it
eliminates the need for a main battery pack,
and this, in turn, eliminates dependence on
the hybrid powertrains main battery pack.
This avoids the induced problems when it
comes to cost and system reliability.
The PPSE system is specically designed
for the bus operation driving characteristics
and enlarges the power of the conventional
starting battery to include stop/start
capability, which halts power to the engine
during the time the bus stops for either
passengers to board, or when the bus has to
come to a halt at trafc lights and
pedestrian crossings. This stop/start
function increases the fuel economy
performance by minimizing the engine idle
running. In the simulation study, the PPSE
system on the Urbino 18 vehicle chassis has
a 180kW permanent magnetoelectrical unit
as a generator, and the propulsion motor is
an 170kW Asyn motor. Table 1 lists the
detailed specication of the simulation.
The PPSE system was tested with the
UITP SORT cycle and Stuttgart route 42
cycle for estimated fuel economy
performance. A computational value and
literal value comparison is made,
comparing the PPSE system, with a
conventional Urbino 18 and 2007 Urbino
18 Hybrid (adapted using GM-Allison
hybrid units). The PPSE system test results
are listed in Figure 3, which also illustrates
the fuel economy comparison for the PPSE.
Figure 4 shows the engine operating points
of the PPSE system with the consumption
detail listed in Table 2.
From the simulation result it can be seen
that the PPSE hybrid powertrain is highly
competitive compared to the hybrid version
of the Urbino, based on a two-mode
hybrid-driving unit. This is especially the
case in the low speed SORT 1 driving cycle.
The special main battery-free design
eliminates the need for large, heavy, and
expensive main battery packs that bring
with them the challenges of handling
battery life. The cost is reduced and there is
increased system reliability. The enhanced
conventional starting battery for stop/start
operation is more affordable, giving easier
operation and maintenance.
In addition to these advantages, in the
simulation tests, it was noted that a lead-
acid battery has the weight and size of a
24V 440Ah stop/start battery, making it
feasible to adapt other types of battery as
required. With its compact structure and
lower adaptation cost, the PPSE system is
applicable to a range of applications,
including hybrid trucks, hybrid agricultural
vehicles, hybrid industrial machinery,
utility vehicles and even hybrid boats. E&H
[I/100 km] SORT 1 SORT 2 SORT 3 Linie 42
Solaris Urbino Conv. 76.78 61.56 51.83 65.37
Solaris Urbino Hybrid 73.62 56.96 47.40 N.A.
PPSE 54.21 47.91 45.59 50.81
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Giant Yang at Giant Lion Know-How
Reader Enquiry Card No. 502
Left: Figure 2 shows the PPSE system operation mode
Below: Figure 4 shows the engine operating points
Figure 3 highlights the impressive fuel economy levels of the PPSE hybrid powertrain in a comparison chart
Table 2 shows data about Giant Lions PPSE hybrid powertrain when it comes to fuel consumption per 100km
ECU Calibration HIL Testing Rapid Prototyping ECU Autocoding System Architecture Rapid Prototyping
Hybrid-Anzeige_210x297mm_02_090317_E.indd 1 26.10.2009 08:48:12
Apex DDS
: Direct Drive Systems for Electric Vehicles
Apex Drive Laboratories, Inc.
1640 NW Irving Street
Portland, OR USA 97209
P 503.863.5995
One of the most important electric
motor developments of the past 20 years is
the innovative technology developed by
Light Engineering (LE). The technology,
which substitutes amorphous metal for
traditional silicon steel-type materials,
yields higher power densities, an increase
in machine efciency levels, and overall
reduced costs for any given power
LE holds more than 20 US and
international patents for the technology,
which has applications in electric motors
and generators for electric, hybrid, and fuel
cell vehicles. Its motors are already in use
in electric vehicles in several different
industries. The company has undertaken
market exploration and experimentation in
almost every other area not already made a
commercial interest.
As part of its efforts to penetrate the
electric urban delivery vehicle sector, LE
signed an agreement in April 2009 with
Chinese automotive giant JAC Motors.
Under the agreement, LE motors will
be used exclusively in all JAC Motors
electric vehicle and hybrid electric
vehicle platforms.
At the Auto Shanghai 2009 Show,
LE and JAC Motors showcased a
commercially ready electric truck that
incorporated a JAC HFC 1040 chassis
and an LE electrical motor drive system.
The truck will be used primarily as an
urban delivery vehicle and will be in
production by 2010.
The company announced in August 2009
that it had signed a memorandum of
understanding with Advanced Technology
With joint ventures in three continents, Light Engineering
is helping to lead the way in electric vehicle development
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
The high-tech M22 (above) and the LE booth
at EVS-24 in Stavanger, Norway (right)
& Materials (AT&M) to market, distribute
and manufacture amorphous iron-based
electric motor and generator products in
China using AT&Ms amorphous iron
materials and LEs motor and generator
technology. Based in Beijing, AT&M is a
high-tech enterprise involved in the
development, manufacture, and sale of new
technologies and advanced metallic
materials, including amorphous irons. LE
plans to leverage the market opportunity
created by Chinas global leadership in
energy efciency investments toward its
overall goal of commercial superiority in
the hybrid and electric vehicle market.
In the USA, LE is the exclusive supplier
to Electric Vehicles International (EVI),
headquartered in Stockton, California. EVIs
commercially ready products range from
two-person light-duty vehicles to medium-
duty class 6 vehicles. The company can
engineer any of its products to meet specic
customer requirements and they are built
using the new Valence lithium phosphate
battery system.
LE is also undertaking product
development on multiple platforms with an
OEM in the military sector, and has
invested in R&D to assess the viability of its
technology for the purpose of onboard
vehicle power in military applications. Its
amorphous iron-based technology creates
an opportunity to save billions in battleeld
energy costs.
Europe remains an important market and
the company recently appointed Atlas
Magnetics Group, based in Schijndel, the
Netherlands, as its exclusive sales agent for
the region. Atlas Magnetics Group has
many years of experience in permanent
magnet technology, and therefore has an
in-depth understanding and knowledge of
LEs position in the motor/generator
market. LE has long considered Europe a
vital component of its strategy to make
commercially viable electric and hybrid-
electric vehicle applications, both passenger
and otherwise.
In May 2009, the company exhibited at
EVS-24 in Stavanger, Norway, showcasing
motors from its 20, 30, and 40 series
models. It also displayed an APU that can
be used in various applications. E&H
Mary Patricia Sabogal at Light Engineering
+1 317 471 1800
Reader Enquiry Card No. 503
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
The high-tech M40 (above). An
LE-EVI electric truck (right), and
an LE-JAC electric truck (below)
You expect advanced electric drive
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RST-V photo courtesy of the U.S. Navy.
Advanced batteries are the key
technology enablers for the future of vehicle
electrication. Although the continuous
improvement of the powertrain is
underway, the main hurdle to widespread
acceptance of electric vehicles is the quality,
performance reliability, and durability of
the battery systems.
Understanding the key challenges facing
todays battery-testing facilities is essential
in developing effective tools and control
strategies to address these battery hurdles.
With the wide range of test equipment in
use, communication between devices is
difcult, therefore creating a great need for
integrated systems.
Current solutions, because they are
generally quite new, require sophisticated
technicians to both run tests and dene
new ones. The test results are then
potentially generated in a different format
for each piece of test equipment, and data
crunching of raw numbers may be required
to fully understand the test results. Above
all, safety is a major concern, and many test
facilities today require manned operation,
in case faults occur that will require manual
shut-down of the test.
Due to this, car makers around the world
are concerned about whether a vehicles
short development schedule will give them
time to do the kind of long-term testing in
everyday conditions that they would like
to do on the battery packs. Integration
of an A&D Technology automated test
system, including data management and
preventative safety features, has given car
makers and battery manufacturers the
advantage needed to accelerate the testing
of advanced batteries.
Leveraging over twenty years of data-
acquisition and test-control experience,
A&D Technology utilizes iTest as the
central control system for a modern
battery-test laboratory. In this function iTest
can execute a predened test cycle or
customized schedule by coordinating the
power cyclers, environmental chambers,
and conditioning units, along with data
acquisition from thermocouples on the
Integrating validation automation, data management, and safety
systems is vital to bring key EV systems to market more quickly
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
Above: New and advanced batteries are the key technology enablers for the future of vehicle electrication
Lisa Mahoney at A&D Technology
+1 734 973 1111
Reader Enquiry Card No. 504
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
battery. iTest has been designed to achieve
this level of functionality through an
intuitive conguration editor and user-
friendly operator GUI, while employing
international standards for connectivity to
the laboratory equipment. The test engineer
can select from a library of test cycles based
on performance and abuse testing standards
like those outlined by the US advanced
battery consortium governing organization.
Once the laboratory equipment, cyclers,
chambers, and ovens are integrated and
tests are initiated, lab managers next
struggle with how to best access and
manage the gigabytes of data that battery
tests generate on a daily basis. A&D
Technologys iCentral Information and
Process Management Suite is a collection of
tools that enhances the management of a
battery testing lab from a central point of
access. Lab managers can monitor any test
cells that have enabled the iView web
server, which makes possible remote
monitoring of the activity in a test cell, as
well as the real-time access to data, as it is
being generated. iCentral provides a central
location for data archiving and retrieval for
all tests, streamlining the process for
accessing and sharing all required data,
including such aspects as kilowatt-hours
run and ampere-hour throughput.
iCentral uses the latest web-interface
techniques, providing easy installation and
maintenance. With network access, the
iCentral conguration provides a path for
uploading test data or downloading test
conguration to the laboratory. The system
comes equipped with a data-mining feature
that gives test engineers the ability to lter
through the data to speed up analysis by
asking for data with specic parameters
such as date, model, control-unit software
version, or same fault code. Lab managers
enjoy this functionality as it eliminates the
past requirement of post-processing
gigabytes of data, which is time consuming,
cross-analysis limited, and subject to
human error.
A&Ds LabMinder advanced-safety
system gives lab managers the exibility to
staff personnel for only one shift while
maintaining high-lab utilization around-
the-clock, seven days a week. This means
no one is required to actually staff the lab
on weekends or holidays. LabMinder is
designed to constantly look for and track
key issues such as rapid temperature rise.
An autodialer is triggered if a fault is
agged, which will notify designated
personnel where the error occurred and
what type it is. The notication method can
be set as a phone call, text message, email
notication, or a combination of different
notications, as desired by the lab manager.
Upon notication, designated security-
cleared personnel can log into the
LabMinder system from anywhere in the
world. Using the web-based interface, the
summary of every test is viewable including
status, fault conditions, and lab utilization.
LabMinders zooming feature allows
any test to be zeroed-in on to obtain
specic test details like test type, operator,
sequences completed, fault messages, and
even provides images of the test specimen
from birds-eye cameras mounted within the
environmental chamber.
Finding an optimal operation strategy for
advanced batteries is a very complicated
process. A&D battery test software and
hardware incorporates state-of-the-art
modeling and rapid prototyping capability,
providing a virtual reality for simulating the
vehicle dynamics of advanced hybrid
electric powertrains. The result is a lower
number of prototype units (components,
subsystems or systems) required for test.
Reducing the complexity and variation of
the number of test units yields a direct
benet of development cost savings and
resource reduction.
Hybrid vehicles are causing the auto
industry to change at a faster rate than any
other time in history. If widespread
implementation of electric and hybrid
electric vehicles is to occur, battery quality,
reliability, and durability are the biggest
issues that need to be addressed. With the
rapid growth of battery technologies comes
the increased demand for advanced testing
and development solutions capable of
meeting these unique challenges. E&H
Right: High-power lithium batteries
intended for automotive applications
Below: A&Ds acclaimed LabMinder
test facility monitoring system
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Host Company:
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It is well known that electric drivetrains
are clean and efcient. But whats not as
commonly appreciated is that they can be
powerful without having to sacrice
efciency, and they also enable fast and
precise control at levels far greater than an
IC engine. All this makes it possible for
electric drivetrains to support sophisticated
control schemes like ASR, ESP, and even
torque vectoring.
A good showcase for electric drivetrain
technology is the Spyder: an open-top
two-seater sports car that weighs around
1,000kg and is powered by two 100kW
Brusa hybrid synchronous motors, with
each motor driving a rear wheel. The car
accelerates to 100km/h from standstill in
less than ve seconds, has a top speed of
more than 200km/h and uses around
15kWh of energy per 100km, which
equates to 1.5 liters of gasoline.
Such outstanding performance gures,
and impressive low energy consumption
ratings, is made possible because the
electric motors are efcient under all speed
and load conditions. In contrast, IC engines
perform well under heavy load, but waste
energy under light-load conditions. As a
result, even a very powerful electric car can
use around the same energy as a similar
vehicle with a weaker electric drivetrain.
This key difference between IC engines and
electric drivetrains is crucial as it enables
is, again, a good
example of an electric drivetrain fullling
these requirements. Driving both wheels of
the rear axle independently is uncommon,
so many automotive engineers have been
skeptical whether the car would stay stable
on difcult road conditions. Brusa
engineers had not optimized or fully tested
this scenario during development, and then
the companys engineers were offered the
chance to replicate this situation on a car
makers test track, under the most difcult
conditions. This involved starting on a dry
track with kickdown, then driving still at
full throttle onto a track where the left
wheel is on dry road, but the right is on
an ice-like slippery road, and then nally,
re-entering the dry road with both wheels
still driving on full throttle.
Besides a gentle little shake on each
transition, nothing untoward happened.
The Brusa tech demonstrator kept calm and
stable under constant acceleration. Why
was that difcult task so easily mastered?
Because the electric drives behaved almost
like ideal actuators. The vehicle control
unit received the data that one wheel
transitioned to higher rpm and low torque
(coming onto the ice), so it ordered the
other drive to reduce the torque
accordingly within a very short time short
enough to keep the car stable and to be
hardly noticed by the driver.
This degree of precise control for electric
motors is a real challenge. It is achieved by
implementing sophisticated vector-control
techniques into the controller, using a very
accurate software model of the motor, and
regulating the required current levels
quickly and precisely.
Brusa Elektronik has mastered these
tasks, on component level as well as on
system level. The result is a car the
Spyder that convinces even skeptical
decision makers that all-electric drivetrains
are a viable, mature alternative to IC
engines. E&H
Brusas technology demonstrator sports car has proved that
advanced electric drivetrain technology is a viable option
car makers to build electric vehicles that
are energy efcient and powerful, two
features that consumers around the world
are reaching out for.
Just as impressive as the total power
performance and the energy efciency of
electric drivetrains is how easily electric
motors can be controlled to do precisely
what the controller asks them to do. In
reality, many electric drives are optimized
for steady-state performance at a certain
operation point, such as maximum power
at nominal speed. This may look good on
paper, but it doesnt help much in real-
world driving conditions. The motor must
perform well under all conditions, and
provide smooth and seamless action from
standstill to top speed this includes
cruising on a at road, as well as climbing
a steep hill. Only electric drives that fulll
all these requirements are really t for cars.
Under the hood of the innovative Brusa Spyder model
Beat Graf at Brusa
+41 81 758 1945
Reader Enquiry Card No. 505
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Left: Brusas battery electric
Spyder performance car
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nManufacturers of high-speed fywheel-
based hybrids are reporting an upsurge in
interest with several programs being started
in the last quarter for clients in automotive,
off-highway, bus, and train markets.
Flybrid Systems LLP, based in
Silverstone, UK, is seeing the establishment
of the technology as a mainstream
alternative to electric hybrids as it moves
closer to mass production. Clients are
increasingly coming to the realization that
electric hybrids will not be affordable in the
medium-term future and are turning to
fywheel-based systems for equivalent
performance at one-third of the cost says
managing partner at Flybrid, Jon Hilton.
The cost of evaluating a fywheel-based
solution is low in comparison to the
potential cost of making a mistake with the
key choice of future technology, he says.
The technology, frst reported in E&H in
2007, allows for storage and release of
energy at high power, high depths of
discharge, and on aggressive duty cycles
without degradation of the energy store. In
2007, luxury auto maker Jaguar Cars
announced a fywheel hybrid demonstrator
program, sponsored by the UK
governments Technology Strategy Board,
featuring a fywheel hybrid system
electrical power and runs for just 90
seconds once every two weeks. The process
by which all the components will be made
has also been under scrutiny, and Flybrid
has recently commissioned its own in-
house-designed fywheel balancing machine
that is capable of submicron-level balancing
at 25,000 parts per year.
Flybrid has completed detailed analysis
of the NEDC test cycle, where the vehicle
power requirement is typically less than
5kW average over the cycle. During
optimization of the hybrid system, it
became clear that any parasitic losses would
affect the recorded fuel consumption, so
Flybrid engineers have developed a new
low-loss hydraulic system.
The new hydraulic system features closed
loop fow control and only runs when
required with no pressure relief valve. This
has reduced parasitic losses to a very low
level meaning possible fuel economy
improvements of over 20% on NEDC and
over 30% in real world conditions.
Industry commentators expect a long-
term move toward lifecycle CO
in place of the current concentration on
tailpipe emissions, and in this respect the
Flybrid solution scores very highly.
Flywheel hybrids last for the life of the
vehicle and have a fraction of the
embedded CO
content of battery
alternatives. Speaking at the Low Carbon
Vehicle conference at Millbrook, UK, on
September 9 and 10, 2009, Jaguar Cars
CEO David Smith reported that the CO

