CO
>
CO
S<
WILLIAM THOMSON
WITH
COPYRIGHT,
1930
Druok vou
J.
,1.
Auguhtin in
(Jliickatatlt
und Hamburg
Contents
Iajr<>
9
11
Anmerkungen
Inhalt des Ivornmentars Introduction by WTXLJAM
THOMSON
Notes
Translation, Part 1
Notes
Translation, Part II
INTRODUCTION
MS.
of Pappus's Conception of Rational Quantities. of the Arabic Text with the Greek Scholia. Collation (3)
(4)
The Sources
WILLIAM THOMSON
nach
Ini Jahre 1850 kam Dr. WOEPCKE In der damaligen Bibliotheque imperiale war ein Sammelbandvon 51 arabischen Handschrif ten, auf den WOEPCKE durch den Katalog aufmerksam wurde. Er muB sogleich mit dem Studium begonnen haben, jedenfalls erschienen schon 1851 mehrere Abhandlungen von ihm iiber einige dieser Handschriften. Bald beschaftigte er sich auch mit unserem Kommentar, der die
LITERARISCHES.
Paris.
Nummern
Dieser
5 und 6 des Bandes bildet. Kommentar bringt einige Andeutungen liber ein verlorenes Werk des Apollonius (I 1, 21, 22, 23; II 1), die WOEPCKE besonders interessierten. Er legte der Acad6mie des Sciences einen Berieht iiber den Kommentar vor, nnter dem
Titel: ,,Essai
sur les quantites irrationelles". Dieser Berieht enthalt unter anderem ein Verzeichnis der samtlichen Handschriften des Bandes, bringt einige Stiicke des Kommentars, etwa den 15. Teil des gaiizen, arabisch rind in franzosischer Cbersetzung, und den SchluB der Abhandluiig bildet eine Inhaltsangabe des ganzen Kommentars. Das arabische Manuskript zerfallt in zwei Teile, diese sind aber im Original in keiner Weise weiter gegliedert. WOEPCKE'S Essai hat offenbar laiige auf den Druck warten Schon 1853 gab CHASLES, der mussen, er erschien erst 185G 1 Mathematiker und Historiker der Mathematik, einen Vorbericht iiber WOEPCKE'S Abhandlungen, der kurz und klar sowohl den Gegenstand des Kommentars, namlich das 10. Buch Euklid's, wie auch die Abhandlung WOEPCKE'S charakterisiert 2 Vortrefflich ist die Bemerkung von CHASLES, der Inhalt des ganzen Buches 10 von ETJKLID lasse sich wiedergegen durch die eine
.
Formel
CHASLES macht auch auf mehrere Schwierigkeiten aufmerksam, die WOEPCKE nicht gelost hat. Es sind folgende: Warum hat
12
Linien von der Liinge 2, 3 wie auch die von bezeichnet? Welchen Sinn hat die Bezeichnung ,,ungeordnet" fiir die Irrationalen des Und endlich: Wie sind die Andeutungen iiber die Apollonius ? durch Subtraktion entstehenden Irrationalen des Apollonius zu verstehen ? Wir werden auf diese Fragen nachher (S. 21, 27 und 29) eingehen. Merkwiirdigerweise erwalmt WOEPCKE in seinem Essai, der 1856 erschien, mit keinem Worte, dafi er inzwischen den vollstandigen arabischen Text des Kommentars herausgegeben Dieser war 1855 in Paris bei FirminDidot erschienen, hatte. aber ohne Angabe des Jahres, Ortes und ohne Nennung von WOEPCKE'S Namen. Es ist ein kleines Buch von 68 Seiten, das auBer dem arabischen Text nur einige lateinische Anmerkungen
ETTKLID sowohl di
enthalt.
Es scheint, dafi von dieser TextAusgabe nur wenige Exemplare existieren. Eins ist in der Bibliothek der Akadeniie der Wissenschaften in Berlin, ein zweites war im Besitz von Herrn Professor Heiberg in Kopenhagen, ein drittes, das Suter
in
Handen
mehr nachzuweisen.
ist
Wegen
der
diese
Ausgabe
natiirlich in
den
WOEPCKE hatte eine vollstandige tJbersetzung des Kommentars ins Franzosische geplant. Die Berliner Akademic hatte 1854 fiir die Veroffentlichung des Textes einen betrachtlichen ZuschuB, 300 Talcr, gezahlt,
bewilligt.
den Wunsch geaufiert, Ubersetzung und Anmerkungen mochten T in lateinischer Sprache abgefaJJt werden. OEPCKE ist ja diesern Wunsche in bezug auf die Anmerkungen nachgekommen. Er
machte aber die Akademie in einem Schreiben auf die Schwierigkeit aufmerksam, die vielen Fachausdriicke des Kommentars in
lateinischer Sprache wiederzugeben. Vielleicht ist an dieser Uneinigkeit die
setzung gescheitert. tlbrigens starb WOEPCKE schon 1864, mit 38 Jahren. Wahrscheinlich haben bei den Publikationen von 1855 und 1856 noch andere Umstande mitgespielt, die sich heute nicht mehr sicher feststellen lassen 3 Vielleicht ist die arabische Ausgabe von 1855 iiberhaupt nur in wenigen Exemplaren hergestellt worden, jedenfalls war sie schon wegen der Sprache immer nur wenigen zuganglich, und sie wird fast nie in der Literatur erwahnt. Auch die gegenwartigen Herausgeber hatten von ihr keine Kenntnis, als sie ihr Unternehmen begannen.
.
WOEPCKE'S Abhandlung von 1856 viel beachtet war geeignet, iibertriebene Erwartungen iiber den Wert des ganzen Kommentars zu erwecken. Die von
Dagegen
1st
worden, und
sie
WOEPCKE mitgeteilten Stiicke bringen nicht nur die schon erwahnten Andeutungen iiber Apollonius, sondern der Anfang gibt auch einige neue Aufschliisse liber die Leistungen Theatets. So konnte man wohl hoffen, daJJ auch die Stiicke, von denen im Essai nur kurz der Inhalt skizziert war, dem Mathematiker oder Historiker etwas bringen warden. Namentlich schienen WOEPCKE'S Nummern 6 und 10 (bei uns 10 und 17) des ersten Teiles Berichte iiber die Mathematik Theatets und Platos zu
versprechen.
Einschatzung des ganzen Kommentars hat HEIBERG schon im Jahre 1882 und nochmals 1888 89 dadurch angedeutet, daB er den Kommentar neben die EuklidDie
richtige
Professor
Scholien stellte, insbesoiidere die soeben erwahnte Nummer 6 neben das ziemlich nichtssagende Scholion 62 (Band V S. 450) der HEiBERG'schen EuklidAusgabe4 In der Tat hat unser Kommentar viele Stellen, die w6rtlich mit den von HEIBERG Wir haben diese gesammclteii Scholien ubereinstimmen. Koinzidenzen S. 57 angegebeii. Das genaue Studium des Kommentars bestatigt auch sonst, was HEIBERG schon vor Jahrzehnteii vorausgeahnt hat: unser Kommentar steht kaum hdher als die besseren Euklid Scholien,
.
mehr
historische
und
sachliche Aufschliisse
auch hier von Goldkornern sprechen, wie HEIBERG es tut, und die groBeren Goldkorner sind schon von WOEPCKE gefunden worden. Indes die Hoffnung auf reichere Ausbeute, die ja nach WOEPCKE'S Auszug wohl zu verstehen war, hatte zunachst die Folge, daB H. SITTER in den letzten Jahren seines Lebens die Textausgabe von WOEPCKE ins Deutsche iibersetzte, und sie hat auch die jetzigen Bearbeiter des Gegenstandes zu ihreni Unternehnien
ermutigt. SITTERS Ubersetzung erschien 1922 unter dem Titel: ,,Der Kommentar des Pappus zum X. Buche des Euklides" in den ,,Beitragen zur Geschichte der Mathematik", Heft IV der zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und ,,Abhandlungen 41 der Medizin Erlangen 1922. SITTER hat wahrscheinlich die arabische Handschrift nicht
,
Man kann
WOEPCKE'S Textausgabe von 1855. WOEPCKE hat ftfter Stellen der Handschrift nicht lesen konnen oder Worte vom Rande in den Text aufgenommen, und in alien Fallen
benutzt, sondern nur
richtet sich SITTER
nach ihm.
14
SITTER'S deutsche Ubersetzung gibt natiirlich, da sie von einem guten Kenner der arabisehen Mathematik stammt, den Sinn des Kommentars geniigend wieder, und es kann einem deutschen Leser, der sich schnell iiber den Kommentar uiiterrichten will, nur empfohlen werden, zunachst SITTER'S Uber
Immerhin war SITTER zuerst Mathemain zweiter Linie Arabist; wir hoffen, daJB in der vorliegenden englischen Ubersetzung ein Arabist vom Each doch manche Feinheiten jener so einfachen, aber gerade wegen ihrer
setzung durchzusehen.
tiker
und
Kargheit schwierigen Sprache richtiger wiedergegeben hat als Hinzu kommt, daB SITTER nur selten die "DbereinSITTER. stimmung mit den Scholien bemerkt hat; die Kenntnis des Scholions und damit des griechischen Urtextes erleichtert natiirlich das Verstandnis des Arabischen auBerordentlich. Endlieh hat Mr. THOMSON naeh clem arabisehen Original iibersetzt, wahrend SITTER, wie soeben bemerkt, naeh allem Anschein nur die Textausgabe WOEPCKE'S vor sich hatte. Hiermit ist schon zum Teil die Rechtfertigung gegeben dafiir, daB die jetzigen Herausgeber ihr Unternehmen nicht nur begonnen haben, sondern auch fortgesetzt, nachdem sie erfahren hatten, daB der arabische Text schon gedruckt vorlag und daB auch eine deutsche t)bersetzung existierte. Wir gestehen namlich, da3 wir bei Beginn unserer Arbeit oder doch unserer Vorbereitungen im Jahre 1924 auch von SITTER'S Ubersetzung keine Kenntnis hatten. Zwar waren schon Besprechungen erschienen, von H. WIELEITNBR in ,Mitteiluiigen zur Geschichte der Medizin Bd. XXI, S. 171, 1922 und von SARTON in ,,Tsis u Bd. V, S. 492, 1923. Aber zur Entschuldigung mag doch angefiihrt werden, dafi das ,,Jahrbuch iiber die Fortschritte der Mathematik" erst 1925 einen Bericht iiber SITTER'S Ubersetzung
,
gebracht hat. Wir haben uns zu einer Ncuausgabe des arabischen Textes entschlossen schon deswegen, weil von der Ausgabe WOEPCKE'S nur wenige Exemplare bekannt und zuganglich sind. Auch eine eingehende Bearbeitung des Kommentars einschliefilich der Ubersetzung ins Englische schien uns die Miihe zu lohnen. Mag auch unser Kommentar einer Verfallsperiode der Mathematik angehoren, so hat er doch seinen kulturgeschichtlichen Wert. Gerade der erste, mathematisch schwachere Teil zeigt, wie religi6s und philosophisch interessierte Gelehrte von den begrifflichen Schwierigkeiten der Mathematik, insbesondere der Lehre vom Irrationalen, einen Weg zu den ewigen Geheimnissen des Lebens gesucht haben. Wir hoffen auch, daB die recht betrachtliche philologische
Arbeit nicht umsonst gewesen 1st. Das beigefiigte Verzeichnis arabischer mathematischer Fachausdrucke wird das erste seiner
Art sein. Unser Kommentar handelt vom Gegenstand die irrationalen GrOBen
10.
sind.
versuchen, einen tTberblick liber die Geschichte des Irrationalen zu geben, von denAnfangen, die bei Plato nachweisbar sind, bis zu der systematischen Behancllung bei Euklid und den Zusatzen, die APOLLONIUS gemaeht hat. Hierbei wird schon vieles aus dem Inhalt unseres Kommentars zur Sprache kommen. Was sonst noehdaranfurdenMathematikererwahnenswert ist, soil im SchluBkapitel angefiihrt werden. PLATO THEATET. Die ersten Spuren des Irrationalen finden sich in den Platonischen Dialogen. ,,Menon", ,,Der Staat", ,,Parmenides", ,,Theatet" und ,,Die Gesetze": alle bringen Andeutungen iiber die neue Lehre, meist freilich in kurzer und fiir uns kaum verstandlicher Form. Im ^Menon" heiBt es: Wenn die Seite des Quadrats 2 ist, so ist die Flache 4; wie lang ist nun die Seite des 8fiiBigen Der Sklave meint erst, sie sei Es stellt sich 3. Quadrats ? heraus, daB dieser Wert falsch ist, und Sokrates spricht: ,,Aber wie groB muB sie denn seiii ? Versuche es uns genau anzugeben. Und wenn du es nicht ausrechnen (arithmein) willst, so zeige uns in der Figur die Linie". In der Tat wird nicht weiter gerechnet,
UND
sondern gezeichnet. Auf die Worte, die wir hier hervorheben (Menon 83 84) scheint bisher noch niemancl aufmerksam gemaeht zu haben.
Sie lassen durchblicken,
ist,
und
ausfiihren laBt: die Linie ist irrational. Der ,,8taat" (546c) bringt die beriihmte Platonische Zahl, aus der fiir die Geschichte des Irrationalen zu entnehmen ist, daB der Naherungswert 5 7 fiir das Verhaltnis von Seite zur Diagonale
:
Im ,,Parmenides" (140b, c) heiBt es von dem ,, Einen": ,,Ist es gr6Ber oder kleiner, so wird es, wenn es sich um kommensurable GroJJen handelt, mehr MaBeinheiten haben als das Kleinere und weniger als das Gr66ere; handelt es sich aber um inkommensurable GrOBen, so wird es im Vergleich zu dem einen aus kleineren, im Vergleich zu dem anderen aus gr&Beren MaBeinheiten bestehen." Bei kommensurablen GrdBen ist die Sache klar. Sei die eine 10, die andere = 15 FuB, so ist 5 FuB das MaB, und dies ist
in
dem
dem
16
Wie aber im Falle inkommensurabler GroBen ? Es 1st wahrscheinlich dieselbe Vorstellung von den zwei MaBen, die auch
ARISTOTELES dimkel andeutet:
,,I)ie
MaBen gemessen,
die Seite
und
alle
Gr&Ben5 ."
sind die Ausflihrnngen in unserem Kommentar (16 Ende und 17 Ende). Soil die Seite des Quadrats meCbar sein, dann ist die
MaBeinheit entweder die Seite selbst oder deren Halite oder Die Diagonale muB dann als inkommensurabel Drittel usw. Die Diagonale ist zu anderen Langen kommensurabel, gelten. und fur die Gesamtheit dieser Langen laBt sich auch ein MaB aufstellen, das aber ein aiideres ist als das erste; es ist etwa die Diagonale selbst oder irgend ein Bruchteil, vielleicht auch ein Vielf aches von ihr. Es sind also zweieiiei MaBc zu unterscheiden das MaB fiir die Seite und die mit ihr kommensurablen Langen, und das MaB fiir die Diagonale und alles was zu ihr kommensurabel ist; diese beiden Ma fie sind immer von einander verDer heutige Mathematiker wird eine gewisse Verschieden. wandtschaft mit dem Begriff des Korperx der rationales Zahlen Die Griechen betrachteten die Gesamtheit der erkennen. Langen, die entstehen, wenn die Seite (oder Diagonale) mit alien Zahlen dieses Korpers multipliziert wird.
:
Schon
viel
erortert
ist
die
,,Theatet"Stellr
(147148).
THEODOR
zeiehnet die Quadrate von 3,5 bis zu 17 QuadratfuB und beweist von jedem, daB die Seite inkommensurabel ist zur Seite des Einheitsquadrates, also zu 1 FuB. THEATET faBt diese vielen Satze und Beweise in einen zusammeii, indom er alle
ganzen Zahlen einteilt in Quadrat und NichtQuadratZahlen. Zu den ersten gehoren Quadrate, deren Seiten kommensurabel zur Einheit sind, namlich = 2, 3, 4 usw. FuB, dagegen zu den NichtQuadratZahlen gehoren Quadrate, deren Seiten nicht einf ach als Langen anzugeben sind diese Seiten werden vielrnehr als ,,dynameis" definiert, d. h. durch ihr Vermogen, ein Quadrat von bekannter Flache zu erzeugen, oder, wie die Mathematiker noch heute sagen, diirch ihre Potenzen. Endlich die ,,Gesetze" (819 820) bringen allgemeinere Betrachtungen nicht alle Langen sind untereinander me B bar, und niemals Langen gegen Flachen; eine dankbare Aufgabe ist es, zu untersuchen, wie sich die meCbaren und die nichtmeftbaren GroCen zueinander verhalten. 7 In unscrem Kommentar wird die ,,Theatet"Stelle ausfiihrlich tC wird eine Stelle 10, 11, 17), aus den ,,Gesetzen besprochen ( angefiihrt ( 12), ,,Parmenides" immerhin erwahnt ( 13), Doch zur Aufklarung der mathematischen Schwierigkeiten tragt unser
;
:
Kommentar
in der Regel
wenig
bei.
17
tJber den historischen Theatet erfahren wir einiges durch den schon langer bekannten Anfang des Kommentars (1). THEATET hat die MedialLinie dem geometrischen Mittel zugeteilt, das Binomium dem arithmetischen und die Apotome dem harmonischen Mittel. Begniigen wir uns vorerst mit einem Zahlenbeispiel,
so ist zwischen
und V
= y2,
ein
ist
xundy
"2i
?/
;
+y

in
?J..
= 2 f2
(V ~2
1)
oder 2
(2
j/
2),
und
(]/2
Apotome.
;
namlich 1 ergeben ein Rechteck aus einem Binomium und einer gleichnamigen
:
Hierin liegt die Erkenntiiis, daft 1) multipliziert einen rationalen Wert, oder in der Ausdrucksweise der Griechen
Apotome
ist rational.
Diese Aussage findet sich in verschiedenen Fassungen in den Satzen 112 bis 114 im JO. Buche Euklids. HEIBERG halt die Wir wollen hieran nicht Satzc 112 bis 115 fur inter poliert 8 zweifeln, wenii uns auch der Satz 115, der hohere geometrische
.
Mittel wie
betrachtet, weiter vom sonstigen Inhalt der als die Satze 112 bis 114. Jedenfalls ist die Einfiigung der Satze 112 bis 114 vor der Zeit des Pappus (etwa 300 n. Chr.) erfolgt, denn unser Kommentar sehreibt den Satz dem Euklid zu ( 22 Anfang). Hierauf macht
/2,
2~
Wir konnen noch (S. 54 Aum. 201). 112 bis 114 der der der Grund Satze Einschaltung hinzufiigen: war wohl, da!3 sie alters mathematisches Gut darstellen, namlich auf TJiedtet zvrackgehen. Ahnlich steht es ja mit dem Satze iiber die Inkommensurabilitat der QuadratDiagonale zur Seite, der friiher als der letzte des
schon SITTER aufmerksam
10.
Buches
gefiihrt
wurde (Euklid ed. Heiberg, III. 408412). alter und wohl auch eben wegen seines
Uiiter den 13 Biichern der weitem das umfangreichste.
Elemente Euklids
das
10. bei
iibrigen Biicher untereinander einigermaBen erfiillt das 10. Buch in denTextauseinnehmen, gleichen gaben so viele Seiten wie drei oder vier andere Biicher zusammen. Es bildet fur sich allein den vierten Teil des ganzen Werkes.
Wahrend
die
Raum
"2
JungeTliomson.
18
Diese ungefiige Ausdehnung ist nur eine Folge der SchwierigHieriiber klagte Petrus RAMUS (gest. keit des Gegenstandes. etwas so nie habe er Verworrenes und Verwickeltes gelesen 1572), wie das 10. Buch Euklids, nie in menschlichen Schriften und Kiinsten eine solche Dunkelheit gefunden. RAMUS war mehr
Logiker als Mathematiker. Doch auch STEVIN, der vlamische Mathematiker, schrieb 1585, fiir manche sei das 10. Buch Euklids
ein Schrecken, so daB sie es ,,das Kreuz der Mathematiker nennen, einen gar zu schwer verstandlichen Gegenstand, an dem man auBerdem keinerlei Nutzen bemerken konne/' Endlich CASTELLI, ein hervorragender Schiller GALILEIS, schrieb 1607 in einem Brief an diesen, er sei bei dem 40. Satze des 10. Buches stecken geblieben, ,,erstickt von der Menge der Vokabeln, der Tiefe der Gegenstande und der Schwierigkeit der Beweise." 9 Ein Mathematiker liest nicht wie andere Menschen, er ist schon immer auf einige Schwierigkeit gefafit. Was uns Neuere beim Studium des 10. Buches abschreckt, das ist, wie schon RAMUS hervorhebt, nicht so sehr die schwere Verstandlichkeit der einzelnen Satze. Manche ExhaustionsBeweise im 12. Buche mit ihren Vorbereitungen sind kaum eine angenehmere Lektiire als die Satze des 10. Buches. Man versuche es einmal mit Satz
langst iiberholtes Hilf smittel die Zeichensprache, die auch um 1600 schon einigermaBen entwickelt war, gibt eine viel bessere
;
17 des 12. Buches liber die Einbeschreibung eines Polyeders zwischen zwei konzentrischen Kugeln Eher konnte schon die Menge der Vokabeln" angefiihrt werden, die vielen Bezeichnungen fiir die einzelnen Irrationalitaten. Diese sind in der Tat fiir unsere Begriffe ein primitives,
!
t^bersicht.
Das Entscheidende ist aber doch wohl, daB zu der sachlichen Schwierigkeit und der umstandlichen Nomenklatur des 10.
Buches noch ein drittes Moment hinzutritt, welches vor allem das Studium erschwert: uns fehlt der Faden, der uns durch das
Gewirr der
iiber 100 Satze hindurchleitet.
Studium der irrationalen Gr5fien und die Miihseligkeiten von Euklids 10. Buch geduldig auf sich nahm, weil man darin einen Weg zur Philosophie zu finden meinte.
eine Zeit, die das
Es gab
Aus
solcher Stimmung heraus ist, wie wir schon andeuteten, unser Kommentar geschrieben worden, jedenfalls grofie Stiicke des ersten Teiles, und ahnlich urteilte auch KEPLER, als er Euklid
gegen
RAMUS verteidigte: ,,Du magst tadeln, was du nicht veretehst, mir aber, der ich dieUrsachen derDinge erforsche, hat sich nur im 10. Buche Euklids der zu diesen erOffnet.
Weg
dies
10.
Buch
ver~
19
dammt, nicht
und verstanden
10
die Geheimnisse der Philosophic aufschlieBen kann ." Aber unsere Zeit ist hiermit nicht zufrieden, auch nicht
mit
der tinbestimmten Erklarung des Proklus, der KEPLER sich anschlieBt: das Ziel der Elemente sei die Konstruktion und Be11 rechnung der regularen Korper von hier nicht aus den genaueren Sinn des ist es Doch schwer, Das Buck ist in der Tat eine Theorie 10. Buches nachzuweiseri
.
