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A major PROJECT REPORT ON national HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTIONS Session 2009-13

Under guidance of
Er. S.K.Gupta H.O.D (CIVIL ENGINEERING)
SUBMITTED BY
CHANDRADEEP SHUKLA ABHINAV JAISWAL AMAR DEEP GAUTAM PRAKASH NARAYAN MISHRA PAWAN GAUTAM (0307CE091017) (0307CE091001) (0307CE091006) (0307CE091030) (0307CE091029)

SUBMITTED TO

Er. S.K.Gupta
H.O.D (CIVIL ENGINEERING) ADITYA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE SATNA (M.P.)
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Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal(M.P) Aditya College of Technology & Science Satna (M.P)

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project entitled as national HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTIONS which has been completed & submitted by CHANDRADEEP SHUKLA , ABHINAV JAISWAL, AMAR DEEP GAUTAM , PRAKASH NARAYAN MISHRA , PAWAN GAUTAM in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in CIVIL ENGINEERING for the session 20092013 is a bonafied work by them and has been completed under my guidance and supervision. It has not been submitted elsewhere for any other degree.

H.O.D Er.S.K.Gupta (Civil Engg)

Principal Dr.J.S. Parihar

Guided By
Er.S.K.GUPTA

RAJIV GANDHI PROUDYOGIKI VISHWAVIDYALAYA, BHOPAL(M.P)

Aditya College of Technology & Science Satna (M.P)

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the Project entitled as national HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTIONS which has been completed & submitted by CHANDRADEEP SHUKLA , ABHINAV JAISWAL, AMAR DEEP
GAUTAM , PRAKASH NARAYAN MISHRA

, PAWAN GAUTAM in partial

fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in CIVIL ENGINEERING for the session 20092013.

(External Examiner)
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(Internal Examiner)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
A Project report like this one involves many people and would be incomplete without the mention of all those people whose guidance and encouragement helped in the successful completion of this report. Our heartily thanks to all faculty members of Department of CIVIL ENGINEERING ,Aditya College of Technology & Science, Satna for their effort towards our report. I would like to thanks our H.O.D ER. S.K. GUPTA who has been a great source of inspiration for us and without whose humble guidance the report was never to shape. I am also thankful to many people whose timely help but paucity of space is restricting us from mentioning their name. And finally we also thank to all my colleagues who were constant support during the whole report.

CHANDRADEEP SHUKLA ABHINAV JAISWAL AMAR DEEP GAUTAM PRAKASH NARAYAN MISHRA PAWAN GAUTAM

(0307CE091017) (0307CE091001) (0307CE091006) (0307CE091030) (0307CE091029)

DECLARATION

We hereby declare that the work which is being presented in the Training report entitled national HIGHWAY

CONSTRUCTIONSin partial fulfillment of the requirement of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in CIVIL ENGINEERING branch is an authentic record of our work carried out under the guidance of ER. S.K.GUPTA . The work has been carried out at Aditya College of Technology & Science, Satna.

CHANDRADEEP SHUKLA ABHINAV JAISWAL AMAR DEEP GAUTAM PRAKASH NARAYAN MISHRA PAWAN GAUTAM

(0307CE091017) (0307CE091001) (0307CE091006) (0307CE091030) (0307CE091029)

INTRODUCTION

In a National Highway project, the engineer has to plan, design and construct either a network of new roads or road link. Once a highway is constructed, development takes along the adjoining land and subsequent changes in alignment in geometric standards become very difficult. A badly aligned highway is not only a source of potential traffic hazard, but also causes a considerable increase in transportation cost and strain on the drivers and the passengers. Therefore, proper investigation and planning are most important in a road project, keeping in view the present day needs as well as the future development of the region
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NATIONAL HIGHWAY PROJECT

DEFINITIONS

In the contract the following words and expressions shall have the meanings here by assigned to them, except

where the context otherwise requires:

(i)

A BOLLARD is a short vertical post typically found

where large ships docks. While originally it only meant a post used on a quick for mooring, the word now also describes a variety of structure to control or direct road traffic. The term may be related to bole, meaning the lower trunk of a tree.

(ii) A BYEPASS bypasses through a

is a road or highway that avoids or up area, without town, or village, to let local

built

traffic

flow

interference

from

traffic, to reduce congestion in the built up area, and to improve road safety.

If there are no strong land use controls, buildings are built a bypass, converting it into an ordinary town road, and the bypass may eventually become as congested as the local streets it was intended to avoid.

(iii)

CURB

or

KERB

is

the

edge

where

raised

pavement/footpath, road median, or road shoulder meets an unraised street or other roadway. Typically made from concrete, asphalt, or long stones, the purpose is twofold: first as a gutter for proper drainage of the roadway, and

10

second for safety, to keep motorist from driving into the shoulder, median, sidewalk, or pavement.

(iv) EMPLOYERS means the person named as such in part II of these conditions and the legal successors in title to such person. But not any assignee of such

person.

(V) CONTRACTOR means the person whose tender has been accepted by the employer and the legal successors in title to such person. But not any assignee of such

person.

