Sie sind auf Seite 1von 25


Environmental modification is as old as the history of human development. In the last century, development and modification have come much faster then ever before. While it took a few thousand years for man to pass from Paleolithic to Neolithic tools, it has taken less than a century to modify conventional weaponry to nuclear devices. Development has been so rapid that nature has not had time to adapt to these changes and to human requirement and greed. Some of the responsibility for the conservation of tropical natural resources lies on the shoulders of developed countries. However, this doesnt diminish the responsibilities of developing countries to work towards a more educated society, one that is more conscious of their effects on the natural balance and more effective in fulfilling the tenets of sustainable development, to which most of these countries adhere, at least in principle. To become sustainable they have to be able to put into practice these tenets. There is also truth in the statement that most of the new scientific information about many of these issues is being generated in the developed world. Environmental literacy is a difficult concept to define. One can say that "environmentally literate" person will have the knowledge, tools, and sensitivity to properly address an environmental problem in their professional capacity, and to routinely include the environment as one of the considerations in their work and daily living.

Environmental modification is as old as the history of human development. In the last century, development and modification have come much faster then ever before. While it took a few thousand years for man to pass from Paleolithic to Neolithic tools, it has taken less than a century to modify conventional weaponry to nuclear devices. Development has been so rapid that nature has not had time to adapt to these changes and to human requirement and greed. The last century has seen an unmanageable increase in population, placing a tremendous burden on natural resources. There is not enough food for the worlds hungry. Also, the earth itself is worn out due to excessive farming, use of chemicals and pesticides and excessive use of ground water. Water resources are badly polluted and emission of toxic fumes from industry and vehicles has deprived us of clean air. Industrialisation and a growing consumer economy have led to the creation of huge megapolises with their problems of undisposed garbage and uncontrolled sewage. To combat these problems, world bodies like the United Nations and the World Commission on Environment and Development have been formulating ideas for environmental protection and sustainable development. Several international conferences have been held on this subject, starting with the first one in Tbilisi in 1977 to the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, the Population Summit at Copenhagen, the world Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg and several others. It is clearly evident that 25 years after the first conference in Tbilisi, there has not been an appreciable change in lifestyles or the level of awareness. Countries have put their own interests ahead of environmental protection and the future of coming generations. What has been Indias stand on environmental protection? How far has our governing body succeeded in their avowed aims of cleaning up the environment? Various acts have been passed down the years, too innumerable to be put down here. The Ministry of Environment and Forests laid down its objectives: A. Conservation & survey of flora, fauna, forests and wildlife B. Prevention and control of pollution C. Afforestation & regeneration of degraded areas D. Protection of environment, all within the frame work of legislations.

The main tools utilized for this include: A. Surveys and impact assessment B. Control of pollution C. Regeneration programmes D. Support to organizations and NGOs E. Research to solve solutions F. Training to augment the requisite manpower G. Collection and dissemination of environmental information H. Creation of environmental awareness among all sectors of the country's population. Through the years, the ministry has passed innumerable laws to help them in their task of environmental protection. Sadly, all the regulations and acts have not done enough to protect the environment. The greed of many in the governing bodies has led to misuse of the laws and ruthless exploitation of the land, leading to ecological destruction and social injustices. Most leaders of industry, too, have been lacking in a social conscience. They have exploited our countrys resources and polluted our earth, water and air. Public apathy has not helped either. We, as citizens of this country have not made our voices heard. The opening up of our economy and globalization have put a greater pressure on our resources, further vitiating our fragile eco-system. A recent trend which is heartening to note is the role of the Indian Judiciary in environmental protection, which has adopted public interest litigation (PIL) for the cause of environmental protection. This has proved an effective tool. For example, an attempt to acquire forest land and change the course of the River Beas to facilitate the construction of a motel was made by a company reportedly having direct links with the family of Kamal Nath, former Minister of Environment and Forests. The Supreme Court quashed the prior approval granted by the central government for leasing out forest land and also the lease deed between the government of Himachal Pradesh and the company. The Government of Himachal Pradesh was asked to ensure that the space was restored and that there was no construction on that area. The culprit company was strictly directed to end and remove all construction and had to pay for the restoration of the areas ecology. It was also clarified that the river and surrounding region was and would remain public property.

