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Gene nomenclature - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gene_nomenclature

Gene nomenclature
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gene nomenclature is the scientific naming of genes, the units of heredity in living organisms. An international committee published recommendations for genetic symbols and nomenclature in 1957.[1] The need to develop formal guidelines for human gene names and symbols was recognized in the 1960s and full guidelines were issued in 1979 (Edinburgh Human Genome Meeting).[2] Several other species-specific research communities (e.g., Drosophila, mouse) have adopted nomenclature standards, as well, and have published them on the relevant model organism websites and in scientific journals, including the Trends in Genetics Genetic Nomenclature Guide.[3][4] Scientists familiar with a particular gene family may work together to revise the nomenclature for the entire set of genes when new information becomes available.[5] For many genes and their corresponding proteins, an assortment of alternate names is in use across the scientific literature and public biological databases, posing a challenge to effective organization and exchange of biological information.[6]

Contents
1 Nomenclature guidelines 1.1 Species-specific resources 1.2 Vertebrate gene and protein symbol conventions 1.2.1 Human 1.2.2 Mouse and rat 1.2.3 Chicken (Gallus sp.) 1.2.4 Anole lizard (Anolis sp.) 1.2.5 Frog (Xenopus sp.) 1.2.6 Zebrafish 2 Notes and references 3 External links

Nomenclature guidelines
Species-specific resources
The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee is responsible for providing human gene naming guidelines and approving new, unique human gene names and symbols (short form abbreviations). For some non-human species, model organism databases serve as central repositories of guidelines and help resources, including advice from curators and nomenclature committees. In addition to species-specific databases, approved gene names and symbols for many species can be located in the National Center for Biotechnology Information's Entrez Gene (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=gene) database.

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Gene nomenclature - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gene_nomenclature

Species

Guidelines Invertebrates

Database

Fly (Drosophila melanogaster) Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Genetic nomenclature for Drosophila melanogaster (http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu /static_pages/docs/nomenclature /nomenclature3.html) Genetic Nomenclature for Caenorhabditis elegans (http://www.wormbase.org /wiki/index.php/UserGuide:Nomenclature) Plants

FlyBase (http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu/)

WormBase (http://www.wormbase.org/)

Maize (Zea mays)

A Standard For Maize Genetics Nomenclature (http://www.maizegdb.org /maize_nomenclature.php)

MaizeGDB (http://www.maizegdb.org/) The Arabidopsis Information Resource (http://www.arabidopsis.org/) (TAIR).

Arabidopsis Nomenclature Thale cress (http://www.arabidopsis.org/portals (Arabidopsis thaliana) /nomenclature/guidelines.jsp) Tree Flora Mustard (Brassica) Standardized gene nomenclature for the Brassica genus (proposed) (http://www.plantmethods.com/content/4/1/10) Slime molds Dictyostelid (Dictyostelium discoideum) Nomenclature Guidelines (http://dictybase.org /Dicty_Info/nomenclature_guidelines.html) Vertebrates Human (Homo sapiens) Guidelines for Human Gene Nomenclature (http://www.genenames.org/guidelines.html)

dictyBase (http://dictybase.org/)

HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (http://www.genenames.org/) (HGNC) Mouse Genome Informatics (http://www.informatics.jax.org/) (MGI) AnolisGenome (http://anolisgenome.org/) Xenbase (http://www.xenbase.org/)

Rules for Nomenclature of Genes, Genetic Mouse (Mus Markers, Alleles, and Mutations in Mouse and musculus), rat (Rattus Rat (http://www.informatics.jax.org/mgihome norvegicus) /nomen/gene.shtml) Anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis) Anolis Gene Nomenclature Committee (http://anolisgenome.org/?page_id=165) (AGNC)

Suggested Xenopus Gene Name Guidelines Frog (Xenopus laevis, (http://www.xenbase.org/gene/static X. tropicalis) /geneNomenclature.jsp)

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Gene nomenclature - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gene_nomenclature

Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Zebrafish Nomenclature Guidelines (https://wiki.zfin.org/display/general /ZFIN+Zebrafish+Nomenclature+Guidelines) Yeast

Zebrafish Model Organism Database (http://zfin.org/) (ZFIN)

Budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Candida (Candida albicans)

SGD Gene Naming Guidelines (http://www.yeastgenome.org /gene_guidelines.shtml) C. albicans Gene Nomenclature Guide (http://www.candidagenome.org /Nomenclature.shtml)

