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Atharva Veda-nature & classification


-Arun Kumar Upadhyay, (M) 09437034172
arunupadhyay30@yahoo.in
1. Vidy and Mahvidy-Vidy is ruti (= hearing), i.e. perception from outside by purua.
Mahar is surrounding of pura (any structure, town) in which purua dwells. Mahvidy is,
thus, perception by mahar or effect on it by actions of purua.
Original reference background or Brahma is atharva (tharva = shaking, atharva = tranquil).
From this, 3 steps of ruti-(1) form of a body, (2) coming of information and (3) knowledge-
give rise to 3 vedas-k, Yaju, Sma. For creation as a whole-form, motion, field of influence
(sma) of body in which it can be perceived are-k, yajur, sma. These are called-agni
(condensed form or energy, fire), vyu (air, motion), and ravi (= sun, its field of light)-also.

Four meanings of root verb vid correspond to 4 vedas -
Element Veda Meaning of Vid Pini dhtupha
Form k Exist (4/60)
Motion Yaju Gain (6/141)
Knowledge Sma Know (2/57)
Background Atharva Consider, place of thought (7/13, 10/177)
- (/) (/), (/), (/),
(/)
,
, ( ///)
All forms are from k, all motion from Yaju (or Yajur), all field of influence is Sma, the
complete is created by Brahma (Atharva).
2. Nature of Veda-Veda is the real world or its representation in words. Parallel link between
world & word is called Vk-artha-pratipatti
(1) , (Raghuvama 1/1)
(2) ()
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abda (sound or Vedas) is Nirajana (non- attached), eternal. The whole world is running
with the artha (meaning, or form) of this abda only. )
(3) , , (
//) =From Vk (word) only Vedas are created, chhanda (meter) and mitra
(friends) also are joined by words. All beings are joined through word. So word is all.
Muakopaniad (1/1/1-5) tells that Brahm was first among Devas who established world-
order & its protector. He explained Brahma-vidy as foundation of all knowledge to his eldest
son Atharv. Later on, it branched into Par (unification) & Apar (classification) vidys, out
of which Apar was classified into 4 vedas and 6 angas.
,

, , () :, ,
:, , , , , ()-
(/)
Veda is the real world or its following aspects-(1) Infinite information content (vijna)
which led to creation (2) Process of creation (yaja), (3) Perception process and its stages,
(4) Structure of world (veda-purua)-structure is called pura, its dweller is purua, (5)
Different zones called agni, vyu, ravi of space, (6) Chain of creation and dissolution (7)
Elements or their qualities etc.
(1) ( /)
This veda (alternate reading-deva) is called Vivakarm (creator of world), Mahtm
(universal soul), and is always present within hearts of all beings.
(2) ( )
We have heard from chain of sages that Veda is himself Nryaa and Svayambh.
(3) ( , /)
4 classes of men, 3 lokas (spaces), and 4 stages of human life, past, present and future
creation-all arise from Vedas.
(4) ( , /)
All five elements are created from Vedas only as per function and quality-abda (sound),
spara (touch), rpa (form), rasa (taste), gandha (smell).
(5) (, /)
For progress of yaja (creation), the eternal Brahma (root veda) in form of Ataharva (= un-
shaking or un-changing) extracted symptoms of 3 vedas- k, Yajur, Sma from Agni (fire,
earth, first born or leader), Vyu (air, motion, intermediary), and Ravi (field of sun or its light,
influence).
(6) ( )
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From that sarvahuta (everything consumed) yaja, k and Sma were created. From that
Chhandas (partitions, meter of poetry, Atharva-veda) were created. Yaju (creation process,
conscious being) was created from that.
(7)
( //)
= From the breath of that Great Being are gveda, Yajurveda, Smaveda, Atharva-ngirasa,
Itihsa (history), Pura (sequence and cause of creation), Vidy (techniques), Upaniads
(principles), lokas (praise or description of beings), Stra (aphorims), Vykhyna (lecture),
Anu-vykhyna (supplementary explanations). All these are His breath only.
Veda in word form is replica of veda as world, that is dev (feminine)-
(1)
( /)
= Two forms of Brahma are known-one is word, another is beyond that (world). Person
thorough in word form reaches supreme Brahma.
(2)
( /)
= Dev (goddess) is in word form consisting of pure k, Yajur, sonorous chanting of Sma
from udgtha (start) to nidhna. Dev is three-veda, all-powerful, influencing Bhava (iva),
talk among whole world and destroyer of sorrows.
(3) ( //, ///, /)
= Devas created Dev as Vk (word).
3. Some pairs of Atharva- Atharva itself is divided into two parts in various ways-
(1) Aum and Atha-These were the two words which were used first by Brahm-
( /)
Atha means starting base or foundation. So the root single veda is called Atharva. Some
uses of word atha, ath, athpi are given below-
( //, . ///, /)
( //), ( //,)
( //, //, /)
( //, //),
( //)
Aum is atart as well as classification. Its root is Vindu (dot) which indicates vacuum or
uncreated universe. There are 9 stages of creation, called Saga. Bhgavata pura counts
10 sargas including the abstract source. For each of 9 stages, spread of source matter is like
water (Ap), created matter within boundaries is Bh (the verb means-to exist) or earth.
Intermediate stages are clouds (mixture of air, water) or boar (amphibian animal of land and
water). Varha means both cloud and boar. For 9 stages, there are 9 clouds (Bible,
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Genesis,1) and 9 scales of time in Srya siddhnta, (15/1). Vindu has mtr, which is
eternal base- ( /)
In Tantra, mtr (meter, time to pronounce short vowel) is further divided 8 times with to
1/512 mtr for 9 stages of creation.
Remaining 3 mtr of Aum are A, U, M which indicate various triples including 3 vedas-k,
Yaju, Sma (e.g. see Mkya upaniad). There are many verses quoted below from k
and other Vedas which contain the name Atharva. This counters the propaganda that k
was the first Veda and Atharva was last. Like Puras, veda was one, classified later on.
(2) Ghora & atharva -Atharva is tranquil base (tharva = to shake). Ghora is active, intense
energy. This is also called ngiras-atharva which can be used to counter enemies.
- ( /)
Angir had devised method to counter Pai who stole Go = means of production.