1
derjenigen einfachen und doppelten quadratischen Irratianalitaten, die bei der Berechnung der regularen Korper auftreten. Im letzten, 13. Buche Euklids finden sich Berechnungen, die wir in der heutigen Zeichensprachc wiedergeben wollen. Wird die Strecke 1 nach dem goldenen Schnitt geteilt und das 2 J) groBere Stiick x genannt, so ist (x \, woraus folgt
der 6. Satz, der 13; \ aber als interpoliert gilt, geht hierauf noch genauer ein). Im Kreise vom Radius 1 ist die Seite des regelmaBigen Fiinf5
1).
(Satz
von Buch
ecks
j/2 (5
In der Kugel
vom Radius
ys).
(Satz 11).
1
ist
die
Seite
des Ikosaeders
= 
/10 (5
ist
j/5).
(Satz 16);
Seite
endlich
i
die
des
Dokekaeders
y5

oder
f3
(y 15
/3).
(Satz 17.)
nicht hat, so muB er die verwickelten algebraischen Vorgange alle durch Worte wiedergeben und seine Darstellung ist darum f iir uns schwer lesbar. In einem Punkte geht aber Euklid viel weiter als die gewohnlichen Darstellungen in den Schulbuchern. Er stellt nicht nur die genannten Ausdrucke auf, sondern er beweist auch von alien in seinen Rechnungen vorkommenden GrftBen, von den Pormen
y,
artigen las sen.
V b, y und erst
i'b, da/J sie sich durch keine anderen gleichrecht nicht durch einfachere Ausdrucke ersetzen
schnellsten l5sen,
Ist
ist
Wir werden den gordischen Knoten des 10. Buches am wenn wir mit der schwicrigsten Frage anf angen
:
Es
2 }/5
1/5
und
2*
20
1st es sicher, daft sich aus 5 die Wurzel ziehen laBt ?
f
Wir wollen
die
ya
doch
sein,
6 keine
Quadratzahl. a Vb
Es
folgt
x2
2 x y
Nehmen wir nun an, x oder y oder auch beide sind einfache Irrationalitaten von der Form /m, dann 1st x 2 + y 2 rational
(im modernen Sinne), dagegen 2 x y irrational. Es folgt 2 x2 a y 2 xy und hieraus welter 1/6
x2
y*
= = = ya ^b.
2
Es kommt also darauf an, ob der letzte Ausdruck rational ist oder nicht, und diese Bedingung ist auch von Euklkl klar erkannt
worden.
Ist
2
j/a.
ya VfloT^c). In diesem Falle laBt sich also die gegebene doppelte Irrationalitat durch zwei einfache ersetzen. Nehmen wir z. B. a = 3, b 5, 2 und es folgt so wird c
b gleich
dem
rationalen Werte f
\
c,
so folgt
(a^cY
y r^75
:
= r~v i;
/ /
l
Ist
= i/20
y5
_ ^5= y
.%
(i)
6 rational ist oder nicht, Diese Unterscheidung, ob )/a 2 ist unseres EracMens der Kern des ganzen 10. Buches, Eine hat hiervon schon CHASLES in seinem oben Andeutung gegcben
(S.
11)
In seinem
EUKLID
tome" a
auch
das
Vb und
die zugehorige
,,Bhiomium" a
f
\
j/ft
sondern
Als
f
1/6.
noch
die
Formen y
und y
}/
dazugenommen.
Seine t)berlegung fur die beiden letzten Formen wird fachsten an Zahlenbeispielen erklart. Es war doch
am
ein
_
j/6
21
_
1.
_2
]/5
^TfZTI^
= /5 = Vs
Hieraus folgt
0/5"
1)
und
>
(2)
Dies sind die Falle, die eine Vereinfachung zulassen; die vierte Wurzel, die rechts auftritt, wird von EUKUD als Mediate
bezeichnet.
Um
lassen,
die
5 j/5 und gehen iiber zu j/5 j/5 beginnen wir mit }/5 1 und endlich zu odor auch zu 1/1/5 j/10. Esistklar, j/5 ]/2 dali fiir die Zerlegung die Formel (1) die Grundlage bildet; es ist nur /5 als Faktor oder Divisor und im Ictzten Falle /2 als Faktor zuzuf ugen. Hiermit ware fiir den modernen Leser iiber das Btich 10 genug gesagt, wenii es sich nicht darum handelte, in das Verstandnis unseres Kommentars einzufiihren. Dazu ist es aber unerlaBlich, iiber die Terminologie ETKLIDS genauere Aufklarung zu geben. Zunaehst wollen wir den besonderen Gebrauch des Wortes ,,rationar' bei EUKUD besprechen, auf den schon anfangs 12) hingewiesen wurde. (S. 11 DIE RATIONALE LINIE. Wie auch unser Kommentar hervorhebt (I, 19 SchluB), sind medialen und rationalen Flachen ebensolche Quadratseiten zugeordnet. Also z. B. das Quadrat von der Flache 1/2 QuadratfuB hat eine rnediale Flache, und die
ist eine mediale Lange. Das Quadrat von Seite, /2 FuB, der Flache 4 Quadratfuft hat eine rationale Flache; die Seite 2 FuB, sie ist rational, und hier stimmen antiker und ist
moderner Sprachgebrauch ii herein. Aber auch bei dem Quadrat von der Flache 3 QuadratfuB ist fiir EUKUD nicht nur die Flache, sondern auch die Seite rational, und diese ist doch = 1/3 FuB. Diese eigentiimliche Ausdehnung des Begriffs rational hangt also damit zusammen, daB die Griechen die Strecke und das zugehorige Quadrat gleichsam als untrennbare Einheit aufDie Linie von der Lange 3 FuB ist mit der Einheit faBten. 7 ,,in Lange kommensurabel", die Linie 1 3 FuB ist ,,in Potenz wie schon kommensuraber*, wobei, erwahnt, das Wort ,, Potenz' nicht nur im Sinne von ,, Quadrat" aufzufassen ist, sondern auch in dem von ARISTOTELES her bekannten Sinne von ,,Verm6gen". Die genauere Erklarung lafit sich nach unserem Kommentar 5 Anfang und 6 Anfang. geben, und zwar besonders nach I Beide Stellen sind auch als Scholien in griechischer Sprache
c
22
erhalten (EuKLiD ed HEIBERG, V, Scholion Nr.
2, S.
418 Z.
79
,,Wie kann es irrationale GroBen, aloga, geben, da doch fur alle begrenzten GrdBen, wenn sie verviel?" faltigt einander iibertreffen, ein Verhaltnis, ratio, logos existiert Die Antwort lantet: ,,Die irrationalen sind die, die kein Z7^e^verhaltnis haben; es gibt namlich drei Arten des Verhaltnisses: eins
fiir
fiir alle
die
kommensurablen und
Das Verhaltnis der endlichen und homogenen GroBen, so das heiBt es weiter, wird nach ,,groBer und kleiner" behandelt, vielleicht eine kann andere die vervielfacht die iibertreffen heifit,
;
ist
auch gemeint, daB ein Vielfaches der einen ein Vielfaches der anderen iibertreffen kann, woniit auf die 5. Definition des 5. Buches EUKUDS iiber die Gleichheit beliebigcr Verhaltnisse
angespielt ware.
In den beiden anderen Fallen ist das Verhaltnis ,, rational" (im grieehischen Sinne), es ist durch Zahlen festgelegt, und zwar bei den ,,in Lange kommensurablen" Strecken unmittelbar, sagen wir ,,actu"; dagegen bei den iibrigen rationalen, namlich nur ,,in Potenz kommensurablen", besteht das Verhaltnis namlich fiir die iiber den Strecken gezeichneten ,, potentia", Hierin scheint un$ die Erkldrung zu liegen. Quadrate. Das Verhaltnis des (im grieehischen Sinne) Rationalen zur Einheit ist aussprechbar, rheton, das des Irrationalen nicht: diese Auffassung zeigt sich auch in der Art, wie EITKLID im 13. Buch die Satze iiber die Kantenlangen der regularen Korper angibt. Fiir Tetraeder, Oktaeder und Wiirfel ist das Verhaltnis zum Durchmesser der umschriebenen Kugel in Potenz kommen, ?
ist also
angegeben,
In diesem Falle wird das Zahlen Verhaltnis einfach z. B. lautet Satz 15: der Durchmesser der Kugel ist
fiir
Dagegen
von der Seite des Wiirfels. Ikosaeder und Dodekaeder (Satz 16 und 17) sagt
der Satz nur: die Seite ist die ,,kleinere Irrationale" und die ,,Apotome". Mit diesen Worten ist nur die Natur der Beziehung, sozusagen der algebraische Charakter, angegeben; dagegen die zahlenmaBige Abhangigkeit, die wir oben S. 10 durch moderne
Man mag einwenden, daB hier von ,,GroBer und Kleiner" oder von den Euklidischen Definitionen 4 und 5 des Buches 5 nicht die Rede ist. Immerhin werden diese Definitionen aber vorausgesetzt. Kugeldurchmesser und Ikosaeder Seite haben de&wegen
ein Verhaltnis zueinander, well sie doch vervielfaltigt einander iibcrtreffen konnen. Und der Anfang des 6. Buches beschaftigt sich damit, zu zeigen, daJS gewisse geometrische Konstruktionen, etwa das Zeichnen einer Parallelen zu einer Dreiecksseite innerdes Dreieeks, zu proportionierten Stticken im Sinne der fa alb Definition 5 fiihren; diese Erkenntnis wird weiterhin stillschweigeiid angewendet. Besonders gliicklich ist die EuKLiDische Fassung des Begriffs rational sicher nicht. Auch uiiserem Kommentator gefallt sie
nicht.
Er meint, sie sei nicht recht durchdacht und habe VerSie hat sich ja auch nicht lange 17). wirrung angerichtet (1 und DIOPHANT haben sie nicht mehr. 12 HERON schon gehalten,
7
}
oder
y5 bedeutet fur tins cine irrationale Zahl. Dergleichen gab es fur die Griecben nicht, EUKLID hanclelt nur von rationalen und irrationalen Strecken und Flachen. Eine Einheitsstrecke r von 1 FuB, wird als MaB bestimrnter Lange, etwa angenoninien.
Dann
r
ist also
fiir
ETJKLID
(5
(i/5
i/f>)
r eine r
Apotome,
(5
r
; i
5)
ein
Binomium.
Auch
1)
und (^5
\/'2)
sind
Apotomen,
allgemeiii (^a
mid a und
Eiitsprechendes
X
das Binomium.
in dieser
5 existiert fiir EUKLID nicht Auch unser Ausdruck j/5 Form. Er betrachtet vielmehr clas Rechteck, dessen Dies Rechteck wird in ein Seiten = r und (5 j/5) r sind. Quadrat verwandelt, und die Seite des Quadrats ist dann in
]
unserer Schreibweise
j/5
r > y.
r.
mit EUKLID die verschiedenen Falle von \Va Vb zu unterscheiden, wollen wir noch einmal die Quintesseiiz des Buches 10 in der Form von CHASLES anfiihren:
Um
_ZL^_
I/^TZJL^H^L.
(3)
Wir lassen das Vorzeichen unbestimmt, um zugleich Binomium und Apotome sowie die aus beiden abgeleiteten irrationalen Linien zu umfassen. A und B sind Quadratwurzeln aus rationalen Zahlen, = Va und Vb mit der soeben angegebenen
Beschrankung, daB nicht beide zu einander kommeiisurabel sein dtirfen. Wir kommen der Vorstellung ETJKUDS naher, wenn wir in (3) uberall den Faktor r hinzugefligt denken.
24
Warm
EUKLID
gr5fiere
1st die
(3)
Dann und nur dann, wenn M 2 B 2 = C kommensurabel zu A ist. Dann stehen rechts im allgemeinen zwei vierte Wurzeln.
driickt die
Bedingung
fiir
das Quadrat einer ihm in (A) potenziert kommensurablen Grofte (namlich C) iiber den kleineren
14
.
Name
um
(Definitionen II, vor Satz 48 des 10. Buches) ergibt sieh jetzt also in etwas umstandlicherer Form als in unserer vorlaufigen Betrachtimg oben S. 20, wo wir A als ganze Zahl vorausgesetzt batten.
Nehmen
dann
wir_alsBeispiel Vi/18
/10~ also
j/18~
B=
i/Io";
ist tfA*
kommensurabel zu 1/1.8. Die Bedingung rechte Seite von (3) wird einfach, namlich
1/8,
B2 =
=
EUKLID
1/2
(/ii/j).
unterseheidet Formen des Binomiums. A ist ein 1., 2. oder 3. Binomium, wenn C zu A kommensurabel ist; wenn nicht, so haben wir das 4., 5. oder 6. Binomium. Beim 1. und 4. Binomium ist, wie schon oben A ,,in angedeutct, Lange kommensurabel mit cler Einheit", beim 2. und 5. gilt das gleiche von B, beim 3. und (>. von keincm von beiden. Bezeichnen wir die 6 Binomien mit bn l9 bn^ bn 6 so konnen wir, teilweise in Anlehnung an S. 20 oben, die folgcnden Beispiele
.
.
.
+B
aufstellen.
bn l bn 2 bn 9
but
Reihe nach in (3) flir A + B 415 eingesetzt, so ergeben sich rechts die ,,6 Linien durch Addition' Wir wollen diese mit Ia l9 / 2 ./ also Dann ist bezeichnen. 6
diese Ausdrticke der
,
bn & bn B Wcrden
= (3 + 1/5) r oder auch = (2 + ]/3) = (3 /5 + 5) r oder (2 j/3 + 3) = (3 + yid) r oder (2 /2 +  (5 + = (fi+ l)r,_
r,
r,
1/2
/6) r,
fry) r,
(5
f2+
]/10) r
oder auch
(]/5
/2)
r.
Die Linien durch Addition haben alle besondere Namen. Die erste wie leicht zu sehen, ein Binomium. Die zweite heiBt ,, erste Bimediale", die dritte ,, zweite Bimediale". Nehmen wir als Beispiel
ist,
las
 r /27^+7f  r V"2
(l/i
^if)
r
(Vf
Vf).
EUKLID
die
Vergleiche auch 70 Beispiele bei SUTER, ,,Beitrage" S. 07. la heiftt ,,grOflere Irrationale" diese kurze Bezeichnung
;
medialen Linien; daher ,,Bimediale". die Beispiele S. 21 unter (2) und die zahlreichen
fiir
1/5
,,kleineren
fiir den Typus rj/5 /5 laBt vermuten, daB von etwa Theatet, iiberhaupt nur diese beide Formen anfangs, untersucht worden sind 16
.
Endlich Ia 5 und la Q heiBen ,,die ein Rationales und Mediales Potenzierende" und ,,die zwei mcdiale Potenzierende". Wir brauchen nur eine dieser Bezeichnungen zu erklaren und setzen
/a 5 2
(/5
fcfc
2 1) r .
von /a 5 ist die mediate Flache die ,,Potonz um vermehrt die rationale Flache r /5 E.s sei uns erlaubt, die Apotomen ap ly .... a p B und die entls Q sprechenden Linien durch Subtraktion, iiamlich ls ly sehr kurz abzumachen. jetzt
2
.
Es ist natiirlich ]V ap l = fs lt fr ap ~~Ls 2 usw. Wir wollen noch die Bezeichnungen angeben: Is 1 = Apotome,
Js 2
= erste
Medial Apotome,
Jrrationale, einein Rationalen cin Mediales ergebende,
&3
Is 4
/
ts'
Is 6 einem Medialen em Mediales ergebende. Die beiden letzten Ausdriicke bediirfen vielleicht der Er
uns mit dem letzten. Es sei durch einer medialen Flache, (1/5 ^2) Hinzufiigung namlich ^2 r 2 wird Is 2 6 erganzt zu einer anderen medialen 2 Flache, namlich y5 r
klarung.
Is z 6
begniigen
r2
;
Konsequenterweise konnte man die ,, kleinere Irrationale auch nennen ,,die mit einem Medialen ein Rationales ergebende". Entsprechend konnte die ,,groBere Irrationale'' la auch den umstandlichen Namen tragen, den EUKLID an /r/ 5 gegeben hat. DerUnterschied ist der, daB bei Za 4 wie bei ls^ die grOBere Flache
4 *
rational ist, bei Za 5 wie bei Is 5 die kleinere. Ein hiibsches Beispiel zu ap t findet sich in dem allerdings wohl interpolierten Satz 6 des 1 3. Buches. Wird die Seite 1 nach dem goldenen Schnitt geteilt und das groBere Stiick x 2 x. JDa nun x und 1 x Apotomen genannt, so ist x == 1
26
sind,
1
so
= yi
1

1st.
1/5
*
iibrigens eine 5.
Apotome,
Apotome,
und
>
'
f i
F^
^
Tat eine
erste
wie wir auch ans friiheren Beispielen schon wissen. APOLLONIUS. EUKLTDS Bueh 10 ist schon einigermaBen verschnorkelt, aber ein klares Ziel immerhin vorhanden, namlich,
wie wir hoffen gezeigt zuhaben, die Untersuchung von j/5 y5. Die Arbeit des Apollonius, soweit sich aus den Andeutungen
unseres Kommentars sehliePen laBt, stellt dagegen lediglich einen tastenden Versueh dar, durch Verallgemeinerungen iiber EUKLID hinaus zu kommen, ohne dafi ein Ziel oder ein befriedigender Erfolg zu erkennen ware.
Das
gestellt
euklidische
Binomium mag
APOLLONIUS
werden.
/6 dar
Trinomium
y6
yc,
das Quadrinomium a
Textes, I 21, S. 85.) Es Die euklidische Apotome ist entsprechend a ]/6. liegt nahe, wenn ein drcigliedriger Ausdruck dieser Art entstehen
soil,
etwa an a /6 + } c zu denken, und wir werden zeigen, daB diese Vermutung mit dem Wortlaut des Textes sehr wohl
!
vertraglich ist
(s.
S. 29).
Die euklidische Mediale ist in modernen Zeichen = y^/a = ^a. Mit den Hilfsmitteln der euklidischen Geometrie lassen sich ebenso gut wie 4. Wurzeln auch 8., 16. usw. Wurzeln konstruieren. Der Text ist zwar an dieser Stelle nicht ganz in Ordnung, wir werden es aber wahrscheinlich machen, dafi APOLLONIUS in der Tat an 8., 16. usw. Wurzeln, oder, was dasselbe ist, an immer wiederholte Quadrat wurzeln gedacht hat. Diese drei angefiihrten Erweiterungen stellen nun gerade keine sonderlichen mathematischen Fortschritte dar. Es wird APOLLONIUS gereizt haben, zu den iibrigen ,,Linien durch Addition und Subtraktion" EUKLIDS ebenfalls allgemeinere Formen zu finden, und dies scheint ihm nicht gelungen zu sein. Man konnte denken, APOLLONIUS wollte Ausdriicke von der
Form ya
^b
f
fe untersuchen.
Vereinfachung
Eechnung ergeben
wird.
27
Natiirlich
nehmen wir
an, daft /& und rfc nicht etwa kom1st dies der Fall, z. B. vorgelegt
Ausdruck durch ein Euklidisches Binomium ersetzeii, in unserem Fall durch 1 + ~/18. Wir wollen fur eineii Augenblick setzen, ahnlich wie oben S. 20
j/8,
Va
9
x y und z seien einfache Irrationalitaten von der Form fm m. Ohne Schaden fiir oder, aber hochstens in einem Falle, als ganze Zahl die Allgemeinheit der Untersuchung dtirfen wir annehmen. Auch von den GroBen x, y und z sollen nicht etwa zwei miteinander kommensurabel sein. Es wird
+fo
+]/c==x
+y +z =
x~ + + z + 2xy + 2xz + 2yz. (x + y + z) Die drei ersten Glieder rechts sind ganze Zahlen, die drei letzten samtlioh Quadratwurzeln aus solchen, und untereinander nicht kommensurabel, wenn x, y, z es nicht sind. Ware ferner etwa 2 x y gleich einer ganzen Zahl, so mufiten x und y sich wie ganze Zahlen zueinander verhalten, was doch ausgeschlossen war.  Rechts steht also erst eine gauze Zahl, namlich x 2 + y 2 2 und dann folgen drei einfache Quadratwurzeln, die sich 4 z nicht etwa auf zwei reduzieren lassen. Wir haben hiermit nachgewiesen, da(J wohl ein viergliedriger
2
2
;//
Ausdruck
von der Form a ~fb /c ^d das Quadrat eines ahnlicheii dreigliedrigen sein kann, aber iiiernals ein dreigliedriger selbst.
Gleichwohl untersucht APOLLONITJS Ausdriicke von der
Form
+z
indem
(
rational,
medial,
dagegen 2yz Dingen nur ein ,,leeres Spiel des Kalktils' zu erkeiinen und werden uns nicht weiter damit befassen, zumal wir zu denAnalysen vonWoEPCKE und CHASLES kaum etwas hinzuzufiigen haben.
,
also
= m,
22).
er
stellt: es sei
x2
= ^n
z 2 =.
m'
sei
Wir vermogen
in diesen
Nur auf drei Fragen wollen wir eingehen: auf die erweiterte Mediale und Apotome, von denen schon S. 26 die Rede war, und auf den Narnen der ,,ungeordneten" IrrationalLinien. Zur Medial Linie heifit es 22 Anfang) Wir konnen zwischen zwei rationalen, in Potenz kommcnsurablen Linien wie 1 und
(
:
V'2
auch
3,
EITKLTDS.
auf
]/2,
die MedialLinie
r
:
]/
2,
so ist x
2.
'""
00 ^O
Fall
x
Bei
1,
]/2,
/2,
= V2.
4
drei
]/2
:
,,mittleren
)/2
Proportionalen'
2l,
entsteht
die
Reihe:
VH,
oder 2, 2*,
2,
2';
gliedern
1,
"l/2,
1/2,
'
2> 2
2> 4
16.
2' 5
4.,
8.,
Wurzeln
elementargeometrisch konstruieren lassen, sondern auch 5. Wurzeln, und wenn man den Fall von zwei Zwischengliedern mitnimmt, 3. Wurzeln usw. Hiergegen sprechcn nun mehrere Bedenkeii.
Zunaehst wenn
man
auf
j/2
und
]/2
kommen
will,
so ist es
nicht notig, von 1 und j/2 auszugehcii, sondern es liegt doch naher, 1 und 2 als Endgiieder zu nehmen. Im Falle der 3. Wurzcl oder des Delischen Problems waren allgcmein zwei mittlere Proportionalen einzuschalten zwischen zwei Linien, die sich wie Zahlen, aber nicht gerade wie Kubikzahlen verhalten. Ferner mu!5 es auf fallen, daB unser Text gar nicht von zwei mittleren Proportionalen redet, sondern daB es heiBt: 3, 4 und
mehr.
Unsere
Vermutung
ist
diese.
Et<
hat
urspriinglich
Die weiteren zu erganzenden Zahlen Das arabische Zahlwort fiir 4 hat 1. einige Ahnlichkeit mit dem Worte fiir 7, so dafi ein Versehen wohl moglich ist. Schalten wir zwischen 1 und J 7 2 drei mittlere Proportionalen ein, so kommen wir auf 8. Wurzeln, bei sicbeii auf 16. Wurzeln. Alle diese sind geowetrifch konstruierbar
,
wahrend etwa
fiir
Geome
Eine Korrektur des Textes ist auf jeden Fall n5tig. WOEPCKE am Text keinen AnstoB genommen zu haben, dagegen SITTER fiigt als seine Vermutung zwei mittlere Proportionate hinzu, so da (3 es heiBen wxirde: 2, 3, 4 und mehr. Die von uns vorgeschlagene LOsung der Schwierigkeit wiirde gut passen zu der schon ehimal (oben S. 17) erwahiiten Vermutung
scheint allerdings
im
10.
