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HUMAN BEHAVIOR 1 BEHAVIOR, it is the act or activity that is objectivity observed. Behavior is everything that we do thinking, feeling, attitude, and mental processes. 2 TYPES OF BEHAVIOR a Over behavior refers to those that can be seen readily. b Cover behavior - refer to those that internal and therefore cannot be seen. are

c Conscious behavior refer to those behavior that we are aware of. d Unconscious behavior refer to those behavior that we are not aware of. 3 FACTORS THAT DETERMINES BEHAVIOR, Both heredity and environment play a part in shaping the behavior of an individual. These elements start having an effect at the time of conception. The relation between heredity and environment can best be explained as an interaction. They both jointly mold and fashion a persons abilities, skills, and psychological characteristics. 4 HEREDITY It is the transmission of traits from parents to offspring through genes 5 TRAIT THAT CAN BE INHERITED: a Physical appearance b Sensory activity c Blood type
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d Mental disorder e Intelligence 6 ENVIRONMENT It is the sum total of all external conditions and factors potentially capable of influencing an orgasm. It covers all external factors that have acted on him after conception, like: physical objects, social institutions, cultures and situations. 7 HOW DOES ENVIRONMENT AFFECT THE INDIVIDUAL? a Bad environment It can suppress or even nullify good inheritance. Residence in a slum area or in delinquent environment or inadequate or even vicious training can limit and even suppress the achievement of someone who might be potentially able to perform high achievement. b Good environment substitute for a environment cannot feeble minded talented person out PERSONALITY 1 Personality - Is defined as the sum total of the traits and characteristics of a person that distinguishes him from one there. It comes from the Latin word PERSONA meaning MASK. We wear mask to show to the world that we would want others to see in us. 2 Examples of Filipino Personality It is unfortunately not a good heredity. The best make a bright adult of a child; it cannot make a of one without talent.

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a Hiya A painful emotion arising from relationship with an authority figure or with society, inhibiting self b Ningas Kugon Starting, something and being optimistic about it but no being able to finish it. c Maana Habit Custom of postponing tomorrow what can be done today. for

d Bahala na Sociologist claim that strips off people of their ambition in life and any desire to uplift their living, conditions. It implies complete trust. It also means resignation for whatever lot he has in life. 3 Sigmund Freud Personality: (psychoanalytic) Structure of

a ID consist of all our primitive desires which include bodily needs, sexual urges and aggressive impulses.. It regards libido to as the most important instinct. Freud defines libido as the bodily and mental aspects of the sex instinct. It includes: b EGO Deals with reality; it directs behavior so as to maximize pleasure and minimize pain, it is partly conscious. Its gratification any when it is morally correct to do so; it is through experiences from our parents and represents our internalization of their teaching and norms of society. The ego dethrones the pleasure principles of the ill and makes the reality principle prevail.
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c SUPER EGO Seats of persons moral ideas of what is right and wrong. ATTITUDE These are learned predisposition to respond in a favorable or unfavorable manner to particular persons or object. Are tendencies to respond to people, event, or situations either positively or negatively. COMPONENT OF ATTITUDE 1 Effective component the affective component encompasses your positive or negative emotions about something how you feel about it. 2 Behavior component the behavior component consists of your predisposition or intention to act in a manner relevant to your attitude. 3 Cognitive component refers to the beliefs and thoughts you hold about the object of your attitude. UNDERSTANDING OF OTHERS a Social cognition, It is the processes that underlines our understanding of the social world. Researchers reveal that people have highly developed schemes sets of cognition about people and social experience. Schemes are very important because the help you recall; recognize and categorize information about others. b Formation of impression. The process by which one organizes information about another person to form an overall view or impression of that individual. Generally, you pay particular
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attention to certain important traits which help you form an overall impression. c Stereotypes. These are beliefs and expectations about members of groups held simply on the basis of their membership in the group. It is the based perception of an individual or group. Example, the Filipino male is seen as a macho in all respects. Therefore, he should never be seen laundering clothes, doing household chores and doing marketing. d Reverse discrimination. This is a kind of behavior in which people prejudice by treating the groups members more favorably than others. Example, teachers in an experiment (Fjord, 1985) rated essays more positively when they thought black students wrote them that when they thought they were written by white students, regardless of the level of the quality of essay.