Saccharomyces Genome Database (http://www.yeastgenome.org/) Candida Genome Database (http://www.candidagenome.org/) (CGD) Schizosaccharomyces pombe GeneDB (http://www.genedb.org /genedb/pombe/index.jsp)

Fission yeast Gene Name Registry (http://www.genedb.org (Schizosaccharomyces /genedb/pombe/geneRegistry.jsp) pombe)

Vertebrate gene and protein symbol conventions


The research communities of vertebrate model organisms have adopted guidelines whereby genes in these species are given, whenever possible, the same names as their human orthologs. The use of prefixes on gene symbols to indicate species (e.g., "Z" for zebrafish) is discouraged. The recommended formatting of printed gene and protein symbols varies between species. Human Gene symbols generally are italicised, with all letters in uppercase (e.g., SHH, for sonic hedgehog). Italics are not necessary in gene catalogs. Protein designations are the same as the gene symbol, but are not italicised; all letters are in uppercase (SHH). mRNAs and cDNAs use the same formatting conventions as the gene symbol.[5] Mouse and rat Gene symbols generally are italicised, with only the first letter in uppercase and the remaining letters in lowercase (Shh). Italics are not required on web pages. Protein designations are the same as the gene symbol, but are not italicised and all are upper case (SHH).[7] Chicken (Gallus sp.) Nomenclature generally follows the conventions of human nomenclature. Gene symbols generally are italicised, with all letters in uppercase (e.g., NLGN1, for neuroligin1). Protein designations are the same as the gene symbol, but are not italicised; all letters are in uppercase (NLGN1). mRNAs and cDNAs use the same formatting conventions as the gene symbol.[8] Gene and protein symbol conventions ("sonic hedgehog" gene) Species Homo sapiens Gene symbol Protein symbol SHH SHH SHH SHH SHH Shh Shh

Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus Shh Gallus gallus Anolis carolinensis Xenopus laevis, X. tropicalis Danio rerio SHH shh shh shh

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Gene nomenclature - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gene_nomenclature

Anole lizard (Anolis sp.) Gene symbols are italicised and all letters are in lowercase ( shh). Protein designations are the same as the gene symbol, are not italicised, and all letters are in uppercase (SHH).[9] Frog (Xenopus sp.) Gene symbols are italicised and all letters are in lowercase ( shh). Protein designations are the same as the gene symbol, are not italicised; the first letter is in uppercase and the remaining letters are in lowercase (Shh).[10] Zebrafish Gene symbols are italicised, with all letters in lowercase (shh). Protein designations are the same as the gene symbol, but are not italicised; the first letter is in uppercase and the remaining letters are in lowercase (Shh).[11] See also Bacterial Genetic Nomenclature

Notes and references


1. ^ Report of the International Committee on Genetic Symbols and Nomenclature (1957). Union of International Sci Biol Ser B, Colloquia No. 30. 2. ^ About the HGNC (http://www.genenames.org/aboutHGNC.html) 3. ^ Genetic nomenclature guide (1995). Trends Genet. 4. ^ The Trends In Genetics Nomenclature Guide (1998). Elsevier, Cambridge. 5. ^ a b Guidelines for Human Gene Nomenclature (http://www.genenames.org/guidelines.html) 6. ^ Fundel and Zimmer (2006). Gene and protein nomenclature in public databases. (http://www.biomedcentral.com /1471-2105/7/372) BMC Bioinformatics 7:372. 7. ^ Rules for Nomenclature of Genes, Genetic Markers, Alleles, and Mutations in Mouse and Rat (http://www.informatics.jax.org/mgihome/nomen/gene.shtml) 8. ^ The chicken gene nomenclature committee report (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19607656?ordinalpos=1& itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum) 9. ^ Developing a community-based genetic nomenclature for anole lizards (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles /PMC3248570/pdf/1471-2164-12-554.pdf?tool=pmcentrez) 10. ^ Suggested Xenopus Gene Name Guidelines (http://www.xenbase.org/gene/static/geneNomenclature.jsp) 11. ^ Zebrafish Nomenclature Guidelines (http://zfin.org/zf_info/nomen.html)

External links
The Council of Science Editors (CSE) - Resources for Genetic and Cytogenetic Nomenclature (http://www.councilscienceeditors.org/publications/resources.cfm) The Protein Naming Utility (http://www.jcvi.org/pn-utility), a rules database for protein nomenclature Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gene_nomenclature&oldid=544718091" Categories: Genes Molecular biology Nomenclature Bioinformatics This page was last modified on 16 March 2013 at 19:13. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

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Gene nomenclature - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gene_nomenclature

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