released during manufacture of the batteries
for EVs could equate to as much as 70g/km
equivalent tailpipe emissions.
Flybrid Systems currently offers two
variants of Flywheel hybrid system. The
frst has a mechanical connection to the
powertrain (a CVT), and the second
replaces the CVT with a pair of electric
motors and a box of control electronics,
effectively making an electrical CVT. The
company is now developing products that
are suitable for all key automotive market
areas, including cars from B to E class,
light commercial vehicles, buses and
trucks. E&H
Flywheel hybrids
gain traction
Strong progress towards mass production is helping to drive
a global upsurge of interest in fywheel hybrid development
developed by a consortium of UK
companies and using a fywheel
incorporating Flybrid technology.
Having completed the key R&D
necessary to make the fywheel system
work, Flybrid has since been busy
redesigning the system for reduced cost and
easier assembly in readiness for production.
The fywheel now contains one-third the
quantity of carbon fber of the original F1
system developed by the company, and
every aspect of the design has been
reviewed to optimize the product for road
vehicle application. Flybrid is predicting a
250,000km life for the system in normal
road use and a low cost in mass production.
Hilton says, We anticipate complete
system costs that are similar to a modern
automatic gearbox, as the number of
components, material types, and machining
complexity are similar.
One area of the design that has received
particular attention is the vacuum system
for the fywheel. Maintenance of a vacuum
around the fywheel is critical for reduction
of windage losses and also to control the
temperature of the composite wrap around
the fywheel. This important task is now
handled by a bespoke, Flybrid-developed
vacuum pump that draws just 34W of
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Left: Flybrid Systems have recently added
this electric version of their fywheel
storage system to the product range
Modern battery cells with Li-Ion
chemistry have impressive energy storage
Nevertheless, a single cell is insufcient
to support a hybrid or pure electric vehicle,
as the voltage and the current produced by
one cell would be too low.
To increase the voltage, cells are
connected in series. For higher currents,
cells can be connected parallel, which
multiplies the capacity. Instead of putting
all cells into one big package, they are
combined in smaller blocks. The cell
voltages of Li-ion cells typically range from
3.3V to 3.6V.
Usually 10 to 12 cells in series lead to a
block voltage between 30 and 50 volts.
This allows the handling without high
voltage safety precautions.
Every block has an own PCB for voltage
and temperature supervision and cell
balancing. Inside a vehicle, these blocks can
be combined again in series to reach the
necessary high voltages for hybrid or pure
electric drive. In such a string, all elements
are loaded with the same current.
Unless there is further equipment in the
circuit, the weakest cell determines when
the charging and discharging current has to
be interrupted. If the upper and lower
voltage limits (for example, 2V and 3.6V for
nanophosphate types) are exceeded, the
cells may be damaged irreversibly. At a
minimum, an extended self-discharge rate
is the consequence.
switch to an own
secondary winding.
If a cell is
recognized as the
weakest cell in a
block, it has to be
supported. Using
the bottom balancing
method, energy levels can be
moved over the transformer from
the complete block into this cell.
To prevent a full cell from being
overcharged, energy has to be taken out of
it. So, instead of simple dissipation like in
the passive solution, the active method
stores the energy portion back into the
other cells.
Compared to the typically passive
balancing current of 100mA, average
currents of 5 amps are possible. Extremely
low-ohmic MOSFET transistors lead to only
1.5W dissipation power while moving the
5amps between the cells.
To manage the overall charge state of the
individual cells, their individual voltages
have to be measured.
As only cell one is inside the ADC range
of the microcontroller, voltages in the
remaining cells of the block cannot be
measured directly. A possible solution
would be an array of differential ampliers
followed by a multiplexer.
This circuit would have to sustain the
voltage of the complete battery block. The
active solution enables the measurement of
all voltages with only a small amount of
additional hardware.
The transformer, whose main task is the
charge balancing, can be used as well as a
multiplexer and level shifter. When one of
the switches is closed for pulse, the voltage
of the connected battery cell is transformed
to all windings in the transformer.
For the measurement task, the common
primary winding is used. Simply pre-
processed by a discrete lter, the
measurement signal is fed into an ADC
input of the microcontroller. With this
solution, errors below 10mV can be reached.
This equals to an error of <0.25%. E&H
Stringent requirements to improve fuel economy and reduce
emissions are pushing the industry towards innovative solutions
Over a wide state of charge (SOC) range,
the output voltage is stable, with the risk of
leaving the safe area being low. However, at
the beginning and the end of the safe range,
the curve becomes very steep. As a
precaution, the voltage of every single cell
has to be monitored. In order took keep all
cells in approximately the same SOC range,
the cells have to be balanced. Battery packs
in state-of-the-art implementations are only
balanced in the charge mode. Every cell has
a load resistor that can then be connected
to the cell.
This so-called passive mode enables
energy to be dissipated from the strongest
cell. But this relative simple method has
some disadvantages, such as balancing not
possible in the discharge mode and limited
balancing strength.
The automotive system engineering
group Inneon has developed an active
solution for the balancing task. It is used in
a demonstrator vehicle like the above
shown E-cart.
For highest exibility in the development
phase, as much functions as possible are
realized with an 8bit microcontroller. A
transformer is the central energy transport
component of the circuit, and its bi-
directional use enables the application of
two different balancing methods,
depending on the situation.
A primary side is linked over a MOSFET
switch to the complete block voltage, while
every cell is connected by a secondary
Werner Rssler and Michael Paulu at Inneon
+49 89 2340
Reader Enquiry Card No. 507
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Left: The Inneon E-Cart demonstrates
lithium-Ion battery management with
advanced and active cell balancing
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The main selling point of lithium-ion
technology is its energy density, which is
typically three times that of lead acid and
40% more than NiMH. This energy density
advantage is further increased in large
format battery cells, which means that
proportionally less of the cell mass is
casing and in terms of the battery pack
construction, less of the total pack weight
is connections and fusing. Additionally, the
large-format cells are typically of a regular
shape enabling better packaging when
compared to cylindrical cells. Modern
pouch cells, such as those from Kokam
and EiG, further benet from having large-
connection terminal surfaces, enabling low-
impedance connections, and an efcient
means of conductive-cell cooling.
Safety is the single biggest challenge for
large-format lithium-ion cells. Smaller cells
such as the typical 18650-size cells can
be equipped with built-in, passive, safety
features. In advent of a mishap, a single
cell with a capacity of 2.2AH (9Wh) is of
manageable impact compared with a
50AH or even 400AH (1.6kWH) unit.
Minimizing risk, when working with
large format batteries, falls to the overall
design of the pack, as well as the switching
circuitry, and most importantly, the battery
management system. Lithium-ion batteries
can exhibit thermal runaway, which is
where a rapid, exothermic reaction occurs
that is typically triggered by localized
overheating within the battery cell. The
resultant reaction leads to the venting of
noxious gases, re or an explosion.
or 500/V. This check ensures that there
are no shorts to earth, or poorly isolated
connections within the system, or indeed,
moisture inside the battery system.
The battery system needs to be able to
communicate with other systems providing
status information, giving warnings or
controlling other devices such as chargers.
Information from other systems, such as
crash sensors or smoke detectors, needs to
be read by the BMS.
In the case of an EV, simply opening the
contactors during an emergency situation
may endanger the vehicle occupants by
stranding them in a dangerous situation. A
two-stage process is required here, whereby
a warning is issued over CAN giving the
engine controller an opportunity to throttle
demand, and only when there is imminent
danger of re are the contactors opened.
Good pack design and construction
provides a further defense mechanism
against mishap. The battery pack needs to
be a single-box construction containing the
BMS, the switching electronics and the
battery cells. This enables the whole battery
pack to be rendered safe by opening the
main contactors. The cell interconnections
need to be of a type and quality that
minimizes impedance, avoiding dangerous
hot spots with the high currents the battery
is capable of providing. The hot spots can
easily melt a battery cell and initiate a re.
In the event of a mishap, the pack casing
should provide some degree of protection
against breach, loss of integrity, exposure to
high voltages and possible creation of short
circuits. The cells need packaging in such a
way that it prevents loading on the
terminals, provides the necessary
constraining or packing forces to maintain
correct cell geometry, while still providing
room for controlled thermal expansion and
contraction during operation.
In conclusion, the safe use of large-
format lithium-ion batteries requires the
use of a high-end battery management
system built into a professionally-made
pack. The larger format cells may improve
energy density, but it comes at a price as
more care needs to be taken. E&H
A look at how large-format lithium-ion battery systems in
automotive applications are creating new challenges in safety
A battery management system (BMS)
needs to detect and log problems within the
battery system in order to give notication
of potential errors and to manage these
problems safely.
Lithium-ion batteries can show instability
(reduced performance, poor longevity and
potentially thermal runaway) due to poor
quality or abuse. Poor quality can mean
contamination of the materials used, poor
physical construction of the cells and use
of poor separators. Abuse can involve
overcharging, charging at low temperatures,
discharging above the recommended rate,
shorting the terminals and mechanical abuse.
Whereas the dangers presented by poor
quality cells are difcult to counter, the
BMS can be used to prevent most types of
abuse. A good-quality BMS should control
the charger and provide options for
controlling contactors, relays and auxiliary
systems in the battery pack. To prevent
overcharging, a BMS should have control of
the charger as well as having control of the
charger relay thus providing a failsafe
physical disconnect, should the charger not
shut down when required.
In case of short circuits and excessive
current draw, the BMS should provide a
warning, followed by the opening of the
main contactors, should the current or
temperature exceed safe levels. The BMS
should also provide an isolation check
whereby the insulation between ground
and the positive and negative leg is
measured and matched against a target in
/volt, with the typical level being 250/V
Adetunji Adebusuyi at Lithium Balance
+45 58 51 50 12
Reader Enquiry Card No. 508
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Left: A scalable battery management system
nContinuing innovation is required
within the global automotive industry as
consumers demand higher effciency
vehicles that meet increasingly strict
environmental mandates.
Technologies such as MEMS devices,
high-performance sensors/processors,
ceramics, and silicon wafers, which have in
the past been limited to the high-tech
electronics and semiconductor industry, are
fnding their way into automotive systems
and increasing the use of new materials
such as composites, exotic metals, and
ceramics. These high-tech systems provide
the benefts of expanded capabilities,
reduced weight, and longer life in more
aggressive environments than standard
electronic assemblies.
Vehicle management devices for
emissions, lighting, fuid monitoring,
powertrain and fuel systems are comprised
of these high-tech electronic systems that
often come in highly miniaturized,
multilayer packages. These devices and
materials must be able to survive hostile
automotive environments that include high
temperatures, corrosive fuids and vapors,
and prolonged UV exposure.
Automotive manufacturers have
traditionally relied on conformal coatings,
including urethanes, acrylics, and silicones
to protect components from corrosive fuids
and chemicals. However, some coating
formulations simply cannot stand up to the
harsh environments seen within the
operating systems of modern vehicles,
particularly when it comes to smaller
environments where UV stability and
chemical resistance is critical. Parylene HT
also provides excellent dielectric protection
and superior crevice-penetration abilities.
These properties enable Parylene HT to be
one of the few conformal coatings that can
provide reliable protection for automotive
components as they become more compact
and encounter harsh environments.
As materials continue to advance, and
operating environments become more
extreme, coating adhesion continues to be
of paramount importance. Whereas most
substrates require an application of A-174
silane prior to Parylene coating to enhance
the bonding to the substrate, some materials
are more challenging. AdPro Plus adhesion
technology recently debuted to improve/
increase the adhesion of Parylene conformal
coatings to diffcult metallic and polymeric
substrates, such as titanium, stainless steel,
gold, cobalt chromium, solder mask and
polycarbonate, to name only a few.
Furthermore, as new adhesion challenges
increase when components encounter
harsh environments, AdPro Plus has
demonstrated improved stability at
elevated temperature levels, therefore
making it an excellent adhesion technology
for all automotive applications. AdPro Plus
ability to maintain superior adhesion to
diffcult substrates, under such conditions,
enable Parylene coatings to protect a wider
range of materials.
The combined benefts that Parylene HT
and AdPro Plus bring to automotive
manufacturers today are unmatched by
conventional conformal coatings in the
automotive industry.
Global automotive development is based
on continuing technology innovation.
As todays, and tomorrows, systems and
materials continue to evolve, it will
continue to be a challenge to protect them
from hostile operating environments.
Keeping in the forefront of the automotive
industrys ever-evolving needs, Specialty
Coating Systems is a global leader of
Parylene coating innovations including
Parylene HT and AdPro Plus adhesion
technology. E&H
AdvAnced coAtings
Recognized as excellent protection for automotive components,
Parylene coatings provide an inert, pinhole-free conformal layer
electronic-package designs and many of the
newest in component/device materials.
Additionally, adhesion of a coating to the
intended substrate is critical to the coatings
long-term performance and effectiveness.
Without good adhesion, moisture can pass
through the coating and deposit on the
substrate, creating blisters, corrosion and
electrical failure. With new materials and
substrates being utilized in automotive
applications, adhesion technologies must
also rise to meet the new demands of these
materials, miniaturization of components,
and exposure to harsh environments.
Parylene coatings grow one molecule at
a time through the vapor deposition
process. Final flm thicknesses can be as
thin as several hundred angstroms to 75
microns. The polymerization process and
ultra-thin nature of Parylene enable it to
conform to all surfaces, edges and crevices
of a substrate, including the interior of
multilayer electronic packages. In addition,
Parylene coatings are lightweight and do
not add much mass or dimension to
delicate components.
Generic forms of Parylene Parylenes N,
C and D have been used in the automotive
industry for years because the polymer
coatings are ultra-thin and provide
excellent chemical, moisture and dielectric
barrier protection.
One specifc variant of Parylene is seeing
increasing use within the automotive
industry. Parylene HT offers unmatched
protection in high temperatures (up to
450C short-term, 350C long-term) and in
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Far left: A non-coated circuit board
Left: SCS Parylene coated circuit board,
after testing in salt-fog environment
International trade fair for infrastructure,
ITS traffic management, safety and parking
Amsterdam RAI
The Netherlands

In association with:
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latest trends and developments
750 exhibitors, top 50 global companies in attendance
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ITadAdam10A4 19-11-2009 12:37 Pagina 1
nIt has become crucial that societies
around the globe limit all sources of energy
waste. One of the solutions on offer is to
dramatically increase the effciency of all
energy converting systems. Public
transportation, being so visible, is an
excellent way to promote new solutions
like hybrid bus and electrical bus.
Effciency means that the energy fux
must be controlled and optimized. An
important amount of energy is dissipated
during deceleration of the bus, as heat
when braking. This kinetic energy is wasted
and wears out a critical safety element, but
the question many engineers are asking
today is how can we recuperate this energy?
The addition of an electrical system
(hybridization), which is very effcient,
very fexible and bi-directional, has great
potential. The two main functions of
hybridization are a better control of the
engine (steady rpm and a start/stop
function) and the recuperation of the
braking energy. The last step toward total
effciency and elimination of local pollution
is the full electrifcation of the bus.
Trolleybuses are very effcient electrical
buses but the infrastructure required,
including overhead power lines and high-
power substations, is considerable in
terms of cost and visual impact. As a result,
electrical buses that run on batteries remain
will charge the supercapacitors within a few
minutes as the bus is traveling. Once the
bus stops, the energy will be transferred
at the higher power of 200-400kW in
seconds less than the time it takes for the
passengers to exit and board. This will be
done from the supercapacitors in the
substation, straight through to the
supercapacitors on the bus. The grid is then
preserved from any peak power demands
and, consequently, costs are reduced.
The transfer between substation and
bus can be done via pantograph, galvanic
contact or induction. These three methods
have advantages and disadvantages that
need to be assessed on merit for each case.
Overhead power lines covering the
complete route are in any case not required.
In the event that more than three
substations are not accessible and the
supercapacitors are nearly empty, it is
always possible to use a small engery-type
battery, a FC stack, or a small diesel
aggregate parallel to supercapacitors, to
provide further energy. A hybrid mode
could also be switched on to power the bus
many kilometers, until the next charge.
If power is required for services such as
air-conditioning, an energy-type battery
could be integrated into the bus. Without
any peak power demand to deliver, such a
battery would have an easy life, and a
respectable lifetime.
Maxwell Technologies is active in various
projects in China, the USA, and Europe.
Due to its close relationship with all
players, a real movement for the B-Bus has
been built up and they will soon be
commonplace in many of the worlds city
centers. E&H
bus stop power
for clean buses
Supercapacitor technology could provide the key to the
mass-production of truly eco-friendly buses for city streets
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Left and above: Project WATT by the company PVI
a niche market. Problems include the fact
that the batteries are oversized to reach the
necessary range and lifecycle, resulting in
heavy vehicles.
The new B-Bus model is clearly identifed
as a city bus, having bus stops on its route
that are, on average, 400m apart. The
typical cycle of a city bus is acceleration,
followed by a short run at limited speed,
and fnally a deceleration. Such a cycle
demands low energy but high power, which
fts exactly the defnition of supercapacitors
technology. The B-Bus, equipped with
supercapacitors, has a limited range of 2km
more than suffcient!
Very unusually for battery-driven buses,
the biberonnage or bottle-feeding concept
means that the bus will have to be
recharged often, with a very high power
boost. Batteries usually have to be
recharged at low power during many hours.
Supercapacitors can be recharged at very
high power levels, very effciently, in a
few seconds.
Important elements in the B-Bus concept
are substations and the means of energy-
transfer. Sporadic high-power demands on
the electricity grid require special technical
solutions and are expensive. An elegant way
to avoid such expense and complexity is to
integrate supercapacitors in the substation.
A charger rated at a limited power of 50kW
International Symposium on
Large Lithium Ion
Battery Technology
and Application
May 17-19, 2010
This symposium will review recent
advances in materials and both tradi-
tional and innovative cell and pack
designs and analyze battery perfor-
mance in emerging applications
with emphasis on durability, reliabili-
ty, and safety.
Advances |n L|-|on 8attery
|nnovat|ve L|-|on 0e|| 0es|gn
Large L|-|on 8attery 0es|gn
Trade-offs for 0urab|||ty,
8e||ab|||ty, and Safety
Advanced Automotive
Battery & EC Capacitor
May 19-21, 2010
As the production volume of hybrid vehicles is rapidly
expanding, and PHEVs and EVs are in a phase of intense
development, the cost/performance ratio and the dura-
bility and reliability of the energy-storage devices cur-
rently offered or under development to power the new
vehicles are under scrutiny. Join us to hear the latest on:
Narket 0eve|opment for FVs, HFVs, and the|r
Fnergy-Storage So|ut|ons for H|gh-Vo|tage
P|ug-|n Hybr|d F|ectr|c Veh|c|es and the|r
Prospect|ve 8atter|es
F|ectr|c-Veh|c|e Techno|ogy and |nfrastructure
8attery Pack 0es|gn and |ntegrat|on |nto L|ght
and Heavy-0uty Hybr|ds
International Symposium on
Large EC Capacitor
Technology and
May 17-19, 2010
This symposium will review advanc-
es in large EC capacitor materials
and cell design and examine pack
engineering and performance in ap-
plications ranging from micro-hybrid
and heavy-duty vehicles to stationary
backup systems.
Advances |n F0 0apac|tor
Nater|a|s and 0e|| 0es|gn
hew F0 0apac|tor Products
and 8us|ness 0eve|opment
F0 0apac|tor Storage System
Call for posters: Posters with relevant content will be accepted for AABC and all Symposia on a frst-come, frst-served basis. Apply
early! To reserve your poster space: Submit a one-paragraph abstract for consideration via email to:
are organized by:
Te|: 1 (530} 92 0140 Fax: 1 (530} 92 0142
The Plug-In Hybrid and Electric
Vehicle Opportunity Report
A critical assessment of:
- 1he energng EV & PHEV global narket
- Autonotve L-lon Batteres: the key enablng
technology. Based on onsite interviews with all four
tiers of the supply chain
Available March 2010
Announcing the 10
Advanced Automotive
Battery & EC Capacitor
Conference & Symposia
Where automotive energy-storage developers, their
suppliers and prospective customers meet to discuss
the latest technological progress and market direction.
Simultaneous Japanese/English
translation for AABC/LLIBTA
nAlternative sources of energy have
become a very popular topic, both in public
debate and within industries around the
world that are depending heavily on all
types of long-term energy availability. When
it comes to vehicle manufacturers, steering
their companies toward future success
requires, among other essential elements,
reliable, high-energy density batteries, as
making both their production and
manufacturing processes both far more
effcient and reliable.
Furthermore, the overall performance
of electric vehicles will also improve
due to batteries that possess industry-
leading energy density, safety, and
performance levels. In this area, European
Batteries provides further advantages by
being able to create and construct the entire
battery system for targeted customers
under one roof.
Cell level battery management systems
have been designed and developed by
European Batteries since 2003. They
monitor critical battery parameters,
maximize available capacity, energy
effciency, and improve the lifecycle of the
battery system. Providing high balancing
current, scalability, and intelligent balancing
algorithms, the systems help the customers
make the most of their battery capacity as
well as of their investment in advanced
battery solutions.
Once the modules of the battery system
have been tailored for customer needs, the
European Batteries engineering team is
ready to also participate in the customer
product-testing phases. The Varkaus plant
offers excellent opportunities for customers
around the world to pre-test any system,
before it is delivered. The European
Batteries team will stay on-site to ensure
successful integration and make sure that
everything in the system works according
to the design. After-sales operations are
tailored according to individual customer
needs and can include various elements,
from repair and maintenance work to
general consultation.
With operations beginning in Varkaus
in 2010, the European electric vehicle
manufacturers will be able to enjoy
improved battery availability and advanced
cells with intelligent control systems,
convenient logistics and comprehensive
support functions.
European Batteries takes pride in being
able to provide a true turnkey solution that
will most certainly beneft the entire electric
vehicle manufacturing industry. E&H
Meeting industry
As interest in high-energy density batteries continues to
increase, European Batteries Oy provides an advanced solution
well as intelligent control systems that
can help make the most of the availability
of such advanced technology.
As production volume levels grow
and development lead times shrink, the
importance of reliable in-time deliveries is
rapidly becoming a substantial area where
automotive suppliers of all sizes can gain
competitive advantage. Electric vehicle
manufacturers, as well as being focused
on advanced technology and excellent
performance, are putting more emphasis
on the supporting issues, such as reliable,
smooth logistics.
The state-of-the-art European Batteries
plant in Varkaus, Finland, will begin its
manufacturing operations in spring 2010
and this facility will be the frst
independent large battery manufacturing
unit in Europe. Fully focused on the latest
lithium-ion technology and cell sizes of
more than 0.1kWh, the company is aiming
to reach a production capacity of 100MWh
per year. This production number will
provide a welcome addition to the
European supply and the plan is to increase
production three-fold by 2012. As this goal
becomes reality, European Batteries will be
able to offer substantial advantages to
electric vehicle manufacturers, therefore
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Left: The new European Batteries plant will
start operations in April/May 2010, with a
production area of approximately 10,000m