NITIS herriihrt, also interpoliert ist. Dieser Satz sagt namlich: aus einer MedialLinie konnen unziihlige Irrational Linien ent
29
von der subtrahierten Linie wird eine weitere ,, rationale " Linie WOEPCKE hat hierbei an y.5 weggenommen. y3 gedacht, wodurch man allerdings nicht weiter kommt. Die richtige Auffassung ist wohl die, man soil vorlaufig y5 y3 bilden und dann die so erhaltene Linie anstatt } 5 vom ersten Gliede, namlich von 5, abzieheii; auf diese Weise entsteht
;
Nun zur Apotome. EUKLID hat die zweigliedrige Apotome vom Typus 5 Unser Kommentar sagt dazu, in y5. 23,
(y,5
und
y3),
Tat eine
^2).
Endlich die Frage der ungeardneten Irrationalen. Welcbeii Sinn hat der Name ,,goordnete IrrationalLhiien" fiir die des EUKLID, im Gegeiisatz zu den ,,ungeordneten" des APOLLONIUS ? PROKLUS braucht in seiiiem Kommentar (8. 220) dieselben Ausdriicke fiir Problcme: geurdnet sincl solche, die eine Losung haben, gemischt die mit einer endlicJien Anzahl von Losungen, endlich ungeordnet solche Aufgaben, die vnmdlich viele Losungen
zulassen.
1
konnte sich nun denken, weiin die Linien von der Liingc und y2 gegeben siiid, so ist durch sic eine Kuklidische Mediate,
Man
ein
aber unbestimmt viele IrrationalLinien des APOLLONIUS ableiten, namlich die Medialen
sich
H
uncl
r 2,
e.ine,
y2,
f
(/2
diesen lassen
ni
}/2
tomen etwa
(1
]/!,)
y2 usw.
y.1,
y2
/5
usw.,
Apo
Man mag diese Deutung, weiiigstens fur die Binomien und Apotomen, etwas oberflachlich finden. In der Tat ist die richtige Auffassung doch die, daB das Euklidische Binomium durch zwei Stiicke bestimmt ist, die angefiihrten Binomien des APOLLONIUS durch drei, von dcnen das dritte genau so wichtig ist wie die
beiden ersten. Aber wir miissen bedeiikeii, daI3 die Arbeit des APOLLONIUS durchaus auf den Voraussetzungen der ,,Elemente" beruht. Eine selbstandige Definition der dreigliedrigen Apotome wiirde z. B. lauten: zwei Linien werden addiert und eine dritte da von abgezogen. APOLLONIUS aber geht von der Euklidischen Festsetzung aus und ersetzt nur den Subtrahenden durch einen anderen.
30
Grund
Auffassungen von PLATO und ARISTOTELES und die Begriffe Mafi, kommensurabel, rational', es folgen einige Bemerkungen
EUKLIDS und des APOLLONIUS, und endlich wird eine Einteilung des 10. Buches gegeben. Der zweite Teil geht genauer auf die irrationalen Linien durch Addition und durch Subtraktion ein, die wir oben mit la und Is bezeichnet haben. Einige mathematische Schwierigkeiten des Textes, die nur kurzer Erklarung bediirfen, sind in den Anmer10, 19 und 26 kungen erledigt. Dagegen erfordern wohl die eine etwas ausfiihrlichere Wiedergabe in modernen Zeichen. 10 handelt von den drei ersten la und Is. Hier sind die Stucke x und y, die addiert oder subtrahiert werden, zueinander kommensurabel in Potenz, aber nicht in Lange. Es wird nun die
iiber die Irrationalitaten
Bemerkung gemacht:
je
nachdem x 2
ist,
=m
oder
/ra,
sind auch x
und y
selbst rational
oder medial, das heiBt /?&. //& oder Dies ist leicht einzusehen. Da namlich x 2 kommensurabel zu 2 y sein soil, so ist auch jede dieser GroBen kommensurabel zu 2 Die Gleichung x 2 hat also zur Folge x 2 + y2 y 2 2 m" Ebenso folgt im anderen Falle aus m' und y x
.
=
+
und y 2 = ra" /ra. Der erste Fall fuhrt auf la v und Is l9 Binomium und Apotome, der zweite auf Z<z 2 Ia 3 Is 2 und ls& die ja samtlich durch Zux2
= /ra,
daB x 2
,
= m'
/ra
sammenftigung medialer Linien entstehen. In 19 wird entwickelt: wenn zwei Stucke x und y zusammen eine Linie durch Addition la ergeben, so ist das harmonische Mittel aus x und y die entsprechende Is. Wir erwahnten schon S. 17, daB das harmonische Mittel zwischen x und y dargestellt ist durch 2 x J 2 x y (x 11 ?/) oder ~ o1 x + y x2 y Wenn nun x ( y = la, so ist x Is, und zwar von y derselben Ordnung, sogar von denselben ,,Namen", wie es bei den Griechen heiBt, d. h. von denselben Komponenten. Wir
..
x
haben nur zu
l/ra
zeigen,
5 2
ist und deswegen die Ordnung von Is nicht beeinfluBt. Wir benutzen wieder dieFormel(3) von S. 23 und zwar zerlegt: x + y =^ ^A + jB,
l/A^^B.
31
als
Durch Addition
gibt sich
er
+R + ^Fi*
4 a # 2 .r y
=2 B =
Da von
2
a; ?/
die Form /w vorausgesetzt ist, so haben auch ^4 und 2 und x 2 y dieselbe Form, ebenso ihr Quotient, und dies
6.
war zu beweisen.
Als Beispiel sei eine vorgelegt, namlich
Linie durch Addition oder Subtraktion
=
Es
folgt
x2
^2
_ ^2 ^ y 2
1/3
Das harmonische
Mittel aus x
und
;?/
ist
(^
y.
y^ unci
dieser
Ausdruck
ist
fur
EUKLID
gleichartig mit x
Endlich
la 2 entweder
Is 2
= ^m
^m

r
r
Ia 2 oder
Is 2
entweder
oder
= ^m = fm
la^
/s 3
.
Wir hatten gesehen, daJ3 nach Definition Ia 2 rbn ist S. Aus den und Formeln (oben 24). dortigen Beispielen wird der Leser auch ersehen, dafi Ia 2 und la<3 sich durch den Faktor
ym unterscheiden von la l oder, was ja dasselbe ist, von bn, wahrend der Faktor ^m auf die Art der Linie ohne EinfluB ist. Entsprechendes gilt von Is und ap. Hiermit ist unser Satz
bewiesen. Als Beispiel
nehmen
den Faktor
r:
Fur
/3.
:
ist z,
wenn
_
Offenbar wird
32
Dies
1st
Eine/a " 2
wenn wir
m=
15 wahlen, namlich
,._
Das Quadrat
ein
,
ist
yi5
/8 h +
r)
2
/
\
I
8
:
7=
2,
imd
dies ist
few 2 denn das erste Glied der rechten Seite enthalt eine Wurzel und ist groBer als das zweite.
Anmerkungen.
1
1856, 8. 658
Oomptes Rendus de TAo. des Sc., 37, 1853, S. 553; ~ noch einmal abgodruckt in Journal de math., 19, 1854, 8. 413. Die Mitteilungoii des Textes beruhen zum Teil auf den Akten der Berliner Akademie der Wisserischaften. Axifierdem .sind drei bald nach WOEPCKTC'S Tode erschienene Naehrufe benutzt: ein von WCXEICKE'S Vater herriihrender, ini Archiv dor Math, und Physik (Grunerts Archiv) eine sehr sohono Wiirdigung 42, 1864, Heft 1, Litorar. Bericht S. 1 des friih Verstorbeiien dnrch MOITL im Journal Asiatique, 6. Ser., 4,
;
1864, S. 20;
ondlich
NARDUCCT
mat. e fis., 2, 1869, S. 1 19. NARDUCOI gibt an, W. hube die 400 Taler znmeist zuriickgezahlt. Dies 1st an sicli glatibhaft, clooli sageii die Akteii dor Akademie niehts davon. Vielleicht Jassen sich die Ratsel der Ausgabe von 1855 am ersten psychologisch erklareii: Woe/pcke wollte nicht, daft die rariser Akademie von der Ausgabe etwas erfahre. FJr hatte dieser doch 1853 odor noch friiher sein Essai oingoreicht. Kr war vorwtilmt ctureh den sclmellen Abdrnck seiner ersten Pariser Aufsatze, aufiei'dom von j ugeiidlicher
er war 1826 geboroii und vielleioht wai er iiber die Verzogerung des Druckes seines Essai so verstimmt, claI3 er sich an die Berlirior Akademie \vaiidte. Nachdem nun das Geld von dort bewilligt luid der Druck des Textes vorbereitet war, da hatte er, eiii wenig zaghaft wie er war, vielleicht wiedor Besorgnis, diese Veroffentlichurig mcichto in Paris eineii ungiinstigen Eindruek maoheii, und so richtete er clen Druck des Textes so eiii, dafJ allerdings auRer den Mitgliedern der Berliner Akademie wohl nicht viele Merisclien davon erfahreii haben
Uiigednld
werdeii.
4
Studien iiber Euklid, Leipzig 1882, S. 171. Skr., 6. RAEKKE, Hist, og philos. Afdel. 2,
merkung
5
(il)er
die
Goldkomor
S.
229.
Metaphysik 10, 1; 1053a 17; s. dazu Ross, Aristotle's Motaj)h. II, Oxford 1924, S. 283. s. STENZKL, Zalil und C^estalt bei Platon und Aristotelos, Leipzig 1924,
S.
90 und 94.
EVA SACHS, Die fiinf Platonisohen Korper, Philolog. Untors. Heft 24, Berlin 1917, S. 160182. Prolegomena critica, Band 5 der Euklid Ausgabe (1888) S. LXXXV;
s.
iiber
S.
9
mathematieae, Buch 21 (zurn ersten Mai gedruckt Der Brief von CASTELH STEVIN, Arithm6tique, Def. 30. 1567). in A. FAVARO, G. GALTLKI e lo studio di Padova, Firenze 1883, II, 267.
P.
3
JungeThoinson.
10 11 12
13
14
15
Proclus in Euclidem, ed. Friedlein, Leipzig 1873, S. 68 und 71. Bei HERON gibt es eme bisher nicht beachtete Stelle, s. Bd. 3, ed. SCHOENK, Lpzg. 1903, 8. 18, Z. 22; Ircel oSv ^x prjTYjv T?)V TrXeupav oux g/ouat, da nun 720 eine rationale Wurzel nicht hat. Die Stelle Fiir DIOPHANT s. das Register fehlt im Register unter pY]T6<;. der TEUBNER'schen Ausgabe (ed. TANNERY, Lpzg. 1893 95). Die ersten 8atze des 10. Buehes bilden zwar den Anfang einer Theorie kommensurabler und inkommensurabler Grofien. Aber diese Theorie wird nicht durehgefuhrt. Euklid verstrickt sich in eine Terminologie, die doch irnmer an Linien und Flachen haften bleibt. Fiir den von uns angegebenen Zweck des 10. Buches, namlich die Untersuchung der Kauten dor regularen Korper, ist dies ja auch kein 8chade. Unser PappusKommentar geht auf dies sachgernaBe, freilich etwas 24 schwierigeEuklidiRcheKriterium nur einmal kurz ein, namlich in 6 des zweiten Teiles. Grofie Stiicke des Kommentars (II 16) scheinen geradezu in derAbsicht geschrieben, das Euklidische Kriterium entbehrlich zu rnacheii. Dies ist die gewohnliche Bezeiclmung unseres Kommentars, und eritsprechend ^ibt es die ,,Lmien (lurch Subtraktion". Auch in den griechischen Scholien hoi fit es ,,Hai kata synthesin hox alogoi", z. B. Scholion Nr. 189, 204, 309, 358, 359. Siehe aucli Euklid ed. Hoiberg III S. 107 Anm. 20 und S. 224 Anni. 5. In Euklids Text heiOt es nur (Bd. Ill S. 222, Z. 9) ,,das Binomium und die darauf (folgenclen) Irrationalen"; S. 224, 4 einf ach ,,Die S. 352, 18 und Irrational on". Entsj>rechend fur Apotome usw.
:
354, 14ff.
16
Form V 5 Vf) besohaf tigt hat, ist zwar nicht unmittolbar bezeugt; es ist aber wahrscheinlich, denn 1. geDafi Theatot sich mit der
winnt die Apotome, die Theatet ein^efiihrt haben soil, eist Interesse durch eine solche weitergehende Betrachtung; und 2. wird Theatet die Behandlung der regularen Korper zugeschrieben, sogar die Konstruktioii von Oktaeder und Ikosaeder (s. EVA SACHS a. a. O. 8. 29 und 76 87). Beim Ikosaeder tritt abor gerade die Form
/5
17
y5
auf.
38
DerVerfasser hat schon einmal darauf hingewiesen, dafi wahrscheinlich der Anfang der 3. Definition des 10. Buches (Euklid ed. Hoiberg Bd. V, S. 2, Z. 912) auch interpoliert ist. Hier werden die unendlich vielen Irrational Linien erwahnt, womit wahrscheinlich auf die immer wieder eingeschalteten mittleren Proportional en angespielt ist; siehe Jahresbericht der Deutschen Mathematiker Vereinigung Band 35, 8. 170. Die Auffassung SUTERS (Beitrage S. 67 Nr. 8) scheitert doch wohl an der klaren Bedeutung des Euklidischen Wortes prosarmozousa Subtrahendus.
2.
3.
Theatet, Euklid, Apollonius Mythus liber die Entdeckung des Irrationalen Zalilen und Gro'Ben: die einen habeii eirien kleinsten, die
Uber
die
63 64
anderen omen gro'Bten Wert tJbersicht liber Euklids 10. Buch, besonders
lagen
64
tP~<er
die
Grand 66
Das Mal3
cler
Konveiition
Das Wort
Proportion" wird in verschiedonem Sinn gebraucht bei endlichen gleichartigen, bei kommerisurablen und
bei rationalen
7.
GroBen
69
70
71 71 72
Endlichkoit und Zahl 9. Die Dreiheit ini Irrationalen 10. Platos ,, Theatet" und Euklid 11. Plato im Theatet spricht nur von Kommensurabel und Inkonnnensurabel iin Verhtiltnis zur Einheit 12. Platos ,,Gesetze" iiber das Irrationale 13. Platos ,,Parmeiiides" und Aristoteles iiber Kommensurabel und Inkommensurabel, Form und Materie 14. Fur die Lehre vom Irrationalen wird ein bestimmtes Mafi
8.
74 75
76 78 78 80
81
vorausgesetzt
$
Erklarung von Rational und Kommensurabel 16. Kommensurabel zu einandor 17. Die Bezeichnungen bei Plato und Euklid; insbesondere das Wort ,, rational" bei Euklid 18. Kommensurabel zu einander und zur gegebenen Linie; Beispiele am rationalen und medialen Rechteck 19. Die Bezeichnung ,, medial" 20. Beziehungen zwischen rationalen und medialen Linien. ... 21. Binomium und Apotonie, Trinomium, Quadrinomium etc. 22. Weitere Verallgemeinerungen, namlich der Medialen und dor Linien durch Addition 23. Dasselbe fur die Linien durch Subtraktion 2436. Die clreizehn Teile im 10. Buch Euklids
15.
82 83 83
84
85 86 87
3*
36
Z welter
1.
Teil.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
9.
Euklid hat die geortlneten, Apollom'us auch die ungeordneten Irrational Liiiieii bohandelt Alle Irrational en worden gefunden auf 3 Wegen: durch Proportion, Addition, Subtraction Entstehung der Irrational en aus den Flachen Genauore Betrachtung der Reehtecke, dereii Flache gleieh dem Quadrat eiuor IrrationalLime ist Entstehung der MedialLinie Entstehung der 6 Liiiien durch Addition Die addierten Linien seien komrnensurabel in Poteriz. 1st die Summe ihrer Quadrate rational und ihr Rochteck rational, so Sind die Quadratsumme oder ist <lie gaiize Lime rational. das Rochteck oder beide medial, so entstehen die 3 ersteii ,,Linieii durch Addition" Die addi ert on. Liiiien sei en inkommoiis irabel in Potenz Dam entstehen die 3 letzteii ,, Liiiien durch Addition" Bei den 3 ersteii Liniexi durch Addition sind die Stu'cke (Sutrimandeii) einfach, iiamlich rational oder medial; bei den
i
.
122
124
120
Linien in Potenz komrneiisurabel sind uncl die Quadrate rational oder medial, so sind auch die Linien selbst rational oder medial. Sind aber die Linien in
Potoiiz inkommensurabeJ, so gilt solches nicht 128 Zur Ableituiig der Irrational liiiieii begimit man mit zwei
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Aus ihnen werden rationale oder mecliale Flachen gebildet uiid diese addiert 6 Linien durch Subtraktioii, entsprechend derieri durch Addition Entstehung der Linien durch Subtraktioii aus den Flachen Wiederholung, nur anclors geordiiet die 1. Liiiie neben die 4. gestellt, die 2. neben die 5., die 3. nebeii die 6 Linieii durch Addition zusammeiigestellt rait den entsprecheiiden durch Subtraktioii
rationalen Linien.
:
130
131
132 134
130
137 Erklaiiing des arithmetischeii Mittols 138 140 17 Zusammenfassuiig von Das harmoiiisehe Mittel zwischen 2 Liiiioii, die eine Liiiie
Theatets 3 Mittel.
ist
Zusammenfassuiig von
Hilfsatz fur
19
22
22.
Wenii in einem rationalen Rechteck die eine Seite eiiio Linie durch Addition ist, daiin ist die and ere die eritsprechende durch Subtraktioii
14(5
37
23. Derselbe Satz
24.
fiir
ein mediales
fiir
Rechteck
die 6 JBinomien
148
und
die 6
150
25.
2(5.
27.
Beziehungen zwischen den 6 Binomien und den 6 Linien durch Addition, sowie zwischen den Apotomen und den Linien 151 durch Subtraktion Anzeige des Satzes: ,,Wird das Quadrat einer der 6 Linien durch Addition angelegt an eine mediale Lime, so entsteht die 1. oder 2. Bimediale; entaprechend fiir die Linien durch Hilfsatz: Wird ein rationales Rechteck Subtraktion". angelegt an cine mediale Linie, so entsteht eine mediate Der angezeigte Satz wird in 6 einzelne Falle zerlegt, Linie. und jeder Fall besonders bewiesen ( 27 32) 153 Das Quadrat der 1. oder 4. Linie durch Addition wircl
angolegt
154
2.
28.
oder
oder
5.
156
3.
6.
29.
157
fiir
30
Entsprechend
33.
34.
35.
geomotrische MitteJ
INTRODUCTION
by WILLIAM THOMSON.
I.
DESCRIPTION OF THE
M.
S.
The commentary of Pappus on the tenth book of Euclid's Elements is preserved only in Arabic, and the Arabic text is to be found, so far as is yet known, only in MS. 2457 of the
1 This manuscript contains Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris some fifty treatises, of which Nos. 5 and 6 constitute our
.
commentary.
F.
described
by
WOEPCKE
cV Apollonius
WOEPCKE
of our
2 where quantites irrationnelles (Paris 1856) also gives a fairly accurate analysis of the content
sur
les
manu
with translations (pp. 57 63, 28 45). WOEPCKE also published, anonymously, and without date or place of publication, the full text of the commentary with the title, The commentary
script
on the tenth book of Euclid's Elements by Els, and his work cannot be praised too highly, especially if one considers the
nature of the subject in the first part of the commentary and the state of the manuscript, which is written for the most part without the usual diacritical marks that ordinarily distinguish
formed letters in Arabic. In 1922 a translation of WOEPCKE'S text by HEINRICH SITTER was published posthumously in Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Medizin, Erlangen. Heft IV, pp. 9 78, under the title of Der Kommentar des Pappus zum X. Buche des Euklides. As Dr. JITNGE has observed, SUTER'S translation is on the whole reliable, so far as
similarly
39
the mathematical content of the commentary
is
concerned.
Nevertheless it has its defects. SITTER evidently did not consult the MS., as might be conjectured from statements which he has made, on pages 1 and 3 of his Einleitung. His translation reproduces, therefore, for the most part, the errors of
text
3
,
WOEPCKE'S
entirely, especially
when philosophical ideas are introduced4 Sometimes indeed it is misleading even when it deals with mathematics. For example, in his notes, 54, 65, and 85, SITTER supposes that Pappus had abandoned the Euclidian idea of rationality and had approached that of Diophantes. But in each case SITTER'S notes are based on mistranslations of the Arabic text, for, as will be shown later, Pappus uses the terms, rational and irrational, in this commen5 tary at least, in their Euclidian signification On page 17 of his Essai WOEPCKE assigns the commentary to Valens; in all probability, he says, the astronomer, Vettius
.
two pages of his Einleitung and rightly assumes that Pappus was the author, pointing out that the Fihrist ascribes a commentary on Book X to Pappus but makes no
reference to Valens in this connection.
however, an important point, namely, that the Fihrist states that the commentary of Pappus was in two books, like the
present commentary. The source of WOEPCKE'S error was his reading of the consonantal skeleton of the author's name as Bis. SITTER quite
correctly suggests that the
L may
be a
stroke than
is
usual.
But
MS., he was unable to state positively that WOEPCKE'S reading was false. As a matter of fact, however, WOEPCKE was deceived
invariably prolongs the second letter upward more than is usual, whenever three such letters as J5, T, Th, N, or Y, follow oneanother in succession
copyist,
by a
trick of the
Arab
who almost
in
40
same general pattern and would be subject to the same treatment. Hence, probably, the unusual length upward of the second B of the name and WOEPCKE'S conjecture concerning Valens.
Although SUTER ascribes the commentary in general to Pappus, he raises the question whether (in its present form) it
represents the original
work
of the
characteristics of
and
copyist.
SITTER'S judgment
is,
however, unjust,
as, it is
Not only is the hoped, the present translation will prove. commentary, as SITTER himself says (p. 73), well constructed,
which opinion seems to contradict the charge of the many omissions, it is also for the most part lucid in statement, a good
of the best period of Arab translation. SITTER again raises the question of authorship in the last paragraph of his Anhang (p. 78). Some of the ideas expressed
example
in the
commentary
(cf.
especially Part
I,
ask whether, in the last analysis, the authorship should not be ascribed to Proclus, whose commentary on Euclid may have
I,
as
it
simple.
Not one
is
of the philoso
commentary
peculiarly Neopla
The doctrine
para.
9, is
found in Aristotle 9 and goes back to the early Pythagoreans or to Homer even paragraph 8 is mathematical in content rather than philosophical, SUTER notwithstanding,
Part
I,
;
although there
is
an allusion
in it to the
Monad
as the principle
;
10 Pythagorean doctrine
and
41
these two paragraphs are the source of SITTER'S suggestion of the authorship of Proclus 11 As a matter of fact, the philoso.
phical notions in Part I have been borrowed for the most part directly from Plato, with two or three exceptions that are Aristotelian in origin. PLATO'S Theaetetus, Parmenides, and the
Laws, are
specifically
mentioned 12
And the Platonism of a background of much of the thought mathematician of the turn of the third century A. P. need not
13
surprise us,
if
we but
recall Aristotle's
Academy tended to turn philosophy into mathematics 14 It is also problematical whether Proclus could have ever
written such a clear, sober, and concise piece of work.
