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Orpheus and Orphism


Greek religion has lack of hope for meaningful afterlife (Hades is boredom) Emotional and spiritual vacuum Christian stories very appealing Hero myths depicted great men who perform deeds of extraordinary courage Gods may help them, but their own determination and strength, and abilities play essential role Undergo horrible death, but rewarded by some sort of immortality, having ability to continue influencing living human beings o Worshipped by a cult, many of which go back to Mycenaean period Don't touch lives of ordinary people, as people cannot normally aspire to such immortalization Mystery religions give union with divine spirit Eleusinian Mysteries o Gives somewhat better treatment in underworld, but still unclear o Taught that human life and death was part of broader cosmic cycle of constant death and regeneration Celebrations of Bacchus in wilderness o Short-lived and temporary sense of divinity Orpheus transcends limits of mortality by entering Underworld to resurrect a dead person (hero elements) and is also legendary founder of Orphism, a mystery religion that did not reconcile men to death (Eleusinian Mysteries) or give illusion of immortality (Bacchus), but offered soul an immortal life after a series of purifications and reincarnations. Orphism so named because Orpheus was the legendary founder, who was believed to be a historical figure (euhemerism) Unlike Indo-European gods, Minoans and pre-Indo-European Aegean civilizations had sense of afterlife. Religions centered on Earth Mother more generous in allowing immortality Cult of Demeter has Eleusinian mysteries that promised quasi immortality Powerful goddesses somehow retrieve someone from dead o Aphrodite and Adonis o Demeter and Persephone

May be influenced by Egyptian beliefs o Ancient Egypt also had powerful belief in afterlife existence

(pyramids) for pharaohs and his servants/followers Often feature Shamans, who were human magician figures who could mediate between human and divine realm o A priest would be associated with a cult of a single god, only mediating between humanity and that god. Shamans had more generalized access to realm of divine in general. Not involved in public sacrifices but more in private processions. o Hermes had many shaman attributes but was a god Orpheus may have had origins in shaman figure Orpheus given three attributes, not necessarily from same source, but all three were quite Apollonian (sometimes mentioned as son of Apollo) Orpheus was a great musician with a lyre. Music ability so great that he could charm animals, trees, and stones to come around and listen Son of the muse Calliope and Apollo or King Oeagrus of Thrace Studied music under the legendary musician Linus of Thebes o Linus ultimately killed by his poor student, the young Heracles, who struck down the teacher after being corrected. Orpheus was a very successful music student, even greater than Linus, and became symbol for the artist in union with nature o Depicted as sensitive looking, unbearded, and gentle Orpheus was a great lover who attempted to bring his wife back from the dead Marries the nymph Eurydice. Eurydice was pursued by Aristaeus (son of Cyrene and Apollo), but stepped on a poisonous snake while running away and dies o Orpheus too absorbed in his art to notice molestation Orpheus devastated with Eurydice's death, so he travels to the Underworld and charms Hades and Persephone with music to let him take his wife back o Hades warned to not look at her until he got back to the Earth. o He emerges from cave onto Earth but becomes scared that she is not following and looks back. Not out of the cave yet, she is dragged back down to the Underworld Orpheus doubted at the last moment, which caused him to fail to overcome death

To overcome death, must have unwavering faith Orpheus was a great priest and prophet who founded new religion of Orphism Even more distraught after he fails to retrieve Eurydice, so he refuses the company of women o Exclusively involved with boys after this o Some sources depict him as the inventor of pederasty Spread his Orphic Mysteries that he'd gained from Underworld and afterlife he had gained by going to Hades Thrace was also the birthplace of Dionysus inhabited by his Maenads and Satyrs. Because no longer interested in women, he came into conflict with and was killed by the Thracian Maenads. o New religion conflicted with Dionysus religion Represents conflict between Apollonian v. Dionysian o Conflicted with hyper-sexuality of Maenads Maenads dismembered and ate Orpheus. The Muses gathered together most of body but could not retrieve the head and lyre o Head and lyre continued to sing and floated down river Hebes into Aegaen sea, eventually landing at Mytilene on island of Lesbos. Lesbos was known for poetry (ex. poet Sappho) and was a land of music o Apollo grants head prophetic powers so that it will continue its spiritual existence Orpheus' death can be interpreted in many ways Middle Ages: Orpheus was a pagan form of Christ Christ went to Hell to rescue all of men's souls, but ultimately failed and was also slaughtered. Renaissance: artist Orpheus identified as a civilizer and teacher as a pagan precursor to Christ and his teachings Romanticism: Orpheus as the suffering artist in harmony with nature, symbol of the power of love, as a seer and prophet, his death showing tragic destiny of the artist -[10/21/11]-

Orphism arose in the late 6th Century BCE Offered alternative theogony than the one presented by Hesiod and Homer Several generations like in Hesiod, original gods born from egg Mother of Zeus was Demeter (Demeter = Earth Mother) Zeus rapes mother and they bore Persephone o Continuous with traditional theogony o All Orphic births were the result of rape, not marriage Zeus then rapes Persephone, giving birth to Dionysus Zagreus, to whom Zeus abdicates the rule of the Universe Hera is jealous about this abdication, since her role as wife of Zeus would now be less prominent, so she riles up Titans. Titans lure the child Dionysus Zagreus away from throne by giving toys and a mirror. Once off the throne, the Titans tear him to pieces, which they boil, roast, and eat. o Normally first roasted then boiled o Boiling is more technically advanced form of cooking (need tool) Titans reversing usual order of cooking progression Titans punished by Zeus via thunderbolts. Out of the ashes, mankind is born. o Man is born out of an act of child cannibalism Similar to Christian doctrine of original sin o Man also has spirit of Dionysus Zagreus Dionysus' heart not eaten and buried in ground by Zeus. Eventually, whole body regenerated, Dionysus growing out of Earth like a tree. o Force of vegetable fertility associated with grapevine Orphic Purification centered on purifying this original sin. Believed in reincarnation, sometimes into animals, so Orphics were very strict vegetarians o If eat meat of animal, may be eating an animal of a former human soul and would be another form of cannibalism o Complete abstention from civil sacrifices made Orphism an almost counter-cultural movement Foundation for Christian rebellion against Paganism Already several groups that challenged pagan sacrificial rites Purity consisted of strict vegetarian diet, as well as no wine or beans o Higher purification through more life hardships Following these practices for 9 lives rewarded with immortal life in paradise

Heroic Monomyth


Heroic Monomyth (Joseph Campbell) describes the cyclical pattern of hero myths

Hero sets forth from home (symbolic death) Carried to the threshold of adventure, receiving a call that he can accept or refuse Receives divine aid (usually Athena) (weapons, guidance, magic charms) At threshold of adventure, confronts shadow presence. Either defeats shadow and goes into Kingdom of Darkness alive, or is slain and descends to death Beyond the threshold, hero travels through unfamiliar world that force him to perform tests, some of which give him magical aid (helpers) Action is the supreme test (death experience or regression act or a theft) Ordeal is an expansions of consciousness and being, bringing instincts under control of rationality and giving hero knowledge or power to complete task. Hero returns to Earth (may be pursued or accompanied by supernatural powers) At threshold of return, transcendental powers must be left behind Hero emerges from the strange kingdom Hero restores world by establishing order, founding a city, religion, legal system, or bestowing gift to mankind. Arnold van Gennep's initiation ritual provides outline for hero myths Separation Since household and childcare purely female role, young men had to be separated so they would not grow up feminine. Separation was often violent, such as a kidnapping ritual on Crete. Age varied Isolation Period of homosexual relations between men and boys Boys subjected to various hardships that would test them and show them the things a mature man should know Boy learned survival skills for a few months from male mentor Reintegration Boy successfully passes all tests and hardships and come back to the city as a respected adult male. Punishment for failure varied Gifts of completion given to boy from mentor were an oxen, suit of armor, and drinking cup. o Oxen sacrificed, showing boy could perform ceremonial functions of a man o Suit of armor represented service to military o Drinking cup symbolized ability to take part in social rites

[Birth and childhood]


King Acrisius of Argos received oracle that daughter Danae would bear a child that would kill him, so he locked her inside a tower. Zeus turned himself into a golden mist and impregnated her. Mist often depicted as congealing into gold coins, which fall upon Danae and impregnate her. Danae able to hide child for 5 years until Acrisius found out. Could not kill child or daughter, which would be shedding blood of a relative, so he locked both of them into a chest and threw them into sea. Chest washes up onto shore of island Seriphus and is opened by the fisherman Dictys, who takes them in. Perseus enclosed in womb three times (womb, prison cell, chest) and now finally free Dictys' brother, King Polydectes pursued Danae, but she denied him and Perseus defended her right to remain unmarried. Polydectes declared he was marrying someone else and demanded wedding gifts (horses). Perseus boasted that he would bring him Medusa's head (didn't have horses) [Perseus' Quest] Athena (still hated Medusa) told Perseus to go to Graiae for aid Graiae ("grey haired women") were offspring of Phorcys and Ceto and shared a single eye and tooth. Perseus stole the eye and forced them to tell him where to find the Gorgons and where to find nymphs who would give him magical tools Omniscient beings but are physically disabled Nymphs gave Perseus winged sandals to fly across sea, helmet of invisibility, and an adamantine sword. Made Perseus much like the god Hermes Approached Medusa from rear or looked at her reflection in his polished shield Helmet of invisibility meant Gorgons couldn't retaliate Out of neck of decapitated Medusa springs Pegasus Pegasus sometimes mistakenly given to Perseus when actually tamed by Bellerophon [Perseus' return] Land of Gorgons somewhere in far west (the land of death setting sun). On his journey back, Perseus finds Atlas and turns him into the mountain Mt. Atlas, Morocco. Travels to Joppa, Syria where he finds maiden Andromeda chained to a cliff by the seacoast and molested by a sea monster. Perseus kills sea monster and frees her.

