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1. Multiplication by 5

It's often more convenient instead of multiplying by 5 to multiply first by 10 and then divide by 2. For example, 1375=1370/2=685.

2. Division by 5

Similarly, it's often more convenient instead to multiply first by 2 and then divide by 10. For example, 1375/5=2750/10=275.

3. Division/multiplication by 4

Replace either with a repeated operation by 2. For example 124/4=62/2=31. Also, 1244=2482=496.

4. Division/multiplication by 25

Use operations with 4 instead. For example, 3725=3700/4=1850/2=925.

5. Division/multiplication by 8

Replace either with a repeated operation by 2. For example 1248=2484=4962=992.

6. Division/multiplication by 125

Use operations with 8 instead. For example, 37125=37000/8=18500/4=9250/2=4625.

i. 1 1 You should memorize the first 25 squares: 2 4 15 225 iii. 3 9 16 256 4 16 5 25 17 289 6 36 18 324 7 49 19 361 8 64 20 400 9 81 10 100 21 441 11 121 22 484 12 144 23 529 13 169 24 576 14 196 25 625

iv. v.

vi.

Squares of numbers from 26 through 50. Let A be such a number. Subtract 25 from A to get x. Subtract x from 25 to get, say, a. Then A2=a2+100x. For example, if A=26, then x=1 and a=24. Hence 262=242+100=676. Similarly, if A=37, then x=37-25=12, and a=25-12=13. Therefore, 372=132+10012=1200+169=1369. Why does this work? (25+x)2-(25x)2=[(25+x)+(25-x)][(25+x)-(25-x)]=502x=100x. Squares of numbers from 51 through 99. The idea is the same as above. (50+x)2-(50-x)2=1002x=200x. For example, 632=372+20013= 1369+2600=3969. Squares of numbers from 51 through 99, second approach (this one was communicated to me by my father Moisey Bogomolny). We are looking to compute A2, where A=50+a. Instead compute 100(25+a) and add a2. Example: 572. a=57-50=7. 25+7=32. Append 49=72. Answer: 572=3249. In general, a2 = (a + b)(a - b) + b2. Let a be 57 and, again, we wish to compute 572. Let b = 3. Then 572 = (57 + 3)(57 - 3) + 32, or 572 = 6054 + 9 = 3240 + 9 = 3249.

Let A=10a+5. Then A2=(10a+5)2=100a2+210a5+25=100a(a+1)+25. For example, to compute 1152, where a=11, first compute 11(11+1)=1112=132 (since 3=1+2). Next, append 25 to the right of 132 to get 13225! Another example, to compute 245 2, let a=24. Then 24(24+1)=242+24=576+24=600. Therefore 2452=60025. Here is another way to compute 2425: 2425=2400/4=1200/2=600. The rule naturally applies to 2-digit numbers as well. 752=5625 (since 78=56).

This is a rule that helps remember a big part of the multiplication table. Assume you forgot the product 79. Do this. First find the access of each of the multiples over 5: it's 2 for 7 (7 - 5 = 2) and 4 for 9 (9 - 5 = 4). Add them up to get 6 = 2 + 4. Now find the complements of these two numbers to 5: it's 3 for 2 (5 - 2 = 3) and 1 for 4 (5 - 4 = 1). Remember their product 3 = 31. Lastly, combine thus obtained two numbers (6 and 3) as 63 = 610 + 3. The explanation comes from the following formula: (5 + a)(5 + b) = 10(a + b) + (5 - a)(5 - b) In our example, a = 2 and b = 4.

i. If the numbers are not too far apart, and their difference is even, one might use the well known formula (a+n)(a-n)=a2-n2. a here is the average of the two numbers. For example, 2824=262-22=676-4=672 since 26=(24+28)/2. Also, 1931=252-62=625-36=589 since 25=(19+31)/2. If the difference is odd use either n(m+1)=nm+n or n(m-1)=nm-n. Example 3734=3735-37=362-12-37=1296-1-37=1258. On the other hand, 3734=3733+37=352-22+37=1225-4+37=1258.

ii.

If the numbers only differ in units and the sum of the units is 10, like with 53 and 57 or 122 and 128, then think of them as, say 10a+b and 10a+c, where b+c=10. The product (10a+b)(10a+c) is given by 100a2+10a(b+c)+bc =&nbs;100a(a+1)+bc. Thus to compute 53 times 57 (a=5, b=3, c=7), multiply 5 times (5+1) to get 30. Append to the result (30) theproduct of the units (37=21) to obtain 3021. Similarly 122128 = 1213100+28=15616.

To multiply a 2-digit number by 11, take the sum of its digits. If it's a single digit number, just write it between the two digits. If the sum is 10 or more, do not forget to carry 1 over. For example, 3411=374 since 3+4=7. 4711=517 since 4+7=11.

Subtraction is often faster in two steps instead of one. Example: 427-38=(427-27)-(3827)=400-11=389. A generic advice might be given as "First remove what's easy, next whatever remains". Another example: 1049-187=1000-(187-49)=900-38=862.

Addition is often faster in two steps instead of one. Example: 487+38=(487+13)+(3813)=500+25=525. A generic advice might be given as "First add what's easy, next whatever remains". Another example: 1049+187=1100+(187-51)=1200+36=1236.

It's often faster to add a digit at a time starting with higher digits. For example, 583+645=583+600+40+5=1183+40+5=1223+5=1228.

When multiplying by 9, multiply by 10 instead, and then subtract the other number. For example, 239=230-23=207. The same applies to other numbers near those for which multiplication is simplified. 2351=2350+23=2300/2+23=1150+23=1173. 8748=8750872=8700/2-160-14=4350-160-14=4190-14=4176.

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