Left: Managing director Jukka Koskinen believes
that large lithium-ion batteries, made in Varkaus,
Finland, will provide substantial benefts
for European electric vehicle manufacturers
EVcars_A4.indd 1 2009-11-25 12:31:09
Established in 2002, Atraverda is
helping the automotive industry to push
forward with the development of battery
technology. The innovative Atraverda
battery technology offers the EV/HEV
vehicle designer an innite number of
options, says Atraverdas chief battery
engineer, Dr George Brilmyer.
Our bipolar design can be shaped to t
into almost any geometric form factor, and
sized to meet any system voltage
requirement, he continues. The
symmetrical cell design makes our bipolar
technology modular and also facilitates
uniform thermal management. The internal
current path enables the bipolar design to
be more electrically efcient while
eliminating many of the superuous
components such as cast-on straps, plate
lugs, and empty head space usually found
in valve-regulated lead acid designs.
The progress of Atraverdas technology
is such that automotive manufacturers are
now starting to build their own product
designs around the Atraverda battery
because the system offers a simplied way
of providing high-level performance.
The nature of the bipolar technology
enables Atraverda to build its battery at any
2V increment without the need for specially
molded battery cases. Each plate has its
own integrated frame, has the capacity to
evolve, and can be stacked and welded.
Atraverda can simply select the number of
Atraverda is now expanding its battery
technology into the HEV market by
developing prototypes to handle the high
power partial state of charge cycling
required for the full HEV as per the US
Freedom Car specication. Its prototypes
are performing up to expectations in the lab
and the company will be developing full-
sized power batteries. It is anticipated that
the high-power HEV product will be ready
for eld testing in 2010.
In addition to achieving similar energy
densities to Ni-MH, currently used in the
hybrids, Atraverdas bipolar lead acid
batteries can be recycled back into batteries
using the existing lead acid battery
recycling infrastructure. Unlike other
advanced battery chemistries, the Atraverda
advanced batteries use raw materials that
are readily available and domestically
produced, and do not rely on imported
and scarce materials. Furthermore, even
though this new battery technology
radically improves performance and battery
design exibility, its manufacturing and
production process is more environmentally
friendly than that for conventional VRLA
batteries and continues the decades-long
safety record and proven performance
of lead acid battery technology in mass-
produced vehicles.
Atraverda will be expanding its
manufacturing of advanced batteries to the
USA in 2010 to work more closely with
hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and electric vehicle
manufacturers and system integrators who
serve the North American market. The
company will continue to support its
European customers from its UK R&D and
manufacturing facility in Abertillery, Wales,
and welcomes collaborators from across the
transportation industry. E&H
An innovative battery technology has been developed that
can meet varying needs in terms of voltage, shape and prole
plates for a specic battery voltage and then
add the current-collecting end plates to
nish each battery. The vehicle designer
then selects the appropriate operating
system voltage so that Atraverda engineers
can build batteries that are an increment of
the overall system voltage. Atraverda
recommends keeping the individual battery
voltages below 50V for safety and handling,
but these batteries can easily be connected
in series or parallel to create the desired
system voltages. Each battery has dual
ush-mounted terminals for high power
and easy installation without the need for
wires and crimped terminations.
The size (length and width) of each
plate determines the overall Ah capacity
of the battery, and the number of plates
determines the battery voltage. The shape
of each plate is innitely variable and can
be used by the designer to optimize vehicle
performance. One vehicle design may
require a at, low-prole-shaped battery
for a low center of gravity while another
vehicle may want a trapezoid-shaped
battery to t into the trunk. Either is
possible with bipolar.
We establish the basic battery shape
and then manufacture the plate and frame
accordingly, explains Brilmyer. Our
technology would even permit a donut-
shaped plate design should the customer
require the central core space for system
wiring or cooling.
Bill Keith at Atraverda
+1 502 291 3969
Reader Enquiry Card No. 512
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Left: Advanced VRLA batteries from
Atraverda are available at up to 48V
Below: Bipolar assembly technology
increases energy density and provides
exibility in battery voltage and shape
Lithium-ion battery technology is
showing great potential and has been
identied as a solution to help the USA
reduce its dependence on foreign oil and
also harmful exhaust emissions.
Compact Power (CPI), a wholly owned
subsidiary of LG Chem, is using the
industry-leading expertise of its parent
company in the development and
production of lithium-ion batteries for
North American automotive, commercial,
and military applications.
Lithium-ion batteries being developed at
CPIs headquarters in Troy, Michigan, will
be used in HEV, PHEV, and EV applications.
These types of vehicles are being developed
by almost every car maker and their use is
expected to continue to increase over the
next 20 years.
As LG Chem is one of the worlds largest
producers of small-format lithium-ion
batteries for consumer applications such as
cell phones and laptops, its expertise is
working to CPIs advantage in the transfer
of the technology into large-format battery
cells for difcult vehicular applications.
and outstanding performance in terms of
power density, energy density, calendar,
and cycle life.
Providing customers with world-class
solutions that meet or exceed the industrys
highest quality and safety standards is LG
Chem/CPIs top priority. The company has
therefore adopted some of the most
stringent quality disciplines in the industry.
LG Chems integrated Quality, Environment
and Safety (QES) system was developed
and implemented to conform to ISO
standards, which ensure that the supplier
continues to deliver the highest quality
products to customers.
LG Chem/CPI battery packs contain
large-format battery cells that are superior
in design and performance to small-format
cells that are used for consumer products
and have received negative publicity lately
due to thermal runaway. The large-format
cells provide safer chemistry (manganese-
based cathode chemistry with additives to
improve calendar life under high-
temperature conditions). They also use
high-temperature separators designed to be
semi-permeable insulating membranes that
separate electrodes that are mechanically
and thermally far superior to commonly
used separators in lithium-ion cells. This
enables the cells to withstand abuse
situations such as internal shorts and
overcharges without undergoing thermal
runaways. Plus, the cells have a safer
laminated packaging that is designed
to be more forgiving than metal under
abuse conditions.
As a responsible corporate citizen, LG
Chem/CPI is committed to protecting the
global environment, conserving natural
resources, and preserving human health.
Environmental stewardship is the driving
force behind continuous development of
eco-friendly technologies and products.
Through the leadership of the companys
technological advances that use lithium-ion
energy storage systems, LG Chem offers
solutions that help to reduce the effects of
global warming, decrease dependence on
oil, and increase the recyclability of
materials used. E&H
Making the most of the expertise and leadership of LG Chem,
Compact Power is leading the charge in lithium-ion batteries
Through this extensive expertise, and the
fact that LG Chem investment in lithium-
ion batteries has grown ve-fold over the
past seven years, LG Chem/CPIs lithium-
ion battery technology is safe, high power,
high energy, compact, and lightweight. This
was one of the primary reasons LG Chem/
CPI beat off stiff competition from key
competitors to win the prestigious General
Motors Chevrolet Volt battery development
and supply contract.
Many experts now agree that hybrid
vehicles, especially those powered by
lithium-ion batteries, are at the forefront of
meeting the needs of the automotive
industry and continue to gain consumer
acceptance as a viable alternative to
gasoline-powered vehicles.
The current standard industry batteries,
NiMH, have several technical imitations
in meeting the power and life demands of
many applications. However, lithium-ion
batteries developed and produced by LG
Chem/CPI have equivalent or greater
energy levels than NiMH, have a lifetime of
up to 15 years, and are similar in size yet
half the weight. This leads to batteries that
are less harmful to the environment.
Furthermore, LG Chem/CPI lithium-ion
battery cells are also outperforming the
competition with further advantages,
including: improved abuse tolerance; better
thermal performance; higher reliability
levels with fewer parts and simpler
manufacturing; improved total chemistry;
Damian Gardley at Compact Power
+1 248 307 1800
Reader Enquiry Card No. 513
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Left: LG Chem/CPI Li-ion battery cells
provide several advantages related to
preventing thermal runaways
CPI engineers perform rigorous tests on the batteries
Even a casual automotive industry
observer could not have missed the huge
efforts being devoted to electric vehicles in
recent years. None of the competing new
technologies, such as alternative fuels and
fuel cells, have gained the momentum of
battery-powered vehicles from mild
hybrids and PHEVs to full EVs in such a
short space of time. Indeed it is difcult to
nd any OEM that does not have EVs either
in production or in advanced development.
Batteries have emerged as a key technology,
vital to the success of any EV and this has
resulted in a business environment with
OEMs, suppliers and cell manufacturers
forming JVs and alliances to deliver
complete battery pack solutions.
However, as with any new technology,
there are both opportunities and challenges
to be considered. The opportunities are
clear this is a green technology with
potential image and taxation benets,
premium pricing and a rapidly growing EV
market. Although not so obvious, there are
a number of challenges that OEMs and
suppliers must address.
Battery technology is a fast-moving eld
with, now, weekly announcements from all
corners of the globe on improved lifetime,
capacity, cost and safety from both major
cell suppliers and start-ups promising
technology leapfrogging. Should the OEM
go with one cell manufacturer or have a
exible sourcing policy to be able to move
quickly as improved technology emerges?
a decade. The company consults widely
in the battery and cell industry.
Specically, all of the uid-ow and
heat-transfer capabilities, including
multiple uid-solid domains, conjugate
heat transfer, multi-phase ow and
radiation available in STAR-CCM+ are
now coupled to the full range of cell
models developed by Battery Design.
These include fast simple-circuit models
for routine thermal analysis, to enhanced
electrochemistry models where non-linear
behavior is critical, such as short circuits
and thermal runaway. Additionally, all of
the powerful pre- and post-processing tools
required for CAD import, surface
preparation, automatic meshing, model
setup and visualization are available in the
STAR-CCM+ environment.
Simulating battery systems is intrinsically
a transient problem with the SOC and
battery characteristics changing
continuously. Additionally, thermal
transients are of fundamental interest,
typically for a drive cycle of up to 30
minutes. The software has therefore been
designed to be able to undertake such
unsteady calculations in which the ow,
thermal and electrical time-scales are
accounted for properly.
One of the challenges to solving such
problems is not just the possession
of the appropriate analysis tool, but also
a clear engineering process the ability to
go from a battery design and experimental
cell data to a viable result. Much effort
has been devoted to developing this process
so that, in early 2010 when the STAR-
CCM+ solution is delivered, users will
be able to deliver realistic results, as fast
as possible. E&H
Modeling of advanced battery systems has been enhanced
after two leading suppliers formed a high-tech joint venture
One aspect of battery systems that has
rapidly gained increased engineering
importance is that of thermal management
as temperature affects lifetime, durability,
performance and safety, all of which are
critical to the success of the vehicle. It has
become apparent that the CAE tools, upon
which the industry relies heavily for
product development, have not been
available to address thermal management of
large-scale battery installations.
The problem is technically challenging
cell performance depends on temperature,
yet temperature depends upon the cell,
pack, cooling system and installation design
and operating conditions. Although analysis
tools are available to address vehicle
thermal management issues, these have not
until now been able to solve large-scale
problems while coupled to cell models.
To deliver an optimum solution, CD-
adapco and Battery Design formed a
partnership in early 2009 to deliver a fully
coupled ow-thermal-cell solution for
solving large-scale battery problems.
CD-adapco has been developing and
using analysis software for uid ow, heat
transfer and stress analysis for nearly 30
years and is heavily ensconced in the
automotive industry worldwide; one
particular area of strength is total vehicle
thermal management.
Battery Design is a company that has
been specializing in the design and
modeling of Li-ion batteries for more than
Richard Johns (CD-adapco)
Robert Spotnitz (Battery Design LLC)
+44 20 7471 6200
Reader Enquiry Card No. 514
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Left: A typical hybrid underhood environment
showing component temperature levels
SEPA Hybrid Driving System
Contact: Giant Lion Know-How Co., Ltd.
The SEPA- Hybri d Powert rai n w/ 36V 90Ah
MWP Hi - Power St art Bat t ery
36V Hi-Power
Start Battery Pack
D.B. EM2 EM1
D.B.(F) D.B.(R) ICE
36V Hi-Power
Start Battery Pack
B. 4WD Layout A. 2WD Layout
Other Choice for EM2
repl ace mai n batter y
ESD: 36V Hi-Power Start Battery
< 100 kg
MASSpr oduct i on
*Fuel savi ng
emi ssi on
r educt i on
43% / 48%
Series Hybrid Driving
for Urban
Parallel Hybrid
Booster Driving
Engine Starting
Electric Driving for
Urban or Emergency
ICE Driving
& Generator Charger
or Booster
Series Hybrid
Driving for Urban
Regenerative braking (STOP & GO)
36V Hi-Power
Start Battery Pack
D.B. EM2 EM1
36V Hi-Power
Start Battery Pack
D.B. EM2 EM1
36V Hi-Power
Start Battery Pack
D.B. EM2 EM1
36V Hi-Power
Start Battery Pack
D.B. EM2 EM1
36V Hi-Power
Start Battery Pack
D.B. EM2 EM1
Engine Starting
Electric Driving for
Urban or Emergency
ICE Driving
& Gernerator Charger
or Booster
Series Hybrid
Driving for Urban
Regenerative braking (STOP & GO)
EM1 EM2 C1
D.B.(F) D.B.(R)
36V Hi-Power
Start Battery Pack
EM1 EM2 C1
D.B.(F) D.B.(R)
36V Hi-Power
Start Battery Pack
EM1 EM2 C1
D.B.(F) D.B.(R)
36V Hi-Power
Start Battery Pack
EM1 EM2 C1
D.B.(F) D.B.(R)
36V Hi-Power
Start Battery Pack
EM1 EM2 C1
D.B.(F) D.B.(R)
36V Hi-Power
Start Battery Pack
Other Choice for EM1
*Testing under MVEG cycle
Clutch and
22kW Electric motor
22kW Electric generator
ICE 1.9L turbo diesel
or 1.5L gasoline
MWP Hi-Power
Start Battery
ESD Load
Engine Starting (STOP & GO)
ICE Load
(C1 close)
Regenerative braking charging to 36V
Hi-Power Battery Pack (STOP & GO)
ICE = ICE Low Power Operation
(Near OptimaI Operation in B.S.F.C. Area)
Motor Load
: PPS Hybrid Driving Area
Component Parameter Value
Mass empty Around 1250 kg
Simulation test mas 1360 kg
Cd A 0.82 m
Coecient of rolling
Switchable MWP Hi-Power Start Battery
PossibIe soIutions of the Energy Independence and Security Act
Energe Saving Low PoIIution High Performance
For many generations, no technology
has served the needs of mainstream vehicle
propulsion better than piston engines. But
as technology continues to evolve, and
environmental and social pressures grow,
many see the automotive industry at
tipping point. New and sustainable forms
of power generation are contributing to a
shift away from reciprocating IC engines in
favor of cleaner, more efcient solutions
that are friendlier to the ecology.
Hybrid powertrain systems, particularly
extended-range systems, stand an excellent
chance of dening the mode of efcient
transport in the coming decade. Extended-
range electric vehicles (EREVs) like GMs
Chevrolet Volt lead the way by addressing
consumer range anxiety that exists with
all-electric cars.
A variety of hybrid technologies have
emerged that seek to bridge the gap
between efcient, electric-based propulsion
and the cost-effective and comfortably
familiar performance of IC engines. But
with the advent of hybrid electric vehicles
and their quite distinct demands, objective
and careful analysis of each powertrain
element is essential in order to achieve
answer yes, since the factors that hampered
their implementation in vehicles of the past
cease to be hindrances in a world of serial
hybrids, where the battery serves as buffer
between the microturbine and the electric
motor. The microturbine, now with the
freedom to deliver power at a very high-
efciency over a dened range of operating
points, charges the battery, which in turn
satises the transient needs of the vehicle.
The turbine-savvy engineers at ETV
Motors have taken a fresh look at how
turbines advantages can best be applied to
serial hybrid powertrains. Rather than
starting with a stationary turbine design
and reworking it to meet powertrain needs,
their microturbine technology is designed
from the ground up to serve as a high-
density, low-emission onboard charger
for hybrid vehicles. Their approach makes
a virtue of the factors that made the
acceptance of microturbines so challenging
in the past.
Coupled directly to a high-speed
permanent magnet generator rotating at
80,000rpm, ETV Motorss eTeg2060
delivers net electric power in the range of
10-50kW at compelling fuel-to-electricity
efciencies. The planned introduction of
advanced materials into the design over the
coming months makes ETV Motors
condent that its charger will achieve still
higher efciencies in later generations.
Built to burn a variety of readily available
fuels, the eTegs innovative combustor
design enables efcient burning with
very low HC, CO, and NOx emissions,
complying not only with todays vehicle
standards but outperforming currently-
dened future standards. Parallel to the
turbine effort, the companys scientists are
developing a new and complementary
battery chemistry. Based on novel and
proprietary cell composition, ETV Motors
High5ive brand batteries will be compact,
high power, high energy-density devices,
optimized for vehicle applications.
In 2011, ETV Motors plans to release its
powertrain, dubbed EP3 (for Electric Power
Propulsion Platform) and incorporate the
eTeg microturbine and the High5ive battery
packs, suitable for sedans, SUVs, buses, and
light commercial vehicles. E&H
Is turbine technology the way forward for serial hybrid
powertrains? One leading supplier is investigating
optimal performance of the overall system.
Against that background, and given their
technological maturity, reciprocating IC
engines are commonly regarded as having
certain advantages. But when the serial
hybrid operating environment is fully
understood, it becomes clear that gas
turbines have inherent qualities that ought
to make them the better choice. However,
the key question that still remains is how
well does this technology actually perform
in propelling vehicles?
Chrysler developed and marketed gas
turbine-powered vehicles in the 1960s. But
problems with throttle lag, lack of engine
braking, and fuel consumption eventually
led to the turbine car being pulled from the
market and essentially forgotten. It seems
unlikely that a vehicle with wheels that are
powered directly by turbines will reappear
onto the market anytime soon.
On the other hand, thermal turbo
machines found wide acceptance in
stationary applications (notably power
stations) and in select non-stationary
operations. Theoretically, the efciencies of
turbines compare favorably with those of
reciprocating IC engines. Microturbines in
general offer advantages not only in terms
of increased efciency but also in reduced
emissions. They are durable, offer fuel
exibility and have few moving parts
resulting in lower lifecycle cost. But do they
represent an industry-scale propulsion
solution for hybrid vehicles? Most would
Arnold Roth and Florian Naegele at ETV Motors
+972 9 951 7277
Reader Enquiry Card No. 515
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Left: ETV Motors is aiming to release its
innovative EP3 powertrain within two years
Left: Engineers at ETV Motors are currently
testing and validating the EP3 technology
Presents three sources of
intelligence on the Hybrid EV sector
Published Aug 2009, 143 pg
Report includes:
Market drivers
Hybrid technologies
OEM strategies
Regional analysis
Supplier profiles
Published Oct 2009, 190 pg
Report includes:
Market developments
Future trends
Market forecasts
Strategic issues
Advanced battery
supplier profiles
Published Aug 2009, 172 pg
Report includes:
Battery technologies
Motor technology
EV programs
Supplier profiles
Company directory
Hybrids and electric vehicles are one of the most exciting areas of development in the
automotive industry at present. With new developments and entrants breaking cover on an
almost daily basis, there is a mass of information to keep pace with. In order to assist you with
this, SupplierBusiness has a series of reports and databases on the Hybrid EV Sector. For further
information, full tables of contents, samples, and to order, visit our website, call Sarah Graham (tel. +44 (0) 1780 481 712), or email
Supp Biz Advert:Layout 1 06/11/2009 15:52 Page 1
Established in 2003, European Batteries
(EB) produces large lithium-ion battery
systems that have been developed
specically for the energy, industrial, and
automotive sectors. Such is the capacity of
EB that it provides these advanced battery
systems from development and production
through to engineering and testing.
As part of its growth strategy, EB is
investing in a large-scale manufacturing
facility for high-capacity power cell units.
The company chose PEC to undertake cell
formation line delivery within the new
plant, which is located in Varkaus, Finland.
Martti Ukkonen, CFO of EB, explains why
allow us to achieve all our development
timing targets, but also reduce the project
risk to a point where it almost does not
exist, explains Ukkonen.
The main portion of the system is
standard available, thereby reducing the
needed project engineering to a strict
minimum. The only possible alternative,
within the same timeframe, would have
been a complete manual system, which was
not withheld for obvious reasons. As a
result, the system design is completely
modular, thus allowing European Batteries
to extend the line according to their
continuously growing needs and this is
done without having to interfere with
production processes.
Ukkonen says: The modularity of the
system allows us to expand it according
to our customers demands. The PEC
formation system is managed completely by
a standard manufacturing execution system,
which controls all aspects of the line,
including ow control, quality control,
materials handling, and even maintenance
tasks. The software guarantees embedded
tracking of all cell movements, collected
process data, capacity results, and grades,
with extensive reporting capabilities.
PEC designs, develops, manufactures,
and supports its systems from several
locations in Europe, the Americas, and
Asia-Pacic. E&H
European Batteries has selected PEC to deliver automated
cell formation lines that are to be installed in its new facility
PEC was chosen: PEC has an innovative
solution for the automated formation of
lithium-ion cells. Its system offers a
substantial operational cost reduction
through complete automation and
integration of all processes after the
electrolyte lling, including the aging,
degasing, grading, and sorting of the cells.
EB has set a tight construction schedule
for the facility. The rst phase of the factory
is due to begin operating during the second
quarter of 2010, at which point it will
employ about 60 people.
The standard building blocks approach,
as well as the experience of PEC, not only
Peter Ulrix at PEC
+32 16 39 83 39
Reader Enquiry Card No. 516
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Above: The automation of all processes including such aspects as formation, degassing, ageing, grading and sorting
Above: An EV powered by European batteries
Your Partnar for Hybr|d Systam 0as|gn,
0ava|opmant, Va||dat|on, and 0omponant Supp|y
00-00 0onvartars
Vah|c|a 0hargars
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Powertrain 8imulation & Design
H]orid 8oftware Development
Notor Controls
0asoline, Diesel, Ch0, & H]drogen 8]stems
Protot]pe Vehicle Builds
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CARB/EPA Vehicle Certification
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25242 Arct|c 0caan 0r|va
Laka Forast, 0A 9230
Sevcon Ltd
Kingsway South
Gateshead, NE110QA
Tel +44 (0) 191 497 9000
Operating voltage
80 to 400 VDC
Output current to 360 A
Gen4 (9 models)
Operating voltages
24 to 96 VDC
Output currents from
180 to 650 A
GpAC (4 models)
Operating voltages
150 to 350 VDC
Output currents from
300 to 800 A
Advanced AC Motor Controllers
for On and Off-road Electric Vehicles
Motor vehicles are at the top of the list
of products that consumers want to go
green, due to their high fuel usage and
emissions. Hybrid-electric and all-electric
vehicles are just one solution to this
problem. But the primary issue hindering
hybrids is cost, and one of the most costly
elements of an electric vehicle is the battery.
Todays hybrid and all-electric vehicles
generally use NiMH batteries for power
because theyre inexpensive and easy to
manufacture. However, the raw materials
for NiMH batteries are becoming more
expensive due to demand. Thats one of
the reasons why many automotive
companies are seeking to change to
lithium-ion batteries; they can be produced
from a variety of chemicals, not just one
specic element.
Lithium-ion batteries have a higher
energy density and consequently are able to
store more power than other rechargeables.
They also hold their charge longer due to
their lower self-discharge rate. Further,
lithium-ion batteries offer vehicles greater
efciency, acceleration, and range all
without increasing the price. Because of
these advantages, many companies are
developing concept models using lithium-
ion batteries.
brazing process, ensuring cleanliness of
both the climate-control and battery-
coolant uids. The use of high-strength
aluminum alloys provides greater material
strength and contributes to weight savings.
Additionally, the chillers compact design
provides considerable space savings
critical for helping engineers accommodate
battery packs with thousands of cells.
Advanced manufacturing capabilities,
such as our innovative brazing process,
combined with our research commitment
to the hybrid and electric segment, position
Dana as a valued contributor to hybrid-
vehicle battery technology, says director
of engineering, Dana Thermal Products
Group, Ted Zielinski.
The potential market for lithium-ion
batteries is immense. Once perfected for
commercialization, hybrid vehicles become
more affordable and the payoff for auto and
truck companies not to mention the
environment is extraordinary. With Danas
new Long heat exchanger, the issue of heat
exposure is virtually eliminated.
Dana Holding Corporation is a world
leader in the supply of axles; driveshafts;
and structural, sealing, and thermal-
management products; as well as genuine
service parts. The companys customer base
includes virtually every major vehicle
manufacturer in the global automotive,
commercial vehicle, and off-highway
markets. Based in Maumee, Ohio, the
company employs approximately 23,000
people in 26 countries and reported 2008
sales of US$8.1 billion.
Dana developed, and is manufacturing,
the battery coolant heat exchanger at its
advanced engineering center in Oakville,
Ontario, Canada. E&H
Dana is helping to move development of new electric vehicles
forward with a highly innovative battery-cooling technology
However, there is a considerable
challenge with these batteries: keeping the
vehicles operating temperature within a
specic range of 0-45C. In hot climates,
simply parking in the sun could raise the
battery temperature near its upper limit.
To combat this issue, Dana Holding
Corporation has developed the Long heat
exchanger designed to extend battery life
in hybrid and electric vehicles. This
technology, the rst of its kind, recently
debuted on a 2010 all-electric sports car.
Danas innovative heat-exchange
technology cools the battery by transferring
heat generated within it to the vehicles
climate control system. In addition, a
temperature-sensor mount provides
continuous feedback to the climate-control
system. This interface helps to maintain the
batterys ideal temperature during
operation, helping to extend battery life.
Were committed to providing our best-
in-class engineering and manufacturing
expertise to electric-vehicle manufacturers,
says Dana president and CEO, Jim
Sweetnam. Our advanced battery
technology solutions will help drive our
growth in this exciting market segment.
Dana engineers constructed the heat
exchangers using a patented aluminum-
Dana Holding Corporation
Reader Enquiry Card No. 517
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Left: The Long heat exchanger is just one
example of how Dana innovations deliver longer
battery life for hybrid and all-electric vehicles
Powering clean electric vehicles
red Materials supplies battery materials and equipment
for labs and full scale production. Our battery product
line offers lab scientists and production teams the quality and
technology they need for demanding applications.
Forming Machine, Sealing Machine Manual Crimper, Coin Cell Disassembler
Hohsen Corp. of Japan and Pred Materials, its exclusive North American
distributor, are proud to offer large-scale battery manufacturing equipment
made by Hi-Mecha and other top quality producers, in addition to
Hohsens comprehensive line of battery lab tools and components.
Top quality battery
materials & equipment
for lab & factory
Specialty materials for
the Mars Lander and
Rover were supplied
by Pred Materials.
Pred Materials International, Inc.
60 East 42nd Street, Suite 1456
New York, New York 10165
T - 212.286.0068
F - 212.286.0072
Illustration: Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech
The automotive industry faces a key
challenge as a result of growing pressure to
develop the most environmentally friendly
drivetrain for all types of vehicles. However,
despite this pressure, it is not clear which
type of driving accumulator and drive
technology will dominate the market in the
long term.
Looking at a timespan of ve years, one
can safely forecast that the automotive
market will offer hybrid drives as an
alternative to the IC engine, even though a
erce rivalry has surfaced between
advanced diesel- and gasoline-powered
drives that can reach the consumption level
of hybrid drivetrains. It can be argued that
electrical vehicles remain suitable only for
metropolitan travel but the operating
radius is determined too much by the low-
energy density of batteries in comparison to
conventional fuels.
Vehicle electrication and battery
technology occupy a central role in the fast
evolving market. Currently, the lithium-ion
battery sits at the top, even though there
are still some technical safety questions to
be solved for mass application. Alternative
concepts are still in the experimental stage.
tasks, and the simulation of batteries is
possible. During the test of a hybrid or EV
drivetrain, the bench energy system can
recreate the vehicle battery. As a result, HiL
designs can be realized in order to make
possible the parallelization of the entire
development process.
The bidirectional Heinzinger ERS test
bench energy systems are available as a
mains recovery unit that has been
optimized specically for applications such
as the aforementioned testbeds for hybrid
drivetrains as well as purely testing of
electrical drive machines, for which
accumulators such as SuperCaps, NiMH, or
Li-ion batteries are simulated. In addition,
the pure stability testing of battery modules
or battery packs is possible with
conclusions on the cycle stability under
changing ambient conditions. In R&D,
energy system can also be employed as a
general energy source or sink for testing
The technological race for the future of
mobility remains suspenseful, it currently
seems to become apparent that drives for
synthetic standard fuels or hydrogen will
still be around for alot longer. HEVs and
EVs growth depends signicantly upon the
further improvement of the energy density
of the vehicle batteries. Not until distances
can be driven in purely electrical mode that
a current diesel-powered automobile of
lorry achieves will the market development
be able to take a technologically more
straightforward course. E&H
Introducing a new validation system that has been optimized
for hybrid drivetrains as well as electrical drive machines
The automotive industry does not have
much of a choice during the current
orientation phase: short development times
are crucial to meet fast product cycles and
increasing cost pressure. This is achieved
only by the support of highly developed
simulation tools and powerful test systems
for drivetrains and components in hybrid
and electric vehicles.
The complexity of todays passenger cars
and utility vehicles as well as other modern
machines requires sophisticated test
procedures that measure data for
performance, service life, economy, safety,
and the convenience of the components
and systems, and make them reproducible.
Even the exploration of limit ranges
needs to be simulated and tested. Modern
test bench designs make validations
possible to approximate practical and
realistic conditions with high testing
accuracy. High exibility is necessary,
though, for testing prototypes as well as
constantly changing products or subsystems.
A core component of modern testbeds is
the test bench energy system. Based on its
dynamic features and capability, it can be
used for numerous feed and simulation
Norbert Schmalhofer at Heinzinger Electronic
+49 8031 2458 63
Reader Enquiry Card No. 518
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Heinzinger ERS: A high dynamic bidirectional test
bench energy system, with a future EV road car
A POWERFUL LEGACY | Engineering the Future
Remy International, Inc. introduces the rst standardized hybrid
motor platform using its patented HVH