Contract means the conditions, the specification, the drawings, the bill of quantity, the tender, the letter such of acceptance; the contract as may agreement be and

further

documents

expressly

11

incorporated Agreement.

in

Letter

of

Acceptance

or

Contract

Specifications means the specification of the work included in the contract and any modification

therefore or addition. Drawings means all drawings, calculations and

technical information of a like nature provided by the Engineer to the contractor under the contract and all drawings, Operations technical Calculations, and Samples, Pattern, and

Models, other

maintenance, of a

manuals like

information

nature

submitted by the contractor and approved by the Engineer. Bill of Quantities means the priced and completed bill of quantities forming part of tender.
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Section

means

part

of

the

works

specifically

identified in the Contract as a section. Site means the places provided by the Employer where the works are to be executed and any other places as may be specifically designated in the

Contract as forming part of the site.

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SETTING OUT

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The contractor shall establish working Bench marks tied with the reference Bench Mark in the soon after taking possession of the site. The reference Bench Mark for the area shall be as indicated in the contract document of the values of the same shall be obtained by the

Contractor from the Engineer. The working bench mark shall be at rate of 4 per km and also at or near all drainage structures, over bridges and under passes. The working Bench Mark/levels should be got approved from the Engineer. Check must be based on this Bench Mark once every month and adjustments, if any, got agreed

15

with the Engineer and recorded. An up-to-date record of all Bench Mark including approved adjustments, if any, shall be maintained by the contractor and also a copy supplied to the Engineer for his record.

The lines and levels of formation, side slopes, drainage works, carriageways and shoulders shall be carefully set out and frequently checked, care being taken to ensure that correct gradients and cross sections are obtained everywhere.

In order to facilitate the setting out of the works, the centreline of the highway must be accurately established by the contractor and approved by the engineer. It must then be accurately referenced in a manner satisfactory to the engineer, every 50m intervals in plain and rolling

terrains and 20m intervals in highly terrain and in all curve point as directed by the engineer, with marker pegs

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and chainage boards sets in or near the fence line, and schedule of reference dimensions shall be prepared and supplied by the Contractor to the Engineer. These

markers shall be maintained until the works reach finished formation levels are accepted by the Engineer.

On construction reaching the formation level stage, the centre line again be set out by the contractor and when approved by the Engineer, shall be accurately referenced in a manner satisfactory to the Engineer by markers pegs set at the outer limits of the formation.

No marker pegs or markers shall be moved without the approval of the Engineer and and no earth work shall be commenced until the centre line has been referenced.

The

contractor

will

be

the

sole

responsible

party

for

safeguarding all survey monuments, bench marks, etc. The Engineer will provide the Contractor necessary for setting
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out of the centre line. All dimensions and levels shown on the drawing or mentioned in documents forming part of the or issued under the contract shall be verified by the Contractor on the site and he shall immediately inform the engineer of any apparent error in such dimensions. The Contractor shall in connection with the staking out of the canter line, survey the terrain along the road and shall submit the engineer for his approval, a profile along the road centre line and cross section at intervals as required by the Engineer.

After

obtaining

approval

of

the

engineer,

work

on

earthwork can commence and the profile and cross section shall from the basis for measurements and payments.

The work of setting out shall be deemed to be a part of general works preparatory to the execution of work and no separate payments shall be made for the same..

18

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TEST DONE IN PROJECT LABORATORY

TEST ON SUB GRADE SOIL (I) GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS INTRODUCTION:

20

Most

of

the

method

for

the

soil

identification

and

classification are based on certain physical properties of the soil. The commonly used properties for the

classification are the grain size distribution liquid limit and plasticity index. These properties have also been used in empirical design method for flexible pavement; and in deciding the suitable of sub grad soil.

Grain size analysis also known as mechanical analysis of soil is the determination of the percent of individual

grain size present in the sample. The results of the test are of great value of soil in soil classification. designing In soil mechanical aggregates

stabilization

and

for

mixture the result of gradation test are used .correlation have also made between the grain size distribution of soil and the general soil behavior as the sub grade material and the performance such as susceptibility to frost

21

action, pumping of rigid pavement etc.also permeability characteristics, bearing capacity and some other

properties, are approximately estimated based on grain size distribution of the soil. The soil is generally divided into four parts on the particle size. The fraction of the soil which is larger than 2.00 mm size is called gravel, between 2.00 mm and 0.06 mm is sand 0.002mm silt and that is smaller than 0.002 mm size is clay. Two type of sieves on are plate available, to sieves one type with square and

perforation

course

aggregate

gravel, the other type being mesh sieves made of woven wire mesh to sieves finer particle such fine aggregate and soil fraction consisting of sand silt and clay. However the sieves opening of the smallest mesh sieves commonly

available is about 0.075 mm, which is commonly known as 200 mesh sieves therefore all soil particle consisting of silt and clay which are smaller than 0.06 mm size will
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pass

through

the

fine the

mesh grain

sieves size

with analysis

0.075 of

mm

opening.