This is a very small step when what is needed are giant strides in an eco friendly direction. The crying need of the hour is to educate the public and make them aware of their rights as citizens of this country to a clean environment, to clean water, clean air and clean surroundings. They must act together to fight corruption in governance and ruthless exploitation by the captains of industry. A strategy for environmental protection could be adopted: a. Reduce fertility rates and control population, reducing pressure on natural resources; b. Phase out non-renewable inputs in energy, agriculture and industry c. Educate and inform the people about the gains of environmental protection and sustainable development. They MUST stand up for their rights. There is still hope for us. We can, to a certain degree, reverse the process of degradation of our surroundings, for Mother Earth is forgiving and able to heal her wounds if we do not inflict more grievous ones on her. As Paul Bigelow Sears said, How far must suffering and misery go before we see that even in the day of vast cities and powerful machines, the good earth is our mother and that if we destroy her, we destroy ourselves. So we should act today for a better tomorrow for our children.

A lot of research work is also going on side by side at various levels to study about environmental protection and the role of illiteracy. The objectives of present research are:

1. To study the environmental protection. 2. To study the environmental literacy and its components. 3. To study the environmental education in India. 4. To study the environmental service schemes.

Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. The research methodology included various methods and techniques for conducting a research.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study/research of Environmental protection Illiteracy is the only cause.

PURPOSE AND RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY The purpose of study is to measure or to identify the Environmental protection in India and the role of illiteracy.

MODE OF DATA COLLECTION The study is based on Secondary data which includes Secondary Data Secondary Data has been gathered from books, journals and internet resources on Environmental protection in India.

RESEARCH APPROACH Research is best suited for Descriptive Research. Research undertaken to learn about Environmental protection in India.

DATA ANALYSIS Data analysis was done mainly from the data collected through the secondary data. The data collected from secondary sources is used to analyze on one particular parameter. Qualitative analysis was done on the data collected from the secondary sources.

Environmental literacy is a difficult concept to define. One can say that "environmentally literate" person will have the knowledge, tools, and sensitivity to properly address an environmental problem in their professional capacity, and to routinely include the environment as one of the considerations in their work and daily living. In simpler words, it is the capacity to understand the connections between humans and their environment. David Orr, environmental educator, ethicist, and author, say that in addition to the ability to read and calculate (literacy and numeracy--both indoor activities of education), ecological literacy also implies an intimate knowledge of our landscapes, and an affinity for the living world. It is, too, a systemic view, "to see things in their wholeness".

Environmental literacy is the capacity of an individual to act successfully in daily life on a broad understanding of how people and societies relate to each other and to natural systems, and how they might do so sustainably. This requires sufficient awareness, knowledge, skills, and attitudes in order to incorporate appropriate environmental considerations into daily decisions about consumption, lifestyle, career, and civics, and to engage in individual and collective action.

Rockcastle (1989) described environmental literacy as an understanding, at some basic level, of the interaction of humans & their natural environment with regard to both living things & nonliving things (air, water, soil, & rock). While According to Roth (1992), Environmental literacy should be defined in terms of observable behaviors. That is, people should be able to demonstrate in some observable form what they have learned--their knowledge of key concepts, skills acquired, disposition toward issues, and the like. Understanding Environmental Literacy United Nations Environmental, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in 1975 stated that The goal of environmental education is to develop a world population that is aware of, and concerned about, the environment and its associated problems, and which has the knowledge, skills, attitudes, motivations, and commitment to work individually and collectively toward solutions of current problems and the prevention of new ones.

