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LITERATURE REFERENCES using the Harvard System

There are several accepted conventions for citing bibliographic references. The method described here is the Harvard System. It is the one most commonly used in scientific papers. NB: Citations in papers submitted to scholarly journals should always follow the method used by that journal. Introduction

Citing references in a text Creating bibliographic references Part 1: Non-electronic sources


Book References Journal Articles Papers from Conferences Theses Reports Patents British Standards Personal Communication

Part 2: Electronic Sources


Individual works E-Journal Articles Mailbase/Listserv email lists Personal electronic communications (E-mail) Introduction In the course of your literature search you are likely to find many publications which contain relevant information. It is important that you record their full bibliographical details in order to be able to identify them easily at a later date. These details are known as bibliographical references. There are many different ways in which bibliographical references are set out by other authors. In order to avoid producing an inconsistency in your own work it is important to choose one style and stick to it. Therefore you should 'translate' any references you find into your chosen style. If you are preparing a paper for a particular journal you must of course follow the style used by that journal. Remember the basic rule is that references should be correct, complete and consistent. Within your own text you will be expected to acknowledge where you have used any sources (e.g. books, journal articles, conference papers etc.) to provide ideas, support arguments or for direct quotations, by citing the documents, from which you obtained the information, at the point of use.

At the end of your project or dissertation the bibliographic details of all documents cited are listed under the heading References or Material Cited. Do not include any references which are not cited in the text. If you wish to indicate other useful publications for background or further reading these are included in a separate list entitled Additional Reading or Bibliography.

Why you need to cite references


To acknowledge debts to other writers To demonstrate the body of knowledge upon which your research is based To provide supporting evidence for your own arguments To enable all those who read your work to locate your sources easily NB: To include other authors' work in your own, or to "borrow" others' ideas without acknowledgement is known as plagiarism. This is easier to detect than you might imagine and is regarded as a serious misdemeanour. Any evidence of plagiarism will certainly count against you when your work is being assessed, and could result in you failing your course.

CITING REFERENCES IN A TEXT


The following guidelines explain :a) how to cite references in a text and b) how to structure the references listed at the end of a text. The Harvard System

The author and the year of publication of the cited document are given in the text. If the author's name occurs naturally in the text then the year follows in brackets, if not, then both name and year are in brackets.

* Example A study by Gremillion and Jenking (1981) showed that colour significantly improved recall ability. However, we need to guard against using distracting colours in order to realise these benefits (Marcus, Cowan and Smith, 1989).

CREATING BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES Part 1: Non-electronic sources


Book References What is needed? Author/s or Editor/s surname, initials. (Year of publication). Title of book (in italics, or underlined or in bold type). Edition (if other than first). Place of publication: Publisher.

* Example Sommerville, I. (1992). Software engineering. 4th ed. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. If there are two or three authors then all should be given, but if there are more than three then only the first is given followed by et al. or and others. If the book has an editor then ed. is added after the name. * Example Warren, D.H.D. and Szeredi, P. eds. (1990). Logic programming. London: MIT Press. You may wish to refer to a chapter in a book. In this case the editor of the book is also acknowledged. In effect a double reference is required, with the more specific reference coming first. * Example Smith, C. (1980). Problems of information studies in history. In: S. Stone, ed. Humanities information research. Sheffield: CRUS, 1980, pp.27-30. Notice that when referring to specific pages in a book 'pp.' is used. Use 'p.' if referring to a single page. For books without individual authors use the corporate author if possible, otherwise use the title. * Examples British Computer Society (1991). Glossary of computing terms : an introduction. London: Pitman. Turbo Assembler: users' guide - version 2.0 (1991). Scotts Valley, CA: Borland.

Journal Articles What is needed? Author/s or Editor/s surname, initials. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of journal (in italics, or underlined or in bold type), Volume number, (Part number), Page number/s of the article.

The title of the journal should be in bold or italic type or underlined to distinguish it from the rest of the reference. There is no need to put in the words 'vol' or 'part'. The inclusive page numbers for the article should be given. If an article is interrupted by advertisements or other features this should be indicated by showing all the page sequences. * Example Nicolle, L. (1990). Data protection: laying down the law. Management Computing, 13(12), 48-49, 52. Papers from Conferences If the conference is one of a series use a similar method to that for journals but including the publisher if known, otherwise use the same method as for books. * Examples Feldman, D.S. (1993). Fuzzy network synthesis with genetic algorithms. Proceedings of the fifth international conference on genetic algorithms. Urbana-Champaign, IL., July 1993. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, pp.312-317. Duchastel, P.C. (1992). Integrating hypermedia into intelligent tutoring. In: A. Oliveira, ed. Hypermedia courseware: structures of communication and intelligent help: proceedings of a NATO Advanced Research Workshop. Espinho, Portugal, April 1990. Berlin: SpringerVerlag, pp. 198-204. Theses Use similar methods to those for books. * Example Levine, D. (1993). A parallel genetic algorithm for the set partitioning problem. Ph.D. thesis, Illinois Institute of Technology.