( //, )
= When Pai tribe of Asuras stole the cows of Bhaspati), Angir is performed Vaya
(weaving of elements) yaja for Indra for the first time. Angirs were joined with radiant fire
and through best yaja act named amy (creating harmony, calm) they took back all the
wealth of Pais including Gau (cow, moving energy which produces), Ava ( horses, driving
force like sea winds (4) Atharv, the eldest son of Brahm (human) first made the path of
yaja. With strength of this yaja only, Indra was able to vanquish Pais. Atharv came in
front of cows (or started yaja called Go). Uan, son of Kavi assisted Indra in destruction of
Asuras. We satisfy that immortal Indra with offerings.
(3) Bhgu-Angir-Bhgu is force of attaction, called gravitational force. Angir is radiation.
These opposit processes cause creation. Radiation of energy creates 9 levels of creation,
called Nava-gv. However, compact forms are due to mutual attracion-that is like Soma
which remains at a place-either dispersed or in compact shape.
, ( //, //,
/, ///, /)

( /)
= O Agni (first born)! You are at head of world which has been created out of water-like
uniform matter (pukara = from water, lotus) as lotus due to churning of Atharv (sage, fixed
frame-Atharva veda as foundation). Son of Atharv was Dadhya (sage, solid planets like
curd-size of dadhi-sea in Bhgavata) who burnt first fire which destroyed Vtra (Asura king,
darkness due to round cover) and its pura (town or any formation).
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p of two forms Bhgu-Angir has created 3 vedas-
--
( /)
(4) Par and apar vidy-These are also called vidy and avidy in short. Avidy is
classification of science, vidy is unification.
( //)
(5) Agni-soma, iva-akti, teja-rasa-These pairs are listed and explained in Bhat Jbla
upaniad- -
- -
- -
-
-- --
--- -- -
-- -- -
- ()
--- -- -
-- - --
- -
Agni or Angir (flame, radiation) is of 2 types-intense (ghora), bright (normal, Teja)
Teja is also of 2 types-Surya (creative) anala (burning, destruction).
Soma is static matter-dispersed or compact. Opposed to that Agni is dense matter or energy
which radiates away.
iva is perception, knowledge. akti is arrangement (chiti = design) of matter in various
forms. , ( /)
(6) One and 2 birds-Creation needs an instrument or machine with 7 parts called Supara
(bird) as its parts are stated like a bird. One bird (supara) entered the ocean (p), by
transformation (pka) in mother field of p, the worlds were created. The bird and earth
loved each other. In Andhra Pradesh having largest cultivation in coastal India, farmers are
called Reddy, as they love (redhy) the land-
( )
( //, /)
Observer and active forms of that bird are tm and jva-
-
( //, //, /, //)
Unattached observer is aja (male) and creative form is aj (female)-
--
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, -- ( /)
The bird which does not eat or consume is aunaka (eating nya = zero). The bird which
eats Pippala (desired object, apple in English version of Bible). Thus the preamble of
aunaka branch describes static creation of 3 levels and 7 lokas
,
(, )
= These 3 sevens cover the world and take all forms. Vchaspati (lord of Vk = field of sun
or of galaxy) may place their balas (energy) in me.
This is by purua (male aspect, creator)-
( , /)
= Devas tied the great Purua as pau in extending the yaja with 7 paridhi (circumference)
and 3x7 samidh (fuel).
Pippalda branch focuses on created matter and its consumption which is called feminine
aj etc. So it starts with prayer of Dev-
,
,
( - //, //)
This is Jala-skta, i.e. description of water like expanse which is called Ap. Previous verse is
po-hih etc.-famous Aghamaraa-skta (purification by water). Dev (lord of space or
water in it) may give us peace and all Ap may be for our drink (use). She may become
source of peace, well being.
4. Branches-Atharva veda branches are stated 9 or 50-
- (//)- , ,
, , - , , ,
,