Environmental literacy derives its focus from four basic issues that take it well beyond the typical boundaries of science education, or any of the traditional disciplines: * The interrelationships between natural and social systems; * The unity of humankind with nature; * Technology and the making of choices; and * Developmental learning throughout the human life cycle.

Levels of literacy are generally assumed to exist but are not often defined. With respect to environmental literacy, Roth proposed the identification of three levels: 1. Nominal: This level indicates ability to recognize many of the basic terms used in communicating about the environment and to provide rough, if unsophisticated, working definitions of their meanings. 2. Functional: It indicates a broader knowledge and understanding of the nature and interactions between human social systems and other natural systems. 3. Operational: This level relates to progress beyond functional literacy in both the breadth and depth of understandings and skills. Persons at the operational level routinely evaluate the impacts and consequences of actions, gather and synthesize pertinent information, choose among alternatives, advocate action positions, and take actions that work to sustain or enhance a healthy environment. Such people demonstrate a strong, ongoing sense of investment in and responsibility for preventing or remediating environmental degradation both personally and collectively. Ultimate goal of the environmental literacy is to create social structure where operational level of environmental literacy spread through all walks of life. It depends on various components of environmental literacy & effective acceptance. 4.1 COMPONENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL LITERACY Awareness Awareness is holding a general impression, or consciousness, about something. An individual may be aware that climate change is an issue or that human life depends on a healthy environment without

knowing much more. Environmental awareness can arise from many activities - education being just one. The main advantage of widespread environmental awareness is its contribution to public support for government action in environmental policy and management. Management of natural resources is only possible through effective awareness. Knowledge Developing knowledge requires more than acquisition of new information or data. It requires an orderly comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of that material as well as the intellectual framework within which new information can be placed and manipulated. Developing knowledge often requires a pedagogy (a formal methodology for constructing knowledge with the student) - something that is absent in simple information transfer. Attitudes Developing attitudes of appreciation and concern for the environment is a subtle process that is difficult to deliberately program. Many educators believe that attitudes change primarily from a variety of life experiences which can take place outside as well as inside the classroom. Thus, experiences in the environment such as those provided by nature and environmental centers ("nonformal" education) are essential to gaining environmental literacy. To develop 'community attitude' in totality is difficult task. Action The ultimate (and perhaps most difficult) goal of environmental literacy programs is developing the capacity for action and participation. This is an especially complex process. It often requires adopting new behavior which in itself is also a complex process.

In the final step of action, environmental literacy is the capacity to act in daily life on a broad understanding of how people and societies relate to each other and natural systems.

Most real environmental education involves actual hands-on experience with a subject either in a laboratory or the field. A person who is well-versed in this level of environmental knowledge is

more likely to engage in personal environmental actions.

By realizing the importance of

environmental literacy developed countries initiated environmental education at different levels. Similarly it was realized by developing nations like India & various steps are being taken towards environmental literacy. 4.2 INDIA AND ENVIRONMENTAL LITERACY The Indian tradition teaches us that all forms of life: animal and plant are so closely linked that disturbance in one gives rise to an imbalance in the other.

Indian environmentalism very much involves the poor, tribal & women population. The Bishnois community; people involved in Chipko movement are also considered to be environmentally literate interaction between because people of and the the
Green Movements in India

Chipko movement was the first environmentalist movement in the India. The Chipko movement is a tribal, women-centered struggle against

environment. They have sound knowledge of their surroundings. Indian rural women are also said to be environmentally literate. They have 'naturally' positive attitudes towards environmental conservation. They collect the dead branches of trees which are fallen by storm to use as fuel wood rather than cutting the live trees. They are most severely affected by environmental degradation. Women are considered the primary users of natural resources (Land, forest, and water), because they are the ones who are responsible for gathering food, fuel, and fodder. Shouldering this responsibility leads them to learn more about soil, plants, and trees and not misuse them. These rural women tend to have a

deforestation and mining operations in the mountains. The movement was an act of defiance against the state government's permission given to a corporation for commercial logging. The Bishnois, a community in Rajasthan, is an example of human beings living in harmony with nature. Among the 29 principles propounded by the founder of 3 the are sect prophet, on Lord nature



conservation. Cutting and lopping of green trees is strictly prohibited there. They maintain groves, for the animals to graze and birds to feed. Groves serve as important recharges of rain water in the aquifers in the desert, where every single drop of water is precious.