Reports Similar method to that for books. Add all report numbers that appear on the document, plus publisher or distributor details if known. * Example Koza, J.R. (1990). Genetic programming: a paradigm for genetically breeding populations of computer programs to solve problems. Technical Report No. STAN-CS-90-1314, Computer Science Department, Stanford University. Patents What is needed? Inventor/s (Year). Assignee Title Patent number

*Example Graham, C.P., Fonti, L. and Martinez, A.M. (1972). American Sugar Co. Tableting sugar and compositions containing it. U.S. Pat. 3,642,535 British Standards *Example British Standards Institution (1981). BS 5930: 1981. Code of practice for site investigations. Personal Communication Can be used when one has cited unpublished information gained from a private letter, conversation or interview. *Example Ross, D.E. (1991). Personal communication

Part 2: Electronic Sources


No standard method for citing electronic sources of information has yet been agreed on. The following citation formats outline the practices most likely to be adopted and are based on the book by Xia Li & Nancy B. Crane (1995) and the draft of ISO standard 690-2. References to electronic sources follow the same general pattern as for non-electronic sources. Items from the Internet also use the URL (Internet address). The URL should only be split after a forward slash, no further punctuation should be added, and the case of the characters must not be altered. The examples given use the Harvard System, however these basic rules may be customised for any standard citation style. Individual works What is needed? Author/s or editor/s. (Year). Title [online]. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher (if ascertainable). Available at: URL [Accessed Date].

* Example Holland, M. (1996). Harvard system [online]. Poole: Bournemouth University. Available from: http://bournemouth.ac.uk/service-depts/lis/ LIS_Pub/harvardsyst.html [Accessed 15 April 1996]. The term [online] indicates type of medium and is used for all Internet sources. [Accessed Date] is the date on which the document was viewed. This allows for any subsequent modifications to the document. When referring to Internet sources the term publisher usually applies to the organisation responsible for hosting the site, such as Bournemouth University. If no specific author is cited ascribe authorship to the smallest organisational unit. * Example NRSWG (2000). In the mail: report of a survey of interlibrary loan delivery [online]. Canberra, Australia: National Resource Sharing Working Group Available at: http://www.nla.gov.au/initiatives/nrswg/mailsurvey.html [Accessed 8 March 2000].

E-Journal Articles What is needed? Author/s (Year). Title of article. Journal Title [online] (title in italics, bold or underlined), Volume number, (Part/issue number). Available at: URL [Accessed Date].

*Example Caplan, P. and Arms, W. (1999). Reference linking for journal articles. D-Lib Magazine [online], July/August. Available at: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/july99/07caplan.html [Accessed 27 Aug 1999]. Mailbase/Listserv email lists These discussion lists generate email messages which are sent directly to the subscriber. References to these messages should be treated in a similar fashion to journal references; using the list name in place of the journal title and the subject line of the message in place of the article title. For "Available at:", use the email address of the list administrator. These details, together with the author, will appear in the message header. What is needed? Author (Year). Subject of message. Discussion List [online]. Day Month Year. Available at: list e-mail address [Accessed Date].

*Example Brack, E.V. (1995). Re: Computing short courses. Lis-link [online]. 2 May 1995. Available at: mailbase@mailbase.ac.uk [Accessed 17 Apr 1996]. Jensen, L.R. (1995). Recommendation of student radio/tv in English. IASTAR [online]. 12 Dec 1995. Available at: LISTSERV@FTP.NRG.DTU.DK [Accessed 29 Apr 1996]. It should be noted that items may only be kept on discussion group servers for a short time and hence may not be suitable for referencing.

Personal electronic communications (E-mail) The "subject line" of the message is given as a title and the full date is given. In place of "Available at" use "E-mail to" and state the recipient's name and e-mail address. What is needed? Sender (Sender's E-mail address) (Year) Subject of Message. Day Month Year. E-mail to: Recipient (Recipient's E-mail address).

*Example Lowman, D. (deborah_lowman@pbsinc.com) (1996). RE: ProCite and Internet Refere. 4 Apr 1996. E-mail to: P. Cross (pcross@bournemouth.ac.uk).

References Draft of ISO standard 690-2 (2001) Information and documentation: Bibliographic references: Electronic documents or parts thereof. Xia Li & Nancy B. Crane (1995) Electronic style: a guide to citing electronic information, 2nd ed., Mecklermedia Dianne Nelson, August 2001 (edited as web page by Tony Drewry)

Referencing Table of Contents


1. Introduction 2. Part 1: References and

Part 2: Referencing the literature in an academic written text

3.

4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

bibliography The reasons for utilising references in academic writing are Part 2: Referencing the based on common sense. Referencing affects the quality of literature in an your work. It informs the reader about the extent and type of academic written text reading that you have undertaken. Also, the way incorporate 1. The purpose of references into your text can make a difference to the grade academic you receive for your assignment. referencing 2. The practice of The following sub sections are to help you consider the academic purpose of academic referencing and the practice of academic referencing referencing. Part 3: Introducing another author's ideas Part 4: Paraphrasing and summarising another author's idea Part 5: Quoting the exact words of another author Part 6: The rules for presenting references in an academic written text - primary and secondary sources Part 7: The rules for presenting a list of references at the end of the essay Closing comments Introduction

