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-BIBLIOGRAPHY

OF REPORTED BIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA ('EFFECTS') AND CLINICAL

SMANIFESTATIONS ATTRIBUTED TO MICROWJAVE AND RADIO-FREQUENCY RADIATIONI


S-:RESEZARCH

REPORT
EsDNO. 2 REPORTp 'i

KF:,,,12,:."524. 015-0004B
-: !_ NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE

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BIBLIOGPHY OF REPORTED BIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA ('EFFECTS')

AND CLINICAL

MANIFESTATIONS ATTRIBUrED TO MICROWAVE AND RADIO-FREQUENCY RADIATION

Zorach R. Glaser, Ph.D.


LT, MSC, USNR

Research 'Report

Project MF12.524.015-00043,Report No. 2


Naval Medical Research Institute National Naval Medical Center Bethesda, Maryland 20014, U.S.A. 4 October 1971 Second Printing, with Revisions, Corrections, and Additions: 20 April 1972 (Supersede3 AD No. 734391)

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ABSTRACT

More than 2000 references on the biological responses to radio frequency and microwave radiation, published up to June 1971, are included in the bibliography.* Particular attention has been paid to the effects on man of non-ionizing radiation at these frequencies. The citations are arranged alphabetically by author, and contain as of much information as possible so as to assure effective retrieval been have whicb effects the of outline An the original documents. part of attributed to radio frequency and microwave radiation is also the report. to more 2300. than supplementary listings bring the number of citations *Three

SKej Words
Biological Effects Non-Ionizing Radiation Radar Hazards Frequency Radiation Radio Microwave Radiation

Health Hazards
Bibliography Electromagnetic Radiation Injury

made in this report, The comments upon and criticisms of the literature those of the are suggested, and the recommendations and inferences Navy Department the of views the author, and do not necessarily reflect or of the Naval Service.

Secunt. Classification

~c~f:,

DOCUMENT CONTROL DATA - R & D


CIII, *t I IdCSf ti l of 1 UlU. 4,,dy 0, abs'rct anJ Indexing ano-.,* -in -ist I entered Alin :$e zoverz I t.9por
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C'I-%tTIG AC

,VITY

C. rpofare*utho)

i~ 1.s t~d REPORT SECURITY CO$ASIFICA.O,%

NAVAL UEDICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE .,TIUNAL NAVAL MEDICAL CENTER BETHSDA, -AW'IAND 20014
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ALPORT TITISE

UNClASSIFIED
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BIBLIUGMPHY OF ;;-ZOXTED BIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA ('EFFECTS') AND CLINICAL :ANIFESTATIONS ATTRIBUTED TO MICROW&VE AND RADIO-FREQUENCY- RADIATION
4. -ESC PTIVE NOTES ()r.pe ofirepor: and inclusive dates)

Medicai research interim report, bibliographic (Current to April 1972)

"AUT.ORCSI (Firstname. middie initial. last name)


Ph.D.
2O

Zorach R. GLASLR, L-T, MSC, USN REPORT ,ATE Revised


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b. CONTRACT OR GRANT NO.-

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2, Ke~ise

April 1972

Va.

TOTA

NO. OF PAGES

Th.

No. OF REPS

(4. Occm.er 1971, Original)

2,3114
ORIGINATORS REPORT NUMSERteu)

,,oJEC-

No

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C.
1

F12.524.015-0004B, Report No.

Ob. OT#4ERk REPORT ftOMS (Any other num~bers that may be assigned this gep@fl) .

d.
Z *ISTRI8b..T:CN STATEMENT

IS ITHiIS LOWUMENT HALS BEEN APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE AND SALE; ITS DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED.

-II:b.PPLEAENTAR~.
NOTES
:3 AUJS TACT-

12-. SPONSORING BUEUOMDIIEADSRRY(V) MILI TARY AC TI VIT Y

WASHINGTON, D.C.

20390

More than 2300 relerences on the biological responses to radio trequency and microwave radiation, published up t April 1972, are included in this bibliography ot the world iiterature. Particular attention has been paid to the effects on man The citations are arranged o: non-ionizing radiation at these 'requencies.
alphabetically by author, and contain as much information as possible so as to

assure eltective retrieval of the original documents. Soviet and East European literature is included in detail. An outline of the effects which have been attributed tu radio trequency and microwave radiation is included as Chapter 1. The revised report (which supersedes DDC report AD#734391) is updated with the inclusion oi three supplementary listings, and has incorporated many corrections and adoitions to the original 2100 citations.