INTERACTING WITH OTHERS Conformity is the tendency to do what others are doing. It is a change in behavior or attitude brought by a desire to follow the beliefs or standard of other people. Moscovici (1985, mentions that some of the most important variables producing conformity are: 1 The nature of the group. The more attractive the group, the greater its ability to produce conformity. The lower the status the social rank held within a group of person and the greater the similarity of the person to the group, the greater is the power of the group over the individuals behavior.
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2 The natures of the individuals responses. Conformity is considerably higher when people make a response publicly than they can respond privately. For instance, government officials who joined a political party with all publicity tend to conform those others who joined without any funfair. 3 The kind of task people working in tasks and questions that are ambiguous (having no clear answers) are more susceptible to social pressure. More over task which and individual is less competent relative to the group conditions toward conformity. 4 Unanimity of the group. Conformity pressures are most pronounced in groups that are.

INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP

ATTRACTION

AND

DEVELOPMENT

OF

Once major aspect of investigation by social psychologist is on solving and liking. This topic encompasses the factors that lead to positive feelings, for others formally known as the study of interpersonal interaction or close relationship. Among the most important considered by social psychologists are the following: 1 Proximity If you move into a new neighborhood, consider the friends you made when you first moved in. surely, you become friendless with those who lived nearest you. 2 Repeated exposure Repeated exposure to person often leads to attraction. If you any are

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repeatedly exposed to any stimulus be it your classmates, book, or picture most frequently you will like the stimulus more. Becoming more familiar with a stimulus positive feelings. 3 Similarity You tend to like those who are similar to you in terms of values, traits, and attitudes. The more you are similar with others, the more you like them. The reason behind the relationship between similarity attraction is that you assume people with similar values; traits and attitudes will evaluate you positively. 4 Physical attractiveness Most important factor in promoting initial liking especially in dating. But its influence decreases when you and the other person get to know more. Is an asset in social situations? It is powerful factor in determining to whom people are attracted and the kind of social life you have. 5 The decreasing of relationship.

RELATIONSHIPS THAT ARE ON THE DECLINE FOLLOW A PATTERN OF STAGES 1 Interpsychic stage The first phase occurs when you decide that you can no longer tolerate in a relationship. At this stage your focus is on the other persons behavior and you use this as an evaluation to end the relationship. 2 Dyadic stage this occurs when you decide to confront the other person and determine whether there is a need to repair or terminate the relationship.
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3 Social stage when finally you have decided to end the relationship, this phase occurs accompanied by public acknowledgment that your relationship has ended. 4 Gravedressing stage this is the phase wherein the major activity is to end the relationship physically and psychologically.

CONCEPT OF ADAPTIVE AND MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR 1 ADAPTIVE/NORMAL BEHAVIOR, Normal authoritys standards in the past those considered normal were those who adhered to such norm. Psychosocial Aspect a Idea of what is normal is not easily agreed upon. Medically normality is the ability of a person to function physically in the everyday world and carry out his obligations; ordinary sickness not considered and abnormality. b Psychologically ability to conform to laws and mores of the community and perform some minimal duties, however inability to conform during adolescence viewed as normal. Adjustment Aspect a Well adjusted person is one generally conforms to an established pattern of behavior b Entails reasonable sacrifices or respect for legitimate order. Infractions of this is often dealt with punishment (e.g. Death, imprisonment.)
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c Criteria of Adjustment: - Purpose in life has a goal directs his efforts toward same. The focus is on the goal not the obstacle. - Realistic self appraisal knows his strong points and weaknesses and sets his aspirations in accordance with his potential and limitations. - Emotional flexibility react emotionally in accordance with the situation in which he happens to be. It is not expected that he react approximately in all situations but easily gets his inappropriate behavior. - Social sensitivity able to establish satisfactory relationship with other people. Making and keeping friends has something to do with ones sensitivity to others desires and feelings. - Knowing when to conform able to adapt to new unfamiliar situation with ease though not necessary to all situations. Can discern whether it would be best to conform or not. Extreme conformity or conformity is unhealthy. Maturity Aspect Maturity of factors, relation to and relation had always been measured relative to a lot this may be done by observing one in individuals of the some and different age to his other traits.