His
is
always
the epistemological aspect of it. He must ever inquire into the how and the why of the knowledge relevant to that subject, and
its
kind or kinds 15
is
intrude into the discussion of even a definition or proposition 16 Moreover Proclus can never forego theologizing in the Pytha
veils concealing
17
.
Thus
images
of perfection
who
and are ascribed to the Gods a variety of powers 18 and give progression, motion, This epistemological interest and this tendency to symbolism are entirely lacking in our commentary; and another trait
and
infinity,
peculiar to Proclus
is
from
all sorts of
by name with pedagogical of author our commentary had a the Obviously philosophical turn of mind, but he was a temperate thinker
ancient thinkers
finicalness.
and
of citing these
42
His philosophy is the handmaid of his mathematics, serving to give his mathematical notions a more or less firm metaphysical basis and no more. Philosophical
compared with
Proclus.
him
for their
own
sake.
AlDirnishql. According to Ibn Alri Useibia (ed., A. MIJLUBR, 1884), p. 234 (cf. p. 205), Abu 'Ulhmdn Scfld Ibn Ya'qub AlDimishqi was a famous
The superscription of Part I and the the Arab translator as Abu 'Uthmdn
Bagdad attached to the person of the vizier of that who in the year 302 H. (i. e., 914 A. D.) built and endowed a hospital in Bagdad and put AlDimishqi in charge not only of it but of all the hospitals in Bagdad, Mecca, and
physician of
Medina.
first
quarter
He was famous not only as a physician but also as an author and translator 19 According to AlQifti he wrote some books on medicine 20 and also a commentary on Jshaq's translation of the commentaries of Ammonius and Alexander of Aphrodisias on Aristotle's Topics 21 He is most often cited, however, as a translator of philosophical, medical, and mathematical works. Of his translations the following are recorded: (1) The fourth book of Aristotle's Physics (The Fihrist, p. 250), (2) Books 1, 2, and part of 3, of the commentary of Alexander of Aphrodisias on the fourth book of Aristotle's Physics (AlQifti, p. 38, 1. IS) 22
.
.
(3)
]>.
Aristotle's
DC Generatione
p. 40,
1.
et
(4)
251, AlQifti,
18),
19), (5)
1.
Porphyry's
p. 257,
(i.
6p,
(6)
An
e.
of character), the
of Galen's
Abi Useibia,
p. 234), (7)
An abstract
Little Book on the Pulse, the l)e Pulsibus ad Tirones or the Book on the Pulse to Teuthras and other beginners (Ibn Abi Useibia, 24 (8) Several books of Euclid, of which AlNadim, the p. 234) author of The Fihrist, saw the tenth in the library of A1I Ibn
,
43
Ahmad
of
i.
e.
1.
(The Fihrist,
The commentary
have revised
Pappus on Book
Nationale in Paris).
AlDimishqi
translations
is
also said to
others (The Fihrist, p. 244), but this statement could quite well refer to some of the works already mentioned, as, for instance, his translations of
made by
The
this
copy of the commentary was written by Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn 'Abd AlJalU in Shlraz in the month of Jumada 1.
(March 969 A.D.). According to WOEPCKE the whole MS. 2457 of the Bibliotheque Nationale is an autoof the year 358
graph of this wellknown Persian geometer. On page 14 of his "Les cent quatrevingtdouze premiers feuillets Essai he says:
Ainsi que Tattestent les postscriptum cidessus mentionnes, cette partie a ete ecrite a Chlraz, principalement pendant les annees 969 et
ecriture.
meme
970 de notrc
ere,
par
le
geometre
Abdaljalil Alsidjzi, qui formait probablcment ce recueil pour son propre usage. Depuis le folio 192 v a 216 v, on trouve une
ou plutot plusieurs ecritures, differentes de celle cle la premiere partie du volume, mais qui, cependant, en quelques endroits, ressemblent beaucoup a cette derniere ecriture. Les trois derniers feuillets,
differcntc".
TFerteSuTER accepted WoErcKE's judgment of the MS. with the proviso that AlSijzi must have written it as a very young man of about twenty years of age, since he was a contempory of
AlBirum (972/31048 A.I).). Later, in 1916, however, he revised his judgment, and in his Uber die Ausmessung der Parabel von Thdbit b. Kurra alH arrant, p. 65, 26 he questions whether
AlSijzi wrote
44
that he did
later copyists,
by and there are so many omissions, repetitions, and bad figures, for example, in the treatise on the paraboloids 122 r) that it is impossible to believe (MS. 2457, 24, Fol. 95 v
that such a good geometer as AlSijzi is known to have been, ever wrote it. In his T)er Kmnmentar des Pappus zum X. Buche
de* Euklides (1922)
so.
AlSijzi at all.
SFTER'S argument
occasionally copied
Postscripts were
by
own name
accusations which
SUTER
levels
work on the paraboloids, are the same, with the exception of that concerning bad figures, as those which he has brought
against the
MS.
of the present
it is
commentary on Book
X of Euclid,
which
will
be found,
hoped, unjustified.
AlSijzi also, as
SUTER has
his copies,
said, may have been quite young when he wrote although this also is subject to doubt, since he seems
known
as a mathematician.
He may,
course,
life,
have
but
developed his mathematical genius early SITTER'S argument would not be improved by
are as follows. It
this fact.
contains five treatises which arc described as the work of Alhimself, viz.,
r), 28
10
(Fol.
52 v
53 v),
27" (Fol.
136 v,
v 150 v, 139r), 31 (Fol. 151 r 198 Three and of 27, these, 10, 11), r). 28, are letters of AlSijzT on mathematical subjects, the other
(Fol. 137
5137
46
(Fol. 195 v
two
are treatises by him. 27 is dated, Oct., 970; 28, Feb., 972; but the place of writing is in neither case given. 31 is undated, but was written in Shiraz. Significant, perhaps, is the fact
partie
du volume, mais
45
Four
1
viz.,
(Fol.
18 v), 5
6 (Fol. 23 v
75v).
the year, 069, the last in the year, 970. hand, occuring in the first 192 leaves.
They
by the same
Seven
r), 24
1.
were written in
(Fol. 76 r
1.
Shiraz, viz., 14
(FoL 59 r,
1.
18
60r,
1.
8),
16
78
4),
14136
v,
(Fol. 170 v,
v, 1. 7), 41 (Fol. 181 v, 1. 16187 r, 1. 12), 24, 26, 38, and 41 in the year, 969, 14 and 32 in the year, 16 has no date, but was copied from a text of Nazlf 970. Ibn Yomn, as was 15, which is dated 970. The name of the
1.
12180
copyist is not given in any of these treatise, but they are all by the same hand as those already mentioned. The treatises in the MS. deal predominantly with mathematical
or astronomical subjects. One or two, such as 3 and 4, have topics belonging to the field of physics; one, 22, treats of medicine. It is also perhaps worthy of observation that eleven
of the treatises are
viz.,
of irrationals,
5, 6
(our commentary), 7,
have been copied by him or written in Shiraz, fall within the first 192 leaves, which are the work of one hand, excepting only 46, a treatise of Al Sijzl on the measurement of spheres by means
of spheres,
WOEPCKE
which occurs in that part of the MS., where, as says, we find "Une ou plutot plusieurs ecriture*
du volume, mais
qui,
cependant, en qiielques endroifs, ressemblent beaucoup a cette derniere ecriture". Even if, therefore, 46 were shown to be an
autograph of AlSijzi, that would not prove that the whole MS., with the exception of the last three leaves, is, as WOEPCKE
claims, the
work
of Ai Sijzl.
46
moreover, there is no date except at the end of a table of contents to the whole MS. (Fol. 215 v 216 v), and this date is the eleventh
Muharram of the year 657 H. (the eighth Jan., 1259 A.D.). In view, therefore, of the facts that have just been set forth, the most reasonable assumption would appear to be that the
of
first
part of the
MS.
(Fol. I
formed
by
and written in his own hand, but that the second part 27 192 216) is another collection of the same type added to (Fol. the first at a later date. The later collection contains works by
AlSijzi
first,
that they were written much It is quite possible that 46, the treatise tion, if at all.
Sijzi, is in his
and
by Al
own hand.
But
it is
to be
first in
when
a table of contents was supplied for the whole MS. No. 71 (Fol. 217 r 219 v) would be added later. It deals with irrationals,
the subject which bulks most in the whole collection. Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn <Abd AlJalll Aim Kafld AlSijzi 26
was a contemporary
Volker,
p. 42,
of
Al Birum (972/3 1048 A.D.), but his In his Chronologic Orient a/ischer
AlBirimi states that he personally heard Althe names of the Persian months on the authority Sijzi citing of the ancients of Sijistaii. On the other hand, in his treatise on
the trisection of an angle 30 AlSijzi quotes three propositions from AlBirum; and the latter also wrote him concerning a proof of
One
of AlSijzI's
works
is
dedicated to
,
32 another AlDaulah, who reigned from 949 to982A.D. to an Alid emir, Al Malik Al'Adil Abu Ja'far Ahmad Ibn
Adud
of his being
which would make him a young man of about eighteen years of age in 969, when he was active in Shiraz both as a copyist and as an original writer on mathematical subjects. But it seems
47
from the facts that have been advanced, that he was already a mathematician of some note, and he might quite well have been born ten years earlier and still remain a contemporary
certain
of AlBirum.
works have yet been published33 but one or two have been discussed by European scholars. These are:
None
of his
(1)
On
lines
circles
(MS.
by
L. A. Sedillot in Notices
Extraits des
150,
pp. 126
rules
MSS. (2) On
On
of
the solution
of certain propositions
Book
of
Lemmas
(4)
Archimedes
(MS. 2458, 3)
1874,
t.
by
L. A. Sedillot
(ibid.),
Concerning conic
by
F.
WOEPOKE
in Notices et Extraits,
and
the construction of
a,
regular heptagon in
a,
(Leyden, 996) (Cairo, 203) by F. WOEPCKE in L'Algebre 127 and by C. SCHOY in Graecoarabische Stud.ien, Isis, 8, pp. 21 35, 1926 (Translation),
On
versal figure by means of one operation (Leyden, 997) by H. BURGER and K. KOHL in Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Medizin, Heft 7, Erlangen, 1924, (Thabits Werk liber den Transversalensatz, A. BJORNBO, pp. 49 53 b). The rest of AlSijzi's works lie buried in manuscript in the
libraries of
In the libraries of
Europe we
(1)
A
b.
letter
on
the solution of
,
a problem from
the
Book
of
Yuhanna
Yusuf, namely the division of a straight line into two equal parts, together with a demonstration of Yuhanna*'s error
therein (MS. 2457, 10, of the Bibliotheque Nationale).
(2)
letter to
Abu
'All Nazlj
Ibn
Yomn on
of
the construction of
an
acuteangle triangle
lines
by means
(from
?)
48
(3)
On
On On
him by a
certain
lines
circles
(MS. (MS.
the
2458,2).
(6)
A
of
letter
containing answers
to
questions addressed to
him con
from
the
Book
of
Lemmas
203).
(7)
(8)
(9)
On On
(Cairo,
the construction of
proposition 2,
of
measurement
Office,
734,14).
of spheres
(MS.
On
On
figure
(12) (13)
by means
the relation of
letter to
of one operation (Leyden, 997). a hyperbola to its asymptotes (Leyden, 998). the Shaikh, AbiilHusain Muhammad Ibn Abd
c
and hyper
revolution
Nationale).
(14) Oft conic sections
(15)
(Leyden, 995).
On
an instrument whereby extensions (distances) are known, and on the construction of this instrument (Leyden,
the use of
999)
(16)
34
.
On
the astrolabe
and
its
1,
p. 366).
(17)
MSS.
in
the British
1.
Museum,
p. 527), containing:
3).
An
2.
Canons used by
p. 198, is identical).
40
3.
An
of
Abu
4.
5.
The book
of the Z&irjat,
An
of the
birth
Oxford
title
(1787),
MS.
identical,
runs: The revolutions of the years for the purpose of nativities, which seems the better title. Hajji Khalifa has, "The book of the revolutions (Vol. v.
p. 60).
but the
the Bibliotheque Nationale (nouvelles E. BLOCHET, 1925, seems also to be idenacquisitions), tical, and the last phrase of its title, Alsinin almawalid, is possible, but probably we should read, alsinin lil6686,2
of
runs:
A summary
6.
of the Bibliotheque
.
7.
On
On
the rise
and
fall of
70).
British Mus.
identical.
;
the chosing of an auspicious day on which to begin an enterprise or so as to avoid an impending evil. See Hajji Khalifa, Vol. I, p. 198.
(astrological) elections (Fol. 72)
i.
e.,
9.
abridgement of the Book of the Thousands of Abu Ma'shar (Fol. 81) (tables). See Hajji Khalifa, Vol. V, 38 p. 50, and 6. above
An
The significations of "Judicial Astrology" (or of "The decrees of the Stars") (Fol. 92). 79 11. Proofs of "Judicial Astrology British Mus. (Fol. 113).
10.
(1838), 415, 8,
seems identical.
"Proofs concerning the science of "Judicial Astrology". 12. On the science of the opening of the door (Fol. 128).
4 Jun^eThomson.
50
13.
The sojourning
"Houses" (Signs
14.
of the Zodiac) (Fol. 131). Astronomical tables proving the 360 degrees of the Zodiac and showing what constellation arises in each degree. A
treatise
without
title (Fol.
theque Nationale (nouvelles acquisitions) seems identical, with the title, "Concerning the constellations of the degrees of the Zodiac". E. BLOCHET says that it consists almost
entirely of tables in
for
15.
(Fol.
153).
MS. Add.
109, (vol.
1,
p.
194) (W.
it.
PERTSCH)
an excerpt from
of
An
introduction
to
the
science
"Judicial
Astrology",
imitation of a
work
of the
Qumml
(19)
acquisitions).
however,
and
II. 39
In MS. 2458,2,
(Fol. 4
v)
the end, AlSijzi himself refers to a book of his own, which See (Ta'liqat handasiyya).
Extraits,
t.
13, p. 143,
and note
2 to p. 129.
(20) Hajji Khalifa also mentions an astrological work entitled Abkdm AlAs'ad (The Decrees of the Auspicious Stars?),
Vol.
I, p.
169,
title
Burhdn AlKifdyat
(The Sufficient Proof?), Vol. II, p. 46, a compendium of astronomy for students of astrology.
We have,
Abu'lJud's solution of AlSijzfs problem of trisecting an angle; and Ihtiyaru'1Dm Muhammad refers to AlSijzi in his Judicial
Astronomy (MS.
R 13, 9, of E. H. PALMER'S Catalogue of the Arabic MSS. in the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge), which begins with the statement that the author has emended
51
the astronomical tables of Ptolemy and AlSijzI, bringing them down to the time of writing.
influence.
tician,
These references show the scope and spheres of AlSijzI's He was known to his successors not only as a mathemabut also as an astronomer and astrologer; and
it is
safe to
assume, on the basis of his extant works, that Judicial Astronomy was the field of his greatest activity.
II.
As a mathematical term,
its
Euclidian signification.
lity, he says (Part 1, para. 3; cf. 4,5, & 12), belong essentially to the sphere of geometry. The numbers are all rational and commensurable, since they advance from a minimum, unity
namely, by addition of the unit and proceed to infinity. They have a common measure by nature (Part 1, para. 5), for "One",
XIV. 1; 1088 a, 5; 1087 b, 3035), a means measure". "evidently The continuous quantities, on the other hand, have no minimum. They begin with a definite whole, and are divisible
as Aristotle says (Metaph.
15). There
is,
there
no continuous quantity which is naturally a measure, and thus continuous quantities have a common measure not by
nature but only by convention (Part 1, para 5) 40 In the case of lines, for example, some conventional common measure must be
.
lines,
it
since it is
assumed, cannot measure all not a minimum, nor do lines advance from
is
by addition of this unit. Rational lines, therefore, are those which are commensurable
upon which
are commensurable with the square upon that unit. Irrational lines are those which are incommensurable with the unit in
1,
para. 18).
The
rationality of a magnitude
52
depends upon
proportion to the chosen unit of measurement (Part 1, para. 14). On the other hand, the commensurability of magnitudes does not depend upon their proportion to the
its
chosen unit, for continuous quantities are commensurable with one another, in length or in square only, by reason of a common measure, be that what it may, commensurable or
1,
Some continuous quantities, therefore, are irrational and at the same time commensurable. The two terms are not synonymous
(Part
1,
para. 15).
of
be observed, Aristotelian. Numbers are quantity is, limited by one as their minimum, but have no maximum limit; continuous quantities have a maximum, but no minimum limit
will
(Arist.,
1048 b,
Phys. III. 6; 207b, 15; cf. De Caelo, 268a, 6; Metaph. These notions imply Aristotle's idea of an infinite as 9). "Not that outside of which nothing exists, but that outside of
is
always something" (Phys. III. 6, 207 a, 1 5), infinity, for Aristotle, not being a separate, independent thing, nor even an element in things, but only an accident in something
(Metaph. X, 11; 1066a, 35b, 21), with no separate existence except in thought (ibid. VIII. 6; 1048 b, 15).
else
which there
But our commentator, when he wishes to explain the reason why numbers have a minimum but no maximum, and continuous
quantities a
maximum
but no minimum,
i.
e.,
in one direction,
employs the PythagoreanPlatonic notion of contraries, such as finite and infinite, that are, as Aristotle
remarks (Metaph.
I. 5;
45),
substances and the principles of things. "If, then", he says be demanded "the reason I, (Part why a minimum but para. 3),
not a
not a
maximum
is
of a discrete quantity,
whereas in the case of a continuous quantity a maximum but minimum is found, you should reply that such things as these are distinguished from oneanother only by reason of their
53
homogeneity with the finite or the infinite, some of those created things which are contraries of oneanother, being finite, whereas the others proceed from infinity. Compare, for example,
the contraries, like and unlike, equal and unequal, rest and
promote (or make for) finitude whereas unlike, unequal, and movement, promote (or make for) infinity. And such is the case generally. Unity and plurality, the whole and the parts are similarly constituted.
movement.
;
Like,
equal,
and
rest,
One and the whole clearly belong to the sphere of the finite, whereas the parts and plurality belong to the sphere of the
infinite41 ".
"Everything
(end),
"is finite
finite", he says again (Part I, para. 8 reason by only of the f initude which is the
In Part
I,
paragraph
13,
uses the Aristotelian doctrine of the two kinds of matter, sensible and intelligible (Metaph. 1036a, 10; 1037 a, 4; 1045a, 34, 36), and the Aristotelian terms, form and matter, potential and actual. "If you wish", he says, "to understand whence incommensurability is received by the magnitudes, you must recognise that
it is
only found in that which can be imagined as potentially divisible into parts to infinity, and that parts originate necessarily
only from matter, just as the whole from form, and that the potential in everything proceeds from matter, just as the actual
(i.
e.,
form).
The incommensurability
of
geometrical continuous quantities, therefore, would not have its origin in matter or anywhere, were there not, as Aristotle says,
intelligible
geometrical figures, being by means matter only". The doctrine and the terms are undoubtedly Aristotelian, but the context in which they are employed is Platonic. In
of intelligible
part of paragraph 13 the commentator shows that Plato in his Parmenides does not deny the existence of in
the
first
54
commensurable magnitudes.
with the division
For, he says, "He (i. e. Plato) has considered therein the first cause (i. e., the One) in connection
(or separation) of
commensurable from
in
lines (140c). In the first hypothesis (140b. the equal, the greater, and the less, are discussed tonamely, gether; and in this case the commensurable and the incommen
commensurable
c. d.),
surable are conceived of as appearing in the imagination together with measure. Now these (i. e., the commensurable and the
(and measure?)) cover everything which the quality of being divided, and comprehend by nature possesses the union and separation which is controlled by the God who
incommensurable
encircles the
world
(Cf.
37c, 40b).
For
e.,
b, 33;
precedes the existence of the substances of these things, they are all commensurable conformably to that cause, God measuring
all
but inasmuch
as the incommensurability of matter is necessary for the coming into existence of these things, the potentiality of incommensurability is
is
found in them.
most
fit
moreover, apparent that limit to controll in the case of the commensurables, since it
It
is,
originates
vail
from the divine power, but that matter should prein the case of those magnitudes which are named "incom
mensurable".
finite
Here we have the PythagoreanPlatonic doctrine of the and the infinite as the two principles of worldcreation,
its
circles of
controlling the sensible world, and the Platonic notion of the divine numbers which are things
in themselves
and causes of sensible things, and which preare cede or identical with the Ideas (Cf. W. D. Ross, Aristotle's Metaphysics, Vol. I, Introd., p. LXVI; L. ROBIN, La Theorie
platonicienne des Idees et des
Nombres d'apres
Aristote, Paris,
1908, p. 470).
55
Platonic background appears in the last part of the " paragraph. Where only form and limit are found", says the commentator, "there everything is without extension or parts,
The same
form being wholly an incorporeal nature. But line, figure (or plane), and bulk, and everything which belongs to the representative (or imaginative) power within us, share in a particular
species of Matter (Cf. Arist., Metaph,
W. D. Ross,
Vol.
I, p. 199,
note to 1036 a, 9 10). Hence numbers are simple and free by nature from this incommensurability, even if they do not precede the incorporeal life (i. e., are the mathematical or sensible
numbers, which in the Platonic scheme follow the ideas), whereas the limits (or bounds) which come thence (i. e., from the Ideal
World) into the imagination and to a new existence in this representative (or imaginative) activity, become filled with
irrationality
and share
The commentator's conception of the origin of commensurables and incommensurables in Part I, paragraph 13, is manifestly Platonic. There are two principles, out of which everything proceeds, namely, the finite and the infinite; there is the
Ideal World, where only limit prevails; there is the sensible world, for the existence of which matter, the indeterminate,
is
requisite;
lies
the world of
mathematical objects, which are eternal, but share in the indeterminateness of matter (Cf. Arist., Metaph., 987 b, 15; 1028b,
20; 1076a, 20; 1090b, 35).
is
found in Part
I,
paragraph
9,
where
the commentator discusses the three kinds of irrationality. Numbers are metaphysical entities and causes of things. The
its
means
36 d), comprehends all things, rational and irrational, distinguishes and determines them, and shapes them in every respect. The three means, the geometrical,
(Cf.
the Timaeus, 34 c
56
(Cf.
32a;
"It seems to me", says the commentator, "to be a matter worthy of our wonder, how the allcomprehending power of the Triad distinguishes and determines the irrational nature, not to
mention any other, and reaches to the very last of things, the limit (or bound) derived from it appearing in all things". As
Nicomachus says (see T. TAYLOK, Theoretic Arithmetic, p. 181), "The number, three, is the cause of that which has triple dimensions and gives bound to the infinity of number".
soul", proceeds the commentator, the infinity of irrationals; for it is moved comprehend directly concerning the nature of continuous quantities (cf the Timaeus, 37 a. b.) according as the ideas (or forms) of the means
"The substance
of the
"seems to
which are in
it,
everything which
demand, and distinguishes and determines is undefined and indeterminate in the con.
tinuous quantities, and shapes them in every respect (Cf the Timaeus, 34c 37 c). These three [means] are thus bonds 32 a; 35b. ff.) by virtue of which not one (cf. the Timaeus, 31 c
even
of the
loss (or
very last of things, not to mention any other, suffers change) with respect to the ratios (or relations) which
is, in a metaphysical sense, but only relatively so. From the
exist in it".
point of view of an ideal system of knowledge, or, Platonicallyspeaking, from the point of view of the WorldSoul, everything
is rational.
is
limited,
tinuous quantities. In the last analysis, however, even this is not absolute but only relative for they all belong irrationality to one or other of the three classes of irrationals, and so admit of
;
definition,
limit.