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UNCIASSIFIED
Security Classification

UNCLASSIFIED
Security Chtssifii.tion
%-IN. A

LINK B
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KEY WORDS-

biooica- eieiects Non-iouizing radiation Radar hazards Radio Irequency radiation :Aicrowave radiar iton lleair. hazards I
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Siblio6raphy
iEiec:r~a6netic radiation injury
i-aCau.'amn adverse etlects I2

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Abstract Table of Contents Foreword Acknowledgments Chapter 1, Outline of Reported Biological Phenomena ('Effects') and Some Clinical Hanifestations Attributed to Microvave and Radio-Frequency Radiation Chapter 2, Bibliography, Alphabetical Listing Unsigned Reports and Articles Addenda, Alphabetical by Author Addenda, Unsigned Reports and Articles Fir3t Suppleeuntary Listing (5 October 1971) Appendix A, Accession Numbers and Sources Second Supplementary Listing (21 November 1971) Third Supplementary Listing (17 April 1972) 2 3 4
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12 83 87 89 91 92 93 95

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Foreword It is the hope of the author that this bibliography will provide guidance to the diffuse and conflicting literature on the biological responses to electromagnetic radiation at radio- and microwave-frequencies, with particular reference to the effects of concern to man. Such guidance is needed in the formulation and appraisal of criteria and limits of human exposure to "non-ionizing" radiation, and in the planning and conduct of future research. The original plans were to categorize and key the literature citations to the "outline of biological and clinical effects" (Chapter 1). This proved to be a much more dif"icult and time-consuming task than anticipated, and was actually completed only for about 400 papers. Thus, the letter-number combinations given in square brackets for some of the "A" through "C" citations refer to the outline. INV] indicates the citation was "not verified". The standard format used throughout the bibliography is: author, (date), journal, volume, (issue): page, "title". The authors are alphabetized, and in chronological order. Multiple authora 'xe also alphabetically ordered according to the second, third, etc., author. Inclusive pagination is given where possible, as is the original language of the citation. Report accession and translation numbers (some of which are cited in Appendix A), and alternate sources are listed when known. The title of books is underlined. When the title of the report was not available (or not given), a short (one line) description of the paper is listed whenever possible. Reports in which the name of the author was not given are listed chronologically using the format, "title", reference, source, (date). In many cases the citation was obtained from secondary (and tertiary) sources. For this reason it was impossible to put every citation into a consistent format. In a few cases, papers have been cited which were presented at symposia or meetings devoted to the present topic, even when the report title suggests that it does not pertain directly to the topic. This has been done to show the wide range of items considered relevant (at least at the time of the meeting, and by the organizing chairman) in past years. An example is "electroanesthesia". A few citations of marginal and/or peripheral relationship have also been included so that the reader may judge the applicability to his individual research needs. Examples are reports dealing with the biological effects of static and alternating magnetic fields, experimental techniques using radio frequency and microwave radiation (e.g., electron spin resonance, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy), and microwave exposure limits, regulations, and standards. References for a few limited-distribu ion government reports are available upon request.

The author welcomes information which will correct errors and omisCopies of new papers would be sions (both of which no doubt exist). greatly appreciated, and would encourage updating and revising the bibliography periodically.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The assistance and support received during the preparation of this bibliography have been considerable, and I am happy to acknowledge my indebtedness and gratitude. Drs. John Keesey and Dennis Heffner, former and present Heads of the Biophysics Division, and Dr. Seymour Friess, Director of the Environmental Biosciences Department of the Naval Medical Research Institute, permitted me the opportunitj to work on the bibliography, and offered frequent encouragement. Acknowledgment is also due to many friends and associates for their helpful suggestions, comments, and loans and/or gifts of reports or other material, which have been invaluable in the course of the work. "r. Glenn Heimer of the Naval Ship Engineering Center contributed an extensive collection of government reports and dccuments, many of which had not previously been cited in the open literature.
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Special help in tracing and in the acquisition of relevant papers has been received from the librarians and staff members of the NMRI library: Mrs. Thelma Robinson, Mrs. Ernestine Gendlemen, Mrs. Eleanor Capps, and Miss Deborah Grove. Their diligence and resourcefulness in tracing and obtaining copies of a large number of papers and reports, often in spite of Incomplete and/or inaccurate citations given in other sources, enabled me to include many relevant items in the bibliography. Mr. Christopher Dodge of the Scientific and Technical Center, Departsent of the Navy, provided much of the Soviet Bloc literature, linguistic and other technical assistance, and in addition offered valuable comments and encouragement throughout the preparation of this report. Especially noteworthy were the corrections and improremeuts suggested by Chris following his reading of the entire manuscript. Helpful also in locating some of the Soviet literature was Mr. E. S. Serebrennikov, of the Science and Technology Division, The Library of Congress. Credit is due Mrs. Ann& Woke (of this Institute) for translating many of the German papers; to Dr. Emilio Weiss, who translated from the Italian, and to Mrs. Edith Pugh who typed many "first drafts"; also to Mrs. Rhoda Glaser for her help in many aspects of the work. Mrs. Fannie Epstein Aeserves special mention for her outstanding editorial assistance, and especially for the heroic typing, organization, and checking of the entire report. _