Characteristics of Maturity
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a Reality orientation has a realistic outlook of life a life with problems but takes positive actions to solve the same. b Flexibility not easily upset by a sudden change of plans or routine and adjusts quickly to new situations. c Conformity follows reasonable demands placed him by society discriminates as to when to conform or not. d Sense of identity knows who he is and what he stands. e Balance between self and others balance his wishes and needs and those of society and his conscience. f Social adeptness makes friends easily keeps them for a long period of time. and

g Self acceptance accepts him and others as they are; this does mean that he never tries to change himself. h Conducts in accordance with ones conscience the ego ideal represent desired standards of goodness and excellence as one would genuinely want to be, though may exceed achievements it gives direction to behavior. An immature individual has an ego ideal that for exceeds his abilities and causes guilt feelings whenever he fails to reach the same. i Feeling of mastery a feeling of being in charge of many forces about him and if necessary change them or adjust them. For instance, looking for a job a matured individual can master his way through this
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while an immature individuals apathetic and stop trying.

would

become

j Wide variety of gratifications can find satisfaction from different sources. Always has a fall back. MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR - A response to a problem in living but it is one that avoids the problem rather than deals directly with it or solves it. - It is one that not only permits the problem to continue but also often generated new problems interfering significantly with one or more important areas of life. Destructive behavior affects others more than the self. THEORIES OF DEVIANCE a Biological traits. hereditary transmission of deviant

b Psychological deviant behaviors is brought about by inner conflicts or by the inability to control ones behavior in an orderly way. c Labeling theory effect of labels by official agencies or other persons because of their deviant behavior and the negative social sanctions, which exert pressure on individuals. d Conflict theory deviance. inequality on society causes

e Control theory deviant behavior (e.g. delinquency, suicide, etc.) is a result of lack of control or the failure to have sufficient
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commitment of the traditional goals and values of society.

CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR AS A MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR Ferros classification of criminals: 1 Born criminal those born with characteristics which predispose them toward criminal behavior but do not case the behavior ineffective measures employed by society for the prevention and depression of crime. 2 Insane criminal one suffering from some clinical form of mental alienation. 3 Habitual criminal one who acquire the habit of crime mainly through the ineffective measures employed by society for the prevention and repression of crime. 4 Occasional criminal commits insignificant criminal acts, not because of his personality but because of the circumstances in which he lives. If not sent to prison he will probably become a law abiding citizen. 5 Passionate criminal when the act is fueled by passion, which is antisocial.

SIGN AND SYMPTOMS OF ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR: Disordered sensation and perception a Illusion is a misinterpretation of external and real stimuli.
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b Hallucination is a perception unwarranted by external stimuli.

completely

c Clouding of consciousness consist of a state of confusion which the individuals perceptions lack clarity.

Disordered intelligence and thoughts: a Intellectual sub normality, mental deficiency, mental retardation or amentia it is marked by a limited capacity to comprehend or master new materials, by memory deficits, and by difficulties in forming discriminations, making judgment and solving problems. b Disorientation the inability to identify time, place, or persons accurately and by perplexity and confusion. c Confabulation complete distortion of memory. d Flight of ideas consists of a series of rapid jumps from one idea to another. e Retardation laborious. f Blocking thought. of ideas thinking of is slowed sequence and of or

sudden

stoppage

the to

g Concrete thinking thing abstractly.

inability

generalize

h Autistic thinking consist of highly subjective reasoning peculiar to the individual.

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i Obsession is the persistent intrusion into consciousness of an unwanted and unpleasant thought or impulse. j Phobia an irrational and obsessive warranted by an actual danger. k Delusions maybe defined as a inconsistent with the individuals and experiences. fear, not

false belief own knowledge

l Depersonalization the feeling that ones identity has been lost and that others as well as one self are dreamlike and have no reality. Disordered Affects Affect is consciously experience and emotional reaction. a Euphoria or elation exaggerated feelings of well being take possession of the individual along with the pleasant feeling of liberation from the restraints of conscience. b Depression there is morbid sadness and defection, an increased perception of physical pain and the guilt ridden, remorseful over sensitivity to conscience. c Anxiety consist uneasiness. d Anger aggression. e Apathy manifests emotional flatness. a decrease in affect and an of apprehension, tension and

