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Code No: 07A60804

R07

Set No. 2

III B.Tech II Semester Examinations,December-January, 2011-2012 PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL Chemical Engineering Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. Explain dierent testing methods to identify the dynamic nature of processes. [16] 2. A feed back control system has the open-loop transfer function Kc GOL = (s+1)(4 s+2)(s+3) Plot the root locus diagram for 0 Kc 20. Show all the necessary calculations to plot the root locus diagram. [16] 3. In the following block diagram 1, for a unit step change in load, determine the following:

Figure 1: (a) The frequency of the transient response.


(b) Oset.

(c) Sketch the transient response.

[5+5+6]

4. (a) Determine the factors to be taken into account for using air-to-open or air-toclose pneumatic control valves.
(b) A pneumatic controller has an output pressure of 10 psi when the set point and pen point are together. The set point and pen point are suddenly displaced by 0.5 in (i.e., a step change in error is introduced) and the following data is Time (sec) 0 0+ 20 60 90 [16] obtained. psig 10 8 7 5 3.5 5. A rst-order process with a dead-time has a transfer function: e.td s . G(s) = 5 0.2s+1 The process is to be controlled with a PI controller. Use the Bode stability criterion to nd the range of values for the gain Kc as a function of td , so that the closed-loop response is stable. Take I = 0.5 min. [16]

Code No: 07A60804

R07

Set No. 2

6. A thermocouple has the following characteristics when it is immersed in a stirred bath: Mass of thermocouple = 1.2 g. Heat capacity of the thermocouple = 0.28 cal/g 0 C. Heat transfer coecient = 22 cal/cm2 -h-0 C (for thermocouple and bath). Surface area of thermocouple = 3 cm2 . (a) Derive a transfer function model for the thermocouple relating the change in its indicated output T to the change in the temperature of its surroundings Ts assuming uniform temperature (no gradients in the thermocouple bead), no conduction in the leads , constant physical properties, and conversion of the milli-volt level output directly to a 0 C reading by a very fast meter. (b) If the thermocouple is initially out of the bath and at room temperature (230 C), what is the maximum temperature that it will register if it is suddenly plunged into a bath (800 C) and held there for 20 seconds? [16] 7. For the liquid storage system shown below, the control objective is to regulate liquid level h2 , despite disturbances in ow rates q1 and q4 . Flow rate q2 can be manipulated. The two values have the following ow-head relations : q3 = C1 h1 and q5 = C2 h2 (a) Draw a block diagram for a feed forward control system for the case where q1 can be measured and variations in q4 are neglected. (b) Design a feed forward control law for the above case. [8+8]

8. The dynamic behavior of a packed-bed reactor can be approximated by a transfer function model. T (s) s) = (10s3(2 T i ( s) +1)(5s+1) Where Ti = inlet temperature and T= outlet temperature (in 0 C) and time constants are in hours. The inlet temperature varies in a cyclic fashion due to changes in ambient temperature from day to day. Here Ti varies sinusoidally with a period of 24 hours and amplitude of 12 0 C. What is the maximum variation in outlet temperature? [16]

Code No: 07A60804

R07

Set No. 4

III B.Tech II Semester Examinations,December-January, 2011-2012 PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL Chemical Engineering Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. Write short notes on the following: (a) Control valve hysterisis. (b) Process reaction curve. [7+9]

2. (a) Discuss and represent some typical feed back control systems which are often encountered in chemical processes. (b) Discuss merits and demerits of dierent types of controllers. [8+8]

3. What is ratio control? Discuss such a control system with a specic process. [16] 4. A step change of magnitude 4 is introduced into system having the transfer function Y (s) 10 = s2 +1 X ( s) .2s+4 Determine fraction overshoot, period of oscillation, maximum and ultimate values of Y(t). [16] 5. Derive the transfer function Y/X for the control system shown below gure 2: [16]

Figure 2: 6. Draw the root locus of a closed loop system with the following characteristics: 5 Process : Gp (s) = (s+2)(2 . s+3) Controller: Gc (s) = Kc . Measuring Device: Gm (s) = 1. Final Control element: Gf (s) = 1. Find the values of Kc , for which the system is stable. [16] 3

Code No: 07A60804

R07

Set No. 4

7. Derive expressions for amplitude ratio and phase angle as functions of for the . [16] transfer function G(s) = s21 1 8. Consider the conical water tank system shown below gure 3. The ow through the valve is related to the head H by Q = 0.005 H , where Q is the ow rate measured in m3 /sec and H is in meters. Suppose that head is 2 m at t=0, what will be the head at t= 60 sec? [16]