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T- .aut line of Reported Biological Phenomena ('Effects') and Clinical eal1festations Attributed to Microwave and Radio-Frequency Radiatior, is patterneh after that given by R. Murray, .et al., in an article entitled, "Has-o safe are alcrowaves", which appeared in NonIonizing Radiation 1(1):7-8 (1969). Some of the "effects" were listed in the r#.ort by S. F. Cleary and W. T. Ham, Jr., entitled, "Considerations in the evaluation of the biological effects on exposure to microwave radiation!, (3ackground document, Port 1, 1969, for the Task Force on Research Planving in Environmental Health, Subtask Force on Physical Factors in the Environment). The discusbion and suggestions offered by Byron McLees,, Edward Finch, Lewis Gersbman, and Christopher Dodge relating to the Outline are also gratefully acknowledged. Prepare-r *.-n of the bibliography was supported by the Bureau of Medicine A,;,, -. irgery, Department of the Navy, under vork unit HF12.524. 0105-OO'V.

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CIHAPTER I Peported Diolorical Phenomena (*Effects') and Some Clinical Manifestations Attributed to !Iicrowave and P.adlo-Frequency Padiation (See Note) A. Heating of Organs* (Applications: coagulation, I.lecrrodesicoation, 1.
2.

Diathermy, rlectrosurrerv, lectrotomy)

Flectro-

4.

3.

M.ole Body (temnerature repulation defect), !Hyperpyreyla Skin Bone and Bone . tarro: (a) Lens of Lye (cataractous lesions - due to the avascular nature of the lens vhich prevents adequate heat dissipat i,w.I (M) Corneal damane also poosil le at extrei.ely 0It fro- u4-i. 'c. e'enitalia (tubular dreg.?neration of testicleF)

5. C.. hrain 7. Sinuses S. etal Inplants (burns near hip ?ins, erc.) The effects are :tneralPy reversible except for 4a. B. Chianes in I. 2. S. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. I. '.l. !2. 13. 14. 15. 16. liv, o.ogic .function

Striated :ttscte Contraction Alteration of DWi-meter of Blood Vessels (increasec' va.tcr-lar elasticity), Dilation Changes in the Oxidative Processes in Tissues and ArranL Liver Lnlargement A.ltered Sensitivity to Drug Stitruli Decreased Spernato.enesis (decreased fertility, to steril.) Altered Sex Patio of Blrths (more girls!) Altered ,!enstrual Activity Altered Fetal Devwlopment iAecreasee Lactation in :ursing ":others Reduction in i'iuresis (',a+ excretio:,, via urine output) Altered !'era!! function (decreased filtratir," ::- tul alef) U:hanf-es in (onditioned P:eflexes iecreased .;lectrical .eristance of Skin Changes in tbU Structure of Skin re.cptorn of tie (a) i.-ti~e, and (b) i-loot'-Carryinr Systcr.-: Alterrd mIood Fnow !:ate

It is also reported that leov levels of irradiation produce a cooling effect - "hypercor.pensation".

Note: Thece effects are listed without comment or endorse.:ent :Aince. t-e literature abounds with conflicting reports. In sonte cases the !:asi. f~nr reporting an "effect" was a single or a non-statistical observaticr, i'"ich may have been drawn from a poorly conceived (and poorly executed)xpevri-

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17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

Alterations In the Siocurrents (KW?) of the Cerebral Cortex

(in animals)
Changes In the Rate of Clearance of Tagged Ions from Tissue Reversible Structural Changes In the Cerebral Cortex and the Diencephalon Electrocardiographic (EKG) Changes Alterations In Sensitivity to Light, Sound, and Olfactory StImuli Functional (a) and Pathological (b) Changes in the Eyes: (a) decrease in size of blind spot, altered color recogPltion, changes In Intraocular pressure, lacriaation, trembling cf eyelids; (b) less opacity and coagulation, altered tissue respiration, and altered reduction-oxidation processes Myocardial Necrosis At Fatal Levels Hemorrhage in Lungs, Liver, Gut, and Brain Generalized Degeneration of all Body Tissue of Radiation Loss of Anatomical Parts Death Dehydration Altered Rate of Calcification of Certain Tissue

23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. C.

Central Nervous System Effects


1. Headaches

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. D.

Inomnia Restlessness (Awake and During Sleep) Electroencephalographic (EW) Changes Cranial Nerve Disorders Pyramidal Tract Lesions Condittoned Reflex Disorders Vagominetic Action of the Heart; Sympaticouminetic Action Seizures, Convulsions

Autonomic Nervous System Effects 1. Neuro-vegetative Disorders (e.g., alteration of heart rhythm)

2.
3. 4. E.