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f Ambivalence - refers to ;the simultaneous existence of conflicting feeling or emotional attitude toward the same object, personal or goal. Disordered Motivation a Excessively negative motive motivated by anxiety, fear and guilt. b Excessive strong and weak motive a motive maybe strong to the point of insatiability or weak to the point of atrophy. c Motivational immaturity the individual manifests a discrepancy between the norm for his age and level of government of an important motive. d Excessively variable and changeable motives motive maybe too variable and changeable. e Conflict between two positive motives. Ways to disturbed behavior a It may to gratify behavior b It may gratify them in ways inappropriate to the individuals cultural group or to the society in general. 1 Disordered verbal and motor behavior - Verbal behavior, a form of motor behavior which includes speech and writing. a Shuttering/stammering speaking with involuntary pauses and rapid repetition of some sounds. b Mutism the complete inability to speak or refusal to speak.
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c Logorrhea excessive speech. d Euphoria flight or ideas and motor over activity. e Verbigeration the monotonous repetition of words or sentence, often without apparent meaning. f Echolalia the echo like repetition by the patient of what had been said to him. g Word salad an unintelligible mixture of real words and meaningful phrase with neologism. - Non verbal motor disturbance. a Compulsion an overwhelming urge to perform an act of ritual. b Ties is a periodic especially facial. muscular twitch,

c Chorea an irregular, involuntary, spasmodic movement. d Tremors continuous involuntary, spasmodic contractions or trembling in a small group of muscles. e Motor restlessness agitation of excitement invariably accompanied by severe insomnia. f Negativism the patient refuses to cooperate with a request or behaves in a manner opposite to the request. g Automatism is mechanical repetitious behavior carried out unconsciously. motor

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h Echopraxia a compulsion movement of another person.

to

imitate

the

i Posturing the patient assumes an unusual posture and maintain it over a period of time. SYNDROME OF ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR. Major groups of disorders a Mental retardation subnormal general intellectual functioning, originating during the development period and associated with impairment of either learning and social adjustment or maturation or both. b Organic brain syndrome disorders caused by or associated with either permanent or temporary impairment of brain tissues functions. c Psychosis (functional psychosis) mental functioning is sufficiently impaired to interfere grossly with the individuals capacity to meet the ordinary demand of life. d Neuroses the chief characteristic is anxiety, which maybe consciously experience or unconsciously, controlled by means various psychological self protective or defense mechanism. e Personal disorder and certain non psychotic mental disorders characterized by deeply impaired maladaptive patterns of behavior that are perceptively different in quality from psychotic and neurotic symptoms. f Psychophysiological disorder group of disorder characterized by physical symptoms
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that are caused by emotional factor and involve a single organ system. g Symptoms a category for the occasional patient, whose psychopathology is manifested by single specific symptoms such as speech disturbance, learning disturbance enuresis and the like. h Transient situational disturbance more or les transient disorders of any severity, occurring without any apparent underlying mental disorders, and representing acute reactions to overwhelming environmental stress. i Behavior disorders to childhood and adolescence disorders of childhood and adolescence that are more stable and resistant to treatment than transient situational disturbance but less so than psychoses, neuroses and personality disorders. j Conditions without manifest psychiatric disorder, such as marital or occupational maladjustment, as well as non specific conditions with no mental disorder or maladjustment.

-oOo-

PART FIVE CRISIS MANAGEMENT CRISIS


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It is provided when a person faces on obstacle (hazard) to important life goals that is for a time insurmountable through the utilization of customary methods of problem solving. INDIVDUAL CRISIS: It is a feeling of being crushed, smashed and stretched to the point of snapping because of pressures, problems or any unpleasant situation. When stress becomes too intense, too prolonged and frequent it can overtax the adjective capacity of the individual and lead to physical or psychological harm. It is a state when the person is in a period of disorganization of being upset. KINDS OF INDIVIDUAL CRISIS: Physical Crisis when the individual is suffering from pain and discomfort brought about by illness physically handicap and other health problems. SIGNS OR CHARACTERISTICS OF ECONOMIC CRISIS: 1 Chronic unemployment or underemployment 2 Very low income and chronic shortage of cash. 3 Lack of savings and absence of food reserves at home 4 High incidence of pawning of personal gods and borrowing at usurious rates. 5 Disengagement from larger society manifested through hatred of the police, mistrust of government and evnicism of church
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6 Early mitiation childhood

with

sex

and

forgoing

of

7 Lack of private and parental affection 8 Strong feelings of fatalism, hopelessness and helplessness. 9 Lack of knowledge, skills, manners and habits of cooperation and leadership. 10 High residence of prostitution, criminality, broken marriages, parent strife and child neglect.