Therefore

course

fraction of soil is carried out using sieves the principle of sedimentation in water.

The sieves analysis is a simple test consisting of sieving a measured quantity of material through successively

smaller sieves.

The weight retain on each sieves. The

weight retain on each sieve is expressed as a percentage of the total sample. The sediment principle has been used for finding the grain size distribution of fine fraction; two methods are commonly used pipette method and the hydrometer method.

The grain size distribution of soil particle of size greater than 63 micron is determine by sieving the soil on set

of sieves of decreasing sieve opening placed one below the other and separating out the different size ranges.

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APPARATUS:
Various apparatus set of standard sieves of different

sieves size, balance, and rubber covered pestle mortar, oven, riffle, sieves shaker.

Procedure

For the fraction retained on 2.0 mm sieves. Sufficient quantity of dry soil retained on 2.0 mm sieves is weighed out. The quantity of sample taken may be increased when the maximum size of particle is higher. The sample separated into various fraction by sieving through the set of sieves of size100, 63, 20, 6, 4.75, material and 2 mm is sieves. each After initial

sieves,

retained

on

sieves

carefully

collected and weighed. For fraction passing 2.0 mm sieves and retained on 0.63 mm size.
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The

required

quantity

of

soil

sample

is

taken

by

riffling or quartering method, dried in oven at 105 to 110 c and is subjected to dry sieves analysis using a set of sieves with sieves opening 2.0, 0.6, 0.425, 0.15, and 0.075 mm, pan lid. The material collected on the each sieves and on the pan are separately collected and weighed.

CALCULATION:
The weight of dry soil fraction retained on each sieve is calculated as a percentage of the total dry weight of the sample taken. The gravel, sand , silt ,and clay contain in percentage.

RESULT:
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The gravel, silt sand clay contents are marked as result.

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(II) CONSISTENCY LIMITS &


INDICES

The physical properties of fine grained soil, especially of clay differ much at different water content. Clay may be almost in liquid state, or it may snow plastic behavior or may be very stiff depending on the moisture content. Plasticity is a property of outstanding importance for clayey soil, which may be explained as the ability to

undergo changes in shape without rupture.

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Liquid limit it may be defined as the minimum content at which soil will flow under the application of a very small shearing force. The liquid limit is usually determined in the laboratory using mechanical device.

Plastic limit may define in general term, as minimum terms, as minimum moisture content at which the soil remain in a plastic state. The lower limit is arbitrarily defined and determined in the laboratory by prescribed test procedure.

Plastic

index

is

defined

as

the

numerical

difference

between the liquid and plastic limit.

p.i

thus indicates the range of moisture content over

which the soil in plastic condition.

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Consistency limit and plasticity index vary for different type. Hence properties are generally used in the

identification and classification of soil

LIQUID LIMIT TEST:


Liquid limit is the moisture content at which 25 blow in standard liquid limit apparatus will just close a groove of standardized dimension cut in the sample by grooving tool by a specified amount.

APPARATUS:
Mechanical liquid limit device consists of a cup and

arrangement for raising and dropping through a specified height, grooving tool. Other apparatus include spatula, moisture containers, and balance of capacity 200g

sensitive to0.01 g oven to maintain 105 to110c.

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PROCEDURE:
About 120 g of dry pulverized soil sample passing 425 micron sieve is weighted, and mixed thoroughly with

distilled water in the evaporating dish to from a uniform thick paste. The liquid limit device is adjusted to have a free fall of cup through 10mm.a portion of the paste is placed above the lowest spot, and squeezed down with the spatula to have a horizontal surface . the specimen is trimmed by firm strokes of spatula in a such a way that the maximum depth of soil sample in the cup is 10 mm. the soil in the cup is divided along the diameter through the center line pf the cam followed by firm strokes of the grooving tool. So as to get a clean and sharp groove. The crank is rotated at the rated at the rate of two revolutions per second by hand so that the cup is lifted and dropped. This continued till the two halves of the

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soil

cake

come

in

to

contact

at

the

bottom

of

the

groove along a distance of 10 mm, and the number of blows given is recorded . a representative soil is taken, placed in moisture The container, in lid in placed oven over and it the and dry

weighed.

container

dried

weight determined the next day for finding the moisture content of the soil. The operations are repeated for at least three more trial with slightly increased moisture content each time, nothing the number of blows so that there at least four uniformly distribute reading of

number of blows between 10 and 40 blows.

CALCULATION:
the flow index The flow cure is plotted by taking the number of blows in the log scale on the x-axis, and the water content in arithmetic scale on the y-axis, of

format sheet .the flow curve is straight line drawn on

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semi-logrithmetic corresponding to

plot. 25 blow

The is

moisture read from

content this curve

rounding off the nearest whole number and is reported as the liquid w1 of the soil. The slope of the straight line

flow cure is flow index. It may be calculated from the following formula;

For

index,

If=

=w

Hence if the flow curve is extrapolated and moisture w10 and w100 corresponding to 10and 100 blows

respectively are found, then the difference in these water content would give of the soil.