closer relationship with land and other natural resources, which promotes a new culture of respectful

use and preservation of natural resources and the environment, ensuring that the following generations can meet their needs. Women give greater priority to protection of and improving the capacity of nature, maintaining farming lands, and caring for nature and environment's future. Repeated studies have shown that women have a stake in environment, and this stake is reflected in the degree to which they care about natural resources. India has a tradition of protecting its

forest through 'Sacred Groves'. Hunting and logging are usually strictly prohibited within these forest patches. Other forms of forest usage like honey collection and deadwood collection are sometimes allowed on a sustainable basis. What is Sacred Grove Sacred groves comprise of patches of forests or natural vegetation from a few trees to forests of several acres that are usually dedicated to local folk deities or tree spirits. These spaces are protected by local communities because of their religious beliefs and traditional rituals that run through several generations. In India, sacred groves are found all over the country and abundantly along the Western Ghats in the states of Kerala and Karnataka. Around 14,000 sacred groves have been reported from all over India, which act as reservoirs of rare fauna, and more often rare flora, amid rural and even urban settings. Experts believe that the total number of sacred groves could be as high as 100,000. From Maharashtra 2820 Sacred groves (Devrai) have been documented. Sindhudurg district rank first in the number (1499) as well as area (1892.96 Ha) covered by sacred groves in the state.



The Indian Constitution laid down the responsibility of Government to protect and improve the environment and made it a fundamental duty of every citizen to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife. On this background Department of Environment was established by the Government of India in 1980 and a Ministry was formed in 1985. The Constitution and the Government's commitment to the environment along with the environmentally sound practices is an important backdrop under which the Environment Education (EE) strategy has been evolved. Comprehensive scheme of 'Environmental Education, Awareness and Training' was launched in 1983-84. Environmental Education, Awareness and Training Scheme The scheme intends to enhance our understanding about the interactions between human beings and environment. Also, it aims to facilitate the development of skills for environmental protection. The objective of the schemes are as follow:

To promote environmental awareness among all sections of the society; To spread environment education, especially in the non-formal system among different sections of the society;

To facilitate development of education/training materials and aids in the formal education sector; To promote environment education through existing educational/scientific/research institutions; To ensure training and manpower development for environment education, awareness and training;

To encourage non-governmental organizations, mass media and other concerned organizations for promoting awareness about environmental issues among the people at all levels;

To use different media including films, audio, visual and print, theatre, drama, advertisements, hoarding, posters, seminars, workshops, competitions, meetings etc. for spreading messages concerning environment and awareness; and

To mobilize people's participation for preservation and conservation of environment.


Central Government recognizes EE as a key to success of overall environmental strategy & decides to help in the setting up of a 'Centre of Excellence'. These centres promote EE through developing resource material, organizing training/ awareness programmes, builds capacity in the field for sustainable development. These centres play the vital role in setting the pace & the agenda for EE. These centres are- Centre for Environment Education, C.P.R Environmental Education Centre, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Centre for Mining Environment, Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History (SACON), Centre for Environmental Management of Degraded Ecosystems, Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Centre of Excellence in Environmental Economics, Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions (FRLHT), Centre for Animals and Environment. Key programmes/ activities launched under Environmental Education, Awareness and Training scheme over the years are: National Environment Awareness Campaign (NEAC) The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Government of India started The National Environment Awareness Campaign (NEAC) in 1986 with the aim of creating environmental awareness at all levels of society. It is a multi-media campaign which utilises conventional and nonconventional methods of communication for disseminating environmental messages to a wide range of target groups. Under NEAC, the Ministry provides financial assistance to selected non governmental organizations, education and training institutes, community organizations, etc. to create massive awareness among citizens of India. Diverse target groups ranging from