EMOTIONAL CRISIS Emotion which can be defined as a state of arousal, something expressed, accompanied by ranges from pleasant to unpleasant feelings is the source of the hardest kind of individual crisis when the individual is affected by negative emotions such as fear, anger and cannot control and express them in a socially acceptable and constructive way then emotional crisis. Psychological Symptoms of Emotional Disturbances: 1 Poor self image feelings inadequacy and dependency. of inferiority,

2 Inner emotional conflict over the expression of hostilities cannot express aggression in and ethical and psychologically appropriate means. 3 Conflict over sexual relations being expressively shy and unable to express ones love to the opposite sex.
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4 Anxiety worried things.

anticipated or unfounded fears and sometimes excessively and wit so many

5 Depression when a person cannot sleep, eat, concentrate and make decisions a sad state of affairs, hopelessness and helplessness.

BODILY SYMPTOMS OF EMOTIONAL CRISIS: 1 Anxiety free floating and unknown fear, excessive worries or tension about many things. 2 Kinds of Anxiety: 1 Situational a group of reactions to diversity of stressfulness stimuli such as interviews, test and urgency. It is short lived and ends once the experiences started or completed. It known also as a state anxiety.

How to Overcome and Minimize? a Proper orientation and preparation b Role playing or rehearsal c Assertiveness training d Denial and minimization e Traumatic occurs in survivors of tragic and usually unexpected experiences such as natural disaster, shipwrecks, bombings, raids, mistaken identity and nightmares.

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f Anxious Depression encompasses a mixed anxiety tensions and agitation of depressive effect. g Depression - Unhappiness, dissatisfaction, weeping, preoccupation with loss of loved ones and frustration, hopelessness and worthless of feeling. Kinds of Depression: 1 Situational occurs as a result of an overwhelming situational stress such as loose of family member, job, and fortune. 2 Depression due to Demoralization the in ones ineffectiveness with strong sense of defeat and helplessness. 3 Endogenous Depression mixed and serious depression due to slowing of speech decreased in decisiveness, impaired sense of vitality, decreases in ambition and initiative inability to enjoy and find pleasure in activities and decreased productivity. SOCIAL CRISIS It refers to the people comfortably. inability to deal with other

Kinds of Social Crisis: 1 Dependence with parents 2 Acceptance and repentance of parental standard 3 Marital problems situation role, conflicts and breakdown assuming sexual

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4 Boy girl relationship 5 Loss of love ones 6 Failure to relate with colleagues at work 7 Difficulty anybody in informing relationships with

Possible Approaches and Solutions: 1 Consistent role model 2 Establishing with others close and stable relationships

3 Self monitoring 4 Non judgment attitude and unconditional regard for others 5 Rest and relaxation 6 Group discussion/group work 7 Judicious use of drugs 8 Psychotherapy positive or

Sources of Difficulty 1 Egocnetricity selfishness 2 Deceitfulness exploitative approach to others 3 Over conformity emphasis in getting along with others

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MORAL CRISIS Moral Crisis irrational or distorted concepts of what is right or wrong, good or bad. Undeveloped conscience and lack of moral values and integrity as a person Stages of Moral Development: 1 Pre conventional Level a obedience or reward orientation. Action is motivated by avoidance of punishment and conscience is irrational. b Instrumental exchange or market place orientation. Action is motivated by desire for reward or benefit.

2 Conventional Level conformist good boy, good girl orientation action is motivated by anticipation of approval by others actual or imagined. - Law and order orientation action is motivated by anticipation of dishonor that is institutionalized blame for failure of duty and by guilt over concrete harm done to others.

3 Post Conventional social contract legalistic concern about maintaining respect of equals and of the community. This is avoiding judging self as irrational, inconsistent, and non purposive.
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- Universal ethical principal orientation concern about self condemnation for violating ones owned principal.

Common Symptoms of Moral Disaster a Thrill seeking, behavior and disregard of conventions b Inability to gratification control impulses or delay

c Rejection of authority and discipline d Poor judgment about behavior but judgment about abstracter situations e Failure to alter punishment behavior f Pathological no work of honor g Social and anti social behavior good