technology. The High

Voltage Hairpin technology and unique cooling strategies
boast the highest efciency and power density available on the
market. Designed with your needs in mind, Remy hybrid motors
can be integrated into a wide range of vehicle platforms and
powertrains, and customized to meet specic requirements. With
more than a century of experience in large-scale manufacturing
of electric motors and alternators, who else could provide drive
torque and power generation while signicantly speeding up your
development cycle and reducing your costs of entry in the hybrid
market? Impact your bottom line.
2009 All Rights Reserved
January 2010
t ic
hybrid vehicle technology international Ja
edia & Ev
Machine vision
The next generation of eco-friendly
cars is just around the corner.
Whats next for electric motors?
Cell division
Opinions differ on batteries so
which technology will prevail?
Audi E-tron
A green R8 supercar is on the production
agenda. Exclusive early details revealed
Wolfgang Strobl
General manager of
CleanEnergy, BMW
Mark Smith
CEO, Molycorp
Whats new?
Volkswagen L1
Mercedes electric SLS
BMW EfficientDynamics
Volvo plug-in hybrids
TM4 is staking out its place as a driving
force in an automotive industry thats
currently experiencing a seismic shift. From
concept to series manufacture, theyre
forging new paths with exciting new
products designed to respond with agility
and creativity to this centurys rapidly
changing automotive landscape.
A wholly owned subsidiary of
hydroelectric giant Hydro-Quebec, TM4 is
mechanics, power and control electronics,
and control software, all of which works
towards one goal: the design and
production of quality powertrain
components with outstanding value. And
the companys family of permanent-magnet
electric motors and controllers is only one
example of this expertise set in motion.
Affordable, impressively efcient, and
compact, the companys TM4 MTIVE is
nding a home in a wide range of vehicles
that being designed, developed, and road-
tested today.
Built to exacting automotive industry
norms in their ISO-9001-certied
production facilities, the TM4 MTIVE line
embodies the companys commitment to
exible, responsive EV powertrain
integration. Its a philosophy that allows
customers the world over to enjoy a
signicantly shorter time-to-market, and
the chance to work with a hands-on
engineering team dedicated to ensuring
complete design compatibility. In addition,
TM4s series-production capacity provides
for scalable cost-effective volume
production making the company an
invaluable one-stop resource, and more
importantly, one which works closely
with customers from concept right through
to market.
When one considers the enviable
worldwide reputation TM4 has acquired
as an innovator and versatile partner, then
choosing this company makes even more
sense. TM4 is completely committed to the
success of its clients, which is, after all, the
true source of their continued success. E&H
Innovative EV systems produced by world-class engineers are
one companys way of forging ahead in todays auto industry
recognized as an outstanding innovator in
the development of highly adaptable,
efcient, and affordable electric-vehicle
propulsion systems as well wind-turbine
technology geared towards a greener, more
sustainable tomorrow.
TM4 is home to an impressive team of
world-class engineers, chosen for their
unique combination of expertise and
experience with electrodynamics and
Reader Enquiry Card No. 519
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Left: TM4s latest generation of
motors for the automotive industry
January 2010
t ic
hybrid vehicle technology international Ja
edia & Events Ltd
Machine vision
The next generation of eco-friendly
cars is just around the corner.
Whats next for electric motors?
Cell division
Opinions differ on batteries so
which technology will prevail?
Audi E-tron
A green R8 supercar is on the production
agenda. Exclusive early details revealed
Wolfgang Strobl
General manager of
CleanEnergy, BMW
Mark Smith
CEO, Molycorp
Whats new?
Volkswagen L1
Mercedes electric SLS
BMW EfficientDynamics
Volvo plug-in hybrids
Find out further details
about the advertisers in
this issue online
Coming in 2012, a long-term secure Canadian
source of battery-grade lithium to meet the
growing demand for hybrids and electrics in
the U.S. and around the globe.
Canada: the rst stop when the world goes shopping
for metals and minerals.
phone +1 416 361-2821
Canada Lithium Corp.
Canada Lithium Corp.
Product Marketing: Mark N. J. Ashcroft, P. Eng.,
Investor Relations: Olav Svela,
The companys shares trade on TSX-V under the symbol CLQ
Fuel efciency and the carbon footprint
of vehicles are such hot topics in passenger
transport that making reductions in these
areas is vital for the vehicles of tomorrow.
Hybridization can help to achieve these
aims, yet the complexity of designing a
hybrid means this can be difcult and
costly. What is needed are ways to complete
the iterative design process more effectively
and with condence that the reductions in
fuel consumption will be achieved under
real-world conditions.
Romax Technology has been developing
methods to allow OEMs to do exactly this.
They can analyze in detail the energy use
within a driveline, identifying where and
how energy is used and the efciencies with
which elements of the vehicle driveline
perform. They can also outline the effects
that design changes have on the drivelines
energy performance, and investigate the
sensitivity to changes in vehicle operating
conditions. Such methods ultimately allow
more effective hybrid drivelines to be
evaluated more quickly, and consequently
more cheaply.
Romax additionally demonstrated a
weight-change sensitivity study involving
the same two vehicles. Although it is clear
that an increase in weight requires more
energy in propulsion, Romax also analyzed
the change in the energy recovered during
braking. These overall changes were not
easy to understand, since the operating
behavior and therefore efciencies of
driveline elements were affected by the
change in weight, and these effects had to
be related to the fuel required. The weight
change therefore had a positive or negative
effect on overall energy demand from many
direct and indirect contributions. For the
split hybrid, the fuel saving from the extra
energy recovery was only about 15% of the
additional fuel consumed to propel, and for
the parallel hybrid this was about 45%.
This revealed that an increase in weight was
more detrimental to the fuel consumption
levels of the split hybrid design than that
of the parallel hybrid, and therefore the
robustness of the parallel hybrid design
was, in this respect, better.
To achieve the required vehicle
performance in a marketable way as quickly
and as cheaply as possible, engineers need a
set of analytical tools and capabilities that
enable them to make the correct decisions
swiftly and efciently. The increasing
complexity of drivelines makes this harder
to achieve, yet Romax Technology has the
capabilities to help design the advanced
driveline congurations of the future. E&H
Understanding energy ow in hybridized vehicles is not easy,
but there is now a program on the market to help engineers
As an example, Romax conducted
comparative studies between a split hybrid
vehicle and a parallel hybrid vehicle. Both
were petrol-electric hybrids, yet were
different in a number of areas (Figure 1).
Romax demonstrated how two very
different design concepts can be evaluated
and compared. The differences in fuel
consumption between these two concepts
arose from a number of direct and indirect
effects, some of which resulted in fuel
savings, some in additional fuel
consumption. Romax made it easy to
understand these pros and cons,
constituting a powerful rst step in forming
the overall concept of a future hybrid
vehicle design.
Beyond this, what about the details of the
design? Having chosen the conguration
and made initial predictions for energy
and therefore fuel use, how can you be
certain that the savings you will promote
will be achieved in the real world? Fuel
consumption sensitivity is an important
consideration and here again Romax
can help.
Lindsey Brown at Romax
+44 115 951 8836
Reader Enquiry Card No. 520
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Left: Driving towards a greener future.
Below: A breakdown of the effects
on overall fuel consumption levels
How robust is your
hybrid design?
Does it really deliver real-world
savings in fuel consumption?
Hybrid vehicles offer many different
configuration possibilities for the driveline
components, but this can make choosing
the best solution much more complex.
How do you decide which one is best
without being overwhelmed by data?
How can Romax help?
Our energy flow analysis allows you to see in detail how
and where energy is used, giving you the required
information about driveline behaviour to select the right
configuration with ease.
We enable you to understand how and why the
overall fuel consumption has changed, and to modify
and optimise your driveline across a wide range of
operating conditions.
Above all, we give you the knowledge to make informed
decisions about exactly how and where to improve your
hybrid driveline. Delivering premium products and fuel
savings to your customers.
Modern powertrains incorporate an
increasing number of electronic parts and
amount of software to enable an efcient
and economical operation. In particular,
pure electric drive and the automatic
engine start/stop support are recent
innovations that have been realized by an
electric machine that is powered by a high-
voltage lithuim-ion battery system. To
protect the battery cells from out-of-
tolerance operating conditions and to
prolong its lifetime, a battery-management
system (BMS) has been designed.
At the beginning of the BMS design, the
focus was on the information that had to be
exchanged with other on-board systems,
such as the engine management, hybrid
control unit and safety systems. In order to
enable a reliable identication of the battery
by the system, it is important that vendor
specic information can be retrieved via the
CAN interface of the BMS. For security
reasons, these are stored in a write-
protected area of the data memory inside
the BMS. In addition, this electrically
erasable programmable read-only memory
(EEPROM) is used for recording various
parameters during charging or discharging
the battery. Furthermore, this function
offers the possibility to identify
incompatibilities between the battery and
interconnected components. The main
purpose of a BMS is it has to protect the
cells from damage which could cause
failures in the electric power supply. As a
switching off the contactor relays for every
terminal. To prevent damage to the inverter,
a pre-charge circuit is mandatory to
equalize the battery and inverter voltages.
The safety management also takes care of
the documentation and storage of abnormal
operating conditions. Access to this
information is given through the onboard
diagnostic service. The content of the
internal data memory is retrievable over the
CAN interface by triggering a dedicated
BMS function. Another important feature of
the BMS is the power management, and
this function is able to set the BMS or its
peripheral components into an energy
saving standby-mode. In the same manner
it has the capacity to perform a controlled
wake-up of the system.
The software of the BMS is compliant to
the AUTOSAR 3.1 standard and runs on a
32bit Freescale microcontroller. An
advantage of AUTOSAR is the reusability of
application software due to the hardware
independent application layer. For the
design of the BMS software the AUTOSAR
builder tool from Geensys is utilized that
describes the interfaces of every software
component that is implemented in the
BMS. The functional behavior of a software
component is generally described by C-
functions. Since many of those are modeled
within a model-based environment, an
automatic code generator is used to
translate these models into executable C-
functions. After all software components
have been assigned with their corresponding
behavior, an ECU executable of the BMS
software can be generated and downloaded
into the microcontrollers ash memory.
The introduced BMS serves as a platform
for the development of innovative strategies
to increase the performance of todays
batteries. It is also able to be used as a rapid
control prototyping system for BMS
application developments.
A safe and reliable operation of the
battery is obligatory. The proposed battery-
management system will be utilized in
innovative electric vehicle concepts and
demonstrators to attain a reliable and safe
electric drive. E&H
Battery-management systems have evolved to now ensure
optimal rapid-control prototyping and HIL applications
result, an accurate measurement of all cell-
voltages, currents and internal battery
temperatures has to be performed and
monitored periodically. To acquire all cell-
voltages with low complexity, application
specic integrated circuits (ASICs) are used.
Due to the fact that small differences
between the individual cell-voltages can be
observed, the BMS is able to equalize the
charge on all the cells to prevent weaker
cells becoming over stressed. Another
purpose of the BMS is to determine a
couple of performance parameters as for
example the batterys SOC, which can also
be used as a monitoring value to predict the
operating range that can be achieved with
the remaining charge in the battery.
Another monitoring parameter is the state-
of-health (SOH) that estimates the
capability of the battery to deliver its
specied output over the life time. The
SOC and SOH calculation is based on
predened parameters that are
continuously recorded during battery
operation and stored in the EEPROM.
Additionally, the recent value of the
batterys open-circuit voltage is required
that is measured by an isolation amplier.
The most important function of the BMS
is the safety management. It monitors the
execution of the BMS software and is
responsible for the handling on any error
that occurs within the BMS. In critical
cases, the safety management disconnects
the battery terminals from the cells by
Christian Grabner at AIT Austrian Institute of Technology
+43 505 506 328
Reader Enquiry Card No. 521
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Left: The novel battery management system
from AIT for hardware-in-the-loop and
rapid control prototyping applications
Germanys biggest conference
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A new book, titled A Better Plan for a
Better Place, by Gordon Dower, looks out of
the technology and engineering box and
takes to task a program known as Project
Better Place, which promotes the renting of
batteries for electric vehicles as well as
supporting the need to install networks of
recharging and battery swapping stations
around the globe.
The project is worthwhile because it
offers innovative solutions that overcome
the high initial cost of a battery pack that is
large enough to give an electric vehicle an
acceptable range from a consumer point-of-
view. However, it does not go far enough.
Instead of calling for only the battery pack
to be rented, Project Better Place should
push forward with the idea to rent the
entire running gear, because it is vastly
simpler to exchange the motorized deck or
modek, which covers such subsystems as
wheels, suspension, electric drive and the
battery unit itself.
In contrast to the elaborate underground
battery-handling equipment proposed for
the swapping system, exchanging a modek
simply requires a conventional jack to
raise the ride-on passenger compartment
(ridon) by about a meter so that the
modek can be removed, thus allowing its
replacement to be slotted underneath.
The exchange is then completed by
lowering the ridon.
amply demonstrate the feasibility
and ease of this quick-change ridek
modularization, which has been patented
in six countries.
An important advantage of renting the
modek rather than only the battery is that
the modek could have a much longer life
expectancy than the average vehicle.
Furthermore, modeks would be standardized
to t the ridons, which then in turn gives
an economy of numbers and simplies
servicing and the training of mechanics.
The privately owned ridon would be
relatively inexpensive to manufacture and
even customize to suit the owners needs.
It could even be argued that the owner
of the vehicle could have several different
ridons and change them himself, in just a
few minutes. Being able to swap the modek
under a modek exchange rental contract
would therefore eliminate all servicing and
warranty concerns.
The book describes an alternative
charging system that means the vehicle
does not need to be physically plugged into
a power source. Conducting plates
embedded in a curb are activated only
when a suitably equipped parked car makes
contact with them and supplies an
authorizing code, either wirelessly or by
direct contact. The book illustrates how this
process, known as vehicle-to-grid (V2G)
can be completely safe and so inexpensive
that every parked electric car is automatically
connected to the utility grid, enabling all
this collective energy storage capacity to
meet a highly variable demand.
But thats not all. The book also covers
a novel means for controlling the ow
of electric energy that brings together
accelerating, braking and reversing
functions. Another chapter discusses the
challenges of a new method of steering, and
the nal chapter contains philosophical
perspectives on road transportation. E&H
A thought-provoking book discusses cutting-edge theories
on how Project Better Place can be substantially improved
Just as impressive as the simplicity
of this process is that the procedure can be
undertaken with passengers remaining in
the vehicle. Batteries tend to be heavy,
delicate, and dangerous to handle, but in
the modek exchange, the battery modules
and connections are never disturbed.
Several models and three highway-
licensed prototypes Rideks I, II, and III
Gordon Dower at Ridek
+1 360 945 5242
Reader Enquiry Card No. 522
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Left: Ridek III showing ease of entry
Above: The Ridek III gets ready for a modek exchange
Established in 1997 10,000sqm oor area
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Henggang, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.
Back in the late 1950s and early 1960s,
there was an obscure mine in northwestern
Quebec, Canada, that produced the
lithium-bearing mineral spodumene. By
1970, the mine was closed, but the
orphaned deposit still contained large
resources of lithium-rich pegmatite. Canada
Lithium acquired the mine in May 2008,
because it had decided that IC engine
technology was on its way out and would
be superseded by electric vehicles powered
by lithium-ion batteries.
We are fortunate on several fronts,
admits president and CEO Peter Secker, an
internationally experienced engineer who
was appointed in September 2009 to
spearhead development. First, we acquired
a former mine with plenty of untouched
lithium-bearing zones in the ground.
Second, we aim to be shipping battery-
grade lithium in a few short years, just
when we forecast a perfect storm for
lithium demand as electrics and hybrids
truly catch on with car buyers.
Finally, a lot of our product could be
trucked to a lithium-hungry battery and
electric car industry thats centered around
Detroit. One cant overlook the fact that our
mine is a mere 12-hour drive to Detroit.
our initial product against customer specs
and, in many ways, advising us on end-
product requirements, says Secker.
Canada Lithium plans to begin
construction of a mine and processing
plant by 2011, and forecasts that a fully
functioning, battery-grade lithium
carbonate producer could be in operation
by late 2012. Consultants are working now
on the key studies on metallurgy, geology,
mine engineering, and the environment;
positive results from these studies would
lead to the nal go-ahead.
Furthermore, good news about the
potential size of the deposit has already
come from recent geological studies. In
early November 2009, Canada Lithium
announced the target estimate had
surpassed the historical estimate of 15
million tons, with the amount doubling to
nearly 30 million tons grading at 1.1%-
1.2% Li
The goal is to produce a minimum of 40
million pounds per annum of 99.6%
battery-grade lithium a benchmark grade
the company has already surpassed in
metallurgical tests. If all the studies prove
positive, the Canada Lithium mine could
offer a secure source of supply for decades
to come, not only to North America, but to
global markets. E&H
Canada Lithium is planning to build North Americas next hard-
rock lithium mine and its only a 12-hour drive from Detroit
But Canada Lithium is not focusing
solely on North America. It has signed an
agreement with Mitsui, granting the
Japanese company exclusive rights to
market some of Canada Lithiums product
in Japan, Korea, and China.
It certainly provides us with a level of
comfort to know that a global metals trader
such as Mitsui is working with us, testing
Olav Svela at Canada Lithium Corp
+1 416 361 2821
Reader Enquiry Card No. 523
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Left: Canada Lithiums mine might be
situated on Detroits doorstep, but the
company is ramping-up business with
customers in China, Japan, and Korea
Canada Lithium plans to begin construction of a mine and processing plant within two years. The company
forecasts that a fully functioning, battery-grade lithium carbonate producer could be in operation by late 2012
With well in excess of 100
hybrid and EV projects already
delivered, trust Ricardo to
help navigate you through
the challenges of vehicle
Dedicated facilities for hybrid and
EV design, test and development
Torotraks full-toroidal variable drive
technology, when combined with
a high-speed composite ywheel,
transfers kinetic energy in the
mechanical state to and from the vehicle driveline to provide a highly efcient, cost-effective and
power-dense alternative to battery-electric systems.
Flywheel based mechanical hybrids using Torotraks KERS-CVT technology are ideally suited to automotive, bus,
truck, construction and other industrial vehicle applications which are subject to frequent stop-start operation.
Torotrak (Development) Limited 1 Aston Way, Leyland PR26 7UX United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0) 1772 900 900 Fax: +44 (0) 1772 900 929 Email:
Transforming transmission technology

Eliminates inefcient conversion of energy

from mechanical to electrical states and back

High round-trip efciency typically 70%

(for complete system)

Improved fuel economy typically over 20%

fuel saving over the base vehicle

Flexible hardware conguration to suit a

wide range of vehicles and powertrains

Can be tted to original equipment or

retro-tted to existing vehicles
Hybrids dont have
to be expensive
and inefcient
Image courtesy
of Xtrac Limited
The innovative Oaktec-developed
Honda Insight Hybrid CVT rally car is on
course for its best season ever following a
string of strong results in the Formula 1000
rally championship. The car, which has
been a regular class winner in the series
since it rst entered in 2005, is now a
serious contender for overall honours in the
The Oaktec hybrid research project is
part-funded by the UK Northwest Regional
Development Agency and focuses on
improving the efciency of hybrid systems
through optimization of control strategies
and energy-storage technologies. The team
has recently adopted the latest lithium iron
phosphate technology from LiFeBATT to
replace the standard NiMH battery pack
that has proved to be the limiting factor
in exploiting the performance potential of
the system.
The team scored its rst podium of the
season when it took third place at the Lee
As soon as I drove the car on its rst
test, the difference was clear it gives a
sustained surge of acceleration and much
better regenerative efciency. It also
exploits the fantastic fuel-efciency
capability of the hybrid CVT package
in normal driving conditions.
The team is also planning to do a
100mpg demonstration to better the
amazing 82mpg achieved on a fuel
economy event late in 2008.
I love the idea of the 100mph rally car
that will return 100mpg, Andrews
continues. There is really no point in us
doing all this development work, if there
is no genuine environmental advantage.
LiFeBATT Europe CEO, Ian Goodman, is
equally enthusiastic about the project: We
are very excited to be working with Oaktec.
With the addition of the LiFeBATT battery
system, the advances Oaktec have made to
the Honda Hybrid system can now be fully
exploited, and will hopefully translate into
a championship win.
The team plans to transfer the hybrid
development package into its Bosch-
supported Honda Civic Hybrid-CVT rally
car that was such a hit on the 2008 Jim
Clark Rally.
We are a very small company but our
advantage is that we have ve years
experience of working with hybrid systems
and using motorsport to explore new areas
of potential, explains Andrews. This is not
just a racing project, but one that uses
motorsport as a platform to develop
systems with much broader applications.
We believe there are numerous niche
vehicle markets for hybrid technology
systems and we are interested in developing
products that can service those markets.
If it works on a rally stage, it will work
anywhere! For us, recovering waste energy
is the future. E&H
A high-tech, hybrid development project between two advanced
companies is heading for championship victory in Formula 1000
Holland memorial rally at Anglesey, in April
of this year. It is now hoped that the new
battery technology will power the car to its
rst championship victory.
Development of the Honda Insight,
sponsored by Van Doornes Transmissie
BV, part of the Bosch Group, has so far
concentrated on hybrid-system control to
maximize assist and energy regeneration. A
further quantum gain is expected when the
team competes with the new LiFeBATT
15Ah cells.
We have been working hard on a range
of technical developments that will enable
us to push home the advantage given to us
by the hybrid electric motor generator and
the CVT, which the Honda IMA system
uses, says team boss Paul Andrews. The
LiFeBATT technology is the nal piece in
the jigsaw, as it will give us much more
power with no weight increase, and will
enable us to capture more waste energy,
more quickly, under braking.
Ian Goodman at LiFeBATT and Paul Andrews at Oaktec
Reader Enquiry Card No. 524
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Left and below: The Oaktec-developed
Honda Insight Hybrid rally car features
all-new LiFeBATT 15Ah cell technology


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As the world moves toward alternative
fuels and non-traditional power sources,
one company fully embracing this high-
tech innovation and change is Remy
International. The company has recently
announced a new electric motor called the
Remy HVH 250 at its world headquarters
near Indianapolis, Indiana.
The hybridization and electrication of
the worlds transportation vehicles offers a
vast and potentially protable market, says
the companys CEO, John Weber, who sees
great opportunities ahead. Enterprising
companies that can supply innovative
engineering solutions and products to meet
the needs of this emerging market have a
window of economic opportunity.
The Remy HVH 250 is based on Remys
patented high-voltage hairpin (HVH)
technology which, according to testing
results, creates the highest power and
torque density available on the market. The
new electric motor also exceeds the US
Department of Energys (DOE) 2020 targets
for electric motor power density by 200%.
Yet, what customers might nd even
more noteworthy than the superior
performance is that Remy is calling the
HVH 250 its rst off-the-shelf electric
motor for hybrid and electric vehicles.
The start-up costs to design, develop,
and manufacture hybrid power systems are
prohibitive for all but the largest OEMs,
Weber points out. These costs are
considerable barriers to entry and have
The HVH 250 has a versatile design
enabling its use in diverse applications. Not
only an electric motor for light-duty hybrid
and electric vehicles, the HVH technology
platform will be used in medium- and
heavy-duty trucks, transit buses, heavy
construction and mining equipment, and
many other applications.
At the end of last year, Remy announced
a long-term agreement to supply motors
for Allison Transmission hybrid drive
systems for buses, and an agreement with
EBO to supply motors to provide electric
power to hydraulic pumps on construction
and mining equipment.
All electric motors are not created
equal. Differences in the design and
construction of the motors primary
components the stator and the rotor
can greatly affect performance, size, weight,
power density, efciency, battery usage,
durability, and reliability over the long
haul, says Weber.
Remy HVH hybrid motors owe their
name and their performance to the
proprietary HVH stator windings. In
contrast to conventional round-wire
windings, the HVH stator winding uses
precision-formed rectangular wires.
Multiple layers of interlocking hairpins
produce a superior slot ll (up to 73%
compared to 42% for typical round-wire
windings). This patented design also creates
a shorter end-turn space than round-wire
stators, thereby reducing heat and
improving the motors torque and power
density, and lends itself to robust
construction at the critical connections
between the conductors.
Tests show that an HVH internal
permanent-magnet motor provides 27%
higher torque and 34% higher power
compared with the same size round-wire
winding IPM motor. Remy is now offering
two platforms with a complete range of
performance. The HVH250 motor has
440Nm of torque, 150kW of output, and is
93% efcient. A larger HVH technology
device called the HVH410 has 1,655Nm of
torque, 275kW of output, and is 94.9%
efcient. E&H
An all-new hybrid and electric vehicle motor technology has been
developed that eliminates several well-known design challenges
had a negative impact on hybrid adoption.
Fortunately, weve created a solution with
our standardized electric motors that can be
integrated into a range of applications and
scaled to meet specic requirements.
By developing a family of off-the-shelf
hybrid motors, Remy is attempting to
greatly lower the overall cost of entry into
the hybrid market, both technologically
and nancially.
Remy engineers explain to customers
that by producing one well-designed key
component, they can design, test, and
manufacture hybrid motors more
economically, by sharing the development
and tooling costs across a family of related
motor platforms. Just as manufacturers
turn to suppliers for tires, suspensions,
and other key components, the availability
of pre-engineered, standardized hybrid
motors simplies the design process,
reduces up-front costs, and enhances
performance and reliability.
Remy is not alone in this endeavor.
Only four months ago, US President Barack
Obama traveled to the state of Indiana
and announced Remy International
was nominated for a US Department of
Energy grant aimed at accelerating the
manufacturing and commercialization of
next-generation electric vehicle
technologies. These grant funds will enable
Remy to expand production lines more
quickly and reduce customer application
costs for hybrid motor/generator integration.
+1 800 372 0222
Reader Enquiry Card No. 525
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Left: With the HVH250, Remy combines award-
winning, patented hairpin stator technology
with a smaller footprint and lighter weight to
introduce a customizable motor assembly platform
The World Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition, EVS in short, is the
major most long-lasting symposium event in the electric vehicle history. EVS is the major event of the
World Electric Vehicles Association (WEVA)which has three regional members, namely Electric Vehicle
Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP), European Association for Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric
Vehicles (AVERE) and Electric Drive Technology Association of Americas (EDTA). EVS is rotating
among Asia Pacific, Americas and Europe hosted by EVAAP, EDTA and AVERE respectively. The 25 the
Symposium EVS 25 will take place in Shenzhen, China, between 5 and 9 November, 2010.
The EVS series began in 1969 as an academic forum for global networking and the exchange of technical
information. As electric drive technologies progressed from classrooms and laboratories into the market
place, EVS blossomed into an event encompassing most updated endeavors and initiatives, both
scientific and business oriented.
Today, EVS is recognized as the global electric transportation industrys premier and largest forum,
showcasing all forms of technologies in the market place and on the drawing boards from various battery
powered electric vehicles to fuel cell electric buses. The event attracts over the world academic,
government and industry leaders who are interested in exploring and understanding the technical, policy,
market challenges and development for a paradigm shift towards much wider application of electric
transportation technologies.
With the theme Sustainable Mobility Revolution, EVS25 will be the perfect platform for leaders from
government, industry, scientific and technological circles as well as from all walks of life, including
entrepreneurs, scholars, professionals and engineering practitioners, to have exchanges and to realize
cooperation on latest technical achievements on electric vehicles. Surely, EV future developing direction
and strategy, government policies, infrastructure construction, EV commercialization and industrialization,
and innovation of high-end industry and related leading technologies will be the hot issues to be
deliberated among the participants.
EVS25 will compose of different activities organized around four major axes:
the symposium, where experts from all around the world will share their scientific, technical or social
experience by presenting papers in either lecture or dialogue sessions
the exhibition, which is the worlds largest display of products for electric based transportation produced
by vehicle manufacturers, component suppliers, infrastructure developers and related service suppliers
demonstration and Ride & Drive will offer the opportunity to test electric vehicles on roads
EV Parade, the preliminary plans of the routes are from Shenzhen to its surrounding cities (Hong Kong
included) to promote great social interests and support for the sustainable and clean mobility future.
To further the impact beyond November 2010, a Shenzhen Announcement will be developed and made in
EVS25 aiming at calling all global efforts to contribute and realize a sustainable mobility revolution to
create a sustainable, clean and environmental-friendly world in according with the resolution of the
Copenhagen Meeting held in Denmark in 2009 autumn.
All interested in EVS25, please log on to to collect more information, to enroll in the
symposium, to submit a paper or to register for exhibition.
Contact: Mr. Wei Feng, EVAAP Secretary-General:;
Mr. Yan Jianlai, Director, SAE-China:
November 5-9, 2010; Shenzhen, China
The automotive engineering
organization of tomorrow will need to be
very different from today, reecting
multiple competencies across a wide range
of powertrain technologies, not least those
encompassing increased electrication. It
will also need to reect the commercial
reality of providing vehicles that customers
wish to purchase. As a result, the industry
must focus squarely on the creation of
affordable, highly fuel-efcient, low-CO