Andromeda's mother boasted she was more beautiful than the Neriods, so Poseidon demanded that Andromeda be sacrificed to sea monster. Andromeda's father gives Andromeda's hand in marriage as reward to Perseus, but father had already offered her to her uncle Phineus. Phineus tried to ruin ceremony by bringing soldiers to the feast, but Perseus turned them all to stone Perseus and Andromeda had son Perses, who was founder of the Persians Greek mythology incorporated Persian race into their pantheon through Perses and an eastern mother. Perses stays behind in Joppa, inheriting throne from Andromeda's father Perseus stayed in Joppa for a year but grew worried of his mother, so returned to Seriphus, where he found Polydectes still molesting his mother. Presented gift to Polydectes and turned him into stone and handed over kingdom to Dictys In both Joppa and Seriphus, a woman was molested by evil and was liberated by Perseus His quest over, Perseus returned winged shoes to Hermes and gave head to Athena Perseus returned to Argos. Acrisius fled in terror of Perseus' reputation and the oracle. Perseus, as grandson of the king, was given the throne of Argos. Journey is fulfilled by Perseus returning to place of his birth Years later, Perseus competed at games in Larissa in the javelin throw. The wind caused the javelin to travel off course and into spectators, hitting Acrisius, thus fulfilling the oracle. Perseus felt it was dishonorable to rule after killing the king, so traded kingdoms with King Proetus of Tiryns.



Bellerophon's bridling of Pegasus refuted Cult of Athena Chalinitis at Corinth said that Athena invented the bridal, tamed Pegasus, and gave it to Bellerophon Hesiod says Poseidon gave Pegasus to Bellerophon Consistent with version where Bellerophon was son of Poseidon Dispute between followers of Athena and those of Poseidon since both gods associated with horsemanship Asian cults of Bellerophon said he was originally an Asian god associated with his own winged horse Pindar (poet of early 5th century BCE) wrote odes to victors of athletic games. In an ode to a Corinthian victor, Olympian 13, he describes Bellerophon Athena appeared to Bellerophon in dream and gave him the bridal so he could tame Pegasus, but also told him to sacrifice a white bull to Poseidon Incorporates all three accounts Greek poet can be aware of competing versions of a myth and could attempt to reconcile so no one was offended [Bellerophon's Trials] Bellerophon is exiled from Corinth, so came to court of King Proetus of Tiryns. Proetus entertained him, but his wife Stheneboea tried to seduce Bellerophon, but he refused. She accused him of trying to seduce her. Proetus couldn't kill him (against Zeus' laws of hospitality), so decided to send him on a mission from which he would never return. -[10/26/11] Bellerophon sent off to Lycia to deliver a message to King Iobates (father-in-law of Proetus), who entertained him for nine days before seeing message, which said to kill the messenger. Having already hosted Bellerophon, Iobates couldn't kill him, so he sent him on various missions Sent to kill Chimaera (part lion, snake, and goat that breathed fire). With Pegasus, Bellerophon killed Chimaera from sky. Strange mythological creatures like Chimaera or Sphinxes from Anatolia Bellerophon defeated Solymi army, which was hostile to Lycians. Better technology (Pegasus) Bellerophon defeated Amazons (tribe of female warriors of Anatolia who dominated over their men). Greek mythology emphasizing proper hierarchy between genders A|mazon = "lack a breast" Cut off right breast so they could shoot bows and arrows.

Iobates tried to ambush Bellerophon with own soldiers, but Bellerophon defeats them as well Bellerophon had Poseidon flood the Lycian plain. Lycians beseeched Bellerophon to stop flood but failed. Lycian women approached with skirts lifted, which embarrassed him, causing him to step back and let the waters retreat. Bellerophon has trouble with women (Lycians, Stheneboea) Iobates offers hand of youngest daughter and half his kingdom to Bellerophon as reconciliation Bellerophon thought he couldn't be defeated, so he tried to fly up to Olympus on Pegasus. Zeus sent a gadfly to sting Pegasus, which caused Pegasus to send Bellerophon tumbling to his death. Pegasus reached Olympus and became divine. If a hero tries to seize immortality for himself, he will be doomed to failure. Only the gods can bestow immortality Bellerophon treated as a god in Anatolian beliefs. Originally an independent Eastern god reduced to a hero by Greeks, whose mortality was emphasized by his downfall

Heracles was a hero who actually achieved divinity after death


[Conception of Heracles] Electyron's were sons killed by cattle rustlers, so Electryon promised his daughter Alcmene to nephew Amphitryon if he avenged his sons. Amphitryon went East to ransom stolen cattle and returned to Tiryns with the cattle for King Electryon, but accidently killed King with club, so he went into exile with Alcmene. Alcmene refused to consummate with Amphitryon until he avenged her brothers. With help of Thebans, who had purified him of the murder, he went on expedition to kill pirates. Zeus disguised himself as Amphitryon, pretended to come back victoriously from battle, and had sex with Alcmene. Some versions say he bribed Helios to prolong night for three days Amphitryon returned the following day and told his stories, which Alcmene had already heard, and had sex with her. Alcmene pregnant twice and bore twin sons (Heracles and Iphicles), where Heracles was result of Zeus' impregnation. [Birth] Jealous Hera told Eileithyia to not allow Heracles to be born, so Eileithyia sat cross-legged outside the door. Alcmene's serving maid tricked her by shouting that Alcmene had given birth. In disbelief, Eileithyia got up and accidentally released binding spell. Hera had extracted a promise to Zeus that whoever was born first on a given day would be king over men. By delaying birth long enough for Eurystheus to be born before Heracles. Eurystheus was a coward who became king of Tiryns instead of Heracles Gods gave infant Heracles to Hera and tricked her into suckling him. Heracles bit Hera's breast, the milk spilling and creating the Milky Way Hera|cles = "Famous on account of Hera"

[Childhood] After Heracles and brother born, Hera sent two serpents to kill them in their crib, but the infant Heracles strangled the serpents. As a young man, sent to study music with Linus. Linus rapped him on his knuckles for not playing well, so Heracles killed Linus. King Thespius of Thespiae hosted young Heracles. Heracles managed to get every one of his 50 daughters pregnant in one night, later giving birth to 50 sons. Thebes had to pay tribute to Orchomenos, so Heracles killed heralds of Orchomenos. Orchomenians raised an army to march on Thebes, but Heracles roused Theban men and defeated them and later burned down city of Orchomenos. Forever afterwards, Thebes dominated over Orchomenos Rewarded by being married to Thespius' daughter Megara. Hera cast a spell of madness on Heracles and he killed Megara and children. When he awakens from his madness, he realized terrible thing he had done. -[10/28/11] Often depicted as very masculine and muscular, fully bearded, a knotty club and lion skin. [Ordeals] After murder of his family, Heracles left Thebes to Oracle at Delphi, who told him that he had to serve his cousin Eurystheus, which was humiliating. In other hero myths, labors are initiations into life of an adult, by Heracles was not as young as these heroes, having the mark of a more mature man, so that the labors were expiatory (expiating for a crime as an atonement) [Twelve labors] First 6 labors were local in Peloponnese, the second 6 all abroad. (1) Nemean Lion lion that terrorized Nemea (later site of a great panhellenic festival). The lion had a hide impervious to anything but its own claws. Heracles wrestled with the lion, maneuvering its claws to kill it. He skinned the lion and used hide as a cape. Brought dead lion back to Eurystheus, be he didn't want it. Lion skin symbol of an outcast, also alluding to a return to nature or archaic as with Dionysus' followers

(2) Lernaean Hydra - Lerna was a swampy place where Poseidon had created a spring for Amymone. Hydra had nine heads, largest of which was immortal, and preyed upon people of Lerna. Two heads would replace a head that was chopped off. Heracles had his nephew Iolaus cauterize the severed necks to kill the neck. Heracles cut off the immortal head and buried it, then dipped his arrows in snake's venom. Eurystheus refused to honor this as one of the ten labors since Heracles was aided too much by Iolaus (3) Ceryneian Hind - a doe with antlers of Argos, Tiryns, or land of Hyperboreans to the far north (making it a reindeer). The Hind was under Artemis' protection. Heracles spent a year chasing the deer because it was so swift. He captured it while asleep, but had to convince Artemis that he meant no harm and only wanted to show it to Eurystheus Verbal persuasion as well as muscular endurance (4) Erymanthian Boar - A wild boar in central Peloponnese Heracles captured by Mt. Erymanthos and brought to Eurystheus alive Terrified of the beasts Heracles was bringing back, Eurystheus hid in a large jar and at one point only communicated with Heracles through his herald Copreus (5) Augean Stables - King Augeas of Elis had so many cattle that his fields were unusable under the manure. Heracles had to clean the pastures and stables, but to do by hand would take forever, so Heracles used intellect and physical force to divert course of a nearby river Alpheus to wash out field and stables. Beforehand, made deal with King Augeas to clean fields for 1/10 of cattle, but Augeas dishonored deal, saying Heracles was already obligated to task by Eurystheus Eurystheus did not count the labor since he made the agreement to do it for pay by dealing with Augeas. (6) Stymphalian Birds man-eating birds of lake Stymphalia in Arcadia. Heracles scared them away by shaking a loud rattle and shooting some of them. (7) Cretan Bull Bull that Pasiphae, King Minos' wife, bore the Minotaur with. Heracles wrestled down bull. (8) Mares of Diomedes four man-eating horses of King Diomedes of Thrace. Heracles seized the horses, but Thracian armies pursued him. Ultimately fed Diomedes himself to horses. While going north, rescued Alcestis from Underworld for Admetus (9) Belt of Hippolyte Eurystheus wanted Amazon queen's belt for gift for his daughter. Heracles negotiated with Hippolyte for it, but Hera disguised herself as an Amazon and told other Amazons that Heracles was about to rape the queen. Heracles killed them all in the resulting uprising, including Queen Hippolyte Dominant women were such a threat that they had to be put back into place.