10. Back to Study Skills

Table of Contents

Introduction

1. Introduction 2. Part 1: References and This section is about using literature sources - a crucial part of bibliography academic writing. Literature sources enrich your thinking and 3. Part 2: Referencing the help you to develop your ideas so that you can integrate them literature in an into the culture of Nursing and Midwifery Studies. academic written text Consequently, they play a very important role in your 4. Part 3: Introducing academic written assignments. another author's ideas 5. Part 4: Paraphrasing For further details, read through the college document 'Citing and summarising References' from Information Services and Systems attached another author's idea to- http://www.kcl.ac.uk/content/1/c6/06/08/77/citing20096. Part 5: Quoting the 10FINAL1.pdf exact words of another author The most important point about using references in an 7. Part 6: The rules for academic piece of writing is understanding why they are used. presenting references Then the way referencing should be done becomes clear in an academic written because it is simply a matter of basic, common sense. text - primary and secondary sources An academic essay is a piece of writing about a specific topic. 8. Part 7: The rules for It is the result of a great deal of thinking about the topic, presenting a list of discussing the topic with others and reading what other writers references at the end of have written about the topic. So it is an original piece of work the essay that emerges from all these different learning experiences. 9. Closing comments Reading published texts about a certain topic helps us to develop our own original thoughts and thus enables us to 10. Back to Study Skills contribute new ideas to our academic community through our Introduction writing. In this sense, reading is a part of academic writing. This section has seven parts and many activities to help you develop your understanding of using references: Part 1: References and bibliography Part 2: Referencing the literature in an academic written text Part 3: Presenting another author's idea Part 4: Paraphrasing and summarising another author's idea Part 5: Quoting the exact words of another author Part 6: The rules of presenting references in an academic written text Part 7: The rules of presenting a list of references at the end of the text Copyright 2007. Florence Nightingale School of Nursing & Midwifery

Part 2: Referencing the literature in an academic written text


The reasons for utilising references in academic writing are based on common sense. Referencing affects the quality of your work. It informs the reader about the extent and type of reading that you have undertaken. Also, the way incorporate references into your text can make a difference to the grade you receive for your assignment. The following sub sections are to help you consider the purpose of academic referencing and the practice of academic referencing.

The purpose of academic referencing


The activities that follow will help you to deepen your understanding of why referencing is a matter of common sense.

Choose a published article that interests you. It may be to do with one of your courses. Read it and notice how the author has brought ideas, statements or arguments from literature sources into the text. This will help you to develop your own writing style in making references to the literature. You may like to repeat this activity with other published articles to notice how different authors use references to the literature in their texts.

Why reference in an essay?


Why do student writers really need to refer to points made in published texts in an academic essay? Try and think of at least three reasons. Bottom of Form

Selecting references
What are the main criteria for selecting the best references to include in an essay?

The practice of academic referencing

You are going to read seven extracts from the following published article: Hollinworth H, Clark C, Harland R, Johnson L and Partington G (2005) Understanding the arousal of anger: a patient-centred approach. Nursing Standard 19(37): 41-47 Each extract contains one or more references to the literature. In each case, decide why the reference(s) has(have) been incorporated into the text by choosing one or more of the reasons provided for each extract. You may find it helpful to download the whole article and skim read it. This will help you understand the context for each extract. You may find that there are overlaps. However, the most important aspect of this activity is to develop your understanding of how references can be important to the writer. Please note that 'Nursing Standard' is a popular UK journal publishing papers with a clinical focus. This means that, while it reflects clinical practice in the UK, it is important that you should not rely on this journal alone for your reading. You are expected to read and reference articles from a broad range of academic journals in order to understand the full scope of nursing research.
1 Extract A .... Anger and aggressive behaviour has become a problem in acute healthcare settings (Winstanley and Whittington 2004), .... (from p.41) a) to put forward an interesting point for discussion b) to give authority to an argument or statement that the writers want to make c) to enrich the discussion by bringing in one or more outside perspective(s) d) to support a point or argument by elaborating on it with details or examples e) to make an important point about the topic f) to develop an argument

2 Extract B ... it is important to recognise that anger does not always lead to violence. Friedman and BoothKewley (1987) help to promote understanding when they define anger as immediate emotional arousal, hostility as a more enduring negative attitude, and aggression as the actual or intended harming of others. .... (from p.42) a) to put forward an interesting point for discussion b) to give authority to an argument or statement that the writers want to make

c) to enrich the discussion by bringing in one or more outside perspective(s) d) to support a point or argument by elaborating on it with details or examples e) to make an important point about the topic f) to develop an argument

3 Extract C ... the patient who has undergone emergency surgical intervention and formation of a colostomy is likely to have specific psychological and physical issues to deal with that may give rise to feelings of anxiety, frustration and perhaps anger. Metcalf (1999) describes three main factors that influence psychological adjustment following the formation of a stoma: - The degree of satisfaction that a patient has with pre-operative preparation. - Stoma-related factors, such as leakage, odour, sore skin and insufficient practical skills when changing stoma appliances. - The patient's expectation of regaining control of the current situation.
- Therefore it would not be surprising for a patient who has undergone emergency surgery.. (from

p.43) a) to put forward an interesting point for discussion b) to give authority to an argument or statement that the writers want to make c) to enrich the discussion by bringing in one or more outside perspective(s) d) to support a point or argument by elaborating on it with details or examples e) to make an important point about the topic f) to develop an argument

4 Extract D Women are often perceived to suppress their anger. Lerner (1988) reports that women tend to be inhibited in their expression of anger whereas men tend not to be. (from p.43) a) to put forward an interesting point for discussion b) to give authority to an argument or statement that the writers want to make c) to enrich the discussion by bringing in one or more outside perspective(s) d) to support a point or argument by elaborating on it with details or examples e) to make an important point about the topic f) to develop an argument