students/youth/teachers to rural and tribal population, women, professionals and the general public are covered under this campaign. The Campaign programmes are basically composed of a spectrum of short duration programmes. The programme is being implemented through 33 designated Regional Resource Agencies (RRAs) for specific states/regions of the country. During 2009-10 total 11,738 organisations have participated in the campaign across the country. For the implementation of this Scheme in Maharashtra, Goa and Dadra Nagar Haveli, Bhartiya Agro Industrials Foundation (BAIF) has been working as a Regional Resource Agency (RRA) for since 1986. BAIF have been providing technical inputs in organizing field demonstrations and mobilizing NGOs for environmental awareness.

Eco Clubs & National Green Corps (NGC) 'Eco Clubs' were constituted by MoEF with objectives to educate school children about their immediate environment and impart knowledge about the eco-systems, their interdependence and their need for survival, by involving them in various environmental activities through visits and demonstrations and to mobilise youngsters by instilling in them the spirit of scientific inquiry into environmental problems and involving them in the efforts of environmental preservation. Keeping in view the potential of this programme in sensitizing the school students, it was decided to intensify this programme to cover each and every district of the country. A programme of raising 'National Green Corps' through the Eco clubs was, therefore, launched during 2001-2002. This programme is being implemented in each State/UT through the Nodal agency appointed by the State/UT Govt. An Eco-club may be set up in a middle/high school and should consist of a minimum of 20 members and a maximum of 50 members, particularly interested in the conservation and protection of the environment, and willing to dedicate time and effort on a regular basis towards this end. The members may be drawn from students belonging to classes from VI to X. Each Eco-club will be in charge of an active teacher in the school concerned. MoEF provide some financial assistance for establishment of Eco clubs. It gives ` 2500/- per annum per Eco-club. It also provides teacher training and distribution of resource materials. So far 1,12,844 Eco clubs have been established in NGC Schools across the country (Year 2010). To implement NGC Scheme in Maharashtra, Environment Department has appointed Director, Social Forestry, Pune as 'State Nodal Officer' in the year 2006 & Bharti Vidyapith, Institute of Environment & Research, Pune as 'Resource Agency'. At present 8898 eco-clubs with approximately 4,00,000 students are actively working in the state. Global Learning & Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) The GLOBE is an International Science and Education Programme, which emphasizes on hands-on participatory approach. India joined this programme in August, 2000. This programme unites students, teachers and scientists all over the world and targets school children. The students of GLOBE schools are required to collect data about various basic environmental parameters under the supervision of a GLOBE trained teacher. Through this they learn about scientific protocols and

perform environmental learning activities, which have already been introduced as theory in the textbooks. The GLOBE programme not only helps the students to appreciate the contents of the textbooks through better understanding but also assists them in gaining complete knowledge of environment. It facilitates research through a worldwide research team comprising of students, teachers and scientists. Strengthening Environment Education in School System and other courses at Graduate and PostGraduate level including Professional Courses

Formal Environmental Education Program The National Policy on Education, 1986 (NPE) states that the protection of the environment is a value which must form an integral part of the curriculum at all stages of education.

The NPE states: There is a paramount need to create a consciousness of the environment. It must permeate all ages and all sections of society, beginning with the child. Environmental consciousness should inform teaching in schools and colleges. This aspect will be integrated in the entire educational process.

The programme obliges the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), the Ministry of Environment & Forests to ensure that environmental education is imparted adequately at the school levels. It mandates that environmental components are covered in the school curriculum at various levels. Environment education in a Maharashtra state has been boosted through various efforts. Environmental education has been included as a compulsory subject at school level.