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PLASTIC LIMIT TEST

Plastic limit is the moisture content at which a soil when rolled in to thread of smallest diameter possible, start crumbling and has diameter of 3 mm.

APPARATUS:
Evaporating dish, spatula, glass plate, moisture

containers, rod of 3 mm diameter , balance sensitive to 0.01 g, drying oven controlled at temperature 105

to110c.

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PROCEDURE:
About 20 g of dry, pulverized soil passing 425 micron IS sieve is weighed out. The soil is mixed thoroughly with distilled water in the evaporating dish till the soil paste is plastic enough to be easily molded with fingers. A small ball is formed glass plate to a thread. The pressure just sufficient to roll into a thread of uniform diameter

should be used. The rate of rolling should be between 80 and 90 strokes per minute counting a stroke as one

complete motion of hand forward and back to starting position again. The rolling is done till the diameterof thread is 3
mm . then the soil

is kneaded together to a ball therad this process of

and

roller

again

to

from

alternate

rolling and kneading is continude untill the thread. This process of alternate rolling and kneading is continude until

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th ethread crumbles under prassure required for rolling and the soil can no longer to roll into a thread.

If the crumbling start at diameter less than 3 mm, then moisture content is more than the plastic limit and if the diameter is greater while crumbling starts, the

moisture content is lower.

CALCULATION:
The plastic limit (w0) is expressed as a whole number by obtaining the mean of the moisture content of the

plastic limit.

Plastic index is calculated as the diffrence between liquid limit and plastic limit.

Plastic index = liquid limit plastic limit

W1-wp

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(III) COMPACTION TEST

36

Compaction of soil is a mechanical process by which by which the soil partical are constrained to be packed more closley together by reducing the air void. Soil compaction causes decreases ia air void and consequently an increase in dry density. This may result in increase in shearing strength., the possible of future settelment or

compressibility decrease. Degree of compaction is usually measured quantitativily nby dry density.

APPARATUS:
(a) Cylindrical mould of capacity 1000 cc. with an

internal diameter of 10 cm and height 12.73 cm. the mould is fitted with a detachable base plate and

removable collar extension of about 6 cm hight.

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(b) For the light compaction, a metal rammer having 5 cmdiameter circular face, and weight 2.6 kg is used which has drop oif 31 cm.

For heavy compaction, the rammer has 5 cm diameter circular face, but havin g drop of 45 cm. weight 4.89 kh free

(c) Steel straight edge having behaving beveled edge for trimming top of the specimen. (d) Other accessories include moisture container, balance of capacity 10kg and 200kg, oven, sieves, mixing tools.

PROCEDURE:
In case of soil sample has particle bigger than 4075 mm sieve, about 20 kg of the representstive soil is air dried, mixed pulerized and sieved through 20 mm and 4.75 m sieve is not use in the test the percentage passing 20 mm sieve and retained on 4075 mm sieve is noted and if
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this is less than 20 percen this sample is used as such. It is more than this phenomenon is repeated. In case the sample passes 4075 sieves, than the bdry pulverized

sample is sieved through 4.75 mm sieve and the portion passing this sievesis only used for the test. About 16 kg of dry soil in total may be neccessery for the compaction test in the 1000 cc mould. For compaction the soil in the mould every time the required quantity quantity will depend on the soil type, size of mould, moisture content and amount of compaction. As arough guidance, for each test 2.5 kg of soil may taken for light compaction. As arough guidance, for each test 2.8 kg for heavy

compaction, and than the required water ia added. The estimated weight to be added to the soil every time may be measured in in a jet graduated in cc. enough water is added to to the specimen to bearing the moisture

content to about 7% less than the estimated o.m.c. for


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sandy soil and 10% less for clay soils. The processed soil stored in an air tight container for about 10 to 20 enable moisture to spread uniform in the soil mass.

The mould with base fitted in is weighed. The process soil water mixture throughly and divided into eight equal part.

(1)

For light compaction the wet soil is compacted

into the mould in three equal layers, each layer being 25 blow of the 2.6kg rammer. (2) For heavy compaction the wet soil mix is

compacted in the mould in five equal layer being 25 bloq of 4.89 kg hammer.

The blow should be uniform ly disributed over the surface of each layer. Each layer of the compacted soil is scored with a spatula before placing the soil for the succeeding. The amount of the soil used should be just sufficient to
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fill the mould leaving about 5 mm to strike off on the top after compacting the final layer.

The coller is removed and the compacted soil is leveled to th top of the mould by mean of straight edge. The mould and the soil are then weighed. The soil is then ejected out of the mould and cut in the middle and a representative specimen is determine by finding the wet

weight, keeping in the oven at 105c to 110c and finding the dry weight the next day.

CALCULATION:
Let weight of mould copacted soil be = W1 g

Weight of empty mould =W2 g

Volume of mould = W Wet density = g/cc


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Then dry density =

RESULT:
The result are dry density and wet density.