5 Extract E Reasons for anger suppression in women are varied (Averill 1983). Several authors highlight socialisation as an explanation for this behaviour (Collier 1982, Lerner 1988, Turkel 2000). Sharkin (1993) considers that women are socialised to express their emotions more openly, with the exception of anger, which he suggests is viewed as 'unfeminine' by society. ... (from p.44) a) to put forward an interesting point for discussion b) to give authority to an argument or statement that the writers want to make c) to enrich the discussion by bringing in one or more outside perspective(s) d) to support a point or argument by elaborating on it with details or examples e) to make an important point about the topic f) to develop an argument

6 Extract F .... In fact, many people believe that expressing anger is healthy and necessary. However, this widespread belief that anger will be harmful unless expressed is not supported by research (Tavris 1989). It is not the anger that is legitimate and right, but the stress that underlies the anger (McKay et al 1989) .... (from p.45) a) to put forward an interesting point for discussion b) to give authority to an argument or statement that the writers want to make c) to enrich the discussion by bringing in one or more outside perspective(s) d) to support a point or argument by elaborating on it with details or examples e) to make an important point about the topic f) to develop an argument

Extract G - A more helpful evidence-based strategy is to: - Establish a trusting relationship with the patient. This is the most powerful aid to reducing stress in most patients in the clinical situation (Ridner 2004). - Remain calm, speak softly, and listen carefully to the individual's complaint (Thomas 1998). - Actively engage with the person by developing simple counselling skills (Hollinworth and Hawkins 2002), and using empathetic communication (Morse et al 1992). ... (from p.46) a) to put forward an interesting point for discussion b) to give authority to an argument or statement that the writers want to make c) to enrich the discussion by bringing in one or more outside perspective(s) d) to support a point or argument by elaborating on it with details or examples e) to make an important point about the topic f) to develop an argument

Part 3: Introducing another author's ideas


An additional point to consider is how to introduce an author's ideas into your text. You may want to use those ideas to help you describe something more clearly or in more detail: an event, a situation or a condition perhaps. Or you may want to use them as a part of your discussion, where you are examining something analytically and critically. The following two sections will help you, firstly, to recognise description, analysis and critical thought in the writing and, secondly, to understand the use of tentative expression in critical analysis.

Description, analysis and critical thought

This activity consists of 20 short extracts. For each extract, decide whether the writer is using them to describe something, to indicate analysis or critical thought or to do both. In the answers the words which help to promote the idea of description or critical analysis/thought have been highlighted.
1 Extract 1 - Marks (1999) suggested that ... a) Description b) Analysis/Critique c) Description and Analysis/Critique 2 Extract 2 - Despite some of the reasons mentioned, Coombes (2003) argues that ... a) Description b) Analysis/Critique c) Description and Analysis/Critique

3 Extract 3 - Consequently many authors now concur that this is outdated practice (Rowe 1999; Mulligan 1999; Garcia 2003)... a) Description b) Analysis/Critique c) Description and Analysis/Critique

4 Extract 4 - Nevertheless, it can be seen that evidence based practice is not a recipe book as McCulloch (2002) advocates ... a) Description b) Analysis/Critique c) Description and Analysis/Critique

5 Extract 5 - Another reason that Smith (1998) gives is that... a) Description

b) Analysis/Critique c) Description and Analysis/Critique 6 Extract 6 - Criticism by Mason (2002) has ranged from .... compared with Young (1998) whose expertise is evident in that her ... a) Description b) Analysis/Critique c) Description and Analysis/Critique

7 Extract 7- Many students feel concerned about discussing issues in practice for fear of the effect it may have on their practice assessment (Singh 2001). a) Description b) Analysis/Critique c) Description and Analysis/Critique

8 Extract 8 - The argument that Seipp (2001) puts forward is in stark contrast with Geodes (2203), who suggests a misunderstanding occurs when ... a) Description b) Analysis/Critique c) Description and Analysis/Critique

9 Extract 9 - Compared to Ferguson's (2001) flawed argument Rowntree's (2003) point is much more credible because it casts doubt on ... a) Description b) Analysis/Critique c) Description and Analysis/Critique

10 Extract 10 - It is this type of inconsistency in the methods used by both Jon (2000) and later Ellis (2003) which makes the validity questionable. a) Description b) Analysis/Critique c) Description and Analysis/Critique

11 Extract 11 - There is some debate in the literature such as the agreements proffered by Weatherall (1999) which is in sharp contrast to Gordini (2002) .. a) Description b) Analysis/Critique c) Description and Analysis/Critique

12 Extract 12 - A number of explanations have been offered by some authors. However it is the findings and recommendations of Scott's (2002) study which best fits the practice setting. a) Description b) Analysis/Critique c) Description and Analysis/Critique

13 Extract 13 - Granite (2001) is the most consistent and convincing writer on this topic. a) Description b) Analysis/Critique c) Description and Analysis/Critique

14 Extract 14- It is worth remembering that Leicester (2000) describes it as inconsistent and Job (2002) suggests that there is no validity in the argument. a) Description b) Analysis/Critique c) Description and Analysis/Critique

15 Extract 15 - It is interesting to note that Rowe (2003) agrees with John (2003). a) Description b) Analysis/Critique c) Description and Analysis/Critique 16 Extract 16 - Even more fundamental is the way that Fordham (2001) comments on the issue compared with how Lancer (2002) draws the reader's attention to the inconsistencies. a) Description b) Analysis/Critique

c) Description and Analysis/Critique

17 Extract 17 - In the light of currently available evidence, the answer to the question as discussed by Gomez (2002) appears to be imbalanced ... a) Description b) Analysis/Critique c) Description and Analysis/Critique

18 Extract 18 - A more significant study than Bryant's (2003), both in terms of methodology and outcome, is that of Blake (2000) reported 3 years earlier. a) Description b) Analysis/Critique c) Description and Analysis/Critique

19 Extract 19 - Methodological shortcomings are demonstrated in the studies carried out by George (2001) and Cline (2002). a) Description b) Analysis/Critique c) Description and Analysis/Critique

Tentative expression 1
Critical thought is often expressed in a tentative manner to highlight the point that academic writing is full of uncertainties. To develop your appreciation of this kind of writing in relation to referencing, try the following activity.

The seven extracts which follow are from four different articles about ethical issues: Wainright P, Gallagher A (2007) Ethical aspects of withholding treatment. Nursing Standard, 21(33): 46-50. Chaloner C (2007) Ethics in nursing: the way forward. Nursing Standard, 21(38): 40-41.

Chaloner C, Sanders K (2007) Euthanasia: the legal issues. Nursing Standard, 21(36): 42-46. Gallagher A, Wainright P (2007) Terminal sedation: promoting ethical nursing practice. Nursing Standard, 21(34): 42-46. All seven extracts contain some tentative expressions. In each case, read the extract and then:
1. decide which expressions are tentative by selecting one or more of the multiple choice answers. 2. for each tentative expression you have chosen, decide who displays tentative behaviour: the writer(s) of the extract, the referenced author(s) or the mentioned author. If you think it is unclear, write 'unclear'.

1 Extract 1- Identify the tentative expressions in the extract

below:
Personal autonomy, which refers to a person's ability to be self-governing and to make decisions (Beauchamp and Childress 2001), although important, cannot always be an overriding ethical principle. (Wainright and Gallagher 2007: 47)
a) Personal autonomy b) which refers to a person's ability to be self-governing and to make decisions c) although important d) cannot always be e) an overriding ethical principle

2 Q1b - In Extract 1 tentative behaviour is displayed by:


a) the referenced authors, Beauchamp and Childress b) the writers, Wainright and Gallagher

Tentative expression 2
1 Extract 2 - Identify the tentative expressions in the extract below: The House of Lords debate on assisted dying attracted significant media coverage (Wilson 2006, Woodward 2006), although it is arguable whether some of the enthusiastic, but one-sided appeals (Toynbee 2006), served to inform the debate or detracted from balanced ethical deliberation on the complex and sensitive issues. (Chaloner 2007: 44) a) The House of Lords debate on assisted dying b) attracted significant media coverage

c) although it is arguable whether some of the enthusiastic, d) but one-sided appeals e) served to inform the debate or detracted from balanced ethical deliberation f) on the complex and sensitive issues

2 Q2b - Tentative behaviour in Extract 2 is displayed by: a) the writer, Challoner b) the referenced authors, Wilson / Woodward c) the referenced author, Toynbee

3 Extract 3 - Identify the tentative expression in the extract below: ... some nurses may regard ethics as a remote concept that is of little practical value and associate it with theories and guidelines that have no immediate relevance to their role. (Chaloner and Saunders 2007: 40) a) some nurses may regard ethics as a remote concept b) that is of little practical value c) and associate it with theories and guidelines d) that have no immediate relevance to their role. 4 Extract 4 - Identify the tentative expression in the extract: Hurwitz (2003) states that pain is probably the most common symptom that causes people to consult doctors.(Gallagher and Wainright 2007: 43) a) Hurwitz (2003) states b) that pain is probably the most common symptom c) that causes people to consult doctors.

5 Q4b - Tentative behaviour in extract 4 is displayed by: a) the writers, Gallagher and Wainright b) the referenced author, Hurwitz

Tentative expression 3

1 Extract 5 - Identify the tentative expression in the extract : Pain is a complex phenomenon. It can be protective as it indicates that all is not well in the body and that there may be a dysfunction, which could be remedied (Hurwitz 2003). (Gallagher and Wainright 2007: 43) a) Pain is a complex phenomenon b) It can be protective c) as it indicates that all is not well in the body d) and that there may be a dysfunction e) which could be remedied

2 Q5b - Tentative behaviour in Extract 5 is displayed by: a) the writers, Gallagher and Wainright b) the referenced author, Hurwitz

3 Extract 6 - Identify the tentative expression in the extract below: Hurwitz identified the difficulties in articulating and understanding pain experiences. More visual approaches may be helpful. In Padfield's (2003) photographic work, patients experiencing chronic pain were invited to attempt to articulate their pain and responses to it. (Gallagher and Wainright 2007: 43) a) Hurwitz identified the difficulties in articulating and understanding pain experiences. b) More visual approaches may be helpful. c) In Padfield's (2003) photographic work, d) patients experiencing chronic pain e) were invited to attempt to f) articulate their pain and responses to it.

4 Q6b - In Extract 6 tentative behaviour is displayed by: a) the writers, Gallagher and Wainright b) the mentioned author, Hurwitz c) the referenced author, Padfield

5 Extract 7 - Identify the tentative expression in the extract below: Woods (2004) asks whether sedation at other stages should be termed 'non terminal sedation'. However, this seems to miss the point. (Gallagher and Wainwright 2007: 43) a) Woods (2004) asks b) whether sedation at other stages should be termed 'non terminal sedation'. c) However, this seems to miss the point.