For, says the commentator (Part I, para. 9, end), "Whatsoever irrational power there is in the Whole (or Universe), or what
57
things added together indefinitely, or whatsoever Nonbeing there is, such as cannot be described (or conceived) by that method which separais,
constituted of
many
tes forms,
they are
all
comprehended by the
which
III.
GREEK
There
is
SCHOLIA.
HEIBERG'S "Euclidis
X of Euclid in J. L.
Elementa", vol V. The passages where such agreement occurs, are given below. Some of the passages correspond almost word
for
all
word; in others the Arabic gives a somewhat expanded text; these passages have been marked by an asterisk. The re
denotes
WOEPCKE'S text
Part
*Para.
* *
*
1
1 1
1.
of the Arabic
commentary*;
indicates HEI
(W. (W.
(W.
p. 1,
p. I, p. 2,
2,
3,
11.
11.
11.
H.
p. 414, p. 415,
p. 414,
11.
11. 11.
H.
H.
==
13.* 78.*
1516.* 11. 1220.*
415,
1.
1.
2 (W. p.
3 (W. p.
11. 11.
H.
p. 417,
412(15?)
H.
p.
9ff.;
cf.
p. 429,
26ff.
and
p. 437,
no. 28.
5 (W. p. 6,
*
11.
15) =
H.
p. 437,
11.
14.
712.*
21.
1.
5 (W. p. 6, 5 (W. p.
6, 6,
11. 11.
11.
* * *
5 (W. p.
6
(W.
p. 7,
9,
11.
9 (W. p.
11.
512) = H. p. 418, 1213) = H. p. 417, 1316) = H. p. 418, 19) = H. p. 418, 515) = H. p. 484,
(no.
11.
11.
11.
1214.* 1424.*
1.
23
p. 485,
1.
135)*.
in this edition of the
58
1.
p. 11,
1.
2. ff.)
= H.
The same
*
topic,
1.
19 (W. p. 19,
4. ff.)
H.
p. 485,
11.
816.
Of. also
H.
p. 488,
no. 146; p. 489, no. 150 (for W., p. 19, H. 47); p. 491, no. 158.*
*
1.
16
p. 20,
1.
16)
H.
p. 485,
1.
1.
16
p. 486,
11.
11.
7.*
? ?
11.
1.
11. ? (W. p. 24, 1. 28 (W. p. 25, 11. 11. 29 (W. p. 25, 11. 2022) == H. p. 538, 11. H. p. 547, 1. 23 30 (W. p. 26, 11. 37)
810. 1516) = H. p. 484, = H. 1115. no. 484, 133, 1719) p. = 1112 H. 5) p. 501, (no. 189). = H. p. 503, 34 6) 1315 (no. 290) 1516) = H. p. 534,
11. 11.
79 (no.
309).
1.
p. 548,
(no. 340).
* *
31 (W. p. 26,
11.
11.
811) = H.
12
21)
p. 551,
11.
2125
11
(no. 353)*
32 (W. p. 26,
=H.
1.
p. 553,
11.
18 (no. 359).*
Part
Para.
11.
2 (W. p. 29,
1.
1.
p. 30,
4)
H.
p. 415,
11.
11.
26.
17 (W. p. 45,
11. ff.)
H.
p. 551,
219?
IV.
The
translation
avowedly
of a philological
and
historical
nature and does not pretend to render the thought of Pappus into the terms and signs of modern mathematics. Whoever, there
would avoid the effort of imagination that is necessary, to overcome successfully the difficulties of the style and technique of Pappus and thereby to follow his argument, may be referred
fore,
Bemerkungen of Dr. JUNGE, where the chief mathematical data of the commentary will be found presented according to modern forms and methods. It is hoped, however, that the nature of the translation will be an advantage for the historian,
to the
59
preserving, as
it
does, so far as
is
and form
The
Sir T.
technical terminology of the translation is based upon W. Heath's translation of the tenth book of Euclid in
of Euclid's Elements, vol. III.
My
indeb;
tedness to this distinguished scholar is gratefully acknowledged and it would be desirable that his work should be consulted
before entering upon a study of the present commentary. The Arabic text of the commentary is based upon the Paris
MS., no. 2457 of the Bibliotheque Nationale, and WOEPCKE'S edition printed in Paris about 1855. The emendations which
accom
The text
In conclusion I would
my
GEORGE SARTON of Harvard for much helpful encouragement and many happy suggestions, and to Professor J. B. JEWETT, who has been my guide in Arabic these many years, and by
whose generosity
this
book
is
published.
WILLIAM THOMSON.
NOTES.
1 2
No. 952, 2
Extrait
de
la Bibliotheque imp6riale.
divers savants a I'Acad&mie des Sciences de 1'Institut imperial de France. Cf. Notes on the Text and consult Part I, notes, 19, 32, 44, 45, 98,
116, 138; Part II, notes, 2, 133, 173, 174;
SUTEB
1.
in order, p. 16,
11.
1.
25;
p. 17,
1.
1.
3ft.
p. 20,
1.
12ff.; p. 20,
11; p. 26,
11.
34;
p. 28,
1.
25; p.
p. 65,
4
2122;
p. 65,
Cf.
Part
I,
para. 9 with
SUTEB
also Part I,
notes
210; Part II, note 5 etc; S UTER in order, p. 14, 11. 2 3; p. 15, note 24; p. 16, 1. 2ft. and note 35; p. 18, note 47; p. 23, 11. 1718; p. 24, note 73; p. 24, JL 11; p. 28, note 94; p. 29, 11. 2628; p. 33, 1. 16; p. 36, 11. and note 127;
5, 14, 22, 37, 90, 94, 98, 139, 146, 182,
12
p. 38, note 140 etc. Cf. Part I, notes 85 and 123, SUTEB, p. p. 26, note 85.
19,
6
7 8
See Notes on the Text, n. 1. A common practice in Arabic Calligraphy. Introduction, p. 10; Conclusion, p. 73. See the sketch of philosophical ideas given below. An exception perhaps is the idea of the return of all things to their source, which may be alluded to at the end of para. 9, Pt I. But the text is difficult,
and the translation, therefore, doubtful. Pappus may quite probably have been acquaint with the doctrines of Neoplatonism. He does riot, however, show that they have influenced him much if at all. 9 De Caelo, I, 268a 11 if. See TH. GOMPEBZ, Oriechische Denker, 2nd
Ed., Vol.
10
I, p.
87.
Cf. Aristotle's
Metaph. XII, 6; 1080b, 31; DIELS, Doxographi Graeci, Berlin 1879, pp. 280 (Aet. de plac. reliq., I, 3), 302 (Hipp, philosoph.,
2),
I),
8),
11
12
13
14
390 (Hermiae irrisio, 16). See SUTEB, pp. 20 21 with notes. See Part I, paras. 1, 10, 11, 12, 13, See Part I, paras. 9 and 13.
Aristotle, Metaph., 992a, 32.
17.
61
16
first
1.
1.
book of Euclid,
15ff.; p. 11,
ed.,
FBIEDLEIN,
1.
1114;
4
1.
1.
p. 6,
1.
1.
7; p. 10,
926;
p. 13,
6ff.;
p. 16,
1. 1.
p. 20,
10; p. 27,
1. 1.
27
p. 28,
p. 52,
1.
1.
5; p. 30 top; p. 38,
1.
Iff.; p. 44,
25ff.; p. 51,
7ff.; p.
20
7; p. 57,
1.
9
138,
p.
1.
58,
3ff.; p. 82,
1.
84,
1.
lOff.;
p. 95,
lOff.; p.
25;
p. 213,
16
17
14ff.; p. 284,
1.
17ff.
1.
Ibid. p. 95,
lOff.; p. 213,
14ff.; p. 284,
1.
17ff.
Book
1.
I of Euclid, ed.,
1.
FBIEDLEIN,
24ff.; p.
p. 22,
1.
I.
1.
11.
llff.; p. 36, p.
12ff.; p. 90,
p. 146,
1.
1.
14ff.; p. 132,
17ff.;
p. 137,
p. 290,
19
1.
24ff.;
15ff.
142,
8ff.;
164,
27ff.
1.
The
AlHukama*
20
PERT, Leipzig, 1903), p. 409, 1. 15. AlQifti, ibid. Probably these are, however, his Galen translations. See below.
AlQifti, p. 37,
It
is
1.
21
12.
22
23
Cf. J.
and (2) refer to the same work. BEDEZ, Vie de Porphyre, Leipzig, 1913, iv (Listo des
Ecrits),
p. 66, 5.
24
See G. BEBGSTBASSEB, Hunain Ibn Ishaq uber die Syr. u. Arab. GalenUbersetzungen, p.
Cf.
6,
26
M. MEYEBHOF, New Light on Hunain Ibn Ishaq and his period, Isis, VIII (4), Oct., 1926, pp. 691, 700. On AlDimishql cf. H. STJTEB, Die Mathematiker u. Astronomen der Araber u. Hire Werke, Abhdl. z. Gesch. d. math. Wissensch., Heft 10,
1900, p. 49, no. 98.
26
Sitzungsber.
d.
Physik.Mediz.
Societat
in
Erlangen,
treatise
1916
17,
Bd. 48 &
27 28
49.
(Erlangen 1918.)
For Thabit's
on the Para
N. B. FOL. 192
The nisbah
Memorial
Kitab AlAnsab
of AlSam'ani,
Gibb
XX, p. 291). AlSijzI see SUTEB'S Die Mathematiker u. Astronomen d. Araber etc., p. 80, no. 185. G. SABTON,
Series, Vol.
On
Introduction
28 30
to the
I, p.
665.
C. E.
31
yami p. Leyden (997) towards the end. See Thabits Werk uber den Transversalensatz, A. BJOBNBO, Abhandl. z. Gesch. d. Naturwissensch. u. d. Mediz., Erlangen, Heft 7, 1924, pp. 63 & 84.
119.
62
32
33
34
See Suppl. to the Ar. MSS. in the British Mus., p. 527, no. 776; for the next see Cat. des MSS. Ar. des Nouvelles Acquis., Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, E. BLOCHET, 1925, no. 6686. That is, in Arabic. C. SCHOY has published in Isis, VIII, pp. 21 35, 1926, a translation of the Cairo MS., 203, which discusses the construction of a heptagon in a circle as well as the trisection of an angle. The author is given as AlSinjari, which often occurs instead of AlSijzi.
Cf. Hajji Khalifa, Vol. I, pp. 169, 198; Vol. II, p. 46.
36
See SITTER'S Die Mathematiker und Astronomen der Araber etc, p. 28, no. 53, on Abu Ma'shar; also G. SARTON, Introduction to the History of
Science, Vol. I, p. 568.
36
37
See G. SABTON'S Introduction to the History of Science, Vol. I, p. 668; Hajji Khalifa, Vol. I, p. 171, Vol. V, p. 60. B. BLOCHET says that this is an abridgement of the Book of the TJiousands of Abu Ma c shar, which appears, however, hereafter in this
collection.
He
describes
it
38
See 9. of the planets and their influences. Cf. J. LIPPERT in the Wiener Zeitschr. f. d.
Kunde
d.
Morgenlandes,
358, 1895 on "Abu Ma'shars Kitab alUluf". LIPPERT the that book deals with houses of worship. But LIPPERT'S says judgment is based solely on four or five references to the book in other
works.
39
It may well have been for all that predominantly astrological. See SITTER'S Die Mathematiker und Astronomen der Araber etc., p. 74,
40
on AlQummi. See Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, H. DIELS, 3rd Ed., Berlin, 1912,
Vol. 11, p. 9. for the fact that the opposition of nature to convention occurs early in Greek thought.
41
See Arist., Metaph. 986a, 15ff.; 987a, 15ff.; 987b, 19 35; cf. Metaph. 1054 a, 20 ff., for the Aristotelian method of dealing with the same ideas; see TH. GOMPERZ, Qriechische Denker, 2nd Ed., Vol. I, p. 81, and the note to it on p. 437, for the supposed Babylonian origin of this line of thought. Cf. Plato's Philebus 16c.ff. and Parmenides 129.
42
TRANSLATION
PART
Book
I of the treatise of
I
irrational
continuous quantities, which are discussed in the tenth book of Euclid's treatise on the Elements: translated by Abu TJthman
AlDimishqI.
1.
The aim
of
Book
p age
1.
is
to investigate the commensurable and incommensurable, the This science rational and irrational continuous quantities. had in the sect its of (or school) (or knowledge) origin Pythagoras,
but underwent an important development at the hands of the Athenian, Theaetetus, who had a natural aptitude for this as for other branches of mathematics most worthy of admiration. One
of the
of
science (or knowledge), as Plato bears witness for him in the book which he called after him, and was in my opinion the chief means
of establishing exact distinctions
and
respect to the abovementioned quantities. For although later the great Apollonius whose genius for mathematics was of the highest possible order, added some remarkable species of these Page after much laborious application, it was nevertheless Theaetetus
2.
who
e.
(i.
e.
in length, from those which are incommensurable in (i. length), and who divided the more generally known irrational lines according to the different means, assigning the
commensurable
medial line to geometry, the binomial to arithmetic, and the 2 8 apotome to harmony as is stated by Eudemus, the Peripatetic
,
.
Euclid's object,
on the other hand, was the attainment of irrefragable principles, which he established for commensurability
64
and incommensurability in general. For rationals and irrationals he formulated definitions and (specific) differences; determined
also
many
and brought to
light, finally,
.
whatever of finitude
(or definiteness) is to
be found in them4
Apollonius explained the species of the ordered irrationals and discovered the science of the socalled unordered, of which he
produced an exceedingly large number by exact methods. 2. Since this treatise (i. e. Book of Euclid.) has the
aforesaid
aim and
object,
it will
solidate the
good which
it
of Pythagoras was so affected by its reverence for these things that a saying became current in it, namely, that he who first disclosed the knowledge of surds or irrationals and spread it abroad among the common herd, perished by drowning: which
is
better to conceal (or veil) 5 every surd, or irrational, or inconceivable in the universe, and, secondly, that the soul which by error or heedlessness discovers
or reveals anything of this nature which
is
their conviction
in
it
or in this world,
e.
lacking
all
immersed in the stream of the comingtobe and the passing7 away where there is no standard of measurement. This was the
,
consideration which Pythagoreans and the Athenian Stranger 8 held to be an incentive to particular care and concern for these things and to imply of necessity the grossest foolishness in him who imagined these things to be of no account. 3. Such being the case, he of us who has resolved to banish
Page
3.
assuredly seek to learn from Plato, the distinguisher of accidents 9 those things that merit shame 10 and to grasp those propositions which we have
his soul
this, will
,
,
from
such a disgrace as
endeavoured to explain, and to examine carefully the wonderful clarity with which Euclid has investigated each of the ideas
(or definitions)
11
of this treatise
(i.
e.
Book
X.).
65
we here seek
12 neither the incommensurable belongs essentially to geometry nor the irrational being found with the numbers, which are, on the contrary, all rational and commensurable; whereas they are
conceivable in the case of the continuous quantities, the investigation of which pertains to geometry. The reason for this is that
the numbers, progressing by degrees, advance by addition from that which is a minimum, and proceed to infinity (or indefinitely)
;
whereas the continuous quantities begin with a definite (or determined) whole and are divisible (or subject to division) to 13 If, therefore,* a minimum cannot infinity (or indefinitely)
.
be found in the case of the continuous quantities, it is evident that there is no measure (or magnitude) which is common to all
of them, as unity is
common
to the Uhmbers.
But
it is self
minimum and
;
that
all
e. the continuous quantities) have no do not have a minimum, it is impossible they of them should be commensurable. If, then, the reason
(i.
if
be demanded
quantity a maximum but not a minimum is found, you should reply that such things as these are distinguished from oneanother
only by reason of their homogeneity with the finite or the infinite, some of those created things which are contraries of oneanother, being finite, whereas the others proceed from infinity. Compare, for example, the contraries, like and unlike, equal
and unequal, rest and movement. [Like, mote (or make for) 14 ] finitude; whereas
equal,
and
rest, pro
unlike, unequal,
and
movement promote
(or
make
for) infinity.
And such
is
the case
generally. plurality, the whole and the parts are and the whole clearly belong to the One constituted. similarly sphere of the finite, whereas the parts and plurality belong to the
Unity and
sphere of the infinite. Consequently one is that which is deter Page mined and defined in the case of the numbers, since such is the
4.
is infinite (or
indefinite)
whereas
66
the whole
is
that which
is
tinuous quantities, and division into parts is, as is evident, infinite (or indefinite). Thus in the case of the numbers one is
the contrary of plurality, since although number is comprised in plurality as a thing in its genus, unity which is the principle of
its
name
of
one.
being one or in its being the first In the case of the continuous
quantities, on the other hand, the contrary of whole is part, the term, whole, being applicable to continuous things only, 15 just as the term, total, is applicable only to discrete things These things, then, are constituted in the manner which we
.
have described.
4.
We
how he
and
consistently, with what is intermediate, to reach, finally, without fail the goal of an exact method. Thus in the first proposition
of this treatise
(i.
e.
things
ability
;
is
things
is
always a part
is
less
than the
e.
in the
two previous
sen
and on
this basis
ation of commensurability
ing
and incommensurability,
is is
distinguishis
by means
of
commensurable absolutely, that which square and in line together, that which
both of these
(i.
commensurable in
incommensurable in
is in,
e.
in square
line
and
line),
commensurable in
proving how two
lines
67
17 Page given line, the one in length only, the other in length and square Thereupon he begins to treat of commensurability and incommen.
5.
and
18
,
(or
subtraction)
discussing
all
this
of each case.
exhaustively and completely satisfying the just requirements Then after these propositions dealing with commen
and incommensurable continuous quantities in common 19 comes an examination of the case of rationals and irrationals, wherein he distinguishes between those lines which are rational
surable
,
[straight lines
and square,
i.
e.,
is
in length conceivable
and those which are rational [straight lines commensurable] in square [only] 20 from which is derived the first irrational line, which he calls the medial21 and which is, then, of all [irrational] lines, the most homogeneous to the rational. Consequently in accordance with what has been found in the case of the rational lines, some medial lines are medial [straight lines commensurable] in length and square, whereas
with respect to these
,
,
commensurable] in square The special homogeneity of medial with rational lines only is shown in the fact that rational [straight lines commensurable] in square contain a medial area (or rectangle), whereas medial
[straight
lines
22
.
[straight lines
rational
and sometimes a medial area 23 From these [rational and medial straight lines commensurable in square only] he
many
24 by addition and those which are produced by There are several points of distinction between
are equal
and the
But, to
lines
sum up, after he has shown us what characteristics these have in common with oneanother and wherein they are
from oneanother, he
finally proves that there is
different
no
limit to the
5*
number
68
between them27
That
is,
irra
He
to
an end at
number.
pre
The aim,
Page
6.
profit,
and
divisions of this
is
sented in so far as
5.
necessary.
thorough investigation is, however, also necessary in order to understand the basis of their distinction between the
Some of these they held to be commensurable, others of them incommensurable, on the ground that we do not find among the continuous quantities any measure (or magni28 that is a minimum; that, on the contrary, what is detude) monstrated in proposition i. (Euclid, Book X.) applies to them,
magnitudes.
it is
less
always possible to find another measure (or than any given measure (or magnitude) 29 In
.
irrational magnitudes,
how it was possible to find various kinds of when all finite continuous quantities bear
:
a ratio to oneanother
i.
e.
the one
if
multiplied,
must
necessarily
we
the definition of one thing bearing a know from Book V. 30 But let us point
is
.
out that the adoption of this position (i. e. the one just outlined) (or definition) does not enable one to find the measure of a surd
or irrational 31
.
On
the contrary,
we must
recognise
32
,
what the
common measure
namely, that a numbers, but does not exist naturally for the continuous quantities on account of the fact of division which we have previously set forth, pointing out
exists naturally for the
is
an endless process.
On
the other
hand
it
the measure) exists in the case of the continuous quantities We as a product of the imaginative power 33 convention by assume, that is, some definite measure or other and name it a
e.
.
cubit or a span or some such like thing. Then we compare this definite unit of measurement 34 which we have recognised, and
69
name
we can measure by
it,
whereas those which cannot be measured by it, we irrationals. To be rational in this sense is not a fact, as classify therefore, which we derive from nature, but is the product of
rational,
the
mental fancy which yielded the assumed measure. All continuous quantities, therefore, cannot be rational with re
ference to one
common
for all of
measure.
is
not a measure
of the
them nor
;
mind.
not
all
the other hand, the continuous quantities are for we refer the measurement of all magnitudes irrational;
(i.
On
e.
standard)
35
recognised
7
'
by
us.
6.
It should
is
portion,
finite
be pointed out, however, that the term, pro ^ a8e s used in one sense in the case of the whole, i. e. the
*
"
and homogeneous continuous quantities36 in another sense in the case of the commensurable continuous quantities, and in still another sense in the case of the continuous quantities
,
that are
named
rational 37
it is
with respect to greatness and smallness 38 whereas in other cases it is understood in the sense that it denotes
oneanother
some such
relation as exists
all
commen
surable continuous quantities, for example, bearing, as is evident, a ratio to oneanother like that of a number to a number; and
finally, in still
we express the ratio in terms of a definite, assumed measure, we become acquainted with the For commendistinction between rationals and irrationals. surability is also found in the case of the irrationals, as we learn from Euclid himself, when he says that some medials are commenother cases,
if
whence
it is
a ratio to oneanother
like that of
number, only
70
measure 39
not impossible that there should be between medials the ratio of two to one, or three to one, or one to three,
.
For
it is
if
the quantity
(i.
e. finally,
the unit of
(i.
measurement)
since
remains unknown.
But
this application
e.
of the term, ratio) does not occur in the case of the rationals,
case
we know for certain that the least (or minimum) in their Either it is a cubit, or two cubits, or is a known quantity.
definite limit (or standard).
another according to one sense (i. e. of the term, ratio), the commensurables according to another sense, and all the rationals
according to still another. For the ratio of the rationals of the commensurables also, which is the ratio of the
is
that
finites.
Page
8.
of the finites is
surables, since this ratio (i.e. that of the finites) is not necessarily
like the ratio of
a number to a number.
Nor
is
rational
commensurables necessarily that of the rationals. For every is a commensurable, but not every commensurable is a
.
rational40
7.
it is
Accordingly when two commensurable lines are given, selfevident that we must suppose that they are either both
and not that the one is rational and For a rational is not commensurable with
under any circumstance. On the other hand, when two incommensurable straight lines are given, one of two things
an
irrational
will necessarily
hold of them.
is
rational
and
For
those irrational lines which are different in kind, are necessarily incommensurable, because if they were commensurable, they
in kind, a line
41
,
which
is
commensurable commensurable
is
71
with an apotome being an apotome42 and the other lines likewise, as the Geometer (i. e. Euclid) says.