( )
Charaa-vyha of aunaka gives branches of Vedas as per Brhma (of Svyambhuva
Manu) and ditya (Vaivasvata Manu) sampradyas (tradition). ditya tradition was revived
by Yjavalkya, who is stated to have received Vedas from Sun, just like Maya Asura
received astronomy from Sun (Srya-siddhnta).
Brahma tradition- Sumantu
Kabandha Vedaspara
Jjali Kumuddi aunaka Moda Brahmabala Pippalda aukkya Nistpana
Babhru Saindhavyana
Mujakea
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ditya tradition- aunaka
Kumuddi Jjali Jbla Saindhavyana Babhru
Mujakea
9 branches of Atharva are listed as-Paippala, Dnta, Pradnta, Snta, Sautna,
Brahmadvala, aunaka, Daivdaran, Charaavidy.
This is similar to Smaveda whose 1000 branches are stated but only 13 are counted. The
large number indicates influence zone of earth in space. Smaller number indicates the
ahargaa scale measure. A distance d in ahargaa (or Ahar) is called n in terms of radius r
of earth- d = r x 2
(n-3)
. (Bhadrayaka upaniad, 3/3/2)-
Influence (gravitation zone) up to 50 radius of earth is r x 2
(9-3)
.
Visibility is up to 1000 radius = r x 2
(13-3)
.
Another feature is that 21 branches of gveda are indicated by first verse of Atharva
(aunaka). Commonly available branch is aunaka. One version of Paippalda branch was
taken from Kashmir to Berlin University and copied in Roman script. Prof Raghuvir copied it
and rendered back into Devangar script in 1945. Some manuscripts of Paippalda branch
were collected from Khiching (Mayurbhanja) in Orissa Museum from where it was taken by
Prof Dipaka Battacharya of Shanti-niketan University. He published first 15 (out of 20) parts
in first volume with his own corrections from Oriental society. Many corrections or changes
were based on the concept that no veda contains any astronomical or scientific material.
This is obviously incorrect as the dhidaivika meaning is based solely on astronomy. Pandit
Kunjabihari Upadhyay of Puri (journalist by profession) collected some manuscripts and
fragments from Bhadraka, Athagarh etc and has published complete Paippalda branch by
laborious checking with originals. Most of the manuscripts did not contain svara-marks and
Prof Rupakishr Shastri has proposed these marks in revised edition. These will be based on
marks in aunaka branch. There is a risk that we may miss some crucial meaning by wrong
marking.
5. Contents- Both the available branches of Atharva have almost same verses arranged
differently. As it has been called Brahma-vidy and foundation of all knowledge, Brahma has
been described in great detail in all its aspects. One of its upaniads is named as Brahma-
vidy and Atharva itself is called Brahma-veda. Atharva means tranquil, balanced etc. (which
does not Tharva = shake). So, it contains methods of medicine (to keep body in equilibrium),
meditation (balance of mind), statecraft (peace & order in state), marriage (family peace),
agriculture (foundation of civilization, society), journey of soul (link between generations) etc
more specifically. Some verses are common with other Vedas also, but here these have
been clearly arranged as per the topics.