(10) Cattle of Geryon special red cattle of King Geryon of Erytheia (Spain or Canary Islands). Geryon had three heads and a two-headed dog Orphus. While going across Sahara, Heracles raised an arrow to shoot out sun due to the heat, which amused Helios, who gave Heracles his golden cup (sun traveled back to the East in the cup). Heracles killed Geryon and his dog and set up Pillars of Heracles (Mt. Gibraltar and N. Africa), symbolizing limits of human exploration. Heracles drove cattle back by northern route through Spain and Italy. At Rome, the giant Cacus stole some of the cattle and hid them in his cave. Heracles heard them in the cave, retrieved them, and killed Cacus. At the southern tip of Italy, the best bull of heard swam to Sicily, where King Eryx refused to give it up. Eryx challenged him to a boxing match, but Heracles won. (11) Apples of Hesperides the Hesperides (daughters of Evening, living in far west land of the sunset) had sacred grove of golden apples guarded by serpent Ladon, but Heracles didn't know location. After advice from nymphs, found out location by wrestling prophetic sea god Nereus into submission. In Egypt, encountered King Busiris of Egypt who sacrificed foreigners. Instead, Heracles sacrificed him. In Libya, wrestled giant Antaeus, son of Gaia, who got increased strength every time he touched the ground. Heracles lifted him off ground and strangled him in a bear hug. In Morocco, visits Mt. Atlas, persuading Atlas to fetch apples for him. Atlas agrees, but tells Heracles to hold up world in his place. Atlas returned with the apples but wanted to leave Heracles there. Heracles agreed, but asked Atlas to hold the world while he adjusted his shoulder pad. Instead, Heracles took the apples and fled. -[10/31/11] (12) Cerberus Retrieve Cerberus from the Underworld (challenge to natural order of Hades, as Cerberus defended boundary of Underworld). First initiated into Eleusinian Mysteries, guided to Underworld by Hermes, and Hades agreed to let Heracles borrow Cerberus as long as he did so without force (gently tame beast). Accomplishes what Orpheus failed to do (tame powers of death) [Other Labors]

Master archer King Eurytus of Oechalia offered hand of daughter to a suitor who could defeat him in an archery contest. Eurytus refused to honor agreement due to Heracles' reputation with Megara so Heracles stole some cattle and killed his eldest son. Murder affected Heracles with disease, so he consulted Delphic Oracle, but priestess refused. Heracles stole her tripod to establish his own Oracle and battled Apollo over it. Zeus broke up the fight - Heracles returned tripod and priestess gave oracle that he must perform more labors (had killed Eurytus' son after Eurytus had been hospitable) Six labors performed for Queen Oephale of Lydia, where she had Heracles dress up in female clothing and perform female tasks while Oephale dressed as Heracles. Terrible humiliation Some accounts have a sexual relationship where Heracles was subservient Oephale later freed him out of gratitude [Death] Heracles underwent military campaigns against old enemies Married Deianeira, daughter of King Oeneus of Calydon. During banquet of wedding, Heracles slapped one of serving boys and killing him, so he went into exile with Deianeira. Had to cross river (Deianeira couldn't swim), so trusted Deianeira to the centaur Nessus, but Nessus tried to rape her so Heracles shot him. Nessus told Deianeira to take his cloak and preserve it as a love charm to give to Heracles (cloak covered in poisoned blood) Heracles went to sack city Oechalia and captured Iole, taking her as a concubine, so Deianeira sent him cloak via Lichas. Heracles put on cloak while performing sacrifices after the sacking, and the combination of poison and blood burned his skin. Pain so overwhelming that he built and went on top of a funeral pyre, persuading Phioctetes to light it and rewarding the hero with his bow and arrows. Fire allows him to rise to heaven as a god, not a mere demi-god Apotheosis: to transform into a god Heracles endured incredible amount of hardship under state of slavery and suffered greater than any other hero, enduring it with resolution until his end. In Olympus, Heracles was given Hebe (goddess of youth) who used to be cupbearer of gods before Ganymede was brought up



Theseus is native hero of Athens who rose in 5th century BCE (Athens was not prominent until 5th and 6th Centuries) [Conception] King Aegeus had no heirs, so consulted Delphic Oracle, who told him "not to open the spout of the wineskin until he got back home" (don't have intercourse until return home) Aegeus went to Athens through Troezen (historically a dependent of Athens even though it was separated by Saronic Gulf, and was where Athenians fled during Persian War of 480 BCE), where King Pittheus understood the Oracle and arranged for Aegeus to sleep with his daughter Aethra. Aegeus believed she would get pregnant, so hid a sword and sandals under a rock or chest. Sixteen years later, his son Theseus discovered these tokens. Poseidon, who had also slept with Aethra on same night, was Theseus' true father Ambiguity over hero's birth is a common theme [Labors] Theseus travelled to Athens across the Isthmus of Corinth, which was a popular area for travellers and robbers. Theseus confronts several robbers and achieves own set of labors in imitation of labors of Heracles. (1) Periphetes (club man) was a lame son of Hephaestus with very strong arms who smashed people with a bronze club. Theseus wrestled club away from Periphetes and smashed him. (2) Sinis (pine bender) forced travellers to help him bend pine trees to the ground, then released tree to send victims flying or tied victims to two pines and released the trees to rip them apart. Theseus tied him to a pine instead. (3) Sow of Crommyon ravaged the area and Theseus hunted it down (4) Sceiron lived at top of cliff at Isthmus of Corith and forced people to wash his feat. He would then kick them off, where they were eaten by a man-eating turtle. Theseus pulled him by the foot and threw him over the cliff (5) King Cercyon of Eleusis was a great wrestler who forced travelers to pay tribute or wrestle with him. Theseus was quick, agile, and clever, so he outwrestled and killed Cercyon. (6) Procrustes was an inn-keeper with beds that he made travellers fit (chop off feet or stretch). Theseus stretched Procrustes. Procrustean: enforcing conformity by any means Theseus took on labors voluntarily - not assigned or expiatory like those of Heracles

[Medea] Arrives at Athens and is greeted by Aegeus, who had married the witch Medea, who used her magical powers to conceive a son for Aegeus, Medus. Medea felt threatened by Theseus, whom she recognized as Aegeus' son. She tried to give him poison, but Aegeus recognized him and slapped the drink away, banishing Medea and Medus. Medea was exiled to Caucus Medus became founder of tribe of Medes (Iraq and Iran) [Minotaur] Due to death of Cretan Prince Androgeus in Athens, King Minos of Crete assaulted Athens with navy and Athens was afflicted by plague, so Athenians forced to yield to invaders. Athens had to send 7 noble male and 7 noble female children to Crete every nine years, where they would be fed to the Minotaur. Pasiphae, wife of King Minos, fell in love with Cretan bull, which Poseidon had sent up from the sea and Minos didn't sacrifice, so Poseidon made Pasiphae fall in love with bull. Court architect, Daedalus, built her a bronze cow to consummate with bull. Result of union was half-bull half-human Minotaur. Minotaur was placed at the center of a labyrinth, where Athenian youths were sent to be eaten Theseus volunteered to be one of the 14 to go to Crete, but Theseus planned to kill the Minotaur. Daughter of King Minos, Ariadne, fell in love with him. She held a thread at the end of the labyrinth so that Theseus could find his way out after slaying the Minotaur. -[11/02/11] Gathered other Athenian youths and sailed back to Athens. [Familial Destruction] Theseus grew tired of Ariadne and abandoned her on island of Naxos, where she was found by and married to Dionysus. Before Theseus had left, he had promised father to set white sail if he lived and leave black sail if he died. Theseus forgot to change the sails to white, so when Aegeus saw the ships sailing back, he committed suicide by jumping off a cliff into the Aegean Sea. Theseus assumed throne.

When Theseus left Athens, he abandoned his lover Phaedra (Ariadne's sister), who fell in love with Theseus' son Hippolytus by Antiope, queen of Amazons. Hippolytus was a hunter dedicated to Artemis, who warned him of Phaedra's love. He refused her, so Phaedra hung herself, leaving a note to Theseus that accused Hippolytus of raping her. Theseus cursed his son (had 3 wishes by Poseidon) and Poseidon sent a bull from the sea to frighten Hippolytus' horses and drag him to his death. Only afterwards did Theseus find out of his son's innocence. Theseus causes great pain to those he becomes close to as a family [Sexual Exploits] Theseus had sexual relations with the Amazonian Queen Antiope and he was pursued by an Amazon army when they left Theseus and his friend Peirithous raped the child Helen of Sparta. Her brothers, the Dioscuri, pursued them and sacked Athens. Mythology established origin of tension between Athens and Sparta Athens grew in prominence after it defeated the Persians with its navy Sparta was more of a land power, but a naval power was necessary to establish power across Aegean sea Theseus mythology emerges in 5th century to promote Athenian excellence Theseus and Peirithous attempted to rape Persephone in the Underworld. Hades invited them to sit in his Chairs of Lethe and they were stuck. Heracles later rescued Theseus but not Peirithous. During his time in Underworld, Theseus overthrown by Menestheus (led Athenian armies in Trojan War) in a democratic revolution After Theseus returned from Underworld, he was exiled to island Scyros where he was killed for his reputation by the King Lycomedes Myth created by Cimon, who said he discovered Theseus' bones there but used myth as a pretext to conquer island and expand the Athenian Empire

House of Cadmus


[Founding of Thebes] Phoenician Cadmus was a brother of Europa, sent by Cadmus' father to find Europa on ultimatum not to return if he couldn't find her. He couldn't (stayed on mainland, not island Crete) and consulted Delphic Oracle to ask where to found a new city that would be prosperous. Oracle told him to found it where he saw a cow lie down. Cadmus bought a cow and established Thebes where it lay down. Europa carried away by bull, Cadmus follows a cow Cadmus sacrificed to Athena (protector of cities) and sent some servants to fetch water, but they didn't return. Servants were killed by a dragon of a spring of Ares. Cadmus killed the dragon with a boulder. Athena told him to sow the dragon's teeth in a field: from teeth, people would grow. Cadmus gave half the teeth to Athena, which played a role with the Argonauts. Armed warriors sprung from field (Ares) and began fighting each other. Cadmus threw a boulder at field to quiet them down, but only five were left: the Spartoi (the sown men), who became aristocratic families of Thebes. Myth claims autochthony (born from that place) for origin of Theban aristocracy. Line of Theban kings were descended from Cadmus, who was not Autochthonous, but from Phoenicia.