Figure 3:

Code No: 07A60804

R07

Set No. 1

III B.Tech II Semester Examinations,December-January, 2011-2012 PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL Chemical Engineering Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. Write the characteristic equation and construct the Routh array for the control system shown below in gure 4. Find the range of Kc values for which the system is stable. [16]

Figure 4:
2. Write short notes on the following:

(a) Valve sizing. (b) Z - N controller settings. (c) Pulse testing. 3. Discuss the strategies in implementing the following: (a) Dead time compensation.
(b) Ratio control. [8+8]

[16]

4. Let the input of a second-order system change in a sinusoidal manner: m(t) = sin2t Show that the ultimate response of the system.

(a) Is also a sinusoidal wave. (b) Has an amplitude equal to


1 . (14 2 )+(4 )2 4 14 2

(c) Lags behind the input wave by an angle equal to = tan1 5. Plot the asymptotic Bode diagram for the PID controller: 1 G(s) = Kc 1 + D s + I where Kc =10; D = 1; I =100. s Label corner frequencies and give slopes of asymptotes. 5

. [5+6+5]

[16]

Code No: 07A60804

R07

Set No. 1

6. Obtain expressions for the response shown by rst order systems, subjected to: (a) Step input. (b) Ramp input. (c) Sinusoidal input. [16]

7. The block diagram 5 of a special feed back control system is shown below in fig 5. Derive an expression for the closed loop transfer functions Y(s)/D(s) and Y(s)/Ysp(s). [16]

Figure 5:
8. An ideal PD controller had the transfer function P = Kc (D s + 1) An actual PD controller had the transfer function D s+1) P = Kc ((D / )s+1 Where is a large constant in an industrial controller. If a unit-step change in error is introduced into a controller having the second transfer function, show that P (t) = Kc (1 + A exp(t/D ) Where A is a function of which you are to determine. For = 5 and Kc = 0.5, plot P(t) versus t/D . As , show that the unit-step response approaches that for the ideal controller. [16]

Code No: 07A60804

R07

Set No. 3

III B.Tech II Semester Examinations,December-January, 2011-2012 PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL Chemical Engineering Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. The open loop transfer function of a process is 1/4(3s +1)4 . Determine the crossover frequency and ultimate gain. [16]
2. (a) Discuss the criteria used to evaluate the response of a control system.

(b) Explain the open-loop method of controller tuning.


3. A control system shown below in gure 6 contains a three-mode controller.

[8+8]

Figure 6:

For D = I =1 and 1 = 2, (a) Determine the oset for a unit step change in load and set point if K = 2. (b) Sketch the response curves (C versus t) for a unit step change in load and set point when K = 2. [8+8] 4. (a) Write the ideal transfer functions of proportional, PI, PD and PID controllers. Write units of the controller parameter for a pneumatic controller. (b) Explain with the help of examples, how the overall transfer function of a feed back system is obtained for servo and regulatory problem. [8+8] 5. (a) Derive the linear response equation for a rst order system. (b) Sketch the time function corresponding to the transform [1 + exp(s) exp(2s) exp(3s)]. F (s) = 1 s 7 [8+8]

Code No: 07A60804

R07

Set No. 3

6. (a) Discuss the terms related to step response of an under-damped 2nd order system. (b) Determine the transfer function H(s)/Q(s) for the liquid-level system shown in the following gure 7. Resistances R1 and R2 are linear. The ow rate from tank 3 is maintained constant at b by means of a pump; i.e., the ow rate from tank 3 is independent of head h. The tanks are non-interacting. [10+6]

Figure 7: 7. Calculate the critical frequency and maximum gain for the primary controller for system shown below in gure 8. The secondary controller gain of 6 is half the maximum for the inner-loop.

Figure 8: where , G1 =
1 (2s+1)(5s+1)

G2 =

1 (10s+1)

G3 =

1 . (20s+1)

[16]

Code No: 07A60804

R07

Set No. 3

8. Draw the root-locus diagram for the following control system. (a) Determine the value of Kc needed to obtain a root of the characteristic equation of the closed-loop response which has an imaginary part 0.75. (b) Using the value of Kc found in part (a), determine all the other roots of the characteristic equation from the root-locus diagram. [8+8]

Figure 9: