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GAS POWER CYCLES

Objectives

1. Evaluate the performance of gas power cycles.

2. Develop simplifying assumptions applicable to gas power cycles.

3. Review the operation of reciprocating engines.

4. Analyze both closed and open gas power cycles.

5. Solve problems based on the Otto and Diesel cycles.

6. Solve problems based on the Brayton cycle; Brayton cycle with regeneration; and Brayton cycle with intercooling, reheating, and regeneration.

7. Identify simplifying assumptions and perform second-law analysis on gas power cycles.

2

Basic Considerations In Power Cycles Analysis

Most power-producing devices operate on cycles.

Ideal cycle: A cycle that resembles the actual cycle closely but is made up totally of internally reversible processes is called an ideal cycle.

Recall: Thermal efficiency of heat engines Reversible cycles such as Carnot cycle have the highest thermal efficiency of all heat engines operating between the same temperature levels.

Unlike ideal cycles, they are totally reversible, and unsuitable as a realistic model. The analysis of many complex processes can be reduced to a manageable level by utilizing some idealizations.

Idealizations (simplifications) in the analysis of power cycles

On a T-s diagram, the ratio of the area enclosed by the cyclic curve to the area under the heat-addition process curve represents the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

1. The cycle does not involve any friction. Therefore, the working fluid does not experience any pressure drop as it flows in pipes or heat exchangers.

2. All expansion and compression processes take place in a quasi-equilibrium manner.

3. The pipes connecting the various components of a system are well insulated, so heat transfer through them is negligible. On both P-v and T-s diagrams, the area enclosed by the process curve represents the net work of the cycle.

4 Carnot Cycle - Its Value In Engineering

The Carnot cycle is composed of 4 totally reversible processes: isothermal heat addition, isentropic expansion, isothermal heat rejection, and isentropic compression.

For both ideal and actual cycles: Thermal efficiency increases with an increase in the average temperature at which heat is supplied to the system or with a decrease in the average temperature at which heat is rejected from the system. P-v and T-s diagrams of a Carnot cycle.

5

Air-standard Assumptions The combustion process is replaced by a heat-addition process in ideal cycles.

1. The working fluid is air, which continuously circulates in a closed loop and always behaves as an ideal gas.

2. All the processes that make up the cycle are internally reversible.

3. The combustion process is replaced by a heat-addition process from an external source.

4. The exhaust process is replaced by a heat-rejection process that restores the working fluid to its initial state.

Cold-air-standard assumptions: When the working fluid is considered to be air with constant specific heats at room temperature (25°C).

Air-standard cycle: A cycle for which the air-standard assumptions are applicable.

Overview of Reciprocating Engines

The reciprocating engine (basically a piston–cylinder device) is an invention that has proved to be very versatile and has a wide range of applications. Reciprocating engine is the powerhouse of the vast majority of automobiles, trucks, light aircraft, ships, electric power generators, and many other devices.

Basic Components

The piston reciprocates in the cylinder between two fixed positions called the top dead centre (TDC) - the position that forms the smallest volume in the cylinder - and the bottom dead centre (BDC) - position that forms the largest volume in the cylinder. The distance between TDC and BDC is called the stroke of the engine. The diameter of the piston is called the bore. Compression ratio:

8

Performance Characteristics  Net work output per cycle:  Mean effective pressure (MEP):

A fictitious pressure that, if it is acted on the piston during the entire power stroke, would produce the same amount of net work as that produced during the actual cycle.  Classifications of IC Engines:
1. Spark-ignition (SI) or Petrol engines
2. Compression-ignition (CI) or Diesel
engines Sequence of processes:

Otto Cycle  Thermal Efficiency of Otto Cycle Temperature-volume relation,

Thermal efficiency,

The heat supplied to the working fluid during constant-volume heating (combustion), The heat rejected from the working fluid during constant-volume cooling (exhaust),    Compression ratio, 11

General Formulas required to solve problem based of Gas Power Cycle   For V=constant process

 Q   mCv T q  Cv  T

For P=constant process

Q

q

mCp T

Cp T

Ideal gas equation

PV mRT

For S=constant process

T

2

T

1

P

P

 

2

1

1

V

 

1

V

2

1

Formulas required to solve problem based of OTTO Cycle

Ideal gas equation

For S=constant process

T

2

T

1

PV mRT

P

P

 

2

1

1

V

 

1

V

2

1   For V=constant process Q   mCv T q  Cv  T  Example An Otto cycle having a compression ratio of 9:1 uses air as the working fluid. Initially P 1 = 95 kPa, T 1 = 17 o C, and V 1 = 3.8 liters. During the heat addition process, 7.5 kJ of heat are added. Determine all T's, P's, th , the back work ratio, and the mean effective pressure.

Process Diagrams:

Review the P-v and T-s diagrams given above for the Otto cycle.

Assume constant specific heats with C v = 0.718 kJ/kg K, k = 1.4.

Process 1-2 is isentropic; therefore, recalling that r = V 1 /V 2 = 9,   Q

in

mC

v

(

T

3

T

2

)

Let q in

= Q in / m

and m = V 1 /v 1

v

1

RT

1

P

1

0 287

.

kJ

kg

K

(

290 K

)

95 kPa

0 875

.

3

m

3

m kPa

kJ q

in

Q

in

m

Q

in

v

1

V

1

7 5 kJ

.

0 875

.

3

m

kg

38 10

.

3

3

m

1727

kJ

kg

T

3

T

2

q

in

C

v

698 4 K

.

3103 7 K

.

1727

kJ

kg

0 718

.

kJ

kg

K

Using the combined gas law (V 3 = V 2 )

Process 3-4 is isentropic; therefore, T

4

P

3

T

3

P

2

T

3

T

2

V 3

V

4

k 1

1288.8 K

9.15 MPa

T

3

1

  r

k

1

(3103.7)

K

1    

9

1.4

1

Process 4-1 is constant volume. So the first law for the closed system gives, on a mass basis,

Q

out

q

out

mC

v

(

T

4

T

1

)

Q out

m

C

v

(

T

4

0 718

.

kJ

kg

K

(

717 1

.

kJ

kg

T

1

)

1288 8

.

290

) K

The first law applied to the cycle gives (Recall u cycle = 0)

w

net

q

net

(

1727

q

in

q

out

717 4

.

)

1009 6

.

kJ

kg

kJ

kg

The thermal efficiency is

th Otto

,

The mean effective pressure is

MEP

w net

q

in

0 585

.

1009 6

.

kJ

kg

1727

kJ

kg

or

58 5%

.

 W net  w net V  V  max w net min  v w max net v min  v 1  v 2 v 1 (1  v 2 / v 1 ) 1009.6 kJ kg 3 m kPa 0.875 m 3 (1  1 ) kJ kg 9

w

net

v

1

(1

1/

r

)

1298 kPa

Problem

Otto Cycle

9–34

An ideal Otto cycle has a compression ratio of 8. At the beginning of the compression process, air is at 95 kPa and 27°C, and 750 kJ/kg of heat is transferred to air during the constant-volume heat-addition process. Assuming that the specific heats are constant with temperature, determine:

a) the pressure & temperature at the end of heat addition process,

b) the net work output,

c) the thermal efficiency, and

d) the mean effective pressure for the cycle.

Answers: (a) 3898 kPa, 1539 K, (b) 392.4 kJ/kg, (c) 52.3 percent, (d ) 495 kPa

Engine Knock (Autoignition)

Premature ignition of the fuel produces audible noise called engine knock. It hurts performance and causes engine damage.

Autoignition places upper limit on compression ratios that can be used in SI engines. Specific heat ratio, k affects the thermal efficiency of the Otto cycle.   20

Diesel Cycle: Ideal Cycle for CI Engines

In diesel engines, only air is compressed during the compression stroke, eliminating the possibility of autoignition. These engines can be designed to operate at higher compression ratios, typically between 12 and 24.

Fuels that are less refined (thus less expensive) can be used in diesel engines. The combustion process takes place over a longer interval - fuel injection starts when the piston approaches TDC and continues during the first part of power stroke.

Hence, combustion process in the ideal Diesel cycle is approximated as a constant- pressure heat-addition process. 21  Sequence of processes:

1-2 Isentropic compression

3-4 Isentropic expansion

4-1 Constant-volume heat rejection.

Note:

Petrol and diesel engines differ only in the manner the heat addition (or combustion) process takes place.

It is approximated as a constant volume process in the petrol engine cycle and as a constant pressure process in the Diesel engine cycle.

22

Thermal Efficiency of Diesel Cycle Heat supplied to the working fluid during the constant-pressure heating (combustion), Heat rejected from the working fluid during the constant-volume cooling (exhaust), Thermal efficiency of Diesel cycle (general),  Cutoff ratio, Formulas required to solve problem based of DIESEL Cycle

Ideal gas equation

For S=constant

PV mRT

T

2

T

1

P

P

 

2

1

1

V

 

1

V

2  Cutoff ratio,

For

V=constant

For P=constant  Q mCvT

Q

mC

p

T

1  24

Problem

Diesel Cycle

9–51

An ideal diesel engine has a compression ratio of 20 and uses air as the working fluid. The state of air at the beginning of the compression process is 95 kPa and 20°C. If the maximum temperature in the cycle is not to exceed 2200 K, determine:

a) the thermal efficiency, and

b) the mean effective pressure.

Assume constant specific heats for air at room temperature.

Answers: (a) 63.5 percent, (b) 933 kPa

For the same compression ratio, thermal efficiency of Otto cycle is greater than that of the Diesel cycle. As the cutoff ratio decreases, the thermal efficiency of the Diesel cycle increases.

When r c =1, the efficiencies of the Otto and Diesel cycles are identical. Thermal efficiencies of large diesel engines range from about 35 to 40 percent.

Higher efficiency and lower fuel costs make diesel engines attractive in applications such as in locomotive engines, emergency power generation units, large ships, and heavy trucks. Problem

Diesel Cycle

9-59

A six-cylinder, four-stroke, 4.5-L compression-ignition engine operates on the ideal Diesel cycle with a compression ratio of 17. The air is at 95 kPa and 55°C at the beginning of the compression process and the engine speed is 2000 rpm.

The engine uses light diesel fuel with a heating value of 42,500 kJ/kg, an air–fuel ratio of 24, and a combustion efficiency of 98 percent. Using constant specific heats at 850 K, determine:

a) the maximum temperature in the cycle and the cutoff ratio,

b) the net work output per cycle and the thermal efficiency,

c) the mean effective pressure,

d ) the net power output, and

e) the specific fuel consumption, in g/kWh, defined as the ratio of the mass of the fuel consumed to the net work produced.

Answers: (a) 2383 K, 2.7 (b) 4.36 kJ, 0.543, (c) 969 kPa, (d ) 72.7 kW, (e) 159 g/kWh

Dual Cycle: Realistic Ideal Cycle for CI Engines

Approximating the combustion process as a constant-volume or a constant-pressure heat-addition process is overly simplistic and not quite realistic.

A better approach would be to model the combustion process in both SI and CI engines as a combination of two heat- transfer processes, one at constant volume and the other at constant pressure.

The ideal cycle based on this concept is called the dual cycle. Note: Both the Otto and the Diesel cycles can be obtained as special cases of the dual cycle.

BRAYTON CYCLE: THE IDEAL CYCLE FOR GAS-TURBINE

The combustion process is replaced by a constant-pressure heat-addition process from an external source, and the exhaust process is replaced by a constant-pressure heat-rejection process to the ambient air.

1-2 Isentropic compression (in a compressor) 2-3 Constant-pressure heat addition 3-4 Isentropic expansion (in a turbine) 4-1 Constant-pressure heat rejection An open-cycle gas-turbine engine. A closed-cycle gas-turbine engine.

29 T-s and P-v diagrams for the ideal Brayton cycle.    Pressure
ratio Thermal
efficiency of the
ideal Brayton
cycle as a
function of the
pressure ratio.
30

The two major application areas of gas- turbine engines are aircraft propulsion and electric power generation.  The highest temperature in the cycle is limited by the maximum temperature that the turbine blades can withstand. This also limits the pressure ratios that can be used in the cycle.

The air in gas turbines supplies the necessary oxidant for the combustion of the fuel, and it serves as a coolant to keep the temperature of various components within safe limits. An air–fuel ratio of 50 or above is not uncommon. The fraction of the turbine work used to drive the compressor is called the back work ratio.

31

Effect of the pressure ratio on the net work done.

w

net

C

w

turb

p

(

T

3

w

comp

 T 4 ) T 4  C p / T 3 ) ( k  1 )/ k

r

(

T

2

T

1

)

T

2

C

p

T ( 1

C T

p

1

(

/

 

3

1 C T

)

p

1

(

r

p

C T (

p

3

1

p

(

T

1

k

1

)/

1

k

)

1

)

Note that the net work is zero when

r

p

1

and

r

p

 

T

3

T

1

k

/(

k

1)

For fixed T 3 and T 1 , the pressure ratio that makes the work a maximum is obtained from:

dw

net

dr

p

0

This is easier to do if we let X = r p (k-1)/k

w

net

C T (

p

3

dw

net

C T

3

dX p

[0

(

 

1)

X

2

]

C T

p

1

[1

Solving for X 1

1

X

0]

0

)

C T

p

1

(

X

1)

Then, the r p that makes the work a maximum for the constant property case and fixed T 3 and T 1 is Formulas required to solve problem based of BRAYTON Cycle Pressure

ratio For P=constant process

Q

q

mCp T

Cp T Ideal gas equation

PV mRT

For S=constant process

T

2

T

1

P

P

 

2

1

1

V

 

 

1

V

2

1