vehicles that offer at least the same range
and performance as todays vehicles.
It is clear to Ricardo that the increasing
electrication of vehicle powertrains is a
key enabler for a future sustainable
transportation system, and that the plug-in
hybrid vehicle, in particular, enables a
solution that offers performance aligned
with this reality. A major challenge,
however, is in the creation of products
that meet customers expectations at a cost
equivalent to that of todays vehicles.
The battery system already represents
a considerable proportion of the cost
premium of todays hybrids, but in a
As the BSDC is a fully integrated part of
Ricardo, the UK-headquartered company is
ideally placed to handle the integration of
these systems into vehicles. As such,
Ricardo engineers can take the development
process from the cell technology to vehicle
implementation, as well as design the pack
and the battery management, and the
entire hybrid powertrain. The center gives
engineers the capability to test the pack
in a simulated vehicle. BSDC also enables
development tests to be undertaken on a
hybrid dynamometer together with the
remaining powertrain components.
As a result of such vast capacity, Ricardo
has the ability to cover the whole cycle of
development of the most crucial element of
the plug-in hybrid and electric vehicle
powertrain. Engineers are able to evaluate
components of batteries and electrical
machines through simulated environments.
Battery costs can and will come down
but there will be challenges beyond simply
achieving production volumes at which
economies of scale are likely to be realized.
Lithium-ion, in particular, is an expensive
technology but there are many ways for the
industry to use engineering skills and
innovation to reduce pack costs. Ricardo
has recently announced the very promising
results of a collaborative research project
in this area involving QinetiQ and a
program thats been part-funded by the
UK Energy Savings Trust.
Changes are likely to be incremental
reductions in overall battery-system costs,
but taken over time these could prove to be
substantial. In terms of manufacturing
processes, a good analogy for the current
cost position of battery systems production
is perhaps that of the dramatic fall in the
prices of integrated circuits over the past
few decades. The cost of batteries is
unlikely to come down on quite the same
scale as that, but there will be substantial
reductions through the implementation of
similar types of innovations. E&H
Vehicle electrication development time and battery system cost
can be reduced through investment in state-of-the-art facilities
plug-in vehicle the additional energy
storage capacity required makes it
considerably higher. In some extreme
applications for example, in utility
applications where battery power is
required to substitute for excessive running
of the engine while stationary this can
require almost a complete order of
magnitude increase in battery capacity
over the standard production hybrid.
The imperative to deliver robust, cost-
optimized and well-engineered systems that
are fully integrated with the vehicle and its
control systems has been a key inuence in
Ricardos decision to invest in its battery
systems development center (BSDC) at the
companys Detroit Technology Campus.
Ricardo engineers are already using this
facility in research programs, such as taking
cell technologies from specialist suppliers,
designing and developing battery systems
mechanically and thermally, and also
applying the latest in control electronics
both in order to achieve the required
operational characteristics and for monitoring
cell health and state of charge.
Reader Enquiry Card No. 526
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Left: Li-Ion battery integration into a diesel hybrid
Below: VECTIS CFD battery cooling ow analysis
P-TECs worldwide team of professional engineers and consultants have
helped develop some of the most technologically advanced vehicles in the
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Information Solutions and Publications
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Consultancy Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Lifecycle Solutions
Are you developing Plug-in Electric, Series or
Parallel Hybrid Vehicles?
Please contact us at:
Environmentally friendly solution for a cleaner tomorrow
Via Mazzini 10/12, 20032 - CORMANO (MI) ITALY
tel.: +39 02 66305120, e.mail: EDN GROUP S.r.l.
Ever Monaco is an international event recognized as the meeting for
ecological vehicle manufacturers and the parties involved in the renewable
energies sector. EVER Monaco is organized under the patronage of HSH
Prince Albert II.
For the fth year, Ever Monaco 2010 will be held in the prestigious Congress
Centre of the Grimaldi Forum from March 25 to 28.
The exhibition will take place in the Espace Ravel, a 4,000m area at the
heart of the conference center, looking out onto the Mediterranean Sea.
One exhibition will welcome the ecological vehicle manufacturers (electric,
hybrid, with fuel cell, gas and biofuel and any mode of propulsion presenting
a real ecological interest), as well as battery manufacturers and equipment
suppliers from around the world.
There will be two ride and drive circuits: one for licensed vehicles and one
for two-wheel vehicles. A parade will proceed past the most famous landmarks
of Monaco.
The two-wheel electric performance event is open to series vehicles (salon
exhibitors only). There are two tests: an autonomy test and an acceleration test.
At the end of the challenge, which will be covered by the press, the winners will
be presented with an award.
One exhibition on renewable energies will welcome only services, equipment
and products associated directly or indirectly, in whole or in part, with renewable
energies, the environment and energy saving.
The conferences will have a scientic orientation and will bring together
specialists from universities and industry in the ecological vehicle and renewable
energies sectors. These speakers will have the opportunity to share their know-
how and techniques with participants from all over the world.
EVER-AHEAD is a one-day conference for doctors and scientists from
Mediterranean countries. It focuses specically on issues of air quality and the
health implications of poor air, including respiratory disease, lung cancer, asthma
and numerous other illnesses associated with breathing difculties.
The Rally Monte-Carlo for Alternative Energy Vehicles, registered in the
calendar as the FIA Alternative Energies Cup, will be open to all types of
ecological vehicles (electric, hybrid, combustion battery, hydrogen, organic fuels),
and will run over two days and one night, starting on March 25.
Reva Electric Car Company
Reva Electric Car Company is helping to drive the global penetration of
electric vehicles with a focus on four areas of business that help governments,
city authorities, OEM manufacturers, distributors, companies and consumers to
make zero-emission transport a reality today.
With the worlds largest test vehicle eet of more than 3,000 electric cars in
24 countries and 85 million kilometers driven under a wide range of climactic
conditions, Reva is a technology leader and highly experienced EV manufacturer.
Reva offers complete vehicle and charging solutions for countries and
communities, including one-off specialty vehicle electrication projects aimed at
specic end-user segments. Reva advanced energy management and telematics
systems and fast charge station are featured in the companys own vehicles and
are also available under license.
Furthermore, the company offers licensing of Revas electric traction and
management systems for integration into OEM platforms. Reva sees licensing as
a key opportunity for OEMs to gain access to the latest in EV technologies and
take advantage of Revas 15 years R&D experience, and so to accelerate the
penetration of EVs in key markets. Due to local assembly of Reva electric cars
under license, rapid market entry is now possible in less than 12 months based
on Revas ultra low-carbon and low-cost assembly plant.
Alliance Winding Equipment
+1 260 478 2200
The electric car was conceived in Europe in the mid-1800s and grew in
popularity in turn-of-the-century America, gaining acceptance at the beginning
of the electrical grid expansion. After a few decades of success, the electric car
lost its niche to faster, more efcient gas-powered cars due to the expanding
highway system and improvements to petroleum-powered vehicles.
In the early 1990s the development and manufacturing of the electric-
powered car started again with new automotive drivetrain technology, as was
demonstrated on the General Motors EV1. Unfortunately this same decade
saw the rise and discontinuation of the EV1 and several others because the
advancements in powertrain technology outpaced the battery technology of the
decade. Alliance Winding Equipment worked on the development of the EV1
electric car drivetrain and experienced the battery limitations and the delay of
a new automotive era.
During this same time period, commercial aviation was searching for improved
efciency for each passenger mile, and the aerospace industry started
developing new and more advanced electric motor technologies. Fresh from
Alliance Windings experience with EV1 and other high-yield servo drive
manufacturing projects, aerospace engineers applied similar production
technologies in the manufacture of aircraft electric motor pumps, cabin air
compressors and electric starter generators.
Pred Materials International
Pred Materials International (PMI) is a 100% American company, founded
in 1996 and based in New York City. The company imports and distributes
specialty chemicals and equipment to support the advanced energy storage
and production industries, ne ceramics, and other high-tech markets. We have
a growing line of nano-sized powders and carbon nanotubes.
Reva offers a complete range of electric vehicle and charging solutions around the world
Now in its fth year, Ever Monaco 2010 will be held in the Grimaldi Forum Congress Centre
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Midtronics is focused on the development of innovative technologies for
battery management solutions. For preventative maintenance, professional
service and warranty management, the companys battery and electrical
diagnostic equipment is the required standard at vehicle dealers, service centers
and battery retailers worldwide.
Midtronics custom-solutions focus fosters close, direct relationships in order
to fully understand customers battery-related opportunities. The company
creates value by providing innovative solutions utilizing superior diagnostic
platforms, technologies and creativity.
In 2008, Midtronics worked with General Motors to launch the SPS programming
support tool, EL-49642, which is based on the Midtronics PSC/CX-PRO Power
Supply Charger Series. The EL-49642 is required for two-mode hybrid vehicle
SPS programming.
In November 2008, Midtronics introduced its rst hybrid vehicle battery test
routine at the AAPEX show in Las Vegas, Nevada. Incorporating a wireless
convergence module that communicates information from the vehicle to the
EXP-1200 analyzer, this new test routine combines the capability to test the
external auxiliary battery with onboard diagnostics to perform an interactive road
test of the hybrid battery pack for the Toyota Prius. The test process includes
individual voltage and conductance battery pack block measurements as well as
algorithms to identify hybrid pack issues. The diagnostic process can be
performed as a full system test, or as separate diagnostic routines, including
reading and clearing trouble codes.
Midtronics Battery and Electrical Diagnostic Platforms include the award-
winning inGEN IDR Electrical Diagnostic Data Recorders, GR Series Battery and
Electrical Diagnostic Stations, EXP Series Expandable Electrical Diagnostic
Platforms, and the PSC/CX-PRO Power Supply Charger Series.
The high dynamics of hybrid drives and electric motors place great
demands on the electronic control units (ECUs). Compared with conventional
vehicles, hybrids add more layers of complexity, especially with regard to control
systems. In hybrid systems, ECUs have to control an internal combustion engine,
motor drives, the transmission, batteries, regenerative braking and other parts as
one overall propulsion and energy management system. Moreover, electric
traction drives and electric auxiliaries add additional degrees of freedom to the
system with regard to functionality and packaging all of which demand a more
complex and distributed control system.
Like other ECUs in the vehicle, the controls for hybrid drives and electric
motors have to be validated thoroughly. Real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL)
simulation is the most widely used and effective method for testing the functions,
diagnostics, system integration and communication of ECUs. dSPACE, a leading
global producer and distributor of engineering tools for the development of ECUs
and mechatronic systems, offers a complete toolchain for developing and testing
electric drive and motor ECUs. dSPACE offers HIL simulators specially adapted
for e-drive applications, utilizing FPGA-based hardware to accurately capture the
fast-switching motor drive command signals, simulate sensing systems (such as
resolvers), and execute e-motor models at high sampling frequencies all done in
a synchronous manner to emulate the fast dynamics of such systems.
With HIL simulation, all the different drive combinations (parallel mild hybrid,
full hybrid, micro hybrid, power split hybrid and serial hybrid) and their ECUs can
be covered. The complete vehicle architecture and interconnected system parts
are simulated for these tests. This has several advantages, including the ability to
conduct function tests at an early development stage and more comprehensive
and systematic tests in a shorter time.
The engine used in a hybrid
vehicle must be as fuel efcient
as possible. Torotraks innovative
full-toroidal traction drive technology
creates the opportunity for engine
manufacturers to optimize the
efciency and performance of many
key auxiliary systems by the use
of Toroidal Variable Auxiliary
Drives (TVADs).
TVAD technology allows a smooth,
continuous change to the drive ratio to
ensure that ancillaries are always running at
their most appropriate speed, regardless of engine rpm.
Potential applications include alternators, air-conditioning compressors,
cooling fans and superchargers/turbo compounders. By decoupling any of these
from crankshaft speed, the TVAD enables the highest demand to be satised,
even at low engine speed, while the auxiliary device can be downsized, reducing
parasitic losses, increasing powertrain efciency and improving fuel economy. A
supercharger with a TVAD, for example, can run faster at low engine speeds
than one without, giving greater engine torque, yet run at a lower ratio when the
engine speed rises, to avoid saturation and choking that cause inefciency. An
air-conditioning compressor with a TVAD demonstrates the same characteristic,
thus overcoming the traditional inefciency of a xed drive ratio that necessitates
a very large compressor purely to handle high demands at low engine speeds.
Using Torotraks design and development expertise, TVADs can be matched
to each manufacturers application, improving powertrain efciency and reducing
emissions. The benets are applicable to a wide range of market sectors
including cars, public service and commercial vehicles.
Hybrid Design Services
Hybrid Design Services (HDS) was established in 2004 by James Pinon to
provide engineering and business consulting services to the developing
alternative energy market. With many years of experience in designing hybrid,
electric and fuel cell vehicles, from OEMs and Tier 1 suppliers, the HDS team
had the idea to pool their wide-ranging expertise in the market, and to provide
solutions for alternative energy and transportation companies. Through the
teams quick expansion, president and CEO James Pinon and his colleagues
have put their expertise to work on many high-prole hybrid and electric vehicle
projects, battery pack and inverter designs, stationary power back-up systems,
and robotic applications.
Besides reaching into all areas of hybrid and electric vehicle technology
including lithium, Ni-MH and ultracapacitor energy storage systems, inverters
and fuel cells, HDS is currently building partnerships with global suppliers of
alternative energy systems and components such as solar arrays and wind
generators. The teams automotive and renewable energy knowledge helps bring
its customers technologies from the drawing board to the production oor in
record time. The HDS team has cross-industry experience ranging from
recreational and passenger vehicles to special military vehicles and off-highway/
utility trucks, autonomous vehicles and stationary power systems.
From concept to production, HDS offers a wide range of development and
engineering services, including: specication development, detailed engineering,
design, supplier selection, prototype and serial builds, simulation, testing and
validation. The experienced simulation team at HDS uses industry-leading
tools for CAE, CFD and powertrain analysis to develop high-quality and reliable
simulations that aid the rapid and low-cost development of complex systems.
In addition to its core engineering services, the company is currently testing
new cooling concepts for energy storage systems, developing next-generation
battery management systems for ultracapacitor and lithium-ion battery packs,
and developing novel hybrid vehicle architectures and systems.
TVAD ensures that ancillaries are always
running at their most appropriate speed
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
Scientic Climate Systems
A dry room for R&D and production of hybrid-electric vehicle lithium-ion
batteries ensures precise control of low dew-point conditions. Room humidity
control at -0C to -45C (32F to -49F) dew point is common, with dry supply
air direct distribution to critical workstations at -55C to -65C (-67F to -85F)
dew point.
Dry rooms can be congured to meet processing requirements with personnel
access airlocks, product cart airlocks and pass-through openings. Separate
areas for coater equipment can be integrated to provide easy access and
product ow. Vapor-tight insulated panel enclosures ensure uniform and stable
temperature and humidity conditions.
The dehumidication system includes pre-cooling of fresh air for personnel,
room positive pressure, replacement of room exhaust air, and system purge air
for consistent dry room operating conditions. The desiccants dehumidier treats
the air through an adsorbent medium to provide long-term performance capacity
at extremely low dew-point conditions. Post-cooling and post-heat of the supply
air maintains room temperature control within close tolerances. Filtration of return
air prevents contamination of components and HEPA post-ltration provides
clean supply air to the dry room. Clean room requirements can be implemented
for Class 100 to Class 100,000 specications. Control and monitoring of the dry
room conditions and the dehumidier system allow complete reliability in these
critical applications. System redundancy offers exibility for changes in
production loads and energy savings in off-shift schedules.
Dry room installations are managed by a project team that coordinates and
tracks the phase of the design layout, approval of submittal drawings, site
preparation, dry room assembly, equipment placement, control integration,
startup and commissioning.
Axeon is a leading technology developer, designer and manufacturer of
complete lithium-ion battery systems for EVs and HEVs. It recently entered
production volume of a battery for an electric version of a Peugeot Expert
vehicle. This battery system uses large prismatic lithium-ion cells, Axeons
proprietary battery management
system (BMS) and an integrated
charger, and enables the vehicle to
travel up to 100 miles on a single
charge with zero carbon emissions.
The battery pack is housed in two
compartments, each of which is
individually isolated and completely
waterproof. The whole pack has been
subjected to a rigorous testing regime
to automotive level, which covers
environmental, electromagnetic, bump
and vibration testing.
The mechanical design of the battery was particularly challenging: the battery
had to t onto an existing vehicle platform with the fuel tank and exhaust tank
removed. It was important to retain ground clearance and ensure that gross
vehicle weight did not increase and that weight was distributed evenly over the
vehicle. A creative packaging approach was taken that allowed the most efcient
use of space while not interfering with vehicle systems and, critically, that met
automotive standards. This allows the vehicle to be used for a variety of
applications (including taxi, van, minibus and combi-van).
Information on remaining capacity (fuel gauge), voltage, temperature, current
draw, warnings and cycle count is provided to the user by Axeons BMS via
integration with the vehicle CANbus, ensuring condence in the batterys
state of charge.
+1 636 343 6112
Bitrode manufactures a complete line of battery charging and testing
equipment including: formation, production, EV/HEV and end-of-line systems. A
wide range of custom performance specications are available for todays lead
acid and advanced chemistry cell, module, and pack production and testing.
In addition to Bitrodes standard user-friendly VisuaLCN software suite, the
company offers customized sophisticated control systems including National
Instruments and A&Ds iTest advanced control and testing.
The collaboration between Bitrode and A&D has been called the new industry
standard, and can be seen at GMs advanced laboratory in Warren, Michigan.
The A&D Technologies state-of-the-art iTest EV solution, which includes
LabMinder and iCentral, is also used at GMs advanced battery lab. This
innovative system maximizes productivity while reducing hard costs, and creates
a redundant failsafe laboratory with
active error tracking and notication
functionality that assists in the
prevention of critical battery failure
(including potential thermal events).
Complete lab monitoring status
including chambers and other auxiliary
This system maximizes systems
and personnel by automating systems
to achieve 24/7 operation utilizing only
half the number of lab experts and
equipment that would be needed with
standard systems.
Bitrodes ability to partner with the
best-of-class suppliers makes Bitrode
equipment the logical choice for
todays advanced laboratories.
Battery system for electric Peugeot Expert,
showing fully packaged back battery and
front battery open to show cell conguration
EVO Electric
EVO Electric Limited was established in June 2007 to commercialize a
new design of axial ux permanent-magnet synchronous AC motor/generator
developed by researchers at Imperial College London, targeting electric and
hybrid vehicle applications.
Axial ux machines have inherently higher torque and lower costs than
conventional (radial ux) machines, due to the greater availability of active
electromagnetic area per unit of volume. EVO has taken this promising concept
from lab to market through innovations in machine cooling, winding and
manufacturing. For example, increasing the surface area for cooling has enabled
higher currents and hence even higher continuous power and torque than
previous axial ux designs. The ultra-light and compact EVO design also allows
for very high peak torque. For example, the 380mm diameter/40kg model
produces 400Nm for 60 seconds, and up to 600Nm for 18 seconds (from
launch), eliminating the need for gearboxes in many applications and facilitating
hybridization of existing vehicle models. What is more, the short axial length and
at mounting faces make the machine very suitable for direct mounting onto a
combustion engine, and for scaling up torque and power. For example, up to
three AFM-140 machines can be combined to supply up to 1,800Nm peak
torque for 120kg of weight. Low material costs give EVO motor/generators a
major cost advantage over conventional motor/generator designs.
EVO is now working with a number of strategic partners to cut the cost,
weight and complexity of hybrid and electric vehicles based on this technology.
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Bitrode manufactures a complete line of
battery charging and testing equipment
E-One Moli Energy Corp
E-One Moli Energy is a global lithium-ion battery producer
with a leading market position and recognized brand (Molicel)
in the elds of laptop computers, cordless power tools and
electric or hybrid-electric vehicles. With more than 30 years of
experience in the design, research and production of lithium-ion
batteries, the company ships high-volume quantities of Molicel
to customers around the world.
Over the years, E-One Moli Energy has accumulated extensive
knowledge of scientic research of lithium-ion products, and
utilizes state-of-the-art high-speed robotic equipment to produce
Molicel lithium-ion battery products. The R&D and manufacturing
expertise allows the company to continuously develop state-of
the-art battery solutions including cells, battery packs, protection
circuitry, battery management systems, and chargers.
For the upcoming energy evolution, the R&D team
is developing next-generation lithium-ion batteries for both
transportation and stationary power applications.
+1 248 754 0422
BorgWarner is to provide its 31-03 eGearDrive electric drive transmission
for the all-electric CODA sedan, which is scheduled for introduction in the USA
in 2010. Ideally suited for full-performance electric vehicles on either front-wheel
drive or rear-wheel drive transverse driveline applications, the BorgWarner
31-03 eGearDrive single-speed transmission delivers high torque capacity, high
efciency and low NVH in a compact package. Paired with a UQM Technologies
electric propulsion system, the BorgWarner eGearDrive transmission will propel
the ve-passenger CODA sedan at highway speeds while providing maximum
powertrain efciency. BorgWarners 31-03 eGearDrive is
a purpose-built, high-performance transmission that can
be broadly adapted to a variety of electric propulsion
systems, says John Sanderson, president of
BorgWarner Drivetrain Systems.
Consilium Group
+44 1386 835 910
Consilium Group (UK) provides a unique, dedicated and comprehensive
recruitment service to HEV and EV organizations and professionals both in the
UK and internationally.
Due to the sustained growth within this technology sector, and the projected
future demand, the competition for qualied and experienced professionals is
high. With in excess of 10 years HEV and EV experience, Consilium Group is
established as a market leader. Consilium Groups enviable database and
network of candidates and vacancies provide an excellent ability to match the
most technical roles with industry specialists.
Consilium Group recruiters are degree-qualied in engineering with actual
industry experience, so whether someone is looking to ll a role or nd a new
job, Consilium Group recruiters can talk technically, whatever the discipline.
Heinzmann CmbH & Co. KC
Am Haselbach 1
D-79677 Schnau
Phone: +49 (0) 7673 8208-0
Fax: +49 (0) 7673 8208-188
EIectric machine {motor and generator mode)
with inverter for different internaI combustion engines