[Theban Succession] (1) Cadmus: Cadmus assumes throne after serving Ares for 8 years for killing his dragon. Cadmus is give daughter of Ares and Aphrodite, Harmonia (goddess of harmony) Mortal marries a goddess, feast attended by gods and mortals

(2) Pentheus: Pentheus assumes throne after Cadmus steps down since Polydorus is too young. He is killed by Dionysus. (3) Polydorus: Polydorus takes throne but soon dies. (4) Nycteus: Polydorus' son Labdacus still a child when he died, so father in law Nycteus became regent to the throne. Nycteus was Antiope's father and was killed in battle trying to recover her (5) Lycus: Nycteus' regency assumed by brother Lycus (6) Labdacus: Labdacus comes of age and assumes throne, but dies young (7) Lycus: Lycus resumes regency, as Labdacus' son Laius is too young Antiope is rescued by her twin sons Amphion and Zethus, who overthrow Lycus (8) Amphion and Zethus: Amphion and Zethus usurp rule of Thebes together Built walls of Thebes They die when Niobe (Amphion's wife) boasts to Leto about her 14 children, after which Apollo kills the entire family (9) Laius: Laius returns to Thebes and assumes throne [House of Labdacus] Laius sent to King Pelops of Elis for safekeeping. Pelops had a son named Chrysippus, whom Laius fell in love with. Laius raped Chrysippus while teaching him how to drive a chariot. The boy was so ashamed that he committed suicide. Laius marries Jocasta (descendant of Spartoi Menoecius). Delphic Oracle told them not to have children, as child would kill his father and marry his own mother. [Oedipus] Laius and Jocasta have a boy named Oedipus and give him to a shepherd to be exposed, but the shepherd pities the child and send it to the childless King Polybus and Queen Merope of Corinth for adoption. Laius pierced tendons of Oedipus' feet so he couldn't crawl away o Oedi/pus = "swollen feet" -[11/04/11] When a young man, Oedipus is told by Delphic Oracle that he will kill his father and marry his mother. Oedipus flees to Thebes, where, along the way, he is almost run over by an old man in a chariot, whom he kills (King Laius) Laius had been to Oracle to ask about the Sphinx, who killed anyone who couldn't answer its riddle "4 legs in morning, 2 at noon, 3 in evening" (Man). Thebans offered throne and Queen Jocasta to whoever rid city of the Sphinx.

Sphinx has body of lion, wings of an eagle, and head of a human female [Sophocles' Oedipus Rex] (10) Oedipus: Oedipus successfully defeats and kills Sphinx and takes Theban throne After 20 happy years and four children, a plague enters Thebes. Oedipus sends brother-in-law Creon to Oracle, who says city is polluted by the murder of Laius and those responsible must be punished Oedipus tried to outsmart the oracle by trying to solve riddle of his own identity as his father's killer. Relentlessly pursues the truth even if it points towards his own guilt Unconscious resistance to understand or believe truth o Accuses prophet Tiresias of lying, bribery, or treason o Both Oedipus and Jocasta deny legitimacy of oracles Jocasta mentions Oracle's prediction and Oedipus becomes aware of truth Corinthian Messenger arrives to announce death of Oedipus' father Polypus, but that Oedipus was adopted. Shepherd admits to saving Oedipus as a baby and giving him to Polypus. Jocasta hangs herself and Oedipus blinds himself for being so blind to the truth Awareness of human limitations Becomes a more humble character Much like the blind prophet Tiresias, in that only in blindness can one become truly wise of human fragility [Andr Gide] Andr Gide depicts Oedipus as an aristocratic tyrant who is relieved of not killing Polypus and doesn't care about incest Conflicting account of later portions of myth [Exile] Sophocles (most common portrayal) has Oedipus exiled from Thebes, who wanders around Greece with his two daughters Antigone and Ismene [Seven Against Seven] (11) Eteocles Eteocles and Polynices (sons of Oedipus) supposed to share throne, but Eteocles didn't give it up to Polynices, resulting in civil war Delphic Oracle declared that whoever had the favor of Oedipus would win, but Oedipus cursed them both to divide the land by the sword and only have as much land as the sword is long Brothers kill each other and are buried in chambers no wider than a sword

Polynices had married Argeia, daughter of King Adrastus of Argos, organizing armies Seven Against Thebes (7 commanders), but Eteocles despises women and doesn't marry One of commanders was prophet Amphiaraus, who knew he would die if he joined. Polynices bribed his help by bribing Amphiaraus' wife Eriphyle with the cursed necklace of Harmonia Armies stopped in Nemea for water where they encountered Hypsipyle, nurse of Olphetes/Archemoros, son of King Lycurgus of Nemea. Hypsipyle led the armies to the spring but Olphetes was killed where Hypsipyle had left him, foreshadowing military defeat o Foundation of Nemean Games (one of four very prestigious crown games) Armies marched to their deaths and Amphiaraus was swallowed by the Earth via Zeus Sons of the Seven (Epigoni), led by Alcmeon, son of Amphiaraus, successfully assaulted Thebes. Alcmeon received an oracle that he would be the first through the gates of Thebes. He was convinced to join the battle by his mother Eriphyle, who was bribed with the cursed robe of Harmonia by Thersander. Alcmeon later kills mother Eriphyle to fulfill an oath to father he had made when he was young and on advice from Oracle Polynices' son Thersander seizes kingship of the city after Alcmeon leads armies into Thebes [Antigone] (12) Creon Creon assumed throne after death of Eteocles and Polynices. Antigone, surviving daughter of Oedipus, defied Creon's orders not to bury brother Polynices' body by locking herself in a cave and hanging herself. Creon's son, Haemon, was in love with Antigone and killed himself in the cave as well. [Freud] Freud's Oedipus Complex (boys ages 5-7) demonstrates how all boys love mothers and come into conflict with fathers, but most grow out of it. This uncomfortable truth is suppressed, appearing in dreams. -[11/07/11][Lvi-Strauss' Structuralism]

Lvi-Strauss took interest in myths of House of Cadmus, finding underlying themes like sexuality and autochthony Sexual Reproduction Blood relations overvalued Cadmus searches for his sister, raped by Zeus Laius and Jocasta have child in opposition to Oracle Oedipus marries mother Jocasta Antigone vows to bury Polynices in defiance of Creon Blood relations undervalued Spartoi slay each other Laius' homosexual relationship with Chrysippus Oedipus kills Laius Oedipus blinds himself, Jocasta commits suicide, Oedipus curses his sons Eteocles despises women and does not marry Eteocles and Polynices kill each other Autochthony Creatures of Earth destroyed Cadmus kills the dragon Oedipus kills Sphinx Eteocles and his army conquer the seven Argive attackers (named "snake," "giant," "titan") Man's identity as a Creature of Earth Spartoi born from dragon's teeth sown in the Theban soil Labdacus = "the Cripple" (represented with bent over letter lambda) Laius = "Lefty" Oedipus = "swollen feet" Burial of the two brothers Antigone is entombed alive

House of Pelops


[Heroic Tripartite of Pelops] Separation - Pelops was son of King Tantalus, who fed Pelops to gods, which outraged them. Greeks distinguished themselves from other Mediterranean civilizations in that they did not practice human sacrifice Tantalus punished in underworld with perpetual thirst and hunger, as his crime was violation of laws of the feast Isolation - Pelops was rebuilt in cauldron with an ivory shoulder (Demeter ate shoulder since distracted by Persephone's disappearance). Poseidon was so attracted to Pelops that he was made his cupbearer Demeter is the clearest Greek reflection of motif of earth mother goddess, to whom human sacrifice was often practiced in other civilizations -[11/09/11] Reintegration - Pelops eventually returned to Earth, where he participated in a chariot race against King Oenomaus of Pisa, who offered his daughter Hippodameia (Hippo/damaea = "horse tamer") to victor and death for losers. By defeating Oenomaus, Pelops proves his physical prowess as an adult For his service, Poseidon had given Pelops divine horses that could outrun mortal horses Pelops bribed Oenomaus' charioteer Myrtilus with half the kingdom and a night with Hippodameia. Myrtilus sabotaged Oenomaus' chariot, using wax pins to secure wheels instead of wooden ones. Pelops pushed Myrtilus out of their chariot into sea in order to deny Myrtilus his prize. While falling, Myrtilus cursed the descendants of Pelops. [Olympic Games] Olympic games founded in 776 BCE in Olympia, close to Pisa where chariot race of Pelops and Oenomaus took place. Originally only consisted of footrace Black lamb sacrificed at Precinct of Pelops (center of Olympic complex) by dismemberment, boiling, and eating by impure men (people who maintained complex) o Ritual reenactment of feast of Tantalus. o Impure sacrifice, as they sacrificed black instead of white animal (antisacrifice)

100m race after sacrifice from Precinct of Pelops to Altar of Zeus (raised platform) o Winner ran up steps to altar with a torch and burned a prepared, proper sacrifice o Continued in modern Olympic torch race Final sacrifice purifies death of child Pelops by Tantalus with transition from improper sacrifice at Precinct of Pelops to a proper sacrifice at Altar of Zeus 680 BCE: inclusion of chariot race, around time myth of Pelops and Oenomaus rises All four Pan-Hellenic games have some association with death of a hero, and 3 of 4 with death of a child hero Olympic Games (Zeus): Olympia Commemorates death of child Pelops by Tantalus and purifies the improper sacrifice with a proper one. Nemean Games (Zeus): Nemea Commemorates death of infant Olphetes, who was killed by a snake when his nurse Hypsipyle set him down to show the Seven Against Thebes to a spring. Isthmian Games (Poseidon): Corinth Commemorates infant Melicertes, son of Ino (daughter of Cadmus), who was driven insane by Hera for taking care of Dionysus. She jumped off cliff into sea with Melicertes, though they were turned into sea gods afterwards Pythian Games (Apollo): Delphi Commemorated death of Python, who was a guardian of Delphi of Gaia. Games honored previous divine regime and guardianship of Python These boys' lives were cut short and never given a change to compete athletically Athletics celebrate youth's potential, growth, and maturation Athletics done in the nude and as an expression of beauty and the arts Karl Meuli found that athletic events were originally styled as fights to the death Greek boxing done with brass knuckles Games honored dead heroes, who chose companions to take with them to the Underworld (losers), and the men who they wanted to honor in the realm of the living (victors). [Pindar's First Olympian] Poet Pindar (5th cent BCE) wrote odes to athletic victors, connecting a myth to the athlete Winning athletic victory was a sign of selection by contest's dedicated hero and god. Poet symbolized victory as a symbolic honor to the victorious athlete In equestrian events, victory went to owner of horses, not the rider. Otherwise, actual athlete was honored.

