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of these offer language training, for example, Russian.

The Primary and secondary education system included four years of compulsory schooling followed by a further four years of compulsory lowersecondary education. There were then two years of upper-secondary non-compulsory education that either have a vocational, technical, or general education focus. Mongolia's school system was previously based on the ten-year school similar to many post-socialist countries. However, it has been moving towards eleven years of education. The official school entrance age has been lowered to six starting 2008. There are several private secondary schools that have instruction in English and Mongolian, and just a few that have Englishonly instruction. There has been noteworthy growth in the higher education system of Mongolia to this day. There are many universities in this country. Literacy Rates The literacy rate in Mongolia is rather impressive. The country has a high literacy rate which is consistently rated around 98%. This is a high figure for a country that is often rated as one of the poorest in Asia. Mongolia has benefited from compulsory primary education under the communist regime in the 20th century, continuing in similar form today. The Mongolian government's non-formal distance education programs also provide large scopes for citizens to learn to read and write.

Geographical Settings:
The geographic settings, that is, the location, climate, and topography of Mongolia are such that the country is a landlocked one. Its situated in Northern Asia and strategically located between China and Russia. The terrain is one of mountains and rolling plateaus, with a high degree of relief. In general, the land slopes from the high Altay Mountains of the west and the north to plains and depressions in the east and the south. Mongolia is the world's 19th-largest country. The geography of Mongolia is diverse. It has the Gobi Desert to the south and cold and mountainous regions to the north and west. A good deal of Mongolia consists of steppes. Most of the country is hot in the summer and extremely cold in the winter. For instance, January averages falls as low as 30 C (22 F). Mongolia has a severe continental climate with long, cold winters and short summers. During this, most of the countrys annual rainfall decreases. In other words, the country is high, cold, and windy.

Social Institutions:
Family The social institutions, such as, the family, dynamics of the family, female/male roles can be described as follows: Many Mongolians do not value their complex extended families. However, the more intimate intermediate family is considered sacred, and is valued greatly. A Mongolian family generally consists of a husband, a wife, and their young children. The sons move out of their parents after marrying. However, Nomadic families share a close bond because they always travel together, and live in the same yurt, with children sleeping on one side, and the parents on the other. There is a high birthrate in Mongolia, and families tend to have many children. Wedding ceremonies of the country traditionally include the hand-over of a new yurt (ger) to the marrying couple. Family law in Mongolia provides for marriages based on free consent. In addition, the law establishes 18 years as the minimum age for males and females. Besides, forced marriage is a crime under the Criminal Code. Mongolias 1992 Family Law provides for equal parental authority and spousal rights. In practice, the responsibility of family and childcare falls almost exclusively on women.

Growing rural to urban migration has also led to a considerable raise in the number of female-headed households in urban areas of Mongolia. There has been a shift in attitudes towards the social institution of the family amongst women.