Environmental Appreciation Course - Distance Education In order to provide interested persons an opportunity to learn in detail about specific environmental issues, there is provision of a course module through a Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) for 'Environmental Appreciation'. Delivery of these courses is through distance education mode. The course module developed for appreciation courses is


also being used by the IGNOU as compulsory component of its undergraduate courses. This is in pursuance of the directives of the Hon'ble Supreme Court of India.

Non-formal Environment Education and Awareness Project The Ministry of Environment & forests, New Delhi accords high priority for the promotion of non-formal environment education and creation of awareness among all sections of the society through diverse activities. The project was launched to encourage and enhance public participation in activities that intended to conserve, protect, manage and sustain the environment. The government has undertaken various activities by using several traditional and modern media of communication, to create awareness among the people, such as seminars, workshops, training programs, rallies, public meetings, camps, exhibitions, puppet shows and street theatre.

Grants-in-Aid to Professional Societies and Institutions The objective of this programme is to facilitate optimum utilization of expertise available with professional societies and institutions for promotion of environment education and awareness. The programme aims at utilizing the existing capacity while simultaneously providing for enhancing the capacities of such institutions. The projects such as development/extension of exhibition galleries, interpretation centres and education materials relating to ecology, wildlife and environment is financially supported. Other Awareness Programmes

India has a vast network of NGO's that are actively participating in the creation of awareness on development and environmental issues. Working on their own and with Governments they are the backbone of the strategy to create greater environmental awareness, especially that leading to environmental action.

Despite great efforts to spread environmental awareness by the MoEF through several schemes, creation of awareness among large population especially in rural areas is difficult task. "Mass Awareness" through media, particularly the electronic media has therefore been identified as one of the thrust areas. It not only intensifies the efforts already being made in this direction but also launch new initiatives in this direction to encourage individual efforts in producing films/documentaries on environment/wildlife related themes in the country.

Action Oriented Environmental Education- Environmental education is the process of developing environmentally conscious behavior of an individual. Education/ literacy alone do not guarantee that the learner will exhibit a specified set of behaviors. Rather, it guarantees only that the learner has the capacity for such behaviors. It involves a limited combination of awareness and action that encourages people to engage in immediate personal action that contributes to environmental improvements such as saving electricity, fuel and water, buying "Green" products, reducing solid waste, etc. Most of these actions are fairly simple and usually require just one step.

But most people hesitate to take an initiative and make the connection between an environmental issue and their own individual action. Realizing this Government of Maharashtra has launched Environmental Service Scheme (ESS).



The indispensable services provided by various natural resources compel to protect them from unsustainable developmental practices. Regulatory provisions to protect natural resources already exist. However, an environmentally aware and motivated community helps to achieve sustainable use and conservation of natural resources. If students have the opportunity to learn about the

environment from their school days, they can become 'Environmentally Responsible Citizens' and cooperate in sustainable management of resources. To emphasize this, Environmental Service Scheme (ESS) is launched in schools/Jr.colleges with an aim to create 'environmentally sensitive & aware' young generation. Objectives Understand the local environment, ecosystems, and problems associated with environmental quality through participation and action.

Understand the local environment, ecosystems, and problems associated with environmental quality through participation and action.

Understand the nature of dependence of human beings on natural resources and understand the mutual symbiosis with the nature.

Gain skills for leadership, communication, environmental action and develop attitude and values in consonance with sustainable development.

Undertake demonstration and action projects in and around the school related to the natural resource management from social and environmental point of view with the involvement of local community. These objectives will be achieved by using constructive learning approaches with emphasis on

field studies, hands on experience and activities related to environmental conservation and awareness. Scheme Coverage In the first phase, the ESS will be implemented in most polluted 12 districts, from the 6 administrative divisions of the state. These are -


Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Administrative Division Pune Nagpur Aurangabad Amaravati Nasik Kokan

Districts Pune, Solapur Chandrapur, Nagpur Aurangabad, Jalna Amaravati, Yavatmal Nasik, Jalgaon Ratnagiri, Thane