,
8.
Not every
;
ratio, therefore, is to
bers
43
nor do
all
that of a
number
them
so,
homogeneous with finitude (or the finite), number not being plurality, the correspondence notwithstanding, Mg 25 but a defined (or limited) plurality44 Finitude (or the finite),
is
.
number
46 and however, comprehends more than the nature of number so with respect to continuous quantities we have the ratio that
;
some
cases,
and the
ratio
that pertains to number, since it also is finite, in still others. But we do not apply46 the ratio of finite (or determinate) things
to things that are never finite
ratio of
(i.
e.,
commensurables to incommensurables.
e.,
For the
latter
ratio
(i.
part (or submultiple, i.e., the minimum) and so makes everything included in it commensurable; and the former (i. e., the ratio of
finite things)
determines
less) of
now
now
9.
finite
the parts For everything finite is in fact Page of which is the first (or prinreason the finitude only by 48 but we for our part also give some magciple) of the finitudes nitudes finitude in one way and others in another way49 So much the least (or
,
.
it
in our
But
since irrationality
by proportion, or
50 addition, or subtraction
it
seems to
me
to be
a matter worthy of our wonder (or contemplation), how, in the first place, the allcomprehending power of the Triad distinguishes
and
by one
of the
72
one, the arithmetical another,
third.
The
substance of the soul, moreover, seems to comprehend the infinity of irrationals for it is moved directly concerning the nature
;
means which are in it, demand, and distinguishes and determines everything which is undefined and indeterminate in the continuous quantities, and shapes them in every respect54 These three [means] are thus bonds55 by virtue of which not one
of the
.
last of things,
with respect to the ratios (or relations) 57 which loss (or change) exist in it. On the contrary, whenever it becomes remote from
it makes a naturally revolution and the the of complete possesses image psychic
(or relations)
58
59
.
(or
Accordingly
whatsoever
irrational
power there
Page
10. indefinitely,
combination there
many things added together or whatsoever Nonbeing there is, such as cannot be described (or conceived) by that method which separates
constituted of
forms, they are all comprehended by the ratios (or relations) which arise in the Soul60 Consequently incommensurability is
.
(i.
e.,
to the whole)
when
it
61 separation) of forms
arithmetical
of the geometric
sufficiently.
10.
mean
63 .
We
matter
influenced
by
speculation concerning the science (or knowledge) of Plato, suppose that the definition of straight lines commensurable in
length and square and commensurable in square only which he gives in his book entitled, Theaetetus, does not at all correspond with what Euclid proves concerning these lines, it seems to us
73
that something should be said regarding this point65 After, then, Theodorus had discussed with Theaetetus the proofs of the
.
powers
(i.
e.
squares)
66
mensurable in length relatively to the power (square) whose measure is a [square] foot67 the latter had recourse to a general
,
definition of these powers (squares), after the fashion of one who has applied himself to that knowledge which is in its nature certain (or exact) 68 Accordingly he divided all numbers into
.
two
such as are the product of equal sides (i. e. factors) 70 on the one hand, and on the other, such as are contained by a
classes
; ,
69
and a
[class] by a square figure concluded that the powers (squares) which square (i. e. form into a square figure) a number whose sides (factors) are equal 71 are commensurable both in square and in length, but that those
,
and he represented the first and the second by an oblong, and Ms.
less;
26
r.
which square (i. e. form into a square figure) an oblong number, are incommensurable with the first [class] in the latter respect
but are commensurable occasionally with one another in one respect 72 Euclid, on the other hand, after he had
(i.
e.
in length),
examined
which are commensurable in length those, namely, whose powers (squares) have to one
another the ratio of a square number to a square number, proved all lines of this kind are always commensurable in length 73
.
The
difference
(or proposition)
74
and
that of Theaetetus which precedes it, has not escaped us. The idea of determining these powers (squares) by means of the square numbers is a different idea altogether from that of their
L fl/ff
JL
having to oneanother the ratio of a square [number] to a square 75 For example, if there be taken, on the one hand, [number]
.
a power (square) whose measure is eighteen [square] feet, and on the other hand, another power (square) whose measure is eight [square] feet, it is quite clear that the one [power or square]
has to the other the ratio of a square number to a square number,
the numbers, namely, which these two double 76 notwithstanding the fact that the two [powers or squares] are determined by
,
means
of oblong
numbers.
Their
commen
according to the definition (thesis) of Theaetetus they are excluded from this category. For the two [powers or squares] do not square (i. e. do not form into a square figure) a number
whose
but only an oblong number. So much, then, regarding what should be known concerning these
sides (factors) are equal,
things
77
.
11.
argument
of
,
Theaetetus does not cover every power (square) that there is 78 be it commensurable in length or incommensurable, but only the
powers (squares) which have ratios relative to some rational power (square) or other, the power (square), namely, whose
measure
a [square] foot. For it was with this power (square) as basis that Theodoras began his investigation concerning the
is
power (square) whose measure is three [square] feet and the power (square) whose measure is five (square] feet, and declared
that they are incommensurable (i. e. in length) with the power 79 and [Theaetetus] (square) whose measure is a [square] foot
;
explains this
by saying: 80 powers (squares)] which square (i. e. form into a square figure) a number whose sides (factors) are equal, but [the sides of the powers (squares)] which square (i. e. form into a square figure)
an oblong number, we defined as powers (i. e. surds) 81 inasmuch as they are incommensurable in length 82 with the former [powers
,
"We
namely, whose measure is a [square] foot and the powers which are commensurable with this power in length, but are, on the other hand, commensurable with the
(squares)], the power,
areas
(i.
e.
83
.
[lengths]
the squares) which can be described upon these The argument of Euclid, on the contrary, covers
is
power (square) or
line only.
75
prove by any theorem (or proposition) that the powers (squares) which we have described above 84 are commensurable [with
,
mensurable in length with the power (square) whose measure is a [square] foot, and that the unit [of measurement] which measures
the lines,
(L e.
is irrational,
the
lines,
It is
12.
who
cognised measure for the lines which have the power to form these powers (i. e. the lines upon which these powers can be formed), to
follow the investigation of this [problem]
(i.
e.
of irrationals),
whereas whoever has carefully studied Euclid's proof, can see that they (i. e. the lines) are undoubtedly commensurable
[with oneanother]
.
the ratio of a
number
number 86
Such
is
the substance of
The philosopher (i. e. Plato), moreover, establishes, Ms. 26 v other things, that here (i. e. in the lines of Theaetetus among 148 a., which are commensurable in square but not in length) are
12.
incommensurable magnitudes. We should not believe, therefore, that commensurability is a quality of every magnitude as of all
the numbers; and whoever has not investigated this subject, shows a gross and unseemly ignorance of what the Athenian
87 Stranger says in the seventh treatise of the Book of the Laws [namely], "And besides there is found in every man an ignorance, shameful in its nature and ludicrous, concerning everything
,
which has the dimensions, length, breadth, and depth 88 and it is clear that mathematics can free them from this ignorance 89
; .
this [ignorance]
is
human
all
and
am
men who
believes, [namely], that commensurability a quality of all magnitudes. For everyone of them necessarily says: "We conceive that those things are essentially the same,
whole generation
76
some of which can measure the others in some way or other90 But the fact is that only some of them are measured by common
.
all".
It has
proved clearly enough by the statement (or proposition) book that goes by the name of Theaetetus, how necessary it is to distinguish lines commensurable in length and square relatively to the assumed rational line, that one, namely, whose
measure
We
a foot, from lines commensurable in square only. have described this in what has preceded; and from what has
is
,
been demonstrated in the generallyknown work (i. e. Euclid) 91 it is easy for us to see that there has been described (or defined)
for us a distinction that arises
when two
added
lines
Page
13.
together
92
.
For
it
says that
it is
sum
of
two
both
in length
the line composed of two lines rational (and commensurable) and square being necessarily rational, whereas the line
which
is
composed
of
two
(and commens
named
after
e.
the existence of
incommensurable magnitudes), [let it be observed that] he has considered therein the First Cause (i. e. The One) in connection
with the division (or separation) of commensurable from incommensurable lines 93 In the first hypothesis94 namely, the
.
and the less are discussed together; and in case the commensurable and the incommensurable are
conceived of as appearing in the imagination together with measure95 Now these (i. e. the commensurable, the incom.
mensurable, (and measure ?)) cover everything which by nature possesses the quality of being divided, and comprehend the
(division)
97
.
96
which
is
conas
of
divine
For inasmuch by the God who encircles the world number98 precedes the existence of the substances
all
77
cause,
God measuring
all
potentiality
power)
of
incommensurability
is
found in
them".
moreover, apparent that limit is most fit to control in the case of the commensurables, since it originates
It
from the divine power, but that matter should prevail in the case of those magnitudes which are named incommensurables 100
.
For
is
is
you wish to understand whence incommensurability Ms, received by the magnitudes, [you must recognise that] it only found in that which can be imagined as potentially
if
;
27.
r.
and
[that] parts
from matter,
just as the
whole from
form; and
[that]
e.
form)
101
.
The incommensurability
therefore,
matter or anywhere,
14.
were there not, as Aristotle says, 102 two kinds of matter namely, Page
intelligible
extension,
by means
For where only form and limit are found, there everything is without extension or parts, form being wholly an incorporeal
nature.
But
(or imaginative) power within us, share in a particular species of matter 104 Hence and free from this are nature numbers incommenssimple by
.
urability,
105 they do not precede the incorporeal life whereas the limits (or bounds) which come thence 106 into the
even
if
imagination and to a
new
and share
78
14.
lines to
be rational
108
lines notwithstanding incommensurability which have been assumed as rational in the first place. We must, in short, examine whether it be possible for the same magnitude 109
their
with
the
to be at once rational
and
irrational.
Now we
fact
maintain that
measures
(i.
e.
Consequently the denotation of the terms, rational and irrational, necessarily changes according to the
.
is
be changed.
But
as
it is
and general 112 we assume some one measure and distinguish the properties of rational and irrational continuous quantities relatively to it. For if we did not and
irrationals should be definite
Page
15.
some one
thing, but
designated a continuous quantity which the assumed measure does not measure, rational, we would assuredly not preserve the
definitions of this learned scholar 113 distinct
and unconfused.
to be a medial,
On
we would show
would be considered by another to have no better a claim to be a medial than a rational, since it does not lack measure 114 But
.
this is
not a
scientific
method.
As Euclid
says,
it is
.
necessary
that one line should be [assumed as] rational 115 15. Let, then, the assumed line be rational, since
it is
necessary to take some one line as rational; and let every line which is commensurable with it, whether in length or in square,
Ms. 27 v.
be called rational.
let it
be granted, on the one hand, that the line which is commensurable with the rational line, is rational, and, on the other, that the line
which
is
rational, is
line, since
79
is
incommensurable
all lines
with this
line 117
On
that are
commensurable with oneanother in length, are not necessarily proportional to the assumed line, even if they be called rational
;
nor are they necessarily called commensurable 118 because this line measures them. But when they are proportional to the
,
assumed
named
square or in length, they are necessarily rational, since every line which is commensurable with
line either in
the assumed line in square or in length, is rational. The commensurability of these lines in length or in square is an additional
qualification of
the assumed
line, since
lines, for
commensurable in length and sometimes commensurable in square only. He misses the mark, therefore, who says that all rational lines which are commensurable in length, are rational
in virtue of
Consequently the assumed line does not necessarily measure every rational line. For lines which are commensurable in square with the assumed rational line,
.
are called rational without exception on the ground that if we take two square areas, one of them fifty [square] feet and the other eighteen [square] feet, the two areas are commensurable
with the square on the assumed rational line whose measure is a foot, and the lines upon which they are the squares, are commensurable with oneanother, although incommensurable both p of them with the assumed line. There i$ no objection at all, then,
to our calling these
length; rational,
16
two
,
lines rational
and commensurable
in
namely inasmuch as the two squares upon them upon the assumed line, and
commensurable in length inasmuch as even if the unit of measurement*81 which is common to them, is not the assumed rational 122 Comline, there is another measure which measures them
.
line, therefore, is
the
Continuous quantities, on the only basis other hand, are commensurable with oneanother, in length or in
80
square only, by reason of a
it
common
may.
16.
has been established, moreover, that the area (or rectangle) contained by two rational lines commensurable in 124 It is not impossible, then, that the lines length is rational
It
.
the
their
condition,
namely,
,
and
also
they have necessarily a common measure. We must assume, that is, that in this case we have two lines such that containing
the given area, they are
named
rational
the given rational line, although, on the other hand, the squares upon them are commensurable with the square upon that line.
It has been demonstrated, however, that this area
is
rational.
lines
For
it is
of the squares
upon the
containing it; and these are commensurable with the square upon the given line; and, therefore, this area is also necessarily
Ms. 28
r.
commensurable with
it
and thus
rational 127
if,
however, we take
the two given lines as commensurable [with oneanother] in length but incommensurable both in length and square with the
line
which
is
we cannot prove
in
any
that the area contained by them is rational. On the con128 and find the meastrary if you apply the length to the breadth
way
Page
17.
prove to be rational.
of the
two lines
not be an extension such as you can For example, if the ratio to oneanother containing it be three to two, then the area of the
it will
must be
But
half
this somethingorother is
an unknown
It
is
not correct, however, for anyone to maintain that there are two kinds of rational lines, those, namely, which are measured by
measured by another
line.
which
lines
is
On
the other
hand
two kinds,
is
those, namely, which are measured by the line which rational in the first place, and those which are commensurable
with oneanother, although they are measured by another line which is incommensurable with that line. Euclid never names
those lines which are incommensurable with the given rational
both respects (i. e. in length and in square) rational. And what would have prevented him doing so, if instead of deterline in
mining rational lines by reference to that line alone, he had also determined them by adopting some other measure from those lines
it? 131
that he
Plato gives even rational lines diverse names. We know calls the line which is commensurable with the given rational line, length 1 * 2 and that he names that one which is
,
adding on that account to what he has already said, the explanation, "Because it is commensurable with the rational line in the area to which
it
,
commensurable with
134
the square upon it is equal" 135 Euclid, on the other hand, calls the line which is commensurable with the rational line, however
.
commensurable 136
rational,
:
without making any stipulation fact which has been a cause of some
lines
length but incommensurable with the given rational line (i. e. in length). But perhaps he did not mean to measure all rational
lines
p a ge
18.
by the
line
first place,
but
in
tended to give up that measure, despite the fact that in the definitions he proposed to refer the rationals to it, and to change to another measure incommensurable with the first, naming
such lines 137 then, without noting it 138 rational because they were commensurable with the given rational line in one respect
, ,
that
6
is,
in square only,
JungeThomson.
82
length to another measure, subscribing in this instance to the opinion that they were commensurable (i. e. with another) in
and
]/8).
18.
We
wholly irrational
maintain, therefore, that some straight lines are and others rational. The irrational are those
of the
The
rational are
square only). But some of the rationals are commensurable with oneanother in length, others
respect
(i.
e.
in length or in
in square only;
and some
of those
Ms. 28 v.
with oneanother in length, are commensurable with the rational line in length, others are incommensurable (i. e. in length, but
commensurable in square) with it. In short, all lines which are rational and commensurable in length with the rational line, are
(i.
e.
e.
in length) 139
Some
rational line in square, for which reason, indeed, they also are
named
rational 140
are
length, but not relatively to that line; others are commensurable in square only (i. e. with the rational line and with oneanother).
The
make
this clear.
If,
namely, we take
(or rectangle) contained by two rational lines which are commensurable in square with the given line, but with one
an area
If,
with oneanother and with the rational line in square only, it is medial 141 That is the sum and substance of what we have to say
.
142 It should be evident now, however, concerning such things that if [it be stated that] an area is contained by two lines rat.
ional
and commensurable
means
that]
83
with the given rational line in square only 143 whereas if [it be stated that] an area is contained by two lines rational and
;
commensurable
in length,
[this
may mean
either
(i)
that] the
two
Page 19
commensurable
with the rational line in square only, but with oneanother in another respect (i. e. in length).
19.
Having found
by geometrical proportion that the medial line is a mean proportional between two rational lines commensurable in square
only and, therefore, that the square upon it 144 (or rectangle) contained by these two lines
is
a medial
line being
one which
is
he
(i.
e.
Euclid) always assigns the general term, medial, to a particular 146 For the medial line the species (i. e. of the medial line)
.
square upon which is equal to the rectangle contained by two rational lines commensurable in length, is necessarily a mean proportional to these two rationals and the line the square upon
;
which
is
by a
rational
and an
mean
proportional);
but he does not name either of these medial, but only the line the square upon which is equal to the given rectangle 147 More.
(i.
e.
the
squareareas) from the lines upon which they are the squares, he names the area on a rational line rational 148 and that on a
medial
20.
line medial.
Comparing, furthermore, the medials theoretically to the rational lines 149 he says that the former resemble the latter
,
inasmuch as they are either commensurable in length or commensurable in square only, and the area (or rectangle) contained
by two medials commensurable in length is necessarily medial, just as the area contained by two rationals commensurable in
QA
orjfc
150 The area, moreover, length is, on the other hand, rational medials commensurable in square only is contained by two For just as the sometimes rational and sometimes medial 151
. .
Ms. 29
r.
is
commensurable in square, so the square on a rational equal sometimes to the area contained by two medial lines
There are thus three kinds of medial
first
commensurable in square.
areas the
:
contained by two rational lines commensurable in square, the second by two medials commensurable in length, and the third by two medials commensurable in square; and
there are
two kinds
by two
rational lines
medial lines
commensurable in length, and the other by two commensurable in square 152 It appears, then, that
.
taken in [mean] proportion between two medial commensurable in length, is, together with that one which
is
taken in mean proportion between two rational lines commensurable in square, in every case medial 153 but that the line which
,
is
taken in
in square 154 is
now rational and now medial. Thus we may square upon have two medial lines commensurable in square only, just as we
it is
commensurable in square only, and the ground of distinction (or variance) between the areas contained by the two sets of lines 155 must be the line which is the
lines
mean proportional between these two extremes, namely, either a medial between two rationals or a medial between two medials,
or a rational between two medials 156
.
bond
(i.
e.
the mean)
is like
unlike.
21.
But we have discussed these matters sufficiently. Subsequent to his investigation and production of the
line,
medial
he
(i.
e.
examination of those irrational lines that are formed by addition and division (i. e. subtraction) on the basis of the examination
85
and incommensurability appearing also in those lines that are formed by addition and subtraction 158 The first of the lines formed by addition is the binomial (binoity
,
157
commensurability
mium)
lines
line,
159
;foritalso
is
[like
all irrational
p age
21.
160
]
being composed of two rational lines commensurable in The first of the lines formed by subtraction is the square.
161
;
produced by simply subtracting from a rational line another rational line commensurable with the whole 162
apotome
for it also is
in square.
We
rational side
portional between these two lines; we find the binomial by adding together the side and the diagonal; and we find the
side
We
join
we
commensurable
do we
obtain a binomial, but three or four such lines produce the same In the first case a trinomial (trinomium) is produced, thing.
since the whole line
;
is
(quadrinomium) and so on
tionality of the line
The proof
of the irra
9 r*
composed
commens
is
22.
two
as
lines
commensurable
we take one mean proportional between in square, but we can also take three
since
it is
or four of
them and
lines as
so
on ad infinitum,
possible to take
many
we
between
two given straight lines. are formed by addition, we can construct not only a binomial,
but also a trinomial, or a first, or second trimedial, or that line which is composed of three straight lines incommensurable in
square, such that, taking one of
maining] two
166
,
the
sum
of
of the [reis
rational,
86
Page
2fc.
but the rectangle contained by them is medial, so that in this case a major results from the addition of three lines. In the
same way the line the square upon which is equal to a rational and a medial area, can be produced from three lines, and also the 168 Let line the square upon which is equal to two medial areas
.
The
line
which
is
composed
of
two
of these, is
irrational, namely, the binomial. The area, therefore, contained by this line and the remaining line is irrational. Irrational also
by these two lines. The square, therefore, on the whole line composed of the three lines Therefore the line is irrational; and it is named the is irrational. trinomial. And, as we have said, if there are four lines commensurable in square, the case is exactly the same; and so for any
is
number
lines
of lines beyond that. Again, let there be three medial commensurable in square, such that one of them with either
of the remaining
two contains a
rational rectangle.
The
line
composed
of
two
of these is irrational,
The square on the whole line, there[and therefore the line also]. The same facts
lines.
Compound
.
lines,
formed by addition are infinite in number 170 In like manner we need not confine ourselves in the case
which are formed by division
(i. making one subtraction only, obtaining thus the apotome, or the first, or second apotome of the medial, or the minor, or that [line] which produces with a rational area
subtraction), to
a medial whole, or that which produces with a medial area a medial whole 171 but we can make two or three or four subtrac;
same way [as in these] that the lines which remain, are irrational, and that each of them is one of the lines which are formed by subtraction. If
tions.
For
if
we do
that,
we can prove
in the
from a rational
line, for
example,
we
87
line in square,
we
obtain, for
remainder, an apotome and if we subtract from that line which has been cut off 172 and which is rational, and which Euclid calls
,
the
it
Annex 1
is
in square,
we
off
from that
line 174 ,
an apotome. The same thing holds true in the case of the subtraction of the rest of the lines 175 There is no possible end, therefore, either to the lines formed by addition or to those
.
formed by subtraction.
case
is
by
addition, in
(i.
They proceed to infinity, in the first the second by subtraction from the line that
It seems, then, that the infinite
cut off
e.
the annex).
number
of irrationals
multitude
lines
(i.
e.
number)
come
some
definite
limit or other
With
this
is
we must be
concerned.
of rationals 177
its
parts
(i.
e.
the parts
Book X) 178
(i.
For he
e.
Euclid) establishes in
(i.
e.
in
,
the case of continuous quantities) incommensurability is a fact 180 [shows] what continuous quantities are incommensurable
179
distinguished,
and
commensurability and incommensurability as regards pro181 the possibility of finding incommensurability in two portion
,
of each of
increase
88
In the second part he discusses 185 rational lines and medials such as are commensurable with oneanother in square
25.
and
by these
lines,
the
homogeneity of the medial line with the rational, the distinction between them, the production of it (i. e. of the medial), and such For the fact that it is possible for us not only to like subjects 186
.
find
two
rational lines
lines
also to find
Page
24.
commensurable in square [only], shows that we two such can obtain two lines incommensurable with the assigned line, the
one in square and the other in length only 187 If, then, we take a rational line incommensurable in length with a given line, we
.
obtain two rational lines commensurable in square only. And if we take the mean proportional between these, we obtain the first
irrational line 188
26.
.
In the third part he provides the means for obtaining the formed by addition, by furnishing for that
operation two medial lines commensurable in square only which contain a rational rectangle, two medial lines commensurable in
189 and two straight square which contain a medial rectangle lines neither medial nor rational, but incommensurable in square,
,
of the squares
rational,
but
by them medial, or, conversely, which make the sum of the squares upon them medial, but the rectangle contained by them rational, or which make both the sum of the
the rectangle contained
squares and the rectangle medial and incommensurable with oneanother 191 These propositions, namely, and everything
.
by him
For
if
those lines
Me. 30
v.
third part) be
27.
added together, they produce these irrational lines. In the fourth part he makes known to us the six irraformed by addition 192 These are composed two two rational lines commensurable in square 193
.
either of
[rational] lines
commensurable
in length forming
when added
89
together a whole line that
is
,
rational
commensurable in square two medials commensurable in or of two length forming when added together a medial line 195 which are in incommensurable lines, unqualified square.