Olympian 1: Story of Pelops "Pelops, I will tell your story differently from the men of old" (36) o Offended by a cannibalistic Demeter o Myth was the slanderous invention of envious neighbors Poseidon fell in love with Pelops at Tantalus' feast and took him to Olympus. Tantalus stole nectar and ambrosia so he and his friends could become immortal, for which he was punished for in the underworld. o Pelops dismissed from Olympus as punishment for Tantalus' crime New version created to: Redeem respect and praise for the gods Better explanation of Pelops' return to Earth despite Poseidon's love Rejected etiological myth of Olympic games, which was driven by Orphic rejection of sacrifice [House of Pelops]

[Conflict of Atreus and Thyestes] Atreus' wife Aerope had affair with Thyestes, giving her brother-in-law Atreus' golden fleece. After death of Eurystheus, Mycenaean throne fell to Atreus and Thyestes. Thyestes suggested kingship be given to one with Golden Fleece. Zeus told Atreus to suggest kingship should be given to one who could reverse sun's path. With Zeus' help, Atreus won Mycenaean throne. Thyestes was exiled but later invited back when Atreus discovered his affair with Aerope. Atreus cooked Thyestes two sons as part of a feast to feign reconciliation. At end of feast, Atreus brought out heads, hands, and feet of Thyestes' sons. Thyestes cursed Atreus. Motif of cooking children passed down generation. Seeking vengeance, Thyestes consulted Delphic Oracle, who told him to have sex with his last remaining child, Pelopia. Atreus met Pelopia, no idea she was Thyestes' daughter, and made her his second wife. She was already pregnant with Aegisthus, so when child was born, Atreus assumed it was his son.

Once Aegisthus grew up, Atreus captured Thyestes and told Aegisthus to kill him. Thyestes recognized his son by certain tokens he had (like Aegeus' recognition of Theseus) and revealed boy's true paternity. Aegisthus chose to ally with Thyestes and killed Atreus, allowing Thyestes to take the Mycenaean throne Dramatic illustration of domination of blood relation over all emotional relations. Atreus' sons Menelaus and Agamemnon took refuge with King Tyndareus of Sparta (husband of Leda), who gave them his daughters Helen and Clytemnestra. Tyndareus helped them wage war of Thyestes. Agamemnon (eldest son) took Mycenaean throne and Menelaus later inherited Spartan throne. -[11/14/11][Agamemnon and Clytemnestra] Sacrifice of Iphigenia by Agamemnon Clytemnestra's adultery with Aegisthus and their murder of Agamemnon [Orestes and Electra] Murder of Clytemnestra and Aegisthus by Orestes, aided by Electra Madness of Orestes Reunion with Iphigenia among the Taurians, where Artemis transported her after sacrifice

Rise of Trojan War


[Evidence of Troy] Troy controlled trade routes to North between Aegean and Black Seas during Greek Bronze Age Greece imported grains from Black Sea region Archeologist Heinrich Schliemann in early 19th century confirmed Troy experienced several wars. Final destruction occurred in 1150 BCE (mythological era of Trojan War) Large walls and storage-based architecture could store several years worth of water and foodstuffs for the city Mycenaean tax records written in Linear B (deciphered in 1940s) reveal names of Greek Bronze Age kings (Mycenaean Period), many of which sound similar to Trojan War heroes' names. Homer drew on memory of a great war between Greeks and Asian city of Troy (300 years before poet's lifetime) Despite Dark Ages (1100-800 BCE), some memory of glories of Mycenaean civilization survived Past is idealized as much greater than present [Trojan Genealogy] Trojans trace genealogy to river god Scamander, who married mountain nymph Idaea (Mt. Ida) and bore Teucer, the first Trojan king People called Teucrians after King Teucer, Dardanians after King Dardanus, Trojans after King Tros, Ilium after King Ilus King Tros (4th King) had sons Ganymede (abducted by Zeus), Assaracus, and Ilus. Ilus sent to Phrygia and told to found a new city where a cow lay down (like Cadmus) cow sat in Troy. Throne given to Ilus and royal line then descended through Ilus. Descendants of Assaracus still distinguished: Aeneas, son of Anchises (grandson of Assaracus) and Aphrodite, survived Trojan War and founded Rome. King Laomedon (6th King) had Apollo and Poseidon build the city walls, but refused to pay them. Apollo sent a plague and Poseidon a sea monster to which Laomedon had to sacrifice his daughter Hesione. Heracles offered to rescue her for her hand and a fee, but Laomedon refused to honor agreement. [First Trojan War] Heracles returned with the hero Telamon and sacked Troy, killing Laomedon and installing his son Priam as king. Situates Trojan War in other heroic sagas

Heracles is a generation before the Trojan War, involving Priam's father Laomedon and Ajax's father Telamon. [Wedding of Peleus] Peleus (brother of Telamon) was very pious, so given hand of Thetis (one of the 50 Nerieds) mortal and immortal wedding like that of Cadmus and Harmonia both gods and men in attendance Eris/Strife wasn't invited, so she threw a golden apple that said "to the most beautiful woman" at the party. Argument between Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite. Golden Apple given to Hermes, who gave it to Trojan prince Paris/Alexander, who served his father as a shepherd (represented with golden apple and common Phrygian cap) [Judgment of Paris] Hera offered Paris power and wealth, Athena offered military glory or wisdom, Aphrodite offered most beautiful woman in the world (Helen of Sparta) Paris refused worldly power and glory in wisdom for physical beauty Aphrodite leads Paris to Sparta, where Helen had just married Menelaus. They generously host Paris, but he steels Helen and some of the household treasury. Violation of rules of hospitality, but had support of Aphrodite [Retaliation] When King Tyndareus was giving Helen's hand in marriage, all suitors had to swear a pact that they would defend whoever Helen chose. All great princes competed for her hand, so all bound by pact to defend marriage of Menelaus. Many tried to get out of their pact. Odysseus pretended to be crazy, but was eventually discovered King Cinyras of Cypress sent a fleet of one ship and 49 toy ships instead of the 50 that he promised. Patron goddess of Cypress was Aphrodite, so Cinyras didn't want to go against her by attacking Paris at Troy Thetis, who had left Achilles to be raised by Chiron, didn't want the teenage Achilles to go to war, so she hid him among daughters of King Lycomedes of Scyros, dressing him up like a woman. Eventually recognized by Odysseus. Not a suitor of Helen, but every available hero needed for undertaking Fleet gathered at port city Aulis on mainland south of island Euboea. Winds never blew in the right direction and the fleet was stranded. Prophet Calcus said Artemis was angry with Agamemnon and demanded the sacrifice of his eldest daughter Iphigenia Artemis was an Asiatic goddess, so she fought for the Trojans

Agamemnon used pretext of a marriage to Achilles to make Clytemnestra bring Iphigenia to Aulis. Some accounts say Artemis substituted a deer at the last minute, taking Iphigenia to Crimea to be a priestess among the Taurons. Foreshadows dispute between Agamemnon and Achilles over Briseis Agamemnon abuses point of war, which is to bring back someone's woman [Teuthranians] Greeks don't know where Troy is and they land in the wrong region, attacking King Telephus of the Teuthranians instead (Mysia, Asia Minor). They go back to Greece, but Telephus follows, as his wound can only be healed by Achilles' magic spear. In return for healing, he promises to lead them to Troy. -[11/16/11] Menelaus (aggrieved party) and Odysseus (clever orator) sent as an embassy to Troy. Priam and Trojan elders thought Greeks had a legitimate case, but some of the younger sons of Priam resisted and wanted to have war to establish Troy's dominance over all of Asia and Greece. Oracle that the first Greek to step on Trojan soil would die. Protesilaus ("first leaper") volunteered to be the first one and died soon after. For first 9 years of Trojan War, Greeks attacked Troy's tributaries and Thracian allies, who contributed troops and revenue to Troy. Each time they sacked these towns, the men were killed, goods plundered, and women enslaved as concubines of Greek soldiers. Among these were Chryseis of Chryses and Briseis of Briseus. Chryseis went to Agamemnon. Chryses, a priest of Apollo, prayed for the return of his daughter and cursed the Greeks. Apollo cast a plague upon the Greek troops, which is where Homer's Iliad opens. [Homer] Iliad and Odyssey are epic poems much longer than Hesiod's Theogony Probably other epics about other heroes and Trojan War, but all were lost and didn't have same recognition within Classical Greek culture as the Iliad and Odyssey Date to late 8th century or early 7th century BCE same time as Hesiod Debate whether both are by the same author and if Homer existed Homeric Question [Analytic Theory] Originally written texts that were expanded upon by later generations. 19th century scholars tried to get back to original version of Iliad and Odyssey Large sections assumed to be added by rhapsodists (reciters of the story) Original text was much shorter, allowing recitation in a single sitting [Oralist Approach]

In 1930s, scholars compared living epic tradition with that of the past Milman Parry and Albert B. Lord went to Yugoslavia where illiterate singers recited epic poems comparable to length of the Homeric poems. They recorded the poems each time a singer recited it and found that there were always variations between each telling. Adapted delivery to audience according to ethnicity, culture, or audience's interest Singers learned epics from ear and added to them through innovation Poets used formulaic elements to compose poems and have flexibility Yugoslavian singers used 10 syllable pentameter (u-u- | u-u-u-) Homer used dactylic hexameter (-U-U- | U-U-uu--) [-: long, u: short, U: long or 2 short] o Phrase "Achilles of the swift feet" (I.364) serves as a formulaic building block falls at the same point in every line Poets used metrical phrasal units as vocabulary to compose lines in their mind. Parry and Lord believed impossible for epic poem of 24 books to be composed when alphabet was new, so must have been orally composed (writing lost during Greek Dark Ages) Repetitive due to formulaic quality, not poor writing Type-scenes: whole scenes that are formulaic (Ex. roasting meat and preparing a feast; putting on armor) [Oral Derived Approach] Originally, epic traditions were oral (accounts for all of the formulas used by Homer), but Homer could have had them written Homer is not completely formulaic (only 10-20% of Iliad is formulaic) Homer used writing to expand and assist in memorizing the poem. To use Linear B (used for taxes) for poetry was unheard of in Greece