Activities under ESS: 1. Study of status of local resources including soil, water, biodiversity and energy 2. Study of local issues such as degradation, pollution, waste, scarcity etc. 3. Interactions with local knowledgeable people, other experts etc on the above topics 4. Action projects as needed locally, undertaken with the involvement and guidance of the local community, such as

Soil and Water Conservation Measures Nursery Development Organic Farming Use of Biogas Energy Plantations Eco-san Integrated Pest Management(IPM) and Integrated Noise Module(INM) Composting Safe Treatment and Re-use of Wastewater Solid Waste Management School Vegetable and Herb Gardens School Water and Sanitation Improvements etc.


Implementation Mechanism

State level State Nodal Agency: Environment department will select State Nodal Agency to implement the scheme. Initially Centre for Environment Education (CEE; Centre of excellence declared by MoEF) will work as State Nodal Agency for 3 years after signing Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Environment Department. State Nodal Agency will co-ordinate following activities in consultation with Environment Department:

Selection of schools as per guidelines Selection of District level NGO & District coordinator in consultation with Environment Department

Training for unit head teachers & coordinators Develop resource/educational material on environmental issues, action oriented projects & frame activity timetable for participant students & teachers

Monthly monitoring of progress Submit budget estimates to Environment Department Website development & to coordinate information & communication means for effective implementation of the scheme

Promote ESS at field level & coordinate for external funding from business institution.

Financial Assistance: Environment Department will provide funds to State Nodal Agency for conducting training, developing education material & all related activities. State Coordinator: All activities under the scheme will be coordinated by 'State Coordinator'. Sate Nodal Agency in consultation with Environment Department will appoint competent person (Environmental Expert) as State Coordinator, with remuneration of ` 25,000/- per month on contractual basis. District level District level NGO & District Coordinator:

District level NGO & District Coordinator will be selected by State Nodal Agency in consultation with Environment Department. District level NGO must be a registered society, cooperative institute, trust or association, having at least three years of experience in the field of 'environment'. Selected NGO must have professional and experienced core staff along with environmental experts. NGO have to perform the following activities

Coordinate all district level activities Active participation in training programmes & project activities Act as mediator between school & local community Visit schools at least once in month

District Coordinator will be appointed to

Help the Unit head in planning & organizing scheme activities Organize training events for Unit Heads Provide resource materials, project details and coordinate for the same Consolidate the school reports and prepare his/her own report based on visits and interactions Represent the ESS programme at the district level and provide information on the programme to other schools with a view to create more demand

Contribute to the database of local issues and project ideas on the ESS programme website

Unit level School Units: The Principal would communicate the desire to form an ESS Unit in the school to the designated State Nodal Agency. For conducting the ESS activities selection of the Unit Head will be made by the Principal of the institution from the existing staff. Honorarium of ` 1000/- per month will be earmarked for Unit head teacher. School/ Jr. College will be liable to get ` 150 per month for each student (maximum 100 students) participated in the scheme. Unit Head Teacher has to perform the following activities

To implement the scheme at school level as per the guidelines. Unit Head teacher will be trained by the State Nodal Agency Coordination with District NGO & District Coordinator

Organizing & coordinating the camps under the ESS

Schematic representation of ESS-

Monitoring Mechanism State level Advisory Committee The Advisory Committee under Chairmanship of Chief Secretary of the State will look into overall implementation of the scheme. Secretary (Environment) is the Member Secretary of the