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CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO TEST


INTRODUCTION:
The California bearing ratio (CBR) test was developed by the California division of highway as a method of

classification and evaluating soil-subgrade and base course material for flexible pavements. Just after world war-2, the U.S.Crops of engineers adopted the C.B.R. test for use in designing base course for air field pavement. The test is empirical and result can not be related accurately with any fundamental property of the material. The CBR
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is a measure of resistance of a material to penetration of a standard plunger under controlled density and moisture conditions. The test procedure should be strictly adhered if high degree of reproducibility is desired. The CBR test may be conducted in remould or undisturbed specimen in the laboratory. U.S. crops of engineers have also

recommended a test procedure for in-situ test. Many methods exist today which utilize mainly CBR test value for designing pavement structures. The test is simple and has been extensive investigated for field correlation of flexible pavement thickness requirement briefly, the test consist of causing a cylindrical plunger of diameter 50 mm to penetrate component material at 1.25

mm/minute. The loads, for 2.5 mm and 5.0 mm are recorded. This load is expressed as a percentage of

standard load value at a respective deformation level to obtain CBR value.


44

APPARATUS:
Loading machine: Any compression machine which can operate at a constant rate of 1.25 mm/minute can be used for this purpose. If such machine is not available then a calibrate hydraulic press with proving ring to measure load can be used. A metal penetration piston or plunger of a diameter 50 mm is attached to the loading machine.

Cylindrical moulds: Mould of 150 mm diameter and 175 mm height provided with a collar of about 50 mm length and detachable perforated and base are used for this purpose. A spacer disc of 148 mm diameter and 47.7 mm thickness is used to obtain a exactly 127.3 mm height

45

Compaction rammer: The material is usually compacted as specified for the work, either by dynamic

compaction or ISI are given in table bellow:TYPE OF COMPACTION NUMBER OF LAYERS WEIGHT OF HAMMER, Kg Light compaction Heavy compaction Adjustable stem, perforated plate, tripod and dial 5 4.89 45 56 3 2.6 31 56 FALL, NUMBER cm OF BLOWS

gauge: the standard procedure require that the soil sample before testing should be soaked in water to measure swelling. Annular weight: in order to stimulate the effect of the overlying pavement weight, annular weight each of 2.5 kg and 147 mm diameter are placed on the top of
46

the specimen, both at the time of soaking and testing the sample, as surcharge.

Beside above equipment, coarse filte r paper, sieves, oven, balance, etc. Required

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TEST ON CEMENT

48

(1) FINENESS TEST:

INTRODUCTION:

The object of this is to check the proper grinding of cement. The rate of hydration depends on the fineness of cement. The finer is the cement, the earlier the hydration and the faster and greater is the gaining of strength. This because of hydration starts at the surface. Larger the surface area (i.e. finer the cement), faster will be hydration. However, very fine cement is susceptible to air set and deteriorates earlier. The grinding of cement shall be as fine as to conform to the standard specification and also shall be uniformly fine .If the cement is not uniformly fine, the concrete made out of it will have poor workability and will require a large quantity of water while mixing. Also bleeding of concrete
49

can occur i.e. even before the concrete is set , water will come out of the surface due to the settlement of concrete particle. To check the fineness of the cement IS: 4031-1998 gives three methods:

By drying sieving.

1. Blaine air permeability method. 2. By wet sieving.

First method is used to find the fineness of cement in the project laboratory.

DRY SIEVING METHOD:

The fineness of the cement depends on the particle size distribution. A small mass of fine cement may have surface area have large surface area than a large mass of

50

coarser particle of cement. It is therefore necessary to reduce the percentage of coarse particles to get require fineness of cement .In this test mass of coarser cement particle is found out which is limited to specified percentage for various cements as per respective Indian standard. Take 100g of various cements from samples and breakdown any air set lumps with finger. Place it on a standard IS sieve no.9. Continuously sieve the sample with a gentle wrist motion for 15 minutes. The mass of residue shall not exceed 10g in case of ordinary Portland cement and 5g in case of rapid hardening cement .

CALCULATION AND RESULT:

The weight of cement retained is divided by weight taken and is multiplied by 100 so the percentage retained cement on 90 micron sieve is calculated. Three trials are

51

done and the average of percentage.

Cement retained is calculated. The average percentage of cement retained should not be more than the specified limit.

52

(II) TEST FOR CONSISTENCY, INITIAL & FINAL SETTING TIME OF CEMENT

CONSISTENCY OF CEMENT PASTE:

INTRODUCTION:

This test determines the quantity of water required to

53

produce a cement paste of standard consistency for the use of other test. The vicat apparatus is used for this purpose. The consistency of standard cement paste is defined as that consistency which will permit the vicat plunger 50mm long and having 10mm diameter to penetrate to a point 5mm to 7mm from the bottom of the vicat mould. The unit of the consistency is percentage of water by mass of dry cement and denoted by P.