PSYCOSEXUAL CRISIS Failure to assume ones sex roles and identity as man and woman. The person has an inappropriate sex object faulty, inadequate and distorted expression of affection. Kinds of Sexual Disturbance: a Sexual disjunction inability to perform and enjoy sexual activity b Impotence failure to have sexual arousal and enjoy coitus
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c Frigidity failure to have an erection or coitus for man d Premature ejaculation absence of voluntary control over the ejaculation reflect after the man attains heightened sexual arousal. It is ejaculating too quickly or too early. e Vaginas vagina contract involuntarily so that penis insertion is not possible of difficult and painful. f Dyspareunia painful intercourse g Inhibited sexual desire and sexual lack of sexual or distaste of it. aversion

h Venereal disease sexually transmitted diseases a Gonorrhea infection of genitals acquired through sexual contracts. Symptoms include inflammation discharge to white, yellowish, green fluid from the urethra and burning sensation when urinating, treatment is injection of penicillin b Syphilis sexually transmitted disease acquired 3 4 weeks after sexual contact with an infected person. Symptom includes sore or change in the penis or scrotum for male and on the cervix or vagina walls for woman. Can be treated antibiotics. c Heaps infection of the genitals acquired after 2 20 days of sexual contact with the carrier. Symptoms include sores, raptures and blister. It is recurrent. No sure cure yet. d Voyeurism peeping test obtains sexual pleasure in some degree from observing other
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bodies or sexual acts without the observed persons consent. It is something compulsive on their part. e Exhibitionism obtain sexual pleasure from other showing parts of his or her body which have sexual meaning. f Homosexual sexual attraction and relationship with the person of the same sex. Causes include faulty childhood training, cross identification environment factors and traumatic experience. g Fetishism preference for inanimate object to become sexually aroused or enjoy coitus. h Sadomasochism obtaining sexual pleasure from inflicting pain on another person and the person enjoys by having pain inflected on oneself. A partnership in which one person prefers to receive and the other to minister pain. i Bestiality sexual activity with animals j Necrophilia having erotic interest in dead person k Pedophilia sexual attraction relationship with somebody much younger and

i Corprolalia obtaining sexual pleasure by suing or hearing certain dirty words j Klismaphilia erotic activity involving the anal region.

COPING WITH FRUSTRATION, CONFLICT AND STRESS


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1 Frustration occurs when progress desired goal is blocked or delayed

toward

- The term frustration comes from the Latin Frustra, meaning in vain. It refers to a condition in which the individual seeks to attain a goal of some kind and finds his way to the goals is blocked by barrier. It is a state of unpleasant emotion, therefore, resulting from the impossibility to satisfy a need.

Barriers: 1 Physical Barriers (environmental obstacles) refer to conditions in the environment which present obstacles to the satisfaction drives. Such barrier includes time, space, distance, temperature, confinement, disease and death. 2 Biological Barrier (personal obstacles) refer to limitation within the individual himself. Such barriers include physical unattractiveness or handicaps intellectual limitations, lack of strength, energy or skill. 3 Psychological Barriers may be a source of frustration, as when feelings of guilt make it impossible for some men and woman to do the things they would like to do as when feelings of guilt may prevent a girl from leaving her sick mother to go to watch a movie with her friends. 4 Socio cultural Barriers refer to restrictions imposed by other people in the social environment and the customs of social
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leaving. These barriers include the laws and code of behavior placed upon a group. 5 Motivation Conflicts As a source of frustration, refer to the conflict within the person. There are always several motives active at a given time and the goals to which they lead may be mutually exclusive. Even then only one goal is involved, they are maybe several ways of approaching the goal and conflict arises at the point where a path to the goal diverges. Note: Frustration tolerance is the ability to endure or bear anxiety provoking situations without the use of defensive strategies. Individual differ in their tolerance of frustrating conditions. Conflict There are many situations in life in which a choice must be between alternative goals. The individual is said to experience a psychological state of conflict when he cannot make a choice readily. The word conflict is derived from the Latin conflictus, meaning, Strike together. Types of Conflict: 1 Approach Approach or Double Approach Conflict An individual in this type of conflict has to choose between two equally desirable nut mutually exclusive goals. For example, a girl likes pizza pie and ice cream but she had to choose one because her money is not enough for her to but both. It is characterized by the word or.