6 Q7b - In Extract 7 tentative behaviour is displayed by: a) the writers, Gallagher and Wainright b) the referenced author, Wood

Part 4: Paraphrasing and summarising another author's idea


While you are reading it is a good idea to make notes of any interesting points you might want to include in your essay. This will help you to paraphrase and summarise those points so that you can use them to develop your essay. 'Paraphrasing' means expressing the same idea in a different way. 'Summarising' means expressing the same idea in a condensed form, leaving out any unnecessary detail and just making the main point. The following activity provides you with some practice in paraphrasing and summarising.

Here are four extracts from published articles, with the references given first. Try paraphrasing and summarising the extracts. Remember to reference them as well. 1 Extract A - (from Macleod Clark J (1993) From sick nursing

to health nursing. in Wilson-Barnett & Macleod Clark (eds.) Research in Health Promotion and Nursing Basingstoke: The Macmillan Press Ltd: 256-270)

'A health model of nursing encompasses the fact that each individual's need for care is different, and that, whenever possible, patients and clients should be involved in decisions about, and be able to participate in, their care. Health nursing focuses on maximising the potential for health and independence. It builds on people's existing knowledge and experience, helps them to become more autonomous and empowers them to take responsibility for their health.' (Macloed Clark 1993: 258) 2 Extract B - (from Macleod Clark J (1993) From sick nursing

to health nursing. in Wilson-Barnett & Macleod Clark (eds.) Research in Health Promotion and Nursing Basingstoke: The Macmillan Press Ltd: 256-270)

'Enhanced life expectancy, the rising number of elderly in the population, and the focus on community care will increase the importance of the nurse's role as a resource and support to lay carers. Growing economic constraints and the market place ethos in health care will place the emphasis on cost effectiveness. Current trends in terms of skill mix mean that professional nurses will find themselves supporting large numbers of less qualified care assistants. The growth of consumer awareness and the desire to improve their health, remain healthy and be actively involved in their care, constitutes additional but more positive changes.' (Macleod Clark 1993: 258) 3 Extract C - (from Duncan P, Dealey C (2007) Patients'

feelings about hand washing, MRSA status and patient information. British Journal of Nursing 16(1): 34-38.)

'Research undertaken in other studies supported the finding from this research that patients would feel more confident about asking staff and staff would feel more confident about

being asked to wash their hands if there was a cultural change in attitude to make such practice routine in hospitals. To that end, the profile surrounding a 'Clean Your Hands Campaign' should be maintained constantly. Undoubtedly, the current drive to involve patients in shaping the future of health care through the foundation trusts and parent associations, for example, should be continued so that something as critical and fundamental as hand hygiene becomes beyond the need to question.' (Duncan and Dealy 2007: 38) 4 Extract D - From Dunne K (2005) Effective communication in

palliative care. Nursing Standard. 20(13): 57-64.

'Communication is the medium through which interpersonal interaction takes place. It is necessary in the daily lives of almost every human being. In palliative care the uniqueness of the situation to the individuals in the family can never be overlooked and highlights the need for effective patterns of communication between them and the professionals with whom they come into contact. However, the communication process is complex and involved. It is well recognised that communication is central to the nurse-patient relationship, but in practice there is significant evidence that many nurses experience difficulties when caring for the patient and his or her family during the palliative stage of disease. In addition, many patients have fears and anxieties about death and find it a problem to talk about it, not only with professionals, but also with their loved ones. The family's level of awareness about diagnosis and prognosis has been highlighted as an important variable in the communication process, although it has been demonstrated that even when an open awareness context existed, communication difficulties were apparent for patients and family members. The evidence demonstrates the need for nurses and other health professionals to develop their communication and interpersonal skills so that they can facilitate the process of communication with the patient, rather than engaging in blocking and distancing tactics that hinder effective communication. The skills of active listening, open questioning and reflection promote better communication and encourage empathy building. When these skills are used, they enhance the communication process and help to ensure that events leading up to death are well managed. This is a central factor in helping bereaved individuals cope with grief following the death of their loved one.' (Dunne 2005: 62-63)

Part 5: Quoting the exact words of another author


Sometimes you may want to incorporate a quotation from another author into your text. The important points to remember about doing this are:
1. Quotations should never be allowed to dominate your text. Therefore they should be short and very infrequent. 2. Quotations can be shortened by omitting some of the extract to be quoted and inserting three dots (...) to indicate each omission. But be very careful not to omit something if it changes the original sense of the extract! 3. One good reason for incorporating a quotation is to do with helping your text to develop. But this needs to be made clear to the reader. Every quotation should add to the flow of your text, not interrupt it. Each one

should be introduced first and followed up with a comment to show why it is important. 4. Another good reason for incorporating a quotation is that the quotation seems to you to expresses your exact thoughts very effectively. If this is the case, you need to explain why.

In the following extracts, the quotations (including those which are shortened using ...) are incorporated into the writer's text. Explain how the quote is introduced and followed up. Check your explanation with the explanation given. 1 Extract 1 - Hurwitz (2003) states that pain is probably the most

common symptom that causes people to consult doctors and that responses to the experience of pain are part of medical practice. He describes the variety of ways that pain is expressed:

...silently in shivers, gazes, winces, and in the stretching, twitching, writhing movements of the body; acoustically in shrieks, screams or whimpers; onomatopoeically in sighs, moans and groans; verbally in strangely figurative descriptions; and socially by withdrawal from the world (Hurwitz 2003).