PROCEDURE:

Take 400g cement and add to it 30% water on a glass plate or any non porous surface. Mix thoroughly and fill
54

the mould of vicat apparatus. The interval from the time of adding water to the dry cement until commencing to fill the mould is known as the time of gauging and must be not less than 3 minutes and not more than 5 minutes. Lower plunger gently to touch the surface of test block and quickly release it, allowing it to sink into the paste. Note the settlement of the plunger. The settlement of the plunger should be 5mm to 7 mm from the bottom of the mould. If not, repeat the procedure using fresh cement and other percentage of water until the described penetration of the plunger is obtained.

The consistency of standard cement paste is expressed as the amount of water as percentage by mass of dry cement.

55

Let, m1= mass of cement taken m2= mass of water added when the plunger has a penetration of 5mm to . mould. 7mm from the bottom of the

Then the percentage of water or standard consistency is

P = (m2/m1)x100

Usually standard consistency P lies between 26 to 33 percent.

56

TEST FOR SETTING TIMES

57

INTRODUCTION:

The change of the cement paste from fluid to rigid state may be referred to as setting. The gaining of strength of a cement of a set cement paste is known as hardening. During the setting, cement acquires some strength, however it is not considered in definition to distinguished setting from hardening, where hardening is gain of strength of a set cement paste.

Objects of these tests are:-

58

1. To find initial and final setting times of cement. 2. To distinguished between quick setting and normal

setting types of cement


3. To detect deterioration due to storage.

When water is added to cement and mixed properly. The chemical reaction soon starts and the paste of cement remains plastic for a short period. During this period, it is possible to remix the paste for a short period. During this period, it is possible to remix the paste. This period is called initial setting time. It is assumed that no hardening will starts in this period .As time lapses, the reaction is continued and cement begins to harden. At some stages it gardens also called finally set and the time elapsed since the water was added is called final setting time. It is not possible to express the exact state of hardening and hence empirical measurements are
59

taken.

This is purely a conventional one and does not relate to the setting and hardening of actual concrete.

PROCEDURE:

Mix 400g of cement with 0.85 P percentage of water where P is the consistency of standard cement paste. Start the stop watch at the instant when water is added to cement. Fill the vicat mould with this paste and smooth of the surface of the paste making it level with the top of the mould attach 1mm* 1mm square cross section needle to the vicat rod. Lower the needle gently near the surface of the block. Note whether the needle pierces completely .If so, wait for a while drop

60

the needle at a fresh place. Repeat the procedure till the needle fails to pierce the block for 5 + 0.5mm measured from the bottom of the mould. The interval between the time when water was added to cement and the time at which the needle fails to pierce the block by 5 + 0.5mm is known as initial setting time.

Replace the needle by the needle which has a sharp pointing, projecting in the centre with a annular attachment and release it on the same test block as before. Note the time when needle makes an impression, but the attachment fails to do so. The interval between these time and the time when water was added is known as the final setting time.

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The initial setting time for a ordinary Portland cement should not be less than 30 minutes and the final setting time should not more than 10 hours. For quick setting cement, the initial setting time should not be less than 5 minutes and the final setting not more than 30 minutes.

The minimum limits on initial setting are specified because:

Concrete once placed should not be distributed after the initial setting has taken place. There must be sufficient time for placing of second batch which may be distribute the first batch of the concrete. The transportation of concrete from the place where concrete is prepared to the placing of concrete requires some finite time.
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The maximum limits of the final setting time are specified because the concrete should achieve the desired strength as early as possible so that the shuttering can be remove and reused.

(I) AGGREGATES IMPACT TEST

INTRODUCTION:

Toughness is the property of the materials to resist impact. Due to traffic loads, the load stones are subjected to the pounding action or impacts and there possibility of stones breaking into smaller pieces. The road stones should therefore be tough enough to resist fracture under impact. A test designed to evaluate the
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toughness of the stones therefore the resistance of the two fractures under repeated impacts may be called an impact test for road stones. Impact test may either carry out cylindrical stone specimens as in page impact test or stone aggregates as in a aggregate impact test. The aggregate test has been standardized by the British Standard Institution and the Indian Standard Institution. The aggregate impact value indicates the a relative measure of the resistant of aggregate to sudden shock or an impact, which in some aggregate differ from its resistant to slow compressive load. The method of test covers the procedure for determine the aggregate impact value of coarse aggregates.

APPARATUS:

The apparatus consists of an impact testing machine, a

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cylindrical measure temping rod, IS sieve, balance and oven.

Impact Testing Machine : The machine consist of


a matter base with a plane lower surface supported well on a firm flour, without rocking detachable cylindrical steel cup of internal diameter 10.2cm and depth 5.0cm is rigidly fastened centrally to the base plate. A matter hammer of weight between 13.5 and 14 kg having the lower and cylindrical in shape, 10cm in diameter and 5.0 cm long, with 2.0 mm chamber at the lower edge is capable of sliding freely between vertical guides, and fall concentric over the cup. There is an arrangement for raising the hammer and allowing it to fall freely between vertical guides from a height of 38 cm on the test sample in the cup, the height

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fall being adjustable up to 0.5 cm a key is provided for supporting the hammer while fastening .