Fatigue
Structural Alterations Lu the Synapses of the Vague Nerve Stimalatin of Parasympathetic Nervous System (Bradycardia), and lnhbition of the Sympathetic Nervous System

Peripheral Nervous System Effects Effects on Locowtor Nerves

F.

Psychological Disorders ("Human Behavioral Studies") "Psychophysiologic (and Psychosomatic) Responses" I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. ,S. 9. 10. II. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Neurasthenia(general "bad" feeling) Depression Impotence Anxiety Lack of Concentration Dizziness Hal lucinations Sleepiness Insomnia Increased Irritabiiity ')ecreased Appetite Loss of !:er-ory Scalp Sensarions Tncreasee Fatirabilty Chest rainA Tremor of the lianus
Hypochondria

the so-called

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Behavioral (Cnanres (Aninal Studies) Peflexive, Operant, Mood l. Disorders (V = in vivo) (v = in vitrt.' Changes in: 2. tvoldance, and DIscrinination Belaviors

1. Bloo.' anC Bone *:arrcn%

Pha~oryt.:r (polrVorphs) and Bactericidal

"unctiornr

,v)

S3. llemol.-s.s .at* (increase), (a shortene,! lifeaz~: of , " . St-dir.enta-ion ;ate (increase), (due to ,-e. ;n sp, t "I levels or ar:ount of fitrino-er. (?)) "5. ::uriber of L.rythroc'tes (Cecrease), also nneher of 1.yr- c, tt'. Bl. ood CtluccFe foncentration (increase) 7. Llood 11istanine rontent Z. Cholesterol and Lipids 9. Garma (also u and 0) Gl.obulin, and Total Protein Concentration 10. Number of Eosinophils 11. Albumin/Globulin ratio (decrease) PHemopoiesis (rate of formation of blood corpuscles) 12. 13. 14.* Leul-openia (increase in number of x0.ito cells), ancl Leu1-oc-,orosis .eticulocytosis

1. Vascular Disorders 1. Thrombosis 2. Hypertension

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Enzyme and Other Biochemical Changes Changes in activity of: 1. Cholinesterase (V,v) 2. Phosphatase (v) 3. Transaminase (v) 4. Amylase (v) 5. Carboxydismutase 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 13. Protein Denaturation Toxin, Fungus, and Virus Inactivation (at high radiation dose levels), Bacteriostatic Effect Tissue Cultures Killed Alteration In iRate of Coll Division Increased Concentration of RVA in Lymphocytes, and Decreased Concentration in Brain,. Liver, and Spleen Changes in Pyruvic Acid, Lactic Acid, and Creatinine LxereJions Change in Concentration of Glycogen in Liver (Hlyperglycevia) Alteration in Concentration of 17- Ketosterolds in Urine

S12. SK.

Metabolic Disorders Glycosuria (sugar in uriTe; related with blood sugar?) Increase in Urinary Phenol (derivatives? DOPA?) Alteration of rate of ietabolic Enzymatic Processes Altered Carbohydrate Metabolism

2. 3.

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L.

Gastro-Intestinal Disorders 1. 2. 3. 4. Anorexia (loss of appetite) Epigastric Pain Constipation Altered Secretion of Stomach "Digestive Juices"

It.

Endocrine Gland Changes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Altered Pituitary runction Ilyperthyroidism Thyroid Enlargement Increased Uptake of Radioactive Iodine by Thyroid Gland Altered Adrenal Cortex Activity Decreased Corticosteroids in Blood Decreased Glucocorticoidal Activity 1lypogonadism (usually decreased testosterone production)

S7.
8.

IN. Histological Changes S2. 1. in Tubular Epithelium of Testicles Changes Gross Changes

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Genetic and Chromoscrtal Changes 1. Chromosome Aberrations (e.g., linear shortening, pseudochiasm, diploid structures, amitotic division, bridging, "sticky" chromosomes, irregularities in chromosomal env-zlope) 2. Mutations 3. Mongolism 4. 5. Somatic Alterations (changes in cell not involving nucleus or chromosomes, cellular transformation) Neoplastic Diseases (e.g*, tumors)

P.

Pearl Chain Effect (Intracellular orientation of subcellular part cles, and orientation of cellular and other (non-biologlc) particles) Also, orientation of animals, birds, and fish in electromagnetic fields

Q.

Miscellaneous Effects 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Sparking between dental fillings Peculiar metallic taste in mouth Changes in Optical Activity of Colloidal Solutions Treatment for Syphilis, Poliomyelitis, Skin Diseases Loss of flair Brittleness of flair the Head and Ears Copious Perspiration, Salivation, and Protrusion of Tonpue Changes in the Operation of Implanted Cardiac Pacemakers Changes in Circadian PMythms

7. Sensations of Buzzing Vibrations, Pulsations, and Ticklinp About


8. 9. 10.

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