Homer's Iliad


Iliad is an episode of a few weeks during the tenth year of the Trojan War, describing Achilles' withdrawal from battle, his return, and the consequences of his actions [Book I] Prophet Calchas declares that Chryseis must be returned to Chryses Agamemnon and Achilles quarrel Agamemnon feels offended and decides to take Briseis Achilles almost pulls his sword, but Athena intervenes to restrain him Divine level: Athena stops him Mortal level: Achilles has second thoughts about killing chief general Athena's intervention personifies a psychological force within Achilles' own personality Agamemnon seizes Briseis Achilles consoled by mother Thetis, who supplicates Zeus to contrive that Achilles should get honor he deserves by withholding victory in battle for Greeks until Achilles returns to battle Divine Level: Zeus agrees Mortal Level: without greatest warrior, Greeks will have trouble fighting the Trojans Gods enter picture as a personified way of illustrating things that would occur anyways on a human level Zeus and Hera quarrel over Zeus' favor of Trojans Ends lightheartedly with laughter at Hephaestus, contrasting mortal bloodshed that occurs. -[11/18/11][Book II] Agamemnon tests the troops' loyalty by pretending he has given up and tells everyone to sail back to Greece Achilles had questioned Agamemnon's leadership

Everyone cheers and starts running for ships, making Agamemnon look like a weak leader Odysseus and other generals round troops back up Agamemnon miscalculates this test, just as he did in his debate with Achilles. Thersites (common soldier) rebukes Agamemnon for putting himself in front of the mission by taking all of the plunder for himself, alluding to Agamemnon's seizure of Achilles' concubine after his seizure of Chryseis had caused a plague Fact that ordinary soldier talks to Agamemnon like this is incredibly insulting and Odysseus puts him back in his place Class politics privileged aristocrats o Democracy comes in 5th century Athens. Mycenaean Age centered on monarchical system. Homer describes each sides' forces in a catalogue of ships Catalogues were common: Hesiod's Theogony [Book III] Duel of Menelaus and Paris to settle dispute over Helen. Paris is a lover, not a warrior. Aphrodite sweeps him off the battlefield before he is killed, placing him in Helen's bedchamber where he belongs Aphrodite's intervention represents where Paris would rather be Greeks believed that a man who was too interested in women was effeminate, not correlating with a sense of masculine success like in modern times. [Book IV] Pandarus, Trojan ally, is incited by gods to shoot Menelaus and break the truce. [Book V] Diomedes of Argos (son of Tydeus, one of Seven Against Thebes) was a great warrior, killing many Trojans and finally opposed by Aeneas. Athena supported Diomedes, Aphrodite supported her son Aeneas. Supported by a goddess of warfare, Diomedes wins Aphrodite sweeps Aeneas off battlefield, but Diomedes wounds her in the hand, forcing her to return to Olympus

Aphrodite, like Paris, doesn't belong on battlefield Apollo and Ares are also defeated by Diomedes by Athena's aid Aristeia ("the hero at his best") of Diomedes demonstrates how he is almost a replacement for Achilles [Book VI] Greek Diomedes and Trojan Glaucus meet and discover their grandfathers (King Oeneus of Calydon and King Bellerophon of Lycia) were friends. They decide it would be dishonorable to fight, so they exchange gifts. Glaucus gives his pure gold armor (rich Lycia) for Diomedes' normal bronze armor Mix of humanity and friendliness in gore of war Hector, chief warrior of Trojans and eldest son of Priam, rebukes brother Paris for not fighting and visits wife Andromache and infant son Astyanax. Astyanax cries out in fear of Hector's helmet Hector fights for his family and Andromache expects tragedy [Book VII + VIII] Further battle scenes, where favor tilts towards Trojans [Book IX] Agamemnon decides it was a mistake to drive off Achilles. He sends an embassy of Odysseus (public speaker), Phoenix (old servant and friend), and Ajax (warrior second to Achilles) with a proposal to give Achilles gifts (including Briseis, seven of Agamemnon's towns, women, and marriage to one of his daughters) Embassy finds Achilles singing with lyre of the deeds of great men Great warrior taking on the role of the poet Reflects Achilles' abandonment of responsibilities as a military leader. [Speech of Odysseus] Odysseus presents Agamemnon's offer, including assurance that Agamemnon never touched Briseis. Agamemnon offers too much, so Achilles' dishonor is not persuaded. Agamemnon repeated the insult in the way he proposed gift

His gifts obligate Achilles to return the favor. Agamemnon is attempting to establish his superiority, which is what Achilles resented. Briseis was never the issue: it was Agamemnon treating of Achilles, a prince, as an inferior Agamemnon also wants Achilles to acknowledge his leadership, but Achilles wants Agamemnon to acknowledge that they are equals. [Speech of Phoenix] Phoenix tells paradigms that offers moral parables Mythological Paradigm: pointing to a mythological model for comparison Many characters tell myths as a rhetorical device to persuade or console. Establishes credentials of the speaker, especially if he claims to have known heroes or if he was a figure in the myth himself. Upbringing (IX.434-498): Phoenix's mother was jealous of husband's concubine, so made Phoenix sleep with the concubine to make her more attracted to him than to father. Resulted in banishment of Phoenix, when he was adopted by Peleus (father of Achilles) and received generously with gifts. Like Achilles, Phoenix suffered dishonor due to a woman, came into conflict with a father figure, but finally accepted gifts from Peleus. Problem is that this was not the offending father figure who offered the gifts. Phoenix never reconciled with his father Prayer (IX.499-523): Talks about the Prayers/Litae (anything one begs for) wrinkled old spirits who even gods yield to out of pity. If gods can take pity on the Prayers, Achilles should listen to prayers of Phoenix and the rest of the Greeks. Meleager (IX.524-605): After Calydonian Boar Hunt, Calydonians and neighboring Curetes disputed over division of spoils. Curetes laid siege to Calydon. Meleager, like Achilles, withdrew from the battle due to anger with mother Althaea. Curetes invaded city but Meleager refused all gifts from Calydonians. Only returned to battle when his own house was threatened and his wife Cleopatra persuaded him Only returns to battle when enemy threatens his house and family. Achilles would have to wait until the Trojans reached his tent. Emphasizes how Meleager did not accept gifts Paradigm for what Achilles actually does, which is to refuse to return to battle until personal interests threatened, which occurs in Books XVII and XIX when Patroclus is killed by Hector. o Patroclus and Cleopatra ("fame of the father")

This myth depicts a different storyline from the classical myth of Meleager, demonstrating how myths were used to convey the author's point and how importance of the story was not in its details but in the remembering of its characters. [Speech of Ajax/Aias] Ajax of Telamon, an old friend of Achilles and not a man of words, delivers a short, blunt, and insulting speech, accusing Achilles of deserting his friends This speech impresses Achilles the most, as it is based on Ajax' personal relationship to Achilles. Nevertheless, Achilles won't forgive Agamemnon. -[11/21/11] Pattern of Zeus punishing gods: Hephaestus, Delusion, Sleep Inconsistency of stories within same passage alludes to the orator playing towards the biases of his audience: Hephaestus with Hera and Thetis (I.394) Poseidon, Hera, and Athena plotted to overthrow Zeus, but Thetis called up Briareus (100-handed one) to defend Zeus, so Zeus owed Thetis a favor. Contrasts Zeus' punishing, though he is ultimately saved and is triumphant Will of Zeus cannot be thwarted. Same three gods opposed Zeus for favoring Trojans Hera and Athena hated Trojans for the Judgment of Paris Poseidon hated Trojans for being cheated after building the Trojan wall [Book X] The Dolon Episode: Diomedes and Odysseus capture the Trojan spy Dolon while they are spying on the Trojans. Dolon tells them that Rhesus of Thrace had arrived with herd of divine horses with oracle that if these divine horses made their way to Troy, the city would never be taken. Dolon killed for cowardice and traitorousness Diomedes and Odysseus find and steal the horses [Book XI] Aristeia of Agamemnon Major Greek heroes are wounded Achilles sends Patroclus to investigate [Book XII] The Greeks' defensive wall and trench are breached [Book XIII]

Aristeia of Idomeneus of Crete [Book XIV] Hera, so concerned for Greeks, seduces Zeus and lulls him to sleep with a magical girdle from Aphrodite Hera had tried to kill Heracles by having winds blow him off course after having sacked Troy. Hera tricked Zeus by using god Sleep, who was then cast out of Olympus by Zeus While Zeus sleeps, Hera has Poseidon help the Greeks [Book XV] Zeus wakes up in fury, commanding Poseidon back to sea and sends Apollo to help Trojans He alludes to Hera and Sleep's role with Heracles, adding how he hung Sleep over edge of Olympus with anvils tied to her feet. In Books XIV and XI, Zeus' authority challenged by Hera and other gods, much like challenge to Agamemnon's authority that started whole plot [Book XVI] Hector advances to Greek ships and sets fire to one of them. Ajax of Telamon stands out as Greeks' best defender Patroclus begs Achilles to take pity on the Greeks, at least allowing him and the Myrmidons to reinforce the Greeks Achilles allows Patroclus to wear his armor and reenter battle, making Trojans think Achilles himself reentered the battle Achilles also gives strict instructions that Patroclus is only to battle long enough to chase Trojans back from wall and no further Aristeia of Patroclus Patroclus is so successful that he forgets this, even killing King Sarpedon of Lycia (son of Zeus and Europa) Zeus wants to rescue his son, but decides that doing so would defy the Fates, as he too is a slave to them and Destiny Sends Sleep and Death to carry body to Lycia for a proper burial -[11/23/11][Book XVII]