Measure: A cylindrical metal measure having internal


diameter 7.5 cm and depth 5.0 cm for measuring aggregates.

Tamping rod: A straight metal tamping rod of


circular cross section, 1.0 cm in diameter and 23 m long, rounded at one end.

Sieve: IS sieve of size 12.5mm, 10mm and 2.36mm for sieving the aggregates.

Balance: A balance of capacity not less than 500g


to weight accurate up to 0.1g.

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Oven: A thermostatically controlled drying oven


capable of maintaining constant temperature between 100oC and 110oC.

PROCEDURE:

The test sample consist of aggregates passing 12.5mm sieves and retained on 10mm sieve and dried in an oven 4 hours at a temperature 100oC to 110oC and cooled. The aggregates are filled up to about one third full in the cylindrical measure and tamped 25 times with rounded and of the tampering rod. Further quantity of aggregates is then added up to about two third full in the cylinder and 25 strokes of the tamping rod are given. The measure is now filled with the aggregates to over flow, tamped 25 times. The surplus aggregates are stuck off using the tamping rod as straight edge. The net
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weight of the aggregates in the measures determined to the nearest gram this weight of the aggregates is used for carrying out duplicate test on the same materials. The impact machine is placed with its bottom plate on the flour so that the hammer guide columns are vertical. The cup is mixed firmly in position on the base of the test sample from the cylindrical measure is transferred to the cup and compacted by tamping with 25 strokes.

The hammer is raised until its lower face is 38 cm above the upper surface of the aggregates in the cup ,and allowed to fall freely on the aggregates. The test sample is subjected to a total 15 such blows, each being delivered at an interval of not less than one second. The crushed aggregates is then removed from the cup and whole of it sieve on the 2.36mm sieve until no further significant amount passes. The fraction passing the sieve is also
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weighed accurate to 0.1gm.The fraction retained on the sieve is also weighed and if the total weight of the fraction passing and retained on the sieve is added, it should not be less than the original by 1g, the result should be discarded and a fresh test made

METHODOLOGY OF PQC. SCOPE:


The work shall consist of construction of un-reinforced, dowel jointed plain cement concrete pavements in accordance with the requirements of MOST specification and in conformity with the lines grades and cross sections as shown on the approved drawings. The work shall include furnishing of all plant and equipment, materials and labour as directed by the Engineer.

MATERIALS: CEMENT:
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Ordinary part land cement 43 grade confirming IS: 8112.

ADMIXTURES:
Admixtures used conforming to IS: 9625 and IS: 9103.

COARSE AGGREGATE:
The maximum size of aggregate is 20 mm. the coarse aggregate complying with IS: 383

FINE AGGREGATE:
As approved in mix design confirm to IS: 383.

WATER:
It shall meet the requirement as stipulated in IS: 456.

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Bitumen testing

Bitumen is a mixture of organic liquids that is black, highly viscous, sticky product used for paving roads,
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waterproofing products (used in sealing roofs). There are many tests which are conducted to check the quality of bitumen. Bitumen is very important component of many construction sites like roads, highways. Many tests are done to ensure the quality of bitumen. Some of these are given below :1. Bitumen Content 2. Ductility Of Bitumen 3. Penetration of Bitumen 4. Specific Gravity of Bitumen 5. Softening Point Of Bitumen 6. Flash And Fire Point Of Bitumen 7. The Marshall Stability of Bituminous Mixture

This test is done to determine the bitumen content as per ASTM 2172. The apparatus needed to determine bitumen content are 73

i) Centrifuge extractor ii) Miscellaneous bowl, filter paper, balance and commercial benzene. A sample of 500g is taken.

Procedure to determine bitumen content i) If the mixture is not soft enough to separate with a trowel,place 1000g of it in a large pan and warm upto 100oC to separate the particles of the mixture uniformly. ii) Place the sample (Weight A) in the centrifuge extractor. Cover the sample with benzene, put the filter

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paper on it with the cover plate tightly fitted on the bowl. iii) Start the centrifuge extractor, revolving slowly and gradually increase the speed until the solvent ceases to flow from the outlet. iv) Allow the centrifuge extractor to stop. Add 200ml benzene and repeat the procedure. v) Repeat the procedure at least thrice, so that the extract is clear and not darker than the light straw colour and record the volume of total extract in the graduated vessel. vi) Remove the filter paper from the bowl and dry in the oven at 110 + 5oC. After 24hours, take the weight of the extracted sample (Weight B).