Pain is a complex phenomenon. It can be protective as it indicates that all is not well in the body and that there may be dysfunction, which could be remedied (Hurwitz 2003). Pain is a subjective experience. It is difficult to articulate and the nature of the experience may be doubted by others, including health professionals. (Gallagher, Wainright 2007: 43) 2 Extract 2 - Reflective practice has been defined by Cattini

and Knowles (1999) as:


A dynamic process in which an individual practitioner actively considers the various components of a given task, with a view to learning from and using the lessons learnt to improve practice. The learner is therefore enticed to self-question an uncertainty that has caused antagonism between the ideal and the reality, thus inspiring further enquiry and instigating the learner to attain new knowledge. This new knowledge ideally leads to the pursuit of effective strategies to resolve the practice-related problem. (from Duffy A (2007) A concept analysis of reflective practice: determining its value to nurses. British Journal of Nursing, 16 (22): 1402)

3 Extract 3 - Mezirow (1991b) warranted the bond between

reflection and problem-solving as a deliberate

process:
As we assess our assumptions about the content or process of problem solving and find them unjustified, we create new ones or transform our old assumptions and hence our interpretations of experience. This is the dynamic of every day reflective learning. Therefore, reflection needs to be a conscious and deliberate strategy aimed at understanding and learning from clinical practice. (from Duffy 2007: 1403) 4 Extract 4 In this extract there are two short quotes. Numbers [1] and [2] have been inserted to identify them: Johns and Freshwater (1998) ... argued that we live in a world short of imagination, and suggested that reflective practice is a therapeutic process that 'gives us wings to soar as we emerge from our cocoons' [1] to make the journey of personal transformation and growth. Johns (2002) further argued that the reflective journey should be a collaborative process - a journey of now to where one wants to be - '...the being and the becoming' [2]. Unfortunately, in practice this is not always the case, as demonstrated by Mantzoukas and Jasper (2004), ...(from Duffy 2007: 1403)

Part 6: The rules for presenting references in an academic written text primary and secondary sources
Primary sources are the references that you have read for your assignment. Secondary sources are references that you have not read but want to include in your assignment because you have read about them and you think they should be mentioned. However, you are advised to avoid including references to secondary sources as far as possible. In this section we will examine the rules for presenting both types of references, beginning with primary referencing. The most important rule for all types of referencing is being consistent, ie, using the same format every time. This will avoid the danger of any misunderstandings arising.

Primary references
The rules for presenting primary references are easy to understand because, again, they rely entirely on basic common sense. The two most popular approaches are: author-date (the Harvard system) and numeric (the Vancouver system). See Citing References (Information Services and Systems www.kcl.ac.uk/iss) for further details. You will come across both types in your reading. The more widely used system is the Harvard system because it is more compact than the Vancouver system. Several references to the same article or book only need to be listed once in the list of references and bibliography at the end. If a page number needs to be referenced, this appears in the text, after the date. The Vancouver system is useful for articles about collaborative scientific research, where the articles that are referenced are mainly about studies conducted by a team of researchers, sometimes more than six members. Each member of the team will have contributed to the article and is mentioned as one of the authors in the list at the end. But in the Vancouver system not every name is mentioned in the article. Sometimes the only reference is a number. Thus the flow of the content is not disturbed. Throughout this section on Referencing only the Harvard system is used because this is the system you need to use in your written assignments.

Activity - You have already seen several examples of primary referencing in the text. But
you may not have noticed how it was done. Here are six extracts. Decide if they are correctly written or not. Write the correct version where necessary.

Extract 1
**Steinbock argues that active and passive euthanasia are indistinguishable because omitting to treat a patient is as potent as actively killing a person (1980).

Extract 2
Ethics is central to health care. Seedhouse (1998)

Extract 3
"Postal surveys and telephone interview surveys can both cost roughly half as much as surveys using personal interviews, but telephone surveys have the additional advantage of greater speed" (Hakim 1987, p59)

Extract 4
A study in the Journal of Advanced Nursing (2002) showed that toothbrushes were better at removing dental plaque than foam swabs.

Extract 5
This finding is also reported in other studies (McKenna, Keeney, Glenn, Gordon 2000; Atwal 2002; Watts, Gardner 2005).

Extract 6
C Cullen (2000) argues that some nurses are reluctant to function as advocates.

Extract 7
According to (Arber 2001, in Gilbert 2001, the choice of sampling approach depends on the aims of the study.

Secondary references
Secondary references should be avoided as far as possible. They can only be tolerated when the original reference is definitely unobtainable. They must be used very infrequently. The two standard rules for including secondary references are:
1. Acknowledge in your text both the secondary reference and the reference of the literature source that you read, ie, your primary reference. See the example below:

Walker et al. draw attention to Maslow's hierarchy of human needs, which had a significant influence on humanistic psychology in the 1950s. Maslow constructed a hierarchy of human needs and argued that basic, lower-order needs would have to be satisfied before higherorder needs could be fulfilled (Maslow 1970, cited in Walker et al. 2004: 9).
2. Include only the primary reference in your list of references at the end. For example, the primary reference for the above short text would be:

Walker J, Payne S, Smith P, Jarrett N (2004) Psychology for nurses and the caring professions (2nd Ed.) Maidenhead: Open University Press The secondary reference, Maslow 1970, is not included in the list of references. 1 Q1 Read the following example. Then decide which is the primary

reference and should be included in the list of references at the end.