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2 Avoidance Avoidance conflict An individual must choose between two unattractive or undesirable alternatives. For example, an individual fears going to a dentist, but he also fears the consequence of neglecting his teeth. It is characterized by the word or. 3 Approach Avoidance Conflict, in this type of conflict, there is a single goal but this goal has both positive and negative valences. It is both desired and unwanted at the same time. Example, a man maybe very much in love with a woman but at the same time, he is repelled to marry her because he suffers from financial incapacity. It is characterized by the word and. 4 Double Approach Avoidance or Multiple Conflicts there are two goals involved, each of which possesses both negative and positive valence. For example. One car is fast but very expensive, while another is cheap but slow. It is characterized by and, or, and and. Stress Stress can be produced by major life evens: marriage, pregnancy, child birth; graduation; retirement or by lifes daily hassles such as rising, prices of common goods, home maintenance, enduring a boring but tense job or marriage, traffic and too many things to do. Stress occurs because stimuli become so intense and prolonged what we sometimes feel we cannot cope with them. The five major source of stress: 1 Biological deprivation Extreme hunger can cause deep physical and emotional disturbance.
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2 Danger (real or imagined) Combat exhaustion is a term to describe breakdown in behavior resulting from danger, which rapidly produce stress. 3 Threats of self esteem these threats are often affected by age and personality factors. Some people set such high standards for themselves completely. 4 Overload this results fro m too much stimulation. Example, city dwellers adapt stress by paying less attention to their surroundings than do rural people. 5 Crises and stresses that accompany normal social and personal development as we grow up, we worry about ability to meet the new demands and new roles that each stage of life present. Coping may take any of the following forms: 1 Direct action Young children typically show vigorous action when their needs are not satisfied. The person aggressively tries to retrieve a desired object, to protect a territory, or keep a privilege. 2 Avoidance retreat or running away from something is not always an appropriate method of coping with an anxiety although it is more often an effective alternative to aggression. 3 Prediction This help reduce stress by making us confident that we have handled a situation well. If we know, for example, that an unpleasant situation is about to come, we can predict in what ways if reduced to fearful guessing of what future events may bring.
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4 Use of defense mechanisms these are devices that protect the individuals self esteem and defend him against excessive anxiety when faced with continuing frustrations. It is used to protect an individual from pain, shame or guilt. Three main types of Defense Mechanism: 1 Escape reactions or techniques these are characterized by withdrawal from the frustrating or anxiety producing situation. Forms: - Repression this is the unconscious withdrawal of certain painful thoughts or feelings. For example, a girl may deliberately tend to forget the moments she had shared with her past boyfriend just because thoughts of him would only make her grow fond of hi and reminisce the memories that go with their breaking up. - Fantasy retreating to the world Daydreaming is the most common form. fantasy.

- Regression this technique of escaping from frustration or anxiety producing conditions involved reverting to earlier or more primitive forms of behavior. Regression is illustrated when a child who is upset by the arrival of a new sibling resorts to thumb sucking, bedwetting, etc. - Apathy this common response to a frustrating condition is the opposite of active aggression and is characterized by indifference or withdrawal.

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2 Reaction formation a tendency to conceal a motive from oneself by giving strong expression to the opposite motive. For example, a person with repressed sexual ideas may objects he guarantees that his repressed sexuality will remain repressed. Denial this is a negative fantasy where an individual may refuse to admit the existence of reality too painful or unpleasant to face. 3 Compromise reactions or techniques and substitute activities. These enable the individual to change the anxiety arousing situation in some way.

Evaluation of Defense Mechanism Conflicts may be resolved in a number of ways. Some of them may never be settled, yet they wane and disappear with time as existing conditions change or become modified, and seem to leave no problems behind them. BEHAVIOR DISORDERS AND THEIR TREATMENT: Adjustment in behavior is highly individual and closely related to stress. It is to be expected that the enlightened person come to realize sooner that no one else but himself can solve his problem than another person who is not so open to reality. Characteristics of Mental Disorders: NEUROSIS inadequately controlled anxiety is the central feature of neurosis or psychoneurosis. Neurosis also include unreasonable fear, sense or inadequacy,
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loss of appetite and insomnia. Neurotic behavior has been seen as an attempt to cope with demands in the environment. Types: 1 Anxiety Reactions the anxiety may be persistent, or it may come ion sudden attacks that last for a few hours or days. The precise reason for the anxiety is not clear either to the victim or to his family, thus requiring the services of a psychotherapist. 2 Phobic Reactions those individual with phobias show an extreme fear of specific objects or situations. a Acrophobia fear of high places; b Agoraphobia fear of open spaces; c Claustrophobia fear of close spaces; d Pyrophobia fear of fire; e Adontophobia fear of teeth; f Hematophobia fear of the sight of blood; g Monophobia fear of being along; h Demonophobia fear of demons; i Photophobia fear of ones own fear;

j Xenophobia fear of foreigners or strangers; k Sitiophobia fear of strange places; l Aerophobia fear of airplanes; m Algophobia fear of pain;
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n Toxiphobia fear of poison; o Hydrophobia fear of water; p Zoophobia fear of animals; q Thanaphobia fear of death; r Photophobia fear of light; s Neophobia fear of novelty;

t Dysmorphobia fear of becoming misshapen; u v Lyssophobia fear of hydrophobia; Taphophobia fear of being buried alive;