REPORTING OF RESULTS
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Bitumen content = [(A-B)/B]100 % Repeat the test thrice and average the results. Determining the Ductility Of Bitumen This test is done to determine the ductility of distillation residue of cutback bitumen, blown type bitumen and other bituminous products as per IS: 1208 1978. The principle is : The ductility of a bituminous material is measured by the distance in cm to which it will elongate before breaking when a standard briquette specimen of the material is pulled apart at a specified speed and a specified temperature. The apparatus required for this test: i) Standard mould ii) Water bath iii) Testing machine iv) Thermometer Range 0 to 44oC, Graduation 0.2oC

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Procedure

to

determine

the

Ductility

Of

Bitumen

i) Completely melt the bituminous material to be tested by heating it to a temperature of 75 to 100oC above the approximate softening point until it becomes thoroughly fluid. Assemble the mould on a brass plate and in order to prevent the material under test from sticking,

thoroughly coat the surface of the plate and the interior surfaces of the sides of the mould with a mixture of equal parts of glycerine and dextrin. While filling, pour the material in a thin stream back and forth from end to end of the mould until it is more than level full. Leave it to

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cool at room temperature for 30 to 40 minutes and then place it in a water bath maintained at the specified temperature for 30 minutes, after which cut off the excess bitumen by means of a hot, straight-edged putty knife or spatula, so that the mould is just level full. ii) Place the brass plate and mould with briquette specimen in the water bath and keep it at the specified

temperature for about 85 to 95 minutes. Remove the briquette from the plate, detach the side pieces and the briquette immediately. iii) Attach the rings at each end of the two clips to the pins or hooks in the testing machine and pull the two clips apart horizontally at a uniform speed, as specified, until the briquette ruptures. Measure the distance in cm through which the clips have been pulled to produce rupture. While the test is being done, make sure that the water in the tank of the testing machine covers the specimen both above and below by at least 25mm and the
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temperature is maintained continuously within 0.5oC of the specified temperature.

REPORTING OF RESULTS A normal test is one in which the material between the two clips pulls out to a point or to a thread and rupture occurs where the cross-sectional area is minimum. Report the average of three normal tests as the ductility of the sample, provided the three determinations be within 0.5 percent of their mean value. If the values of the three determinations do not lie within 0.5 percent of their mean, but the two higher values are within 0.5 percent of their mean, then record the mean of the two higher values as the test result.

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Determining Penetration of Bitumen This test is done to determine the penetration of

bitumen as per IS: 1203 1978. The principle is that the penetration of a bituminous material is the distance in tenths of a mm, that a standard needle would penetrate vertically, into a sample of the material under standard conditions of temperature, load and time. The apparatus bitumen is i) Penetrometer ii) Water bath iii) Bath thermometer Range 0 to 44oC, Graduation 0.2oC needed to determine the penetration of

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SAMPLE Bitumen should be just sufficient to fill the container to a depth of at least 15mm in excess of the expected penetration. Procedure to determine the penetration of bitumen i) Soften the bitumen above the softening point

(between 75 and 100oC). Stir it thoroughly to remove air bubbles and water. ii) Pour it into a container to a depth of at least 15mm in excess of the expected penetration.

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iii) Cool it at an atmospheric temperature of 15 to 30oC for 11/2 hours. Then place it in a transfer dish in the water bath at 25.0 + 0.1oC for 11/2 hrs. iv) Keep the container on the stand of the penetration apparatus. v) Adjust the needle to make contact with the surface of the sample. vi) Adjust the dial reading to zero. vii) With the help of the timer, release the needle for exactly 5 seconds. viii) Record the dial reading. ix) Repeat the above procedure thrice. REPORTING OF RESULTS The value of penetration reported should be the mean of

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not less than three determinations expressed in tenths of a mm.

MACHINERY USED IN CONSTRUCTION


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LIST OF PLANT & MACHINERY DEVELOPED AT SITE:


WMM Mixing plant Tailor Stone Crusher unit 100TPH Tipper (6/8) GSB Crusher unit 100 TPH Tipper (14cum) Weight Bridge Tractor Concrete Batching Plant
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Plate Compactor Transit Mixer Concrete Mixer Motor Grader Generator set 250KVA Front end loader Generator set 180KVA Generator set 125KVA Generator set 100KVA Generator set 22KVA Generator set 17.5KVA Generator set 5KVA Excavator J.C.B Soil Compactor Sensor Pavers WMM Pavers Vibratory Tandem Roller Static Roller Hydra Air Compressor Needle Vibrator
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Water Pump Bitumen Spryer Welding set with Generator 8KVA Mechanical Boomer Vehicles Water Tanks

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SUGGESTION AND CONCLUSION


1. Civil engineer should perform the work at their level best so that it will give better result and improve the production of the company. 2. Infrastructure of Civil Contractor Cell should be more developed for giving the contract to the best contractor. 3. Welfare facilities should be increase in for civil engineers of Construction Company. 4. For the safety of civil engineers at the construction, company should give the best equipments of safety to the civil engineers.

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5. The hostel facility and amenities should be improved so that the civil engineers could work with more efficiency. 6. The civil engineers are advised to do their work in slot as they do it bulk which create adverse problems for example the road was dug during the rainy season in one flow which resulted in heavy loss of material, money and machinery of the company. The work should have been done in small phases and according to the circumstances. The clipping can be seen on the next page as to how destruction was made during the time when I was undergoing my training.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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1. I.S. specification book on highway. 2. 3. 4. 5. Highway material testing book by S.K. Khanna, C.E.G Justo. Organizations Laboratory. Organizations Engineers.

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