TorLab AB in Gothenburg, Sweden provides electronics
product development and services. Concept studies, automotive
electronics including power electronics, and software development
are areas that Tor Anderson, founder of TorLab, has been
working in for over 20 years, starting with development of
electric-hybrid vehicles in 1982.
TorLabs core activity is transmission control, but also product
development for automotive, industry and consumer electronics.
Most technologies exist today for building different kinds of
hybrid car congurations. Small city plug-in hybrid vehicles with
an efcient combustion engine running on diesel, gas or ethanol.
This is based on a light vehicle, a small electric motor and a low-
emission engine, available low-priced electricity and an existing
infrastructure for charging the batteries.
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
BorgWarners electric drive transmission is
to be installed in the all-new electric CODA
Integrated starter generator
L-3 Magnet-Motor
4 onLIne reader enQUIrY Card no. 548
nL-3 Magnet-Motor (L-3 MM) has been building innovative hybrid-electric
propulsion systems for more than 25 years, and today it is recognized as one of
the leading experts in its feld.
In 2008 L-3 MM introduced its Integrated Starter Generator (ISG) system in a
frst prototype application. The system links electrical and mechanical driveline
elements and, in conjunction with a high-powered battery, constitutes an integral
part of any vehicle requiring additional onboard and exportable power. In 2008
the ISG system was broadened and advanced to allow for a wider range of
The ISG system is made up of a generator, a power electronic unit and
different converters. The generator has an impressively slim design, which allows
for easy integration between the diesel and the transmission, either as a new
build or as retroft. Other features include water cooling, permanent magnet
excitation and low-voltage engine start. Corresponding power electronic units
are equally water cooled and, together with the generators, create a continuous
power rating of 60-70kW and peaks of over 100kW.
BatterY reCYCLIng
toxco Inc
@ www.
4 onLIne reader enQUIrY Card no. 549
nToxco has long been recognized as a leader in the North American battery
recycling industry. From the most common Ni-MH packs presently on the market
to the advanced Li-ion packs of the future, Toxco maintains the facilities and
equipment necessary to safely recycle all varieties of hybrid and electric vehicle
battery packs.
Toxco currently owns and operates two fully permitted recycling facilities. The
frst facility is located in Lancaster, Ohio, and specializes in the recycling of Ni-Cd,
Ni-MH, and lead-acid batteries. The second facility is located in Trail, British
Columbia, and has the ability to recycle primary lithium and secondary Li-ion
batteries. Combined, the operations have more than 40 years experience in the
battery recycling industry.
In August 2009, Toxco was awarded US$9.5 million from the US Department
of Energy to expand its current battery recycling operations in Lancaster. The
award will be utilized to build and operate an advanced lithium battery recycling
line capable of processing all currently proposed chemistries: from LiCoO2 to
LiFePO4 and more. This process will be instrumental in ensuring that the proper
recycling infrastructure is in place to recover and reuse the resources necessary
to sustain the production of all types of lithium batteries well into the future.
one-stop shop approaCh
potenza technology
4 onLIne reader enQUIrY Card no. 547
nPotenza Technology is an engineering business that has been involved in
the development of hybrid and electric vehicles for over 10 years. The company
specializes in systems and safety engineering, but takes on full vehicle
development as evidenced by the recent development of an all-electric race car
for Westfeld sportscars, aimed at the worlds frst one-make electric race car
series. From an initial market assessment, through requirements capture, system
architecture design and safety analysis to ISO26262, development of powertrain
control and battery management, to frst prototype build, Potenza has provided a
one-stop shop approach to Westfeld for the development of this vehicle.
The development vehicle has met target specifcations of under 700kg all up
weight, 0-60mph acceleration in under fve seconds and a top speed of over
110mph. A distributed, modular battery system has overcome diffcult packaging
constraints, with the beneft of users storing relatively low voltage modules for
safe handling. The company is now looking at aspects such as styling, noise
and vehicle cost-down to make the vehicle a production reality in 2010.
natIonaL Charge poInt dataBase
the eV network
4 onLIne reader enQUIrY Card no. 550
nThe Electric Vehicle (EV) Network exists to document electric vehicle charge
points across the UK and to encourage provision of such facilities. Prior to the
formation of EV Network in early 2007 such charge point information was divided
between numerous different websites, such as those of local authorities or grant-
making bodies. But no sites were comprehensive they listed only the charge
points provided by this local authority or that grant-making body. The EV
Network changed all that by providing a one-stop shop for locating charge
points in the UK.
The EV Network allows electric vehicle users to fnd charge points by several
means including a searchable online database; interactive maps; and point of
interest fles for satellite navigation (satnav) systems. Users can download data to
a suitable satnav, then use the satnav to locate charge points by proximity to
their current or any other position, or plan a route via charge points.
The UK public charge point network is in its infancy and is easily exceeded by
the relatively small numbers of electric vehicles in use. There are more privately
owned locations than public ones where electric vehicles are charged because,
uniquely in the alternative fuels sector, electric vehicle users can normally easily
refuel their vehicles at their own homes or businesses.
The all-electric Westfeld sportscar
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
Accelerating Progress
Heinzmann has developed a
universal line of hybrid motors for
different diesel engines and construction
vehicles. This line incorporates the
broad experience Heinzmann has
gained on several projects in
cooperation with various diesel engine manufacturers and different construction
equipment. Heinzmann delivers all electric/electronic components for hybrid
motors: brushless e-machines (with a total efciency including inverter of well
over 90%; for generator as well as motor operation), inverter, hybrid control unit
with CAN communication. The software algorithms for the hybrid system control
(torque split of combustion and e-machine) can be adjusted to the specic
requirements of the hybrid application.
There are many advantages to the technology: the hybrid construction
machines show lower fuel consumption and thus reduced operational costs; the
driver appreciates the higher engine dynamic, which yields higher productivity;
the electric motor provides highest torque at low speeds the high torque is
available immediately after the start, which enables the start-stop feature, due to
the fact that Heinzmanns e-motors pull the diesel engine to the load capable
speed within 150 to 300ms from zero speed; the environment enjoys the
reduced noise and emissions, which leads to a higher acceptance of construction
work within populated areas; the reduced emissions greatly improve the working
environment of employed people and residents; the smaller diesel engine and the
reduced aftertreatment system (lower emissions class) compensate to a certain
extent for the higher investment for a hybrid, particularly due to the battery. In
addition, the operation costs are lower.
The universality of Heinzmanns hybrid solutions allows the manufacturer of
construction equipment to develop his hybrid projects with different diesel
engines in a cost-efcient way.
There has been a rapid increase in the number of new models of electric
cars and in government support to manufacture and buy them. That is true of
hybrid and pure electric cars, but the actual designs are diverging before they
converge. For the next few years most hybrids will not plug in: they are mild
hybrids, merely offering less pollution and sometimes better fuel economy than
conventional cars. However, what the public really wants is to plug in to much
cheaper fuel in the form of electricity for most traveling needs. That means that
the limited power storage and retention of the nickel metal hydride battery is
inappropriate and the batteries used will be lithium based and ever more similar
to those in pure electric vehicles. Indeed, an electric car with range extender will
evolve to pure electric vehicles throughout. Hybrids will be in the lead for the next
10 years, with pure electric coming up fast.
+49 7673 82080
Heinzmann has created hybrid motors
specically for construction vehicles
The PowerPark, which is
manufactured by Tegrel and Romag,
has been voted runner-up in the EEF
Future Manufacturing Awards 2009.
The Climate Change Opportunity
Award marks the potential for this
electric-vehicle charging canopy to
provide a truly green solution for the
charging infrastructure. This futuristic
design provides parking underneath
the canopy and outlets in each leg to
charge batteries.
When not in use by an EV, the PowerPark will export all generated electricity
to the national grid, so the energy is never wasted, This added benet of
returning electricity to the grid will make a signicant difference from April
2010, when all owners of this type of PowerPark canopy will benet from
the governments new feed-in tariff scheme. As with the PowerPark, the PowerPost
is an alternative, fast, efcient and user-friendly method of recharging EV
batteries. It is designed to accommodate most forms of electric vehicles.
Innovative Testing Solutions
Innovative Testing Solutions is a full-capability battery testing laboratory
located in Newmarket, Ontario, Canada. With 2,000m
of modern, fully
equipped testing space, ITS is close to the hub of EV and PHEV development
activity in North America. The company has a eet of 14 battery and cell cyclers
that can handle up to 500kW and 1,100V. ITS is one of the few battery testing
organizations certied to ISO 17025 for cell, module and battery testing. In
addition to life and endurance, performance and characterization, ITS can
perform SAE or USABC abuse tests and lithium-ion UN shipping tests in special
abuse test chambers. Tests can be carried out in a full range of environmental
chambers sized for single car, double car and reach-in covering a wide range of
temperature and humidity. Very fast temperature changes are accommodated
with special chamber within chamber congurations. Two shaft dynamometers
capable of handling 200kW are available for PHEV and EV electric motor testing.
Special xturing and test equipment needs can be accommodated quickly within
ITSs complete in-house machining and fabrication shop. ITS has resident
expertise gained in developing and carrying out DVP&R test programs over
the last two decades, with OEM HEV and PHEV development programs in
Pb-A, Ni-MH, Li-ion and NaNiCl2 chemistries. Special mechanical tests
for battery systems can also be developed using ITSs automotive safety
products test capabilities.
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
Tegrels PowerPark is critically acclaimed
85x132.indd 1 24.11.2009 15:52:29
L-3 Magnet-Motor
L-3 Magnet-Motor (L-3 MM) has been building innovative hybrid-electric
propulsion systems for more than 25 years, and today it is recognized as one of
the leading experts in its eld.
In 2008 L-3 MM introduced its Integrated Starter Generator (ISG) system in a
rst prototype application. The system links electrical and mechanical driveline
elements and, in conjunction with a high-powered battery, constitutes an integral
part of any vehicle requiring additional onboard and exportable power. In 2008
the ISG system was broadened and advanced to allow for a wider range of
The ISG system is made up of a generator, a power electronic unit and
different converters. The generator has an impressively slim design, which allows
for easy integration between the diesel and the transmission, either as a new
build or as retrot. Other features include water cooling, permanent magnet
excitation and low-voltage engine start. Corresponding power electronic units
are equally water cooled and, together with the generators, create a continuous
power rating of 60-70kW and peaks of over 100kW.
Kinsbursky Brothers
@ www.
Toxco has long been recognized as a leader in the North American battery
recycling industry. From the most common Ni-MH packs presently on the market
to the advanced Li-ion packs of the future, Toxco maintains the facilities and
equipment necessary to safely recycle all varieties of hybrid and electric vehicle
battery packs.
Toxco currently owns and operates two fully permitted recycling facilities. The
rst facility is located in Lancaster, Ohio, and specializes in the recycling of Ni-Cd,
Ni-MH, and lead-acid batteries. The second facility is located in Trail, British
Columbia, and has the ability to recycle primary lithium and secondary Li-ion
batteries. Combined, the operations have more than 40 years experience in the
battery recycling industry.
In August 2009, Toxco was awarded US$9.5 million from the US Department
of Energy to expand its current battery recycling operations in Lancaster. The
award will be utilized to build and operate an advanced lithium battery recycling
line capable of processing all currently proposed chemistries: from LiCoO2 to
LiFePO4 and more. This process will be instrumental in ensuring that the proper
recycling infrastructure is in place to recover and reuse the resources necessary
to sustain the production of all types of lithium batteries well into the future.
Potenza Technology
Potenza Technology is an engineering business that has been involved in
the development of hybrid and electric vehicles for over 10 years. The company
specializes in systems and safety engineering, but takes on full vehicle
development as evidenced by the recent development of an all-electric race car
for Westeld sportscars, aimed at the worlds rst one-make electric race car
series. From an initial market assessment, through requirements capture, system
architecture design and safety analysis to ISO26262, development of powertrain
control and battery management, to rst prototype build, Potenza has provided a
one-stop shop approach to Westeld for the development of this vehicle.
The development vehicle has met target specications of under 700kg all up
weight, 0-60mph acceleration in under ve seconds and a top speed of over
110mph. A distributed, modular battery system has overcome difcult packaging
constraints, with the benet of users storing relatively low voltage modules for
safe handling. The company is now looking at aspects such as styling, noise
and vehicle cost-down to make the vehicle a production reality in 2010.
The EV Network
The Electric Vehicle (EV) Network exists to document electric vehicle charge
points across the UK and to encourage provision of such facilities. Prior to the
formation of EV Network in early 2007 such charge point information was divided
between numerous different websites, such as those of local authorities or grant-
making bodies. But no sites were comprehensive they listed only the charge
points provided by this local authority or that grant-making body. The EV
Network changed all that by providing a one-stop shop for locating charge
points in the UK.
The EV Network allows electric vehicle users to nd charge points by several
means including a searchable online database; interactive maps; and point of
interest les for satellite navigation (satnav) systems. Users can download data to
a suitable satnav, then use the satnav to locate charge points by proximity to
their current or any other position, or plan a route via charge points.
The UK public charge point network is in its infancy and is easily exceeded by
the relatively small numbers of electric vehicles in use. There are more privately
owned locations than public ones where electric vehicles are charged because,
uniquely in the alternative fuels sector, electric vehicle users can normally easily
refuel their vehicles at their own homes or businesses.
The all-electric Westeld sportscar
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
Tel: 1 (530) 692 0140
Fax: 1 (530) 692 0142
The EV-PHEV Opportunity Report
A critical assessment of the EV & PHEV
global market and its key underlying
technology: Li-Ion batteries, based on
onsite interviews with all 4 tiers of the
supply chain.
Available March 2010
Session 1: Market Development of
HEVs, EVs, and their Batteries
Dr. Menahem Anderman,
Advanced Automotive
Session 3: Energy-Storage Solutions
for Low-Voltage Hybrids
Dr. Daniel Kok,
Manager, Global
Micro-Hybrid Systems,
Ford Motor Co.
Session 2: Energy-Storage Solutions
for High-Voltage Hybrids
Dr. Peter Lamp,
Manager, Cell Technology
Electrical Storage
Systems , BMW AG
Session 1: Advances in Battery
Materials for Large Li-Ion Batteries
Prof. Martin Winter,
Chair of Energy
Conversion and Storage,
University of Muenster
Nanotechnology Workshop
(parallel to LLIBTA Session 2)
Impact of Nanotechnologies on
Batteries for EVs
Odile Bertoldi, Scientifc Watch Manager,
Session 4: Energy-Storage Solutions
for EVs and PHEVs
Dr. Christian Mohrdieck,
Director, Fuel Cell &
Battery Drive Dev.,
Daimler AG
Session 2: Life, Safety, and Reliability
of Li-Ion Batteries in Automotive and
Stationary Applications
Heinz-Willi Vassen,
Manager, Energy and
Storage Systems, Audi AG
AABC together with LLIBTA, as
well as the tutorials, is a unique
concept for a conference, giving a
broad overview of the technology
and market.
Michael Spahr, Timcal LTD
AABC sets the gold standard
for battery conferences.
Jeff Orens, Air Products
Announcing the First europeAn
Advanced Automotive
Battery conference
(AABc europe 2010)
Where European and international automakers, their
suppliers and related stakeholders meet to discuss the
latest technology trends in the rapidly expanding market of
advanced vehicles and the batteries that will power them.
February 4-5, 2010
the First europeAn symposium on
Large Lithium ion Battery
technology and Application
(LLiBtA europe 2010)
Where the status and prospects of lithium-ion batteries
to power applications ranging from advanced automotive
to large stationary installations is discussed by key
developers and prospective users of the technology.
February 2-3, 2010
In Conjunction with: HAUS DER TECHNIK
2nd German Symposium on:
Advanced Battery Development for Automotive and Utility
Applications and their Electric Power Grid Integration
February 1-2, 2010
For information on this event:
Rheingoldhalle Congress Centrum
Mainz, Germany
Sustainable Vehicle Engineering Centre
@ www.
The Sustainable Vehicle Engineering Centre (SVEC), based in the School
of Technology at Oxford Brookes University, has established itself as a leading
authority on sustainable vehicles. This reputation has been founded on the
universitys world-renowned motorsport expertise: Oxford Brookes alumni can
be found in many of the leading motorsport teams.
A key element of a successful race car is maximizing its efcient use of
materials and fuel, and Oxford Brookes has applied its motorsport expertise to
EV and hybrid vehicles. To showcase these skills Oxford Brookes is a leading
participant in Formula Student, a worldwide race series for cars designed and
built by students. A fully electric vehicle will be designed and raced in 2010.
The university looks not only at the operational efciency of a vehicle but also
at the efcient use of the materials in it. This enables a quantitative evaluation of
the whole design process and the vehicles operation throughout its use and
subsequent disposal. SVEC also specializes in forecasting, strategy, business