3 Obsessive compulsive Reactions a person with this may experience without knowing why, recurring unwanted ideas (obsessions) or they may feel compelled to carry out undesired or inappropriate acts (compulsions). Example, a woman may have a recurring thought of forthcoming disaster or revolution. Obsessed with the thought of uprising, she may compulsively pack essential foods, clothing, and family belonging, from day to day. 4 Neurotic Depression the individual who suffers from neurotic depression reacts to a distressing event with more than usual sadness and rails to recover within a reasonable length of time. Almost everyone feels depressed at times such as when one loses his job, when there is death or rejection of love ones etc. depression is termed neurotic only when it is out of proportion to the event and continuous past the point when most people begin to recover. PSYCHOSIS psychotic behavior tends to be so impaired that suffering individuals is unable to cope
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with demands of daily living. His perceptions, thinking, and emotional reaction are usually so disordered that we say he has lost his touch with reality. Types: 1 Affective Reactions disorders of mood expressed as extreme mania, depression, or both at different times. The manic person is frequently aggressive and hard to handle. The depressed individual feels melocholic, worthless, guilty and hopeless. It has a strong genetic basis. 2 Paranoid Reactions rare type of psychosis that is highly characterized by delusions. Usually some combination of imagined grandeur or imagined persecutions. The person appears normal until something happens to t4rigger the delusion thinking. 3 Schizophrenic Reaction most prevalent among the psychotic consist of disturbances of thought, mood, and feeling leading to manifestations or withdrawal from reality and sometimes to delusions and hallucinations. People in their late teens and early twenties compose the cases admitted to mental hospitals for treatment of schizophrenia. These corresponds to 15 20% of the total number of hospital cases. Kinds: a Hebephrenic schizophrenia giggling, babbling, and silly unpredictable actions.

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b Catatonic schizophrenia withdraws from reality by falling into rigid posture or stupor. c Paranoid schizophrenia exhibits delusions of grandeur and persecutions and hallucinations. He is suspicious and vigilant, frequently believing, that he is being attacked and will also attack in self o defense.

Chronic brain Syndrome the previous psychoses discussed is functional psychosis where nothing is physically wrong with the patient; in contrast, organic psychoses are caused by organic disorders. The brain is always affected, thus these psychoses are also called Chronic Brain Syndrome. The sources of brain damage are any of the following: physical blows on the head, disturbance of the blood supply to the brain, brain tumors, physical changes in the brain with old age, and chemical agents such as poison drugs or alcohol. Types: 1 Senile psychosis caused by general deterioration of the brain due to constant loss of nerve cells that are not replaced and impaired circulation of blood to the brain. 2 Intoxication psychosis 0- cased by long - term effects of alcohol (heavy drinking from 10 30 years). The symptoms include disorientation, confusion, memory disorders, and impulsiveness.

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3 Personally disorders o- some of the symptoms of personality disorders resemble those of psychoses, but the person neither has delusions or hallucinations.

Types: 1 Schizoid Personality it manifest withdrawal from other people, eccentric thinking, and lack of normal aggressiveness in relation with others. 2 Passive and aggressive Personalities passive dependent persons are helpless. They want and expect other people to dominate them. Passive aggressive persons utilize passive means of expressing rebellion and resentment: pouting, procrastination, and inefficiency. Aggressive people can be extremely dangerous in that they habitually burn with resentment and irritability. 3 Antisocial Personality the so called morally insane and Psychopathic Deviate. They do not manifest any sense of responsibility, loyalty, or conscience. They little feelings for others or for the right of others.

Classifications of Psychotherapist: 1 Clinical Psychologists there are people trained in psychological methods. They have earned a Ph. D and do not necessarily have a medical degree. 2 Psychiatrists these are qualified, licensed physician who have done their post graduate work and residency in psychiatry.
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3 Psychoanalysis group of psychotherapist practice according to psychoanalytic theory of personality. They must be psychiatrist or clinical psychologists. 4 Psychiatric social workers these usually have earned a maters degree in social work. They have been trained to gather information helpful to the psychiatrist or psychologist in prescribing treatment. 5 Nurses and mental health aides given increasingly responsibility in hospital settings.

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