,
,
194
Three are irrational for the reason we have given 196 two are composed of two medials commensurable in square; and one of
;
two
rationals
commensurable
in square 197
the [lines in the] third part having been produced in order to Page establish these [six lines] in the fourth part. In this fourth part,
then, he shows us the composition of these six irrational lines
by forming some
from
lines
commensurable in square, and the others, that is to say, the second three, from [lines] incommensurable in square 198 in the
,
making the
sum
of
(i.
e.
lines
incommensurable
,
but the rectangle contained by them medial 199 conversely, making the sum of the squares upon them medial
but the rectangle contained by them rational, or, finally, making both the sum of the squares upon them and the rectangle contained
For were they commensurable with oneanother (i. e., the sum of the squares and the rectangle), the two lines which have been
in
200
length
He
proves also the converse of these propositions in some form or other, namely, that each of these six irrationals is divided at one
point only
rational
of
201 .
if
and commensurable
is
composed
then
it
them
can be composed of these two lines only and of no others; and so analogously with the rest of the lines. In this part, therefore,
series of six propositions, the first six putting tosix these irrational lines, and the second six demonstrating gether
we have two
90
After these parts202 the binomial line is [at last] found in the fifth part, the first, namely, of those lines which are formed
28.
203 Six by addition
.
And I do
without
did this
e.
found the
six binomials)
a [definite] purpose, but provided them 205 as a means to the knowledge of the difference between the six irrational lines
of
which
(i.
e.
the binomials) he
upon the
six irrationals
formed by
29.
This
[fifth] part,
consequently,
is
which he examines these areas and shows that the square on the binomial is equal to the area contained by a rational line
part in
and the
Page
26.
first
is
equal to the area contained by a rational line and the second 207 These lines, therefore, (i. e. the six binomial, and so forth
.
irrationals
formed by addition) produce six areas contained 208 [respectively] by a rational line and one of the six binomials
.
In the seventh part he discusses the incommensurability [with oneanother] of the six irrational lines that are formed by addition, proving that any line which is commensurable with
30.
Ms. 31
r.
Applying, then, the squares upon them to rational lines he examines the breadths of the areas [thus produced] and finds six other [propositions],
the converse of the six mentioned in the sixth part 210 31. In the eighth part he demonstrates the difference
.
anyone
of these, is of the
same order as
it 209 .
between the
which the squares upon them are equal 211 In addition he gives a clear proof of the distinction between these
of the areas to
formed by addition, by adding together 212 or, again, two medial areas
.
Thereafter in the ninth part he describes the six irrational lines that are formed by subtraction 213 in a way analogous
,
by
91
addition,
214
of)
the less from the greater of the two lines which when added together, form the binomial and the first apotome of a medial
;
to correspond to (or the contrary of) the first bimedial; second apotome of a medial to the second bimedial;
minor to the major; and that which produces with a rational area a medial whole, to that the square upon which is equal to a
and that which produces with a medial area a medial whole, to that the square upon which is equal to two medial areas. The reason for the application of
rational plus a medial area;
these
names
to
them
is
obvious.
And
case of [the irrational lines that are formed by] addition 215 that
each of them can be divided at one point [only], so he shows immediately after these [propositions concerning the irrational
216
lines]
of
them has
one Annex [only] 33. In the tenth part in order to define these six irrational lines he sets forth some apotomes that are to be found in a manner
218 Page analogous to that in which the binomials were found 34. This is followed in the eleventh part by the demonstrat.
27.
219 by subtraction
the squares upon which are equal [respectively] to a rectangle contained by a rational line and one of the apotomes, also numbering
35.
six,
After examining this matter in the eleventh part, in the twelfth part he describes the incommensurability with one
another of these six irrationals, proving that any line which is commensurable with anyone of these, belongs necessarily to the
same kind
differ
He
by means
of the areas
.
which,
36.
When he comes to the thirteenth part he proves [in it] that the six irrational lines that are formed by addition, are
92
formed by subtraction 222 and that those which are formed by subtraction are different from
different
from the
oneanother223
He
by the subtraction
by
addition,
by
means
number
line
225
of irrationals,
he finds
this indication he brings this treatise to an end, the relinquishing investigation of irrationals, since they are
infinite in
With
number226
End
of the first
book
of the
commentary on Book X.
NOTES.
1
& XI of Part I and Appendix A for the fact that See paragraphs Powers in this connection means Squares. See also WOEPCKE'S Essai, The reference is to Theaetetus, 14 7 d. 148 a. p. 34, and note 3. For the first two sentences of the paragraph see J. L. HEIBERG, Euclidis Elementa, Vol. V, p. 414, 11. 1 3 and p. 415, 11. 7 8. In Part II, paragraphs 17 20, the author develops this discovery of Theaetetus further and proves that the irrationals that are formed by addition, can be produced by means of arithmetical proportion, and those that are formed by subtraction, by means of harmonic proportion. The medial line is, of covirse the geometric mean between two rational lines commensurable in square only. See PROCL.US, Commentary on the first book of Euclid's Elements. Basle, 1533, p. 35, 1. 7 p. 92, 1. 11 p. 99, 1. 28: The Commentary ofEutocius, p. 204 of the Oxford edition of the Works of Archimedes; Frabicii Sibliotheca Graeca, 4th edition, Hamburg, 1793, Vol. Ill, p. 464 & 492. WOEPCKE translates: "And, finally, he demonstrates clearly their whole extent", remarking that the author alludes to prop. 116 (115) of Book X. But the Arabic word Tanahi does not mean Extent, but End, Limit, or Finitude; and the allusion is most probably to propositions 1 1 1 1 14, 111 showing that a binomial line cannot be an apotome, whereas 112 114 show how either of them can be used to rationalise the other. (W. p. 2, 1. 6.) For the last sentence of para. I see J. L. HEI: :
p. 414,
11.
15
16.
See J. L. HEIBERG, Euclidis Elementa, V, p. 417, 1. 15, where #Xoyov and dtvltSsov are used together in the same way; also p. 430, 11.
10
11,
where
<5cXoyo<;
and
des
<5cppY)Tos
Entdeckungsgeschichte
Irrationalen
1909/1910, p. 150, n. 1. See Euclidis Elementa, V, p. 417, 11. 1920, for the translation: "The sect (or school) of Pythagoras was so affected
by
6
(W.
p. 2,
11.
13
&
10.)
of generation and corruption, the sensible world, of the Platonic position as, e. g., in Phaedo 79 c
sensible world
is
94
in a state of continual change; there is no identity of quality in it; therefore no standard of judgment; and consequently no real knowledge The Arabic word, Tashabuh, means Identity of of it or through it.
Diet, of Technical
Terms
etc.,
A. SPBENGEB,
I,
6jjLoi6ryj<;,
(W.
p. 2,
15).
comingtobe, or,
The coming
and
p. 1274).
0^3, 8 9
The Arabic word, Marur, probably renders the Greek word Stream or Flow (W. p. 2, 1. 16).
See Plato, De Legibus, Lib. VII, 819, beginning. The Arabic phrase, MumayyizulAhdath, is evidently an epithet for Plato, although I have not been able to find the Greek phrase upon
which
10
it is
based (W.
p. 2,
1.
20).
11
The Arabic phrase, AlMustahiqqatulil'ar, qualifies Alamur (things) and not AlAhdath (accidents) as in STJTEB'S translation (W. p. 2, 1. 20)' The Arabic word, Qawl, may mean Enunciation or Proposition (cf. Glossary for references to the text; see BESTHOBN & HEIBEBG, Eucl. Elem., AlHajjaj, i (p. 34, last line; p. 36, 1. 16; p. 40, 1. 4). Ma'na may mean Definition (cf. Glossary for references to the text).
I interpret the Arabic phrase, Ha$satulMaqumati, according to Wright's Grammar, 3rd Ed., VoL II, p. 232, C, etc. The Arabic word, AlMaqum, occurs again in the next paragraph (Part. I., Para. 4., WOEPCKE'S text, p. 4, 1. 14) with AlMuthbat as an interlinear gloss.
12
According to this gloss AlMaqum means Established, Known,, Proved, or Belonging as a property or quality to (W. p. 3, 1. 3).
13
their
minimum,
maximum
limit;
mum.
Phys. III.
14
University of Part XVI, II, p. 183, 11. 710.) SUTEB'S statement that ,,Hier befindet sich im MS. eine nicht lesbare, verdorbene Stelle" (p. 15, n. 24), based apparently on WOEPCKE'S
HEIBEBG, Euclidia 26ff.; Nicomachus 9ff., 24ff.; p. 429, Humanistic Series, Vol. Michigan Studies,
6,
1
1.
207 b,
note
7 to
page
3,
95
parte peremta sunt",
is
misleading.
The part
of the text
which has
been omitted and then given in the margin, can be read with the exception of one word ; and that word of which two letters can still be deciphered, can be reconstructed from the context. What has happened,
text.
a curious case of haplography, and I have reconstructed the 19.) (See text and notes on the text.) (W. p. 3, 11. 18
is
The Commentary
p. 87,
1.
For the philosophical notion expressed in these sentences compare of Proclus on Book I of Euclid, ed., FBIEDLEIN,
19ff.; p. 314,
1.
16ff.
It follows the
Pythagorean doctrine
that the principles of things are such contraries as Limit and Unlimited (the Finite and the Infinite), Odd and Even etc (cf. ARTST, Metaph., A.
I; 986 a, 22ff.).
two
*
Plato's Philebos
16c.ff.).
16
See Arist., Metaph. 1024 a, 6. On the opposition of Unity and Plurality see Arist., Mesaph., 1054a, 20ff., 1056b, 32, 1057 a, 12. On Plurality as the genus of Number see Arist., Metaph., 1057 a, 2; and for the fact
that
first
16
One means a measure, i. e., is One, the arithmetical unit, or the thing with the name of One, e. g., one foot, see Arist., Metaph. , 1052a, 15 1053b, 4; 1087b, 33 1088a, 4. See Euclid, Bk. X., props. 5 9. For "Commensurable absolutely",
Def.
I.
cf.
17
18
19
See Euclid, Bk. X., prop. 10. See Euclid, props. 1118, esp. 11, 15, 17, 18. See Euclid, props. 11, 14, 17, 18. WOEPCKE'S judgment on the text
here is unsound, and SUTEB, following it, misses the sequence of thought (See text and notes on the text,) (W. p. 5, 1. 3ff.).
20 21 22
See Euclid, prop. 18, Lemma. See Euclid, prop. 21. The Arabic phrases, Mantiqatun fllamraini and tyan^iqatun fllquwwati, which, rendered literally, give Rational lines in both respects,
i.
e.
in square
and
length,
and Rational
lines in square,
mean, as
is
clear
from prop.
fore,
21, Rational lines commensurable in square and length and Rational lines commensurable in square. The following phrases, there
mawsitatun
flttuli
literally,
Medial
lines in length
lines
and mawsitatun fllquwwati, and square and Medial lines in square, commensurable in length and square and Medial
walquwwati,
commensurable in square, as given above. Further confirmation of this fact may be found in the sentence which follows this one, where
props. 21
& 25
WOEPCKE'S
correction of
96
mantiqatun to mawsitatun is, therefore, to be accepted. SUTER' s translation and note 35 are based on a misunderstanding of the text.
The
23
2*
85
full phrase is given, Part I, para. See Euclid, Bk. X., props. 21 & 25. See Euclid, Bk. X., props. 36ff.
18.
(W.
p. 5,
1.
Off.)
26
27
See Euclid, Bk. X., props. 73ff. See Euclid, Bk. X., props. 54ff. & 92ff.
is common to all magnitudes as to the common and which must be, therefore, the numbers, unity minimum measure or magnitude as One is the minimum number. The
28
That
See Euclid, Bk. X., prop. 115. is, a measure or magnitude which
is
and is then used, as in paragraph 3, Part I., in the sense of a Measure or a Unit of Measurement (See the Glossary for references to the text).
(W.
29
p. 6,
1.
3; cf. p. 3,
11.
1.
10).
Cf. J. L.
Vol. V, p. 437,
14.
Or, "To find another measure or magnitude less than the lesser of two given measures or magnitudes", if we adopt the marginal addition to the text, which seems unnecessary, however, and may have been added to make the statement conform more literally with the enunciation of proposition 1. The literal translation of the longer statement is: "That there can always be found another measure or magnitude less that any given measure or magnitude which is less than some
30
Book
Or,
measure or magnitude or other" (W. p. 6, 11. 4 5). Cf. J. L. HEIBERG, Euclidis Elementa, Vol. V., V., Def. 4. for this sentence in the Greek Scholia to Book X. p. 418, 1. 7ff.
31
32
As SUTER i. e., unit of measurement. to means it that is not possible prove by points out, Pappus probably means of the propositions of Book V. alone that, e. g., 1/8 and y 18 have a common measure, i. e. /2. (Page 17, note 40.) WOEPCKE'S reading of the text is false at this point, and SUTER naturally gives up in despair. (See text and notes on the text.) Cf.
"An
irrational measure",
lOff.
(W.
p. 6,
1.
10).
Cf. J. L.
^a&iqjJt.aTa
V., p. 417,
1.
21.
Ta
That
piv
is,
dcpt%i6u<; 8o5a<mx<oc;.
as a hypothesis accepted for practical purposes, based on generalizations from senseperception, but not supported by any rational
principle.
84
Al'adad, which
is
97
in the first place Quantity (Al~Kammiyyatu; see A Diet, of Technical Terms etc", A. SPRENGER, Vol. II, p. 949), and is here used in the sense of a quantity recognised as a unit of measurement. It is
means
employed as a gloss for AlQadr, Measure, Unit of Measurement (cf the previous note 28) in the MS. in the next paragraph, 6, and in paragraphs 11, 14, and 15 the two words are used as synonyms, (see Glossary
.
The Greek word behind Al'adad is proused as in Plato's Philebus, 25a, b; 25e, in the sense of that which numbers. On the argument of this paragraph up to this
bably
apifyz6<;
cf. J.
1.
point
L.
p. 418,
1.
13ff.
(W.
35
p. 6,
is,
14).
That
36
37
Cf. p. ara. 9 and the third note to para. 9 hadd (W. p. 6, last line). meaning The original text of the MS., as given by WOEPCKE, p. 7, notes 1, 2, and 3, is to be prefered. AlMutlaq is used in arithmetic to denote a Whole Number (See A Diet, of Technical Terms etc, A. SPRENGER, Vol. II, p. 921; Doay, Vol. II, p. 57, right column) and is used here probably by analogy in the same sense. WOEPCKE'S text runs: "It is also necessary to point out that the term "proportion" can in general be used to denote one thing in the case of etc." For this and succeeding sentences cf. J. L. HEIBERG, Euclidis Elementa, Vol. V, p. 418, 1. 17 ff. SITTER'S note 47, p. 18, seems contrary to the whole argument of the
the Platonic
for this
of
paragraph.
38
See especially the last sentence. Commensurable and rational magnitudes are not contraries, but neither are they identical.
translated, "With respect to greatness and smallness", renders the Greek, xara T& pisT^ov xae, gXaTTov (Cf. J. L. HEIBERG, Euclidis Elementa, Vol. V, p. 418, 1. 19), i. e., "According to the great and small". The reference is probably to Euclid,
Bk. V, Def. 4: "Magnitudes are said to have a ratio to oneanother which are capable, when multiplied, of exceeding oneanother"; which, as T. L. HEATH remarks, excludes the relation of a finite magnitude to a magnitude of the same kind which is either infinitely great or infinitely small and serves to show the inclusion of incommensurables.
See para. 8, note 47. b) This is the Platonic expression for continuous change. however, para. 8, note 47. G. J. See Euclid, Bk. X. props. 23, 27 & 28. SUTER (See p. 19, notes 49
See,
39
& 50)
cites the two medials, & 1/80, which are incommensurable with unity, but have the ratio to oneanother of 1 to 2.
7
yW
JungeThomson.
98
40
See SUTEB, Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Mathematik bei den Griechen und Arabern, Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und
der Medizin, Heft IV, Erlangen, 1922, p. 19, Note 52, and Appendix 2. Irrationals as has been stated, may be commensurable with oneanother.
41
42
43
Number.
44
WOEPCKE
substitutes the supralinear gloss for the MS. reading, but the latter should be restored to the text, since the whole argument of
the paragraph is based upon the idea of finitude. The Arabic phrase given in the MS. and translated, "A defined plurality" is a rendering of the Greek definition of number, 7rX7J&o<; wpio^vov (Eudoxus
in
10,
17:
cf.
the Aristotelian
Metaph. 1020 a, 13; 1088 a, 5, whereas the supralinear gloss gives the Greek definition, "A prodefinition,
T&
7T7iepao(jtvov,
gression (and retrogression) of multitude", Tupo7co8ui{z&<;, dcva7uo8ia(jt,6<;. SUTEB does not appear to have grasped the sense of the Arabic nor the
is
8,
1.
17
and
WOEPCKE
MS.
reading.
The
Arabic word rendered by "Comprehends more than" should be read Muj&wizatun, not Muhawiratun or Mujawiratun, as WOEPCKE suggests.
The supralinear
meaning
is
gloss, Arfa'u min, is an explanation of this term. The that finitude is a more comprehensive term than number, or, according to the gloss, is of a higher category, number being just one of its kinds and not therefore, exhausting its content, so that the
46 47
number does not cover everything included under the ratio pertaining to finitude (W. p. 8, 1. 17 and note 6). ". Literally, "We exclude the ratio of finite things from
ratio pertaining to
Magnitudes are commensurable when they can be measured by some unit or other which is the least part or minimum. This minimum,
therefore, is determined ultimately
oneanother.
(Euclid, Bk. V,
The
Def
.
exclude the relation of a finite magnitude same kind which is either infinitely great or show the inclusion of incommensurables (See
note 38 above).
Perhaps an allusion to Plato's Parmenides, 140 c. See Introduction, p. 6 or a reference to the idea of continuous change; see
b)
para.
6.
G. J.
99
48
Cf. Part I, para. 13 is, presumably, the Pythagorean Monad. (W. p. 13, 1. 11) where it is stated that God measures all things better than one measures the numbers.
That
49
Human
reason, however,
measurement
therefore, it
50
and can find no natural unit of For them, uses various conventional units of measurement, which do
is
limited
not, therefore, apply to all finite things. For the para, see J. L. HEIBERG, Euelidis Elementa, Vol. V, p. 484, 1. 23 p. 485, 1. 7. That is, medials, binomials, and apotomes.
51
That
is, the things furthest removed from their causes, the ideas or forms in the Universal Soul, and which are, then, only very dim reflextions or very poor images of these, devoid for the most part of form,
52
That
or limit, or definiteness. is, as the whole argument of this paragraph goes to prove (cf also 13), there is nothing absolutely irrational but only relatively so.
.
From
is
ically speaking,
the point of view of an ideal system of knowledge, or, Platonfrom the point of view of the World Soul, everything rational, but for human reason there are things which are relatively
number of the continuous quantities. reason, relatively rational, inasmuch as they all belong to one or other of the three classes of irrationals, and so admit of definition, have a certain form or limit. For the Platonist,
irrational, as, e. g.,
an
infinite
But these
are,
even for
human
and likewise the Neopythagorean and the Neoplatonist, the cause of this, that everything consists of three parts, is the number three conceived of as a metaphysical entity. "The Triad", says Nicomachus (in Photius), "is the cause of that which has triple dimensions and gives bound to the infinity of number". (Cf. T. TAYLOR, Theoretic Arithmetic, London, 1816, p. 181). The doctrine is derived from the Platonic speculation concerning the separate as distinct from the mathematical and sensible numbers. (Cf. Aristotle, Metaph. 1080a, 12 1083a, 14.) The separate numbers were not only the formal but also the material
causes of everything.
is
Even the
universal soul,
it
should be observed,
threefold, being formed from same (T& Toarr6v), other (T& dnrepov), and being (f) 6uoa) (Cf. PLATO'S Timaew, 37 a; Proclii Diodachi in
Timaeum Commentaria, E. DIEHL, Leipzig, 1903, Vol. II, 295 (on Timaeus, 37a), p. 125, 1. 23ff., p. 157, 1. 27ff., p. 272, p.
Platonis
1.
21ff., p. 297,
1.
17ff., p. 298,
I.
1.
1.
2ff.).
On
Aristotle,
63
De
CoeL,
Arabic
1.
is
found in

3ff.
The Arabic
100
Tushabbahu an ("seems to"), gives the Greek lotxsv; the Arabic, qurbin ("directly"), gives the Greek Trpoaex&i;; so far as the Arabic is concerned, the latter phrase might be translated. "By affinity".
Min
same and
of other
and of
due proportion divided and bound together, and turns about and returns into herself, whenever she
being, of these three portions blended, in
touches aught that has manifold existence or aught that has undivided,
she is stirred through all her substance,
(
xivoujjtiv/}
Sia
7racn)<;
&XUTTJC;)
same and that wherefrom it is different etc. (R. D/ARCHEKHIND'S translation). Cf. also the commentary of Proclus on the Timaeus, E. DIEHL, Vol. II, p. 298, 1. 2ff. & pp. 302316 on Timaeus 37 a. b., esp. p. 316, 11. 2425 (W. p. 0,
and she
tells
is
1.
llff.).
64
For the interpretation of this sentence cf. Plato's Timaeus, 34c. 37 c., where Plato describes the composition of the soul out' of same, other, and being, goes on then (35b. ff .) to give an account of the mathematical
ratios pertaining to the soul,
to
God
fashioned
all
that
is
unto the ends of heaven she was woven in everywhere and encompassed it around from without and that she can tell that wherewith anything
;
same and that wherefrom it is different, and in what relation or place or manner or time it comes to pass both in the region of the changing and in the region of the changeless that each thing affects another and is affected. See the commentary of Proclus on the Timaeus, E. DIEHL, Vol. II, p. 47, 1. 28ff. "Again the Soul is one and contains in itself that which is divine (T& 6eiov) and that which is irrational (T& #Xoyov), and in the divine part of itself it comprehends
is
:
(Tcspt^ei) rationally the irrational powers which it governs the irrational and arranges
(TOU;
it
1.
aX6you<;
8uvdc(jLei<;)
by
in a
becoming manner".
1.
11.
915,
p. 108,
29ff., p. 160,
26ff.,
p. 208,
1.
1.
5ff.
Cf. J. L.
p. 485,
3ff. for
the Greek.
this
55
The basis of
35b.ff.
In the
first
view is again to be sought in the Timaeus, 3 1 c. passage Plato shows how the mean term
32 a.
&
of three
numbers makes the three an unity and how the material world is a harmony through the proportion of its elements. In the second the
is
established
by the
1.
three means.
9ff.:
"The three
101
and connection
fionds.
Hence
also
For
prior to this he
said that the geometric mean is the most beautiful that the other means are contained in it. But every bond
Cf. also Vol. II, pp. 16, 18, 21 (on
had
Timaeus 31 c.
That is, the three 30ff.; Vol. Ill, p. 211, 1. 28ff. 32a.), p. 131, means are the basis of the unity of the soul and of everything, therefore, rational or irrational.