Hector strips armor from corpse of Patroclus and a battle over the corpse ensues Horses of Achilles [Book XVIII] Achilles is stricken by grief over death of Patroclus (XVII.115) Achilles alludes to death of Heracles as a great hero and that Achilles too must die But Heracles became immortal; only Achilles will die. Thetis seeks new armor from Hephaestus Hephaestus tells story of how he was cast out of Olympus, blaming Hera, while he previously said Zeus when he was in the presence of Hera. In both versions, Thetis rescues him, so he is grateful. The Shield of Achilles represents microcosm of entire world of Iliad From center to rim: Elements and heavens (Elemental; pure nature) City at war and a City at peace (Narrative; Iliad's plot) o Two possibilities to resolve conflicts: violence & war, or peaceful judicial means Marriage and dispute v. Ambush and siege Agriculture (figural, Iliad's simile) o Fallow, vintage, reaping and plowing Dancing chorus (Poetic) o Depiction of the Iliad's singer of Iliad Ocean Achilles puts on new identity with armor as he reintegrates into society as a new man

[Book XIX] Formal reconciliation of Achilles and Agamemnon (XIX.85) Agamemnon blames Delusion for his madness, just as Delusion tricked Zeus on the day of Heracles' birth through Hera's manipulation to make Eurystheus king. Paradigm undercuts Agamemnon as a leader, since Eurystheus was a weak leader over the more powerful Heracles; or Achilles in Agamemnon's case. Odysseus proposes that the troops eat before battle after fighting over Patroclus, but Achilles wants to go straight to battle Achilles is still thinking selfishly, despite formally returning to Greeks [Book XX] Achilles reenters battle, killing many Trojans Poseidon sweeps Aeneas away from Achilles Apollo restrains Hector from fighting Achilles [Book XXI] Achilles confronts Lycaon, a son of Priam who he had sold into slavery but had been ransomed by Priam. This time, Achilles kills Lycaon The river Scamander clogs with bodies and floods to cleanse the plain. It chases Achilles, threatening to drown him, but Hephaestus evaporates the river with a forest fire. Achilles can prevail against raw natural power With Achilles' return, Zeus favors Greeks again and allows other gods to join the battle Athena overpowers Ares and Aphrodite, Hera overpowers Artemis Poseidon, Apollo, Leto, and Hermes decide not to fight over humans [Book XXII] Hector makes his last stand outside of the city alone. He tries to make a deal to honor the corpse of the defeated (avoid battle like over Patroclus' corpse), but Achilles refuses for the savagery that Patroclus went through. Achilles has yet to return to humanity Achilles slays Hector, tying a rope through the corpse's legs and dragging it around the walls of Troy. Seeks to humiliate the Trojans, who watched as their favorite son's corpse was maltreated.

[Book XXIII] Achilles organizes and arbitrates funeral games for Patroclus, ensuring everyone receives a prize. Athletic games are an opportunity for dead hero to choose who he wants to accompany him and who he wants to have glory among the living Achilles does something for benefit of Greek troops [Book XXIV] Andromache, Hecuba, Helen, and Priam lament over death of Hector Gods tell Achilles to ransom Hector's corpse, and Hermes leads Priam to Achilles with gifts Image of a helpless old man confronting a ruthless killer Priam begs Achilles to think of his father Peleus, which moves Achilles to pity for the first time in the Iliad, motivating him to look through another's point of view Achilles is brought to a level of common humanity Achilles accepts Priam's gifts (contrasting denial of gifts of Agamemnon) and then offers Priam food and consolation (contrasts denial of food for soldiers). Phoenix' story of his Upbringing is fulfilled, thus fulfilling all of Phoenix' paradigms

End of Trojan War


[Final Battles] Achilles v. Penthesileia Amazon Queen Penthesileia reinforces Trojans but is defeated by Achilles Achilles makes love to her corpse Achilles v. Memnon King Memnon of Ethiopia, born of Eos (dawn goddess) and Tithonus, reinforces Trojans but is killed by Achilles Ethiopia was thought to be continuous from South to East (no distinguishing between black races), so all considered sons of the dawn goddess Achilles vs. Paris Paris shot Achilles in his Achilles' tendon with a poisoned arrow Most heroic Greek defeated by most worthless Trojan Thetis dipped Achilles in Styx, inoculating body against mortal wounds, but not on the heel where she held him. [Greek dissension] Inheritance of Achilles' armor and title of Greek champion argued between Ajax of Telamon and Odysseus Odysseus for speaking and strategy, Ajax for status as great warrior (alone drove Greeks away from ships in Book XV) Physical strength v. Mental acuity conflict also seen in Heracles Odysseus wins, either due to bribery of judges (as accused of by Ajax) or through speech (as some versions have it) Ajax is furious and tries to kill Odysseus and other Greek chieftains. Athena casts a delusion over his madness and he instead slaughters a herd of sheep and cattle. When he recovers, he feels so disgraced that he commits suicide, jumping on a sword Hector gave him as a gift of hospitality -[11/28/11][Trojan Oracles] In order to sack Troy, Greeks needed Neoptolemus, the Trojan Palladium, and the bow of Heracles

Thetis hid Achilles among 50 daughters of Lycomedes on Scyros when he was a teenager, one of whom he had a son with, Neoptolemus (13 yrs old by Achilles' death). Neoptolemus = "re-newer of war" merciless child killer Palladium was a wooden statue of Athena in the Trojan citadel. Fact that her image remained in citadel of Troy protected the city, so Diomedes and Odysseus stole it. Bow of Heracles in possession of Philoctetes, who had been abandoned on Lemnos 10 yrs earlier because he had suffered an incurable snake bite. At first, he refused to go back with the Greeks to Troy, but ultimately submitted and was cured by Greek physicians there. Hephaestus, also crippled in the leg, is associated with Lemnos. Philoctetes inherited eternal physical pain of Heracles [Sack of Troy] Greeks left giant wooden horse in plain and pretended to abandon expedition, leaving behind Sinon, who pretended to be a Greek soldier who had been mistreated by other Greeks. Told Trojans that if horse was taken into city, Troy would be destined to rule all of Asia. If not, Troy would fall. Trojan Laocoon, prophetic priest of Apollo, warned that horse was a trick and threw spear at it. When Laocoon was sacrificing, giant serpents strangled him and his sons. Trojans took this as an omen and broke down part of their wall to get the horse into their city. During the night after Trojans had celebrated their victory, soldiers exited wooden horse. Greek forces secretly returned during the night and invaded Troy. Final scenario was an act of trickery (some accounts have it as Odysseus' idea), not brute force, illustrating value of intellect over force. Cassandra (daughter of Priam given prophetic powers by Apollo but cursed with never being believed), was found in shrine of Athena and raped by Ajax of Oileus Neoptolemus throws body of Astyanax over a cliff and kills Priam at an altar absolute sacrilege City burned to the ground, women enslaved, men massacred. A few survivors gathered under Aeneas, who failed to settle Thrace and Crete but finally settled near location of Rome

Return from Troy


Though Gods supported sacking of Troy, they didn't approve of the Greek sacrileges. [Agamemnon] Agamemnon killed by wife Clytemnestra, who had had an adulterous affair with Aegisthus of Thyestes Curse on House of Pelops [Menelaus] Menelaus wandered at sea for 7 years before returning to Sparta. One version says he went to Egypt and found Helen. The Helen Paris had stolen was a phantom of Helen and the war had been fought over an illusion. [Ajax of Oileus] Ajax of Oileus was shipwrecked and swam to a rock for safety, but Poseidon split rock apart with trident. [Teucer] Teucer, half-brother of Telamonian Ajax, returned to Salamis, but was cursed and exiled by Telamon for not defending Ajax. Founded city Salamis on Cyprus. [Neoptolemus] Neoptolemus wandered for several years and was killed at Delphi over a dispute with the priests over division of sacrificial meat. Some sources have his death due to a quarrel with Orestes (son of Agamemnon) over hand of Hermione (daughter of Menelaus and Helen) Tensions of older generation repeated in next generation heredity of guilt [Odysseus] Odysseus wandered for 10 years before returning home to Ithaca basis of Homer's Odyssey Winds blew him so off course that he sailed past Italy and Sicily into unknown regions. [Polyphemus] First came to island of the primitive Cyclops. Odysseus found a cave full of cheese, but the Cyclops Polyphemus found them. Odysseus demanded a gift of hospitality (violated hospitality by invading household). Polyphemus eats two of them, promising that Odysseus, who calls himself "No Man," will be last. Polyphemus' cave blocked by a huge boulder to keep sheep in cave overnight. Odysseus gives Polyphemus some Thracian wine. An unsophisticated savage, he drank until he passed out (never had wine before). Odysseus and his men sharpened a log and stabbed him in the eye. Polyphemus screamed out to other Cyclops that No Man was attacking him, so they didn't bother. They hid under the bellies of sheep so they could escape when Polyphemus felt backs of sheep to let them out to pasture in the morning. In his ship, Odysseus taunts Polyphemus, telling him his name and of his home Ithaca. Polyphemus prayed for his father Poseidon to curse Odysseus.

[Aeolus] Aeolus, King of the Winds, gave Odysseus a bag with all of the bad winds in it so that the West Wind (Zephyr) would drive Odysseus home. Odysseus never told his sailors what was in the bag, so they suspected Odysseus of hiding treasure. They opened it and the winds blew the ship hopelessly off course. [Circe] Sailors saw smoke on island Aeaea, so Odysseus sent half his men to investigate, but they never return. Hermes warns Odysseus that Circe is a witch who transformed Odysseus' men into pigs and she'd do the same to Odysseus. He gives him a magical antidote (moly) and that he should pull his sword on her instead of accepting a drink. Circe is so impressed by masculine force she changes men back to humans and goes to bed with him. They spend a year together. Odysseus kept mastery of relationship. Others were too willing to be charmed, making pigs of themselves by caving to their appetites. When Odysseus left, Circe told him to visit Underworld to visit soul of Theban prophet Tiresias, who would tell him how to find his way back home. [Underworld] Odysseus pours libations at Underworld's entrance and souls come up (not clear if he enters Underworld). Ghost of Ajax turns his back, Agamemnon warns him of dangers of an unfaithful wife, and Achilles says its better to be a slave among the living than a prince among the dead contrary to his attitude in Iliad [Sirens] Three beautiful bird women sang so beautifully that sailors shipwrecked trying to see them. Odysseus wanted to hear them, so made sailors tie him up and stuff their ears. Odysseus leaves his own ears open and maintains leadership by not letting his men listen. [Strait of Sicily] Strait of Sicily and Italy inhabited by Scylla, a monster with six extendable dog heads on groin that would pluck men off the ship, and Charybdis on the other side of the strait, which was a giant whirlpool that came twice a day. Odysseus faced with dilemma of certain death of six men by Scylla or risk total destruction by Charybdis. Decides to lose six men than to run risk of losing everything. Odysseus again separating himself from the loyalties of his men. -[11/30/11][Cattle of Helios]