For Schn (1983, as cited in Duffy 2007, p.1401) there are two kinds of reflection: 'reflection on action' and 'reflection in action'.
a) Duffy 2007 b) Schn 1983

2 Q2 Read the following example. Then decide which is the primary

reference and should be included in the list of references at the end.

According to Duffy (2007), Dewey (1933) strongly argued for the need to appreciate the complexity of the reflective process (in Duffy, 2007, p. 1401).
a) Dewey 1933 b) Duffy 2007

3 Q3 Read the following example. Then decide which is the primary

reference and should be included in the list of references at the end.

A good example of how empowerment works through shifts in power is given by Friere (1970, in Christensen and Hewitt-Taylor, 2006, p. 698).
a) Friere 1970 b) Christensen and Hewitt-Taylor 2006

4 Q4 Read the following example. Then decide which is the primary

reference and should be included in the list of references at the end.

Archibald (2006, p. 50) cites the work of Hodkinson (1972), who developed the Abbreviated Mental Test. a) Archibald 2006 b) Hodkinson 1972

Practising citing secondary references


In each of the following extracts, a reference is made to the work of another author. Assume that this work is unavailable but that you wish to refer to it in your essay. In the space provided, show how you could do this.

1 Extract 1.. Pain is a subjective experience. It is difficult to articulate and the nature of the experience may be doubted by others, including health professionals. This is articulated well by Scarry (1985) who states that: 'Whatever pain achieves, it achieves through its unsharability , and it ensures this unshareability through its resistance to language ... to have great pain is to have certainty; to hear that another person has pain is to have doubt.' ... (Gallagher and Wainright 2007 p.43) 2 Extract 2.. At the early stages of nursing education in the late 1800s and early 1900s, ethics was equated with expected professional conduct. It was essential for students of nursing to bring certain characteristics to their work. Aitkens (1937) noted that the most important characteristics that a nurse must have above and beyond the expected ones of "courage, tolerance, steadfastness, faithfulness, sincerity, loyalty, tolerance, generosity, patience, [and] courtesy" was truthfulness. ... (Lewenson et al. 2005, p.89) 3 Extract 3 - .. The laws of nursing were, for Nightingale, synonymous with the laws of health (Nightingale1859). The task of nurses was to identify the laws of health, and manipulate conditions and causal mechanisms affecting both the sick and the well, in order to optimize the health of the population. She was highly suspicious of curative interventions ... (Porter 2001, p. 20)

Part 7: The rules for presenting a list of references at the end of the essay
These rules are very important to observe because they provide the reader with an easy way of finding a reference. Again, they are really just basic, common sense. But remember that absolute consistency in the formatting of references is essential. See Citing References (Information Services and Systems - http://www.kcl.ac.uk/iss/ir/refs/ ) for further details.

The following tasks will help you to remember how to write a list of references at the end of an essay.

1 Writing a reference to a book


Using a couple of your own textbooks or some from the library, identify the following information and either write it on a piece of paper or use the notes facility below. 1) Author's (or authors') name(s) and initial(s) 2) The year the book is published 3) The title of the book 4) The place of publication - note that this is usually a town and not a country 5) The name of the publisher 2 Writing a reference to a dissertation
Use the following information and write out a full reference for this dissertation written by a Masters student:

Title of dissertation: A survey of views of doctors and nurses on the use of computerised records. Student's name: Jackie Brand - Year of dissertation: 2001 3 Writing a reference to a web document You have read some useful guidelines on the web about assessing children with fever. The web page is: http://www.nice.org.uk/page.aspx?o=430964 The year is 2007 and you accessed the article on May 23rd. It is a press release issued by NICE under the NHS. The title is: NICE issues guidance to help assess children with fever. Write a correct reference for it. 4 Reference List the following seven references in the correct alphabetical order. 1) Korgoankar G and Tribe D (1995) Law for Nurses. London: Cavendish Publishing Limited 2) Muir Gray J A (1997) Evidence-based Healthcare. New York: Churchill Livingstone 3) Taylor H (2003) An exploration of the factors that affect nurses' record keeping. Online British Journal of Nursing 12(12): 751-758 [online] Available: http://www.internurse.com/cgibin/go.pl/library/article.htm?uid=8135 [accessed 2.9.03] 4) Johnstone M-J (2000) Bioethics: a nursing perspective. 3rd ed. Sydney: Harcourt Saunders 5) Bond M and Holland S (1998) Skills of clinical supervision for nurses. London: Open University Press 6) Bosque E M (1995) Pulse Oximetry and intuition in the neonatal intensive care unit. Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America 7: 219-225 7) Guiliano K K, Scott S S, Brown V, Olson M (2003) Backrest Angle and Cardiac Output Measurement in Critically Ill Patients. Nursing Research 52(4): 242-248 Closing comments List

If, when you have completed this section, you still have concerns about some aspects of referencing, contact your personal tutor or lecturer for further support. You can also find out more information about referencing under the WebCT Course List: Information Literacy - ISS206 Information Retrieval Skills for Nursing and Midwifery. Citing references (February 2008) is a user guide available from the ISS resources web site http://www.kcl.ac.uk/iss/about/pubs/userguides.html This document is revised before each academic year and is also found in programme handbooks.