models and the implications of new legislation for the automotive industry.
These capabilities provide a very powerful tool to drive sustainability.
With its particular appreciation of vehicle engineering and sustainability, SVEC
organized a very successful Whole Life Vehicle Conference in November 2009 to
examine the sustainability of the automotive industry. Professor Allan Hutchinson,
head of SVEC, said, We were delighted with the response and the quality of the
debate. The conference addressed some of the issues around the low-emission
vehicles now coming to market, and
brought together experts from
government, vehicle manufacturers
and designers, and vehicle user
groups. Thought-provoking papers
included aspects of energy use and
storage, personal mobility solutions,
consumer psychology, sexy electric
cars and vehicles that ran on a variety
of fuels.
Opal-RT Technologies
+1 514 935 2323
Motor and motor drive simulation is required today by hybrid vehicle OEMs
and other power electronic motor drive manufacturers to speed up development
and testing time by using real-time simulation before conducting tests on
physical prototypes. At the production stage, hardware-in-the-loop
(HIL) simulation can also be used to verify code integrity with automated
correlation tests.
But even the use of HIL simulation presents challenges when a digital
motor drive controller has a very small sampling time, in a range below 50
microseconds. This requires the real-time simulated motor to have a much
lower computational time. This is because the motor models computation time,
including the time required to access the I/O, adds a delay in the closed-loop
response of the controlled motor that would not be present in a real motor.
Consequently, if the added delay is too large the HIL simulation may not be
representative of how the drive controller will respond to a real motor. This can
lead to unexpected and perhaps dangerous results when a physical motor and
drive is built and used in a real-world application.
Using an FEA approach to produce models can meet this high-accuracy
challenge. But FEA-based models are not designed to be simulated in real time
with hardware-in-the-loop.
To overcome this obstacle, Opal-RT Technologies has developed RTLAB.
JMAG, a software module that enables FEA-based models created using
JMAG-RT, from Japan-based JSOL, to be simulated in real time with hardware-
in-the-loop on Opal-RT simulators, including eDRIVEsim and the TestDrive ECU
testing platform.
RTLAB.JMAG integrates JMAG-RT functionality into the RT-LAB real-time
simulation environment, addressing issues of accuracy and simulation speed.
Because of JMAG-RTs powerful code optimization and usage of lookup tables,
real-time simulation of FEA-based PMSM drives using RTLAB.JMAG can be
conducted at time steps close to 20 microseconds on the eDRIVEsim or
TestDrive platforms.
Electric mobility has been
experiencing real hype during the last
few years, and the automotive industry
is presently in a state of transformation.
Following the huge media coverage,
all major automotive manufacturers,
suppliers and utility companies and
also new, innovative companies
have invested in R&D to be one of
the rst to introduce their products to
the market.
Development of new technologies
is currently in progress in all branches
of the electric mobility industry. New
battery factories are being established all over the world in order to tackle the
task of mass production. Automotive manufacturers are racing each other to
introduce the rst large-scale series of electric vehicles to the market. The utility
companies and municipal energy suppliers are trying to build up an infrastructure
for loading the electric vehicles.
In order to overcome the obstacles to establishing electric mobility for the
mass market, all actors must work closely together. The aim of the First German
Electric Vehicle Congress was to bring together all these players, and it
successfully did so by being the biggest event on electric mobility in Germany in
2009, with more than 520 participants. On June 17 and 18, 2010, the event will
go into the second round to establish itself as the meeting place for the electric
mobility industry.
The hybrid formula student car in
competition at Silverstone in July 2009
Auckland Uniservices
One had to hand it to the common plug and cable: this technology has had
a pretty good run for the past 125 years. But now is the time to move on.
Just like the mobile replaced the landline phone, plugs and cables are
being replaced by an innovation thats nothing short of a product revolution:
wireless power.
After 20 years leading the development of inductive power technology for
industry, Auckland Uniservices, the commercial company of the University of
Auckland in New Zealand, presents the technology revolution that is wireless
charging. Based on revolutionary technology, our system harnesses the power
of magnetism to transfer power across large spaces, in a perfect combination
of safety, convenience and efciency.
Uniservices wireless technology is the intelligent, high-performance and, most
importantly, safe, charging system, which enables electric cars to provide the
high levels of convenience demanded by drivers. Wireless power is not only
possible, now its safe, cost-effective and efcient. It affords new levels of
convenience too, able to concurrently transfer ultra-secure data; whats more, it
offers legendary durability. Wireless power is no longer a futuristic dream, but a
commercial reality. Uniservices Inductive Power Technology (IPT) solves many
problems restricting the uptake of electric vehicles, and provides many latent
advantages too.
Uniservices is currently developing pilot studies and planning deployment of
IPT-based charging infrastructure around the globe. We look forward to partnering
with leading manufacturers, OEMs, infrastructure consultants, energy suppliers
and governing bodies to truly realize the advantages wireless charging offers.
The Electric Vehicle Congress will
take place on June 17 and 18, 2010
January 2010 | Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
Reap Systems
+44 2380 31 2944
Reap Systems specializes in the
large lithium-ion battery systems used
in electric vehicles and stationary
systems. The company
provides standard
battery management
modules and
accessories, bespoke
products, consultancy
and battery systems.
The Reap standard battery
management module incorporates
over ve years experience in
designing and manufacturing modules
for a wide range of applications. It provides full closed-loop control of each cell
during charging and power delivery to maximize performance and prolong
system life. In addition there is a separate hardware-level safety system to
provide a second level of protection. Bespoke products offered include tailored
versions of the standard battery management modules and specic designs.
Consultancy services include design of battery systems and complete electric
vehicle systems, systems integration to get all the subsystems working together,
plus commissioning and tuning to produce optimum performance.
The company offers a complete design and build service for prototype battery
systems, plus on-site installation and commissioning support.
Reap has provided battery management solutions for a wide range of vehicle
projects. Condentiality agreements prohibit the publicizing of individual projects,
but projects include Formula Student electric race cars, mainstream motorsport
vehicles, high-performance electric road vehicles, armored ghting vehicles,
high-tech bus projects and hybrid taxi systems.
The company was founded in 2003; its success is due to its unique
combination of practical implementation experience combined with academic
depth and rigor.
SB LiMotive
SB LiMotive is a joint venture
founded in 2008 by Samsung SDI and
Bosch, which aims to develop and
manufacture lithium-ion batteries
ready for series production for use in
hybrid and electric vehicles. Each
company has a 50% stake in SB
LiMotive and they are investing some
US$500 million in total until 2013. The
JV company has locations in Giheung and Ulsan (Korea), Stuttgart (Germany),
Orion and Springboro (USA), and employs some 500 employees. SB LiMotive is
developing lithium-ion batteries for the whole range of hybrid and electric
vehicles. Scalable, modular systems and exible interfaces allow integration into
diverse powertrain concepts, with high safety and quality standards along the
value chain being main features. Still to
be tackled are technical challenges of the battery such as the improvement of
energy and power density, high cycle strength and lifespan while at the same
time reducing costs. To meet these demands, two strong partners bring together
their skills: Samsung SDI contributes its large-volume production experience
and competence in lithium-ion cell production, and Bosch brings in its wealth
of expertise from the automotive industry.
EVtransPortal is a non-prot organization helping sustainable transportation
succeed by connecting people with the information and resources they need.
The organization helps people connect, communicate and nd industry
partners by providing information resources, consultation, support and referral
services. The events website provides a free, comprehensive, online directory of
people and services spanning the electric drive vehicle industry.
Through consulting services, EVtransPortal helps to develop partnerships in
areas such as product development, vendor sourcing, capital resources and
marketing campaigns. The organization seeks to encourage cooperation,
collaboration and partnerships needed to move electric drive transportation
forward by helping people in the industry build relationships through effective
networking. EVtransPortal also provides information services to the public in
areas such as electric vehicle recharging infrastructure development, as part of
an ongoing consumer education effort.
The automotive landscape is changing fast but as it does, it is imperative
that the industry is delivering testing programs that are relevant to actual
scenarios on our roads. Electric and hybrid vehicles are becoming more and
more prevalent, but the transition to hybrid vehicles remains challenging for all.
Millbrook, one of the worlds leading transport testing, research and
development facilities working with electric and hybrid vehicles, is able to offer
manufacturers bespoke testing procedures to deliver results that are appropriate
to the end user and that reect realistic scenarios.
Hybrid vehicles offer a range of challenges relating to emissions testing; in
order to come up with accurate data, assessment programs must ensure that
real-world driving scenarios are included. New legislation recently introduced
creates additional complications, with vehicles having to be tested at different
levels of battery charge. This means that hybrid vehicles may have to be tested
several times more than a conventional vehicle, meaning that the testing process
becomes more expensive.
Other challenges exist for electric vehicles and hybrids. The biggest issue of
all is electrical range, which is dramatically inuenced by gradients and how the
vehicle is driven. Both need to be taken into account when testing and
developing vehicles, and require real-life driving simulations to offer more
accurate feedback and validation in the working environment in which the
vehicles will operate.
These are exciting, challenging times for the automotive sector. Millbrook is
in a prime position to offer type approval facilities, expert research, development
and world-leading test procedures to manufacturers working toward a more
sustainable future.
EDN Group
EDN Group, a power converter expert in high-frequency battery chargers
and power supplies, has announced the introduction of its new dual mains line
7.6kW charger modules for battery-powered vehicles.
The CMP319 modules can be connected to three-phase or single-phase
mains line to permit useful recharging anywhere. The charger automatically
detects the three-phase or single-phase mains line mode operation during the
main line power connection; if the module is single-phase connected, it will
automatically reduce the maximum output power at 3kW to avoid more than
16A on the line.
This feature joins a high protection degree (IP55), high efciency, safe and
reliable operation outdoors, providing a very usable charger module for onboard
EV applications. The actual output voltage range reaches 450Vdc but EDN
Group is designing some samples that reach 700Vdc.
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
Reap Systems is providing the industry
with large lithium-ion battery technology
SB LiMotive creates Li-ion batteries
Get on the cutting edge of our current and future plug-in
hybrid and electric transportation technologies
July 26 29, 2010
San Jose Convention Center, San Jose, California, USA
Bookmark ugi f or f ur t her det ai l s.
Attend and exhibit at the Plug-In 2010 Conference & Exposition an interactive
international gathering of automotive manufacturers, component suppliers,
electric utilities, government agencies, the environmental community and
academia. Featuring:
advances, market research and policy initiatives shaping the future of
plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles.
Organized by:
2 0 1 0
21 Ventures ..........................................................24
A&D Technology ...........................outside back cover
Advanced Automotive Battery Conference ..... 97, 138
Adventec Manufacturing .........................................7
Agni Motors ........................................................119
Aker Wade ............................................................71
Alliance Winding Equipment ................................121
Apex Drive Laboratories ........................................78
Arbin Instruments .................................................19
Atraverda ..............................................................78
Auckland UniServices ...........................................91
Austrian Institute of Technology ............................30
AVL List ..................................................................3
Axeon .................................................................111
Bitrode ..................................................................38
BorgWarner ..........................................................32
Brusa Elektronik ...................................................32
Canada Lithium ..................................................115
CD-adapco ...........................................................87
Celgard .................................................................68
Compact Power ..................................................101
Consilium Group ...................................................61
D&V Electronics ....................................................48
Dana Corporation ..................................................35
Danfoss Silicon Power ..........................................43
dSpace .................................................................77
EDN Group ..........................................................129
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology International .43
Electric Vehicle Integrated Electronic (EVIE) Systems ..58
Electrovaya ...........................................................11
Electric Vehicle Congress ....................................119
Engine Expo 2010 .......................... inside back cover
Engine Technology China ......................................43
Engine Technology International ...........................43
European Batteries ...............................................89
E-One Moli Energy ................................................51
EV Network ...........................................................46
EVB Technology / Gold Peak Batteries ...................87
EVER Monaco 2010 ............................................143
EVO Electric ..........................................................27
EVS 25 ................................................................127 ................................................135 ......................................................137
Flybrid Systems ....................................................38
Giant Lion Know-How ................................... 62, 105
Heinzinger Electronic ..........................................117
Heinzmann .........................................................133
Hollingsworth & Vose ............................................91
Hybrid Design Services .........................................71
IDTechEx ...............................................................99
Impact Automotive Technologies .........................111
Inneon Technologies ...........................................57
Innovative Testing Solutions ................................136
International Advanced Mobility Forum ................136
International Battery .............................................46
Intertek ...............................................................125
Intertrafc Amsterdam 2010 .................................95
L.H. Industries ................................ inside front cover
LiFeBatt ................................................................40
Light Engineering ..................................................17
Li-Tec Battery .......................................................58
Lithium Balance ....................................................19
Maccor ...............................................................103
Magnet Motor ......................................................82
Maxwell Technologies ...........................................61
Midtronics ............................................................43
Millbrook Proving Ground ....................................119
Molycorp Minerals ................................................93
Opal-RT ................................................................85
PEC Corporation ....................................................74
Plug-In 2010 .......................................................141
Potenza Technology ..............................................82
Pred Materials ....................................................111
P-Tec Automotive ................................................129
Quantum Technologies ........................................109
REAP Systems ......................................................58
Remy ..................................................................113
Reva Electric Car Company .................................134
Ricardo ...............................................................123
Rinehart Motion Systems ....................................136
Romax Technology ..............................................117
SAE International ..................................................85
SB LiMotive ..........................................................48
Schmidhauser ......................................................81
Scientic Climate Systems ....................................81
Sevcon ...............................................................109
Shenzhen Mottcell Battery Technology ................121
SPAL Automotive ...................................................13
Specialty Coating Systems ....................................54
Supplier Business ...............................................107
Sustainable Vehicle Engineering Centre (SVEC)......27
Tegrel ...................................................................46
TM4 ......................................................................15
Torlab .................................................................111
Torotrak ..............................................................123
Toxco ..................................................................119
Transmission Technology International ..................43
UQM Technologies ................................................27
Zytek Automotive ................................................134
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Vehicle Technology International magazine at:

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The major international event for the latest technological
innovations in the eld of sustainable development and mobility
Rally & Parade for Alternative Energy Vehicles Ride & drive
Solutions to save energy Medical Symposium
Current drives
Honda boldly claimed to have developed the worlds rst
affordable hybrid vehicle, but the companys all-new Insight
model left us feeling rather unimpressed. From a European
perspective, the average fuel economy gure of 64mpg can
easily be matched by a small, four-pot diesel thatll be cheaper
to buy. But we here at E&H have a global outlook, so for markets
such as Japan and North America, the new Insight makes sense
and it can even be considered by Europeans as long as it does
not hit the autobahns and motorways too often. What doesnt
make sense, however, is the poor ride and the surprisingly cheap
feel to the interior, which are aws not usually attributed to the
Japanese OEM. Honda is desperately trying to keep pace with
Toyota in terms of hybrid development, so there are no great
complaints about the IMA setup that sees the electric motor
develop 14bhp and 78.5Nm of torque, which combines with a
nippy 1.3-liter petrol engine thats good for 87bhp and 121Nm of
torque. The nickel-metal hydride battery has been placed under
the trunk to help improve the Insights center of gravity. Honda
engineers worked hard to reduce the size and weight of the IMA
system and up to 95% of the unit is new. Insights E-Motor is
only 35.7mm thick (the Civic Hybrids motor is 61.5mm thick).
Despite the technical leap forward that the Insight represents
and the fact that its US$2,000 cheaper than the Prius theres
little doubt in our minds as to which is the better hybrid product.
BMW is adamant that the Mini E is a tech-demonstrator project
that will one day lead to an all-electric BMW Group vehicle.
However, having been among the rst to drive the prototype, we
here at E&H are not so sure. Firstly, BMW has conrmed
production of the two-seater Mini Coupe, due in 2012. Why is
this so important? Well, having sampled Mini E which has only
two seats due to the very large Li-ion pack on the rear for us
theres no doubt that the Mini E is more than just an
experimental project. Faster than a Cooper S, BMWs latest all-
electric creation is impressive. Producing 150kW and 220Nm of
torque, the electric motor seamlessly powers the Mini E from
standstill to 62mph in 8.5 seconds before reaching a capped top
speed of 95mph. One of the greatest problems is range, but
BMWs head of alternative drives, Alexander Thorwith, insists
that Mini E is good for 155 miles after the full charge time of 4.5
hours. Part of the reason why Mini E has one of the greatest
ranges is due to the 35kWh battery thats made up of 5,088 cells
grouped into 48 modules so no problems there. But the
benets realized by the batteries are somewhat nullied when
you look at the unit itself: it takes up the best part of the rear of
the Mini and weighs 260kg. Its the pack that remains the
biggest challenge, admits Thorwith, who attempts to rule out a
production version of the Mini E by adding, We need to bring to
market a four-seater electric car and were looking at such a
BMW Group product by 2015. Watch this space
In creating the new Prius, it would seem that Toyota developed a
car rst and a hybrid product second, which is why this third-
generation offering from the industry leader in hybrid technology
gets the thumbs up from us. As with Hondas IMA, over 90% of
Toyotas Hybrid Synergy Drive System has been redesigned,
helping to create a smaller and more compact system that
produces much more power than the outgoing Prius. A high-
performance, permanent magnet, synchronous 60kW motor
works in perfect tandem with a 1.8-liter Atkinson cycle petrol unit
that replaced the 1.5-liter engine in the outgoing Prius. The result
is an increase in power of 27%, and torque is up by 23%. Like
the E-Motor, the 42kW generator is an AC-synchronous type,
and the 202V battery uses proven NiMH technology to enable
the new Prius to run in EV mode. CO
emissions are down 14%,
to a class-leading 89g/km, and we got more than 60mpg on our
test. All round, an impressive package.
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology | January 2010
22, 23, 24 June 2010
Messe Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany
Book your stand now contact Tim Sandford

For more information contact Tim Sandford on +44 (0)1306 743744
or email |
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exclusively for suppliers and developers of electric, hybrid and fuel cell technologies

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