Tiresias warns Odysseus not to touch sacred cattle of Helios on Thrinaeia Island or he will be destroyed. Odysseus told men, but they ran out of provisions after being stranded on island. While Odysseus off hunting, his men slaughter cattle. When ship finally sails, Helios destroys ship in a storm; only Odysseus survives by swimming to nearby island Ogygia. [Calypso] On Ogygia, the nymph Calypso falls in love with Odysseus and will give him immortality if he stayed with her. Odysseus wasn't satisfied with living in obscurity and wanted to go home to human society. Analogous to choice of Achilles to die early rather than live long in obscurity stress on fame over obscurity [Phaeacia] After several years, Odysseus builds a raft and sails for 17 days before Poseidon causes a storm (last act of vengeance) and shipwrecks Odysseus in Phaeacia/Scheria, where he is found naked and dirty by princess Nausicaa. She clothes him and leads him to father King Alcinous' palace. Odysseus is entertained and tells story of advenctures, whereupon Alcinous promises to prepare a boat to take him back to Ithaca. [Ithaca] On Ithaca, Odysseus finds that many assumed that he was dead and 200 nobles from Ithaca and western Greece converged on his household seeking hand of his wife Penelope. Penelope kept making excuses, saying she wanted to finish weaving a funeral shroud for Odysseus' father Laertes, which she secretly unwove at night. Suitors kept consuming Odysseus' provisions and herds. Perversion of hospitality began with invasion of Polyphemus' house and ends with invasion of Odysseus' house. Athena disguised Odysseus as an old beggar and he went to loyal servant, the swine herder Eumaeus, who told him about the suitors. Odysseus' son Telemachus joined them (baby when Odysseus left for Troy, but 20 years later, was now of age). Odysseus revealed identity to them and they plotted against suitors. Penelope held an archery contest: whoever strung Odysseus' bow and shot arrow through eyeholes of 12 axes would win her. Telemachus and Eumaeus hid armor and weapons of household and another servant locked the doors. All of suitors couldn't even string bow. Odysseus, as the old beggar, strung it, shot the arrow through, and then killed all of the suitors. Revealed himself to Penelope afterwards.



[Origin] Epic Mesopotamian poem (modern day Iraq) Gilgamesh arose 1000 yrs before Iliad during height of Babylonian Empire Modern 11 tablet version dates to same time as Homer and Hesiod Gilgamesh was written, not an oral epic. Mesopotamians had a writing system by 3000 BCE elaborate writing tradition alluded to in introduction of Gilgamesh (I-i) Mesopotamian epics may have reached Eastern Greeks in Anatolia, influencing oral Homeric poems [Gilgamesh and Iliad] Introductions of Gilgamesh and Iliad emphasize travels of hero and how they gained virtue and experience from travels Idea that fame is highest human attainment (end I-i) is also basic assumption of Homeric epics (Achilles and Odysseus both chose heroic path to fame) Man of singular excellence mirrored in hero tales of Heracles, Bellerophon, Perseus, etc. Gilgamesh starts off as king while Greek heroes were deprived of kingship (Heracles) or rewarded with kingship after their trials (Perseus, Theseus, Bellerophon) [Gilgamesh] Gilgamesh was 2/3 divine, son of King Lugalbanda and divine cow Ninsun (I-ii) Mesopotamian inheritance custom was that oldest son would receive 2/3 of estate Mesopotamians may have traced ancestry through mother mother contributed more to genetic qualities Due to Ninsun's divinity, her contribution to Gilgamesh was greater than mortal father's Required labor from all young people to build city walls (I-ii) May have been asserting himself sexually (presence of homosexuality), as specifically young men and women oppressed, reflecting his power as sexually predatory (didn't make sense to otherwise recruit young women to build walls) Parents pray in complaint [Enkidu] Goddess Aruru (mother goddess Tiamat) creates a new man to be a rival to Gilgamesh so he won't oppress his people. With seed of the sky god Anu and a piece of clay, created a primitive man, Enkidu. Autochthony with Prometheus, Deucalion & Pyrrha, Spartoi, Erichthonius, etc.

In Bible, Adam created out of dust and Job out of clay Enkidu was wild, shaggy, and lived with animals. Gilgamesh is man of the city, Enkidu is a man of nature. [Shamhat] Enkidu sabotaged hunters' traps. Hunter talked to his father, who advised him to go to tell King Gilgamesh. Gilgamesh told him to take prostitute Shamhat to seduce and distract Enkidu so he wouldn't interfere with hunting and domestication of cattle. Shamhat succeeds (I-iv) and Enkidu loses shaggy hair after he makes love to her. Sexuality civilizes primitivism Autochthony v. Sexual Reproduction: common conflict. Sexuality overpowers autochthony Enkidu still formidable match for Gilgamesh. [Dreams] Gilgamesh describes dreams to Ninsun He has dream of meteor that falls from sky and he can't lift at first. He loved it like it was a woman and brings it to his mother. In another dream, a copper ax falls from heaven and lands in road. In both cases, something comes from heaven and impacts ground something new and violent entering world Metaphor for Enkidu, who he is about to confront, as Enkidu came from gods Reenacts Tiamat's penetration by Anu to create Enkidu (earth mother and sky god) First dream about natural element, second about a tool of civilization Demonstrates Enkidu's transformation from natural state to civilized state. -[12/02/11] Loving rock like a wife similar to friendship of King David and Jonathan in Bible Achilles and Patroclus, David and Jonathan, Gilgamesh and Enkidu homosexual relationships [Male Individuation]

Carl Jung saw this as an example of male individuation (process of becoming own self) Consciousness of shadow-figure (alter ego) develops around 18 to 21 Enkidu represents alter ego of Gilgamesh (very similar but also different differences compliment each other) o Enkidu from wilderness (at one with nature) while Gilgamesh very political o Both strong, heroic, and courageous Distinction of the animus (masculine soul) and the anima (feminine soul) in late 20s early 30s Female characters not very important, but Gilgamesh meets alewife Siduri who teaches him about the island of Utnapishtim, developing somewhat sympathetic relationship with her Enkidu develops relationship with Shamhat, allowing him to develop his feminine side and enter civilized society [Tablet 2] Enkidu, under influence of Shamhat, comes to city Uruk and confronts Gilgamesh. They battle (tablet part missing) but find each other to be worthy opponents and become close friends. Shadow-figure tries to fight, but later appreciates and embraces [Tablet 3] Shamash (God of Justice) tells Gilgamesh to go to Pine Forest (Lebanon) to defeat monster Humbaba. They want to build a giant wooden gate to adorn Uruk from trees in forest. Man's conquest of nature nature is part of Earth, which is feminine Ninsun very worried that Gilgamesh will be injured but fails to sway gods in their decision to have the battle [Tablet 4] Gilgamesh dreams of a mountain and rain of fiery droplets, suggesting dangers in confronting Humbaba [Tablet 5] Enkidu, due to closeness to nature, knew the way to the Pine Forest. Gilgamesh is afraid when they meet Humbaba, but Enkidu and Shamash encourage him. They slay the monster, chop down trees, and make massive door and gate for the city. Gate is a passage/transition from outside to inside as well as of life phases Heroes have matured by conquering monster and claiming new land

[Tablet 6] Ishtar (goddess of erotic passion and war) is impressed by Gilgamesh' achievements and tries to seduce him. He rejects her, cursing her and reminding her of the other men she seduced and destroyed Man should be master of a relationship, not woman leads to emasculation Ishtar is angered and obtains from Anu the Bull of Heaven, sending it to attack Gilgamesh and Enkidu. They slay it, maintaining their triumph over the feminine. [Tablet 7] Enkidu has a dream about council of the gods. Mesopotamians assumed only way to see gods was through dreams Greeks, like Homer, wrote as if omniscient of all actions of gods Gods decided that Enkidu should die to atone for the death of the Bull of Heaven. Enkidu goes crazy, cursing Shamash, Gilgamesh, the wooden door they built, and Shamhat for getting him in the situation Has second dream about Underworld (7-iv) Underworld is a place of dust and clay where people eat dust in complete darkness grimmer than Greek notion of Underworld Mesopotamian notion of underworld was a state of meaningless nonexistence Death was terrifying for them [Tablet 8] Gilgamesh promises to give Enkidu splendid funeral rights, but he doesn't care because he'll be dead [Tablet 9] With Enkidu dead, Gilgamesh ponders his own mortality and becomes desperate to protect it. He journeys to visit Utnapishtim/Atrahasis, who was the one man who attained immortality. Equivalent of Old Testament Noah: He was instructed to build a boat and take all animals so something survived after the Great Flood. In recognition, Utnapishtim was granted immortality Tigris and Euphrates had very flat land in between them, so Mesopotamia was subject to frequent flooding To get to him, must travel across foggy mountains guarded by Scorpion Men. When travelling, Gilgamesh wears nothing but a lion skin Heracles is the one hero who genuinely becomes a god

[Tablet 10] Passes through orchard where all of trees are made of jewels Jewels are ever-lasting getting closer to land of immortality Gets to seashore, where there's a little inn inhabited by the alewife Siduri, who serves him ale and gives directions to get to island of Utnapishtim. Tells of boatman Urshanabi who can take him. [Tablet 11] Reaches island and Utnapishtim tells the story of the flood, and tells Gilgamesh that immortality can be attained if he stays awake for 6 days and 7 nights. Already very tired, Gilgamesh failed test. Utnapishtim gave him a second chance, telling him he can get the herb Camel Thorn, which can give rejuvenation if eaten, by picking it from bottom of sea. Gilgamesh gets some and begins journey back. When he comes to a fresh spring, he lays the herb down beside him and a snake steals it. The snake sheds its old skin (snakes supposed to be immortal). Now, Gilgamesh must confront fact of his own mortality. Epic is a reflection on failure no matter how successful a man is, he is still a man