committee. Secretary, Education Department and Secretaries of other related departments and representative of the State Nodal Agency are members of the committee. The Advisory Committee will facilitate necessary liaison with relevant government departments, and agencies at different levels, approve the programme proposal and sanction the budget and review the progress of the scheme. State level Review Committee The State level Review Committee is formed under chairpersonship of Secretary (Environment). Programme Director, State Nodal Agency is the Member Secretary of the committee. Committee will take quarterly review of the scheme and take all necessary measures to improve performance and functioning of scheme to achieve set targets. Unit level Review State Nodal Agency will monthly review the implementation of the scheme. Government/ local body representative like Chief executive officer, Zilla parishad & District Collector will review the implementation of the scheme in their respective district. Head of the school/ Jr. college will also review the activities carried out under this scheme & expenditure incurred accordingly. Green Funding Besides State funding, State Government welcome the funding from private institution, charitable trust, NGOs, industrial establishment, Government approved agencies for the scheme. MoU will be signed with concerned agency. Electronic clearing system will be promoted to release the fund. Information Communication Techniques will be used in implementation of the scheme & all activities will be web enabled through the dedicated website launched for the scheme. Successful implementation of Environmental Service Scheme (ESS) will definitely help in spreading action oriented Environmental Literacy in Maharashta.


In India, pollution and environmental degradation have reached alarming dimensions due to poverty, deforestation, industrial development without adequate environmental safeguards, and sheer greed. Fortunately, public concern, rooted in the country's past, has revived. Major pollutants and critically affected areas have been identified. Pollution control of water, air, and land has been established by both official and private organizations and the work on environmental protection is steadily growing. The Ganga purification plan is a representative case study. Poverty alleviation is a longterm process. It is India's major problem and is being tackled with help from private enterprise and by international assistance. Simultaneously, environmental protection through pollution control, is also receiving administrative and legislative support and fiscal assistance through direct and indirect tax incentives. The country's courts are rendering valuable help to environmentalists by pronouncing far-reaching decisions in public-interest litigation. To boost the existing environment-protection movement, greater emphasis is urgently needed for environmental education, peoples' participation, population control, and cost-effective pollution control measures. Present euphoria for rapid economic development has created enormous pressure on India's natural resources. Forests are subjected to rapid degradation due to growing demand for forest-based inputs for industrial use. Rivers are becoming dumping grounds for industrial wastes, often with toxic materials. Construction of large dams is displacing millions of people from their age-old roots. The development projects are caried out for the prosperity of the poor and the marginalised; but the latter never get benefited by this. Their notion of development is different. They share a unique harmonious relationship with nature. The absence of environmental education in many state standards of achievement and teacher certification requirements could mistakenly be construed as evidence of its irrelevancy and illegitimacy in the modern educational curriculum. In order for environmental education to be recognized as a critical component in the formation of informed, responsible citizens with the ability to analyze and solve the daunting problems of the world in the 21st Century, environmental literacy must become a paramount goal. Outreach environmental education can play a vital role in achieving this objective.


Books and Journals Disinger, J. F. and Roth, C. E. (1992). Environmental Literacy. Columbus, OH: Education Resources Information Center/Center for Science, Mathematics and Environmental Education. Fingeret, A. and Jurmo, P. (1989). Participatory Literacy Education. San Frac ncisco: JosseyBass, Inc. Iozzi, L. A. (1989) What Research says to the Educator: Environmental education and the affective domain. Journal of Environmental Education. 20(3), pp 3-9. Roth, C. E. (1992). Environmental Literacy: Its roots, evolution, and directions in the 1990s. Columbus, OH: Education Resources Information Center/Center for Science, Mathematics and Environmental Education. State of the World 1997: A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress Towards a Sustainable Society (1997) New York: W.W. Norton Company. Taylor, M.C. (1992) Understanding Principles Guiding Our Practice In Voices from the Literacy Field. J.A. Drapers& M.C. Taylor (eds.) Toronto: Culture Concepy ts, Inc. Wadsworth, B. J. (1989) Piagets Theory of Cognitive and Affective Development 4/e. New York: Longman Publishing Group. Heimlich Ph. D. of EETAP Resource Library at Ohio State University Extension. Environmental literacy: its roots, evaluation & directions in the 1990s by Charles R Annual Repot 2009-10 by Ministry of Environment & Forest

Internet Resources