68
The reading of the ms. is Yughlaba, and the marginal gloss is Yuqlaba. The idea to be conveyed is evidently
Or, "Is deprived of the ratios etc."
I
67
that of loss or change of property or relation (W., p. 9, 1. 14). have adopted with WOEPCKE the marginal reading, AlNisabi, instead of the text's AlSababi, because AlMawjudati (Which exist)
seems to require this change. Observe also that AlNisabi (ratios) is used in the next sentence manifestly with reference to the same object
as here The argument, moreover, deals with the ratios of the soul and those of continuous quantities, and how the three means are the causes of union therein (W., p. 9, 1. 15).
58
The
clause is difficult; and a marginal gloss, instead of helping to solve the difficulty, adds to it. The gloss reads, Ldkin (not Ldkinnahu, as with WOEPCKE) shai'un (shai y an ?) ba'da shai'in minha, instead of Ldkinnahu matd ba'ada (not instead of Ldkinnahu matd ba'ada 'an
wdhidin minha, as with WOEPKE). The meaning to be attached to this obscure, to say the least; it can only be conjectured that it should mean that one thing after another of these last things returns and
is
ratios.
for,
tilqd*i tabl'atin,
i.
e.,
from,
meaning the same as Min 'indi, or Min qibali, or Ya*ud might be read instead of Ba'ada, i. e. "Whenever it turns back from anyone of these ratios" (W. p. 9, 11. 14 15). The clause is again obscure. The meaning of the Arabic phrase, Min alrds ild gJiairihi is not clear. I suspect that some Greek phrase such
tilqa*i
as
is
is,
removed from their psychic prototypes, things almost devoid of form or limit. Even these, however, are subject to the ratios that govern their psychic prototypes, can never indeed, change or lose these. There is a limit, therefore, beyond which
last things are those furthest
they cannot go, since, then, they would lose these ratios and change
102
their nature.
doctrine of the
They can only return whence they came. The Platonic harmony of the world (cf. the Timaeus) and the Neoall
this sentence,
Things
desire, (cf.
powers, as, e, g., the two psychic powers, anger and the citation from Proclus in note 54 above).
(2) Infinite series of things, as, e, g., species. (3) Notbeing, T& fj^ 6v, i. e., Matter (tiXY)) or Space (x<J>pa) which has not yet received any form, is still formless (#jjiop<pov) or without shape (dcx^arixov) (cf. Timaeus 50 b 52c; Arist., Met., W. D. Ross,
Vol. 1, Comm. p. 170), forms probably being conceived of as mathematical figures in this instance, concerning which idea see the Timaeus 53c. and ZELLER'S PreSocratic Philosophy (Trans., S. F. ALLEYNE,
1881), Vol.
61
1,
p. 436,
on Philolaus (W.
p. 9,
1.
17
p. 10,
1.
2).
As
Harmonic proportion is such that the difference between the middle term and the first is to the first as the difference between the middle term and the last is to
in the case of apotomes, for example.
last.
the
62
As
separates three or
this
63
The arithmetical mean more terms by the same term, but with irrationals
term
is
an unknown quantity.
ratio.
As
The geometric mean unites Mathematically the paragraph informs us that there are three kinds of irrationals, and that to each
in the case of the medials, for example.
three or
kind one of the three means pertains. See Part 11, para. 17 ff., where the author shows how the three kmds of irrationals are produced by the
64
three kinds of proportion. Or, "Those who have influenced speculation", reading or AlMu'aththirlna (W. p. 10, 1. 6).
AlMu tharma
y
65
66
For the Greek cf. J. L. HEIBERG, 148b. Eudidis Elementa, Vol. V, pp. 450452, no. 62. See Appendix A for a discussion of the use of the term, Quwwati & XI (W. p. 10, 1. 10). Sometimes (power = square) in paragraphs
it
(
e. g.,
are incom
mensurable with
yl)
is
commensurable.
11 of
of
it
( power) throughout paras. 10 and means square and square only; and the awkwardness
"Quwwatun"
103
the argument will be excused,
accuracy.
67
it is
its historical
Whose
That
lineal
measurement
is,
therefore,
foot.
Cf.
Appendix A.
68
is,
not subject to change, and knowledge of which is, therefore, by its very nature real knowledge. I read AlMuntabih not AlMutanabbih
(W.
69
70
p.
10,
1.
11).
Theaetetus, 147 e.
148 a.
The Arabic
71
72
73
an exact rendering of the Greek toov la<xt<;, Almiraran Mutasawiyan mutasawiyatan (W. p. 10, 1. 12). That is, they form the number into a square figure as in the problem of the quadrature of a circle. Cf. Appendix A on Rabbcfa. If "Quwwatun" is taken as "power" (= squareroot), then "Rabba'a (to square) must be translated, "Whose square is", and so throughout wherever this change is made. There is no mention of the fact referred to in this last clause in Theaetetus but it is a pet idea of the commentator. G. J. Cf. Book X, prop. 9. I read with SUTER Abadan not Aidan (W. p. 10,
is
9
I.
19).
74
76
See note 11 of this Part for the meaning of "Qawl". Or, "The definition that determines these "powers" (squares) by means of the square numbers is different altogether from that which
76
77
makes them have to one another the ratio of a square number to a square number". That is, the ratio of 9 to 4, the halves of 18 and 8. I have adopted the reading of the MS. WOEPCKE preferred the (W. p. 11, supralinear gloss, (see text and notes on the text.)
II.
78,
note
5.)
78
As SUTER says
,
(p. 22,
79
universally valid, whereas that of Euclid was. Theaetetus 147d. And in the next clause it is evident that Theaetetus must be the subject of the verb, explains, since the reference is to
148a.
80
b.
(W.
is
p.
11,
1.
13).
The Arabic
I
Greek
of Theaetetus 148 a.
b.
to the Sides (AlAdla'u), although the form of the sentence one to suppose that it referred to the antecedent of Allatl,
is
or Powers (quwwatun or qiwan). But if the Greek on which the Arabic based, is taken into account, the antecedent of Allatl would be some
6<J<n
phrase equivalent to
^&v
YPW*l
The
fact, then,
that in the
104
Greek the subject
points to sides
81
of discussion is
(AlAdWu)
as the
82
83
(W. p. 11, 11. 1415). That is, the sides of squares commensurable in square but not That is, as the side of a square.
is, the squares upon these powers (surds) are commensurable SUTER omits this with the squares upon the lines called lengths. sentence: the Greek behind it is evidently [oujJifjLeTpo^] TOI<; S'lTrtjclSots a SiSvavTtxi Theaetetus 148 b. Length and power here denote, as
That
SUTER
84
says, rational
and
irrational respectively
(W.
p. 11,
1.
17).
That
Cf.
is, says, the squares of 18 square feet and of 8 square feet mentioned in the previous paragraph, 10.
as
SUTER
86
65, rests
the previous note, 34, on the meaning of Al'adad. SITTER'S note, on a misconception, due to his not recognising the real meaning
of Al'^adad
and its use in the sense of Unit of Measurement. His note 54 on a misconception of the sense of the paragraph. And Pappus had in all probability the same conception of irrationality as have translated the last clause according to the reading of Euclid.
also rests
J.
the MS.
The marginal
gloss given
these powers are [described] (i. e. which are the sides of these squares). The original text adds the important point that these lines are imaginary, so far, that
86
is,
as measure
(lines
is
to
change of number to square number is unnecessary. The lines are commensurable in length according to Book X, prop. 9, and have,
therefore the ratio of a
number
2
3.)
to a
number according
is]
to
Book X,
prop.
5.
(W.
p. 12,
11.
There
treatise
fol.
up
MS. 7377 A,
See STEINnote 67.)
68
70 b., apparently by
Z.
GERHARD
of
Cremona.
SCHNEIDER in
87
PLATO'S
Cf.
11.
De
(Cf.
SUTER,
p. 23,
820.
88
De
1
5).
Legibus VII, 819 (STALLBAUM, 1859, Vol. X, Sect. II, p. 379, The Arabic, Wa ba'da hadhihilAshya'i, gives the Greek
(jisTa
8s TauTa.
Greek
96aei) qualifies
Qabihun (shameful); and it is to be observed that H. MUELLER (1859) and OTTO APELT (1916) both make <p\i<rei to qualify ludicrous and not
most of the commentators do (See JOWETT). WOEPCKE'S Yadhaku minhu jaml'a etc., is a marginal reading. The MS. reading, reads Fadahika minhu bijami'i etc. Bijami'i is certainly correct, Fadahika minhu is possible, Jahila can take the accusative. although
ignorance, as
but the
F may
just
be a
11.
9).
105
*9
Cf.
11.
De Legibus 910.)
VII, 819d.
(STALLBAUM,
p. 379,
1.
5.)
(W.
p. 12,
90
For
"For I hold", cf. De Legibus 81 9 d. 912), 820a. (STALLBAUM, p. 381, 11. 12), (STALLBAUM, p. 379, 820b. (STALLBAUM, p. 381, 11. 3 9). SUTER'S note 70, is based on a mistranslation. His translation, p. 23, 1. 15, would demand instead of
this passage beginning,
11.
91
Man taqaddama (yuqaddimu ?), Mimman taqaddama min alNasi. in Zanni man Moreover the verb Istaha needs a complement, and This is that is etc. complement. not, therefore, the taqaddama phrase Mart zanna of SUTER'S translation (W. p. 12, 11. 11 12.) According to WOEPCKE and SUTER we have here in the phrase, Ala repetition of a phrase of the preceding senKitabilma^ufi b
tence, namely, AlKitabil~ma'rufi biThi'd tiim, i. e. "The book that goes by the name of Theaetetus", except that unfortunately the last
word
is
In my opinion, however, the last word of the phrase is illegible. undoubtedly Thabatan, an accusative of respect modifying Qlla, i. e., "From what has been said by way of support or demonstration in the book". The complement of Alma'ruf has, therefore, either been omitted, or Alma'ruf is used here absolutely with the meaning of Mashhur, i. e., Wellknown, Standard (Cf. Lane's Arabic
Diet., I. V, p. 2017, col. I).
The latter supposition finds support in the was generally known to his successors as The STOLXetcoTY)? simply, and that they took a knowledge of his works for granted (Cf. M. CANTOR, Vorlesungen fiber Oeschichte der Mathematik,3rdld.,
fact that Euclid
1907, p. 261, the reference to Archimedes, De (Ed. HEIBERG, I. 24), also J. L. HEIBERG, Studien uber Euclid, Leipzig, 1882, p. 29 (foot) Proclus). The propositions in Euclid referred to
sphaera
et
Cylindro
Litterargeschichtliche
and
his reference to
are evidently 15
and
36 of
92
93
94
Book X.
(W.
p.
12,
1.
20.)
Parmenides 140b., c., d. AlWad'u is the Greek ^ U7t6&eoi<; of Parmenides 136, for example. SUTER'S note 73 is based on a false rendering of AlWad'u. AlMawdi'u also is quite correct and means case as translated above (W. p. 13, 1. 6).
95
96
That is, the three ideas are interdependent. The Greek words behind AlIjtima u (union) and AlIftirdqu (separation) are probably vj ouyxpteu; and 73 8taxptei<; as used, e. g., in
(
35,
cf.
Plato's
and 8iaxplveom
in
Parmenides 156b.
The
sensible
106
product of union and division, which are themselves the results of the movements of the circles of the same and the other in the World Soul.
Cf.
Timaeus 36 e.
37 c and the
97
E. DIEHL, Vol. II, p. 158, 11. 1819, p. 252ff. (W. p. That is, the World Soul of Timaeus 34b. c., 36c. d.
9).
40 b., which
through the revolutions of the circles of the same and the other controlls the world. Observe the use of xpdhroc; in 36 c. for the sense
of the Arabic
word qawd
TTOCV;
(controlls).
Cf.
also the
commentary
is
1.
of
I, p.
cf.
414,
1.
13,
said to be
lOff.,
dcvaxuxXooaav T&
p.
98
21, p. 292,
316
11.
2425
(W.
p.
9).
Al adad
is the reading of the MS. AlQadr is a marginal reading to be taken in the sense of measure, not will, as STJTER supposes, number being that which measures in this case. Divine number is the Platonic
separate numbers, conceived of as separate substances and first causes of existing things (See Arist., Metaph., 1080a. 12 b. 33, 1090a. 2ff.,
since
987 b. SI). All things are, therefore, commensurable by divine number, it is their formal cause. But matter is also necessary for their
existence;
99
and
1.
it is
indefinite; therefore
(W. p. Matter
Small
13,
is
10).
(Cf. Arist.,
here conceived of Platonically. It is the Indefinite Dyad Metaph., 1081 a. 14; cf. also 1083b., 34), or The Great and
(Cf. Arist.
cf.
which as the
by any
particular figure
and capable
and
indefinite diminution.
101
the Platonic T& 7ipa$. It is imposed on matter, the unlimited (T& #7teipov), by the Ideas or the divine numbers. Cf. Arist. Metaph., 19, esp. 8; Z. 1034b. 20 1035b. 31, esp. 1035a.
Limit
is
25.
Form, PotenCXrj,
tiality,
give
the Greek
13,
1.
words,
fjtpo<;,
6Xov,
StSos,
SOvoqjuc, Ivlpyeta.
102
(W.
p.
18).
II,
See
W. D. Ross,
Aristotle's
Metaphysics, Vol.
p.
199 (note to
in part,
is
1036a. 9
"The words, tiXr) VOYJTYJ", says Mr. Ross 10). "occur only here and in 1037 a. 4, and 1045 a. 34, 36. Here it
exists in individuals (1037 a.
1, 2),
some
thing which
in nonsensible indivi
duals (1036b. 35) or in sensible individuals not regarded as sensible (1036 a. 11), and the only instances given of these individuals are
mathematical figures (1036a. 4, 12; 1037 a. 2). It seems to be equivalent to ^ TWV ^aJhjfiaTixoiv CXYjof 1059b. 15. ALEXANDER, there
107
fore, indentifies it
3,
614. 27),
which
is satis
factory for
(1036).
But
in
The instance given (2) has no limitation to mathematical objects. in is a mathematical one: "Plane figure is the 6X7) voTjnfj of the
circle".
So
tiXr)
voTjnf)
is
in its widest conception is the thinkable involved both in species and in individuals,
'
'
and of which they are specifications and individualizations* 'Matter' 195 Ross Mr. "is sensible and to 1036 a. says again (Vol. II, p. 8), or else in the exists which matter intelligible, viz., (changeable),
.
'
sensibles not
1.
1.
5)
Cf.
qua sensible, i. e. mathematical figures". (W. p. 14, The Commentary of Proclus on Book I of Euclid, ed.,
1.
FRIEDLEIN,
103
p. 51,
13ff.; p. 57,
is
1.
9ff.
Khaftun is the common word, Rasmun, meaning Line, Rasmun means usually Mark, Sign, Trace, Impression. But undoubtedly Rasmun, Shaklun, and Hajmun give here the Greek YpapLpnfj, iTulrceSos, and aco(jt,a, and to be observed is the fact that Rasmun and ypafx^yj correspond in several of their meanings, e. g.,
unusual.
It might mean a [mathematical Writing, Drawing, or Sketching. diagram, but that is the meaning of Shaklun. Perhaps the three terms represent the {jtfjxo?, ^TrfoeSo?, 6yxo$ of Arist., Metaph.
M
1.
1085a.
5).
11.
10
12.
104
Cf.
D. Ross, Aristotle's Metaphysics, Vol. II, p. 199, note to 1036a. 10 (towards the end). "It is evident", says Mr. Ross, "from line 1 1 that in Aristotle's view everything which has sensible matter has
9
W.
intelligible matter, but not viceversa. We get a scale of matters, each of which implies all that precedes: (1) (SXyj VOTQTYJ; (2) (SXY) dio^YjTif)
including,
<xuy)T7)
(a)
tfXr)
XIVTQTY)
tiXyj
(TOTuxifj),
(b)
(SXiq
dcXXoioxnf),
(c)
(>X7)
which
is (SXiq [jidcXiaTa
106
That
(De Gen. et. Corr., 320a. 2). and mathematical numbers, which in the Platonic system follow the ideas (the incorporeal life), are free from incommensurability no less than the ideal numbers which precede the ideas (L. ROBIN, La Theorie platonicienne des I dees et dee N ombres
xal xuptax;
is,
sensible
them (W.
D. Ross, Arist., Metaph. Vol. I, Introd., p. limit and form (W. p. 14, U. 68).
106
That
T6
is,
life,
108
107
108
E.
g.,
The MS.
Length, breadth, and thickness (W. p. 14, 1. 8). reading, The lines which have etc., is correct, and not the
marginal reading, The line which etc., as WOEPCKE suggests. This may be seen from the fact that the author in the next sentence but
may
assume a
Cf also para. 5, near the middle, where it is line a cubit long, or a line a span long,
.
12).
.
109
Cf note 28 of Part
I.
I.
Qadr (W.
p. 14,
1.
p. 14,
14).
11(>
Cf. para. 5,
6,
11.
1013), (W.
.
14).
111
the rationality or irrationality of a magnitude depends upon the given rational unit of measurement. Cf note 34 of this Part of the
is,
That
meaning
of 'adad.
It
is
number as measure
(W.
112
p.
14,
1.
15).
The marginal
reading, adopted
mean
determinate, as
it
is
probability,
however,
a gloss on the MS. reading, Mujmalatun, meaning general, in the sense that the properties sum up the species of rationals
113
and irrationals (W. p. 14, 1. 18). That is, presumably, Euclid. The marginal reading which WOEPCKE adopts, Al'ilmi, would run, "Of his science." On La, as marking the
apodosis of a conditional sentence,
Ed., Vol. II, p.
cf.
Wright's Arabic
Grammar
3rd
349A (W.
p.
114
That
(W.
is, it
p.
15,
2).
115
116
means that some line or other must be taken as the rational unit of measurement (W. p. 15, 1. 3). That is, the subject and predicate of the previous clause viz., ''Every line which is commensurable", i. e., commensurable and rational as may be seen from the next two sentences. The Arabic runs literally: "And let the one of the two of them be convertible into the other". I read, of course, Ya'kasu, and not Bil aksi, as WOEPCKE. I read also Yusamma and Yuda'u, and not Nusammi and Nadi* u. (W. p. 15,
says, this
;
As SUTER
II.
67).
Book X,
Definitions 3
117 Cf.
&
4.
118
is, Commensurable, commensurable in length, although not commensurable with the assumed line. See the end of this paragraph and the
that
said to be
succeeding one.
109
119
But the Literally, "Is a something added to them from without". Arabic phrase, Min kharijin, probably gives some such Greek phrase as besides (praeterquam), XT&S T6uTwv (xr6<;?, ?), meaning, as in Plato's Gorgias, 474 d. The Commentator means that in the two
phrases, rational lines commensurable in length and rational lines commensurable in square, commensurable in length and commensurable
in square do riot modify the idea, rational line i. e., as the next clause says, do not refer to the proportion of the lines to the assumed
y
121
modify the idea, line, i. e., refer to the proportion (W. p. 15, 11. 14 15). Since lines can be rational and commensurable in length, although not commensurable with the assumed rational line in length. See the end of this paragraph and the next paragraph. Cf. note 34 of Part I of the Translation for the meaning of Al adad
of the lines to oneanother
122
123
The unit of measurement in this case is 1/2. \VOEPCKE omits the phrase, Yaqdirulkhattalmafruda aidan from the text of the MS. at this point, since it is impossible that this measure (J/2) should "measure the assumed line also". Perhaps we should read " Biqadrilkhatpi etc", meaning, "With the measure of an assumed line also" (W. p. 16, 1. 4, note 3). Literally, "There is not anything, then, which makes a rational except commensurability with the assumed rational line". SUTER'S notes 84 & 85 rest on a misapprehension of the meaning of the text. Pappus had undoubtedly the same conception of rationality as Euclid, as has
t
16,
1.
Iff.).
Euclid,
Book X,
prop.
19.
line", or,
"What
is
the
mode
126
Amma
Cf.
16,
11.
amma
912).
4.
...8.
p.
292 B
(W.
127 128
p.
Book X,
That
is, if
by the breadth.
129
Literally, "Then the area of the rectangle must be six somethingsor other. But what the six somethingsorother are, is not known".
130
3),
be,
e. g.,
3 J/2
product of
and 2J/2, which are commensurable in length, but the which is 6 I/ 2, a medial, irrational rectangle.
110
131
Not very
Cf.
Cf.
clear, as already
i.
G. J.
15).
1.
132
Theaetetus, 148a.;
Theaetetus,
is,
e.
i.
(W.
p.
17,
1.
133 134
148a. b.;
e.
&ivafju<;.
(W.
p.
17,
16).
That
lines.
name
136
of,
Theaetetus, 148b.
is,
136 137
That That
in length or in square. lines commensurable with this other measure but incomthe is, mensurable with the first.
is
138
"Wahuwala
yash'iru".
The meaning
is
that Eu
without giving notice of the basis of his procedure, named these lines rational on the ground that they were commensurable with the
given line in square, and named them commensurable in length on the ground that they had a common measure, although that measure was not the given line (W. p. 18, 1. 2).
139
140
141
142
on a misapprehension of the text (W. p. 18, 1. 3). paragraph towards the end. SUTER remarks (Appendix 4): This last proposition is not wholly correct. If, for example, the given rational line is 10 and the two lines containing the area 5 and \/ 3, the area, 5\/3, is medial, but one of the That is, sides, 5, is commensurable with the given rational line, 10. both sides need not be incommensurable with the given line in length. SUTER supposes (note 96) that this sentence should stand at the end
SUTER'S note 94
rests
addition.
The
latter supposition
what comes hereafter is to him selfevident, even naive. It is, however, pertinent, if somewhat tautologous. The commentator points out in
this
(1)
paragraph that rational lines are; commensurable in length with the given
oneanother.
line
(2)
commensurable in square only with the given line. Of these (a) some are commensurable with oneanother in length, but not
with the given
(b) others are
line,
commensurable
other.
Therefore in this last part of the paragraph he points out that if it is contained by two lines rational and commen
Ill
143
WOEPCKE' conjecture that the reading should be "In square only" and is correct. The use of only determines the use
(W.
p.
18, last line,
note
6).
props. 21 & 22; J. L. HEIBERG, Euclidis Elements Vol. V, p. 488, no. 146; p. 489, no. 150. On the paragraph cf. ibid.,
Of.
Book X,
11.
p. 485,
145
816.
prop. 21. That this clause seems to repeat the previous The former clause clause, is due to the exigences of translation. translated literally would run somewhat as follows: "And, therefore,
Book X,
can have a square described on it equal in area to the rectangle etc. "The use of Janbatun (Side) is unusual. The ordinary word for side The dual of Janbatun may emphasize the fact that the is Dil'un.
sides are adjacent sides.
TOC
The two
is
the extremes,
146
Tarafani (W. p. 19, 1. 7). Cf. J. L. HEIBERG, Euclidis Elementa, Vol. V, p. 485, 11. p. 491, no. 158, for the Greek of this clause. Juz*iyyatun (Particular) is an adjective qualifying TaWatun (nature or species), not a noun as
89;
Irtl
SUTER takes
(jtepixeoT^pocs
147
it.
'aid
tabl l atin
p.
19,
11.
juz*iyyatin
7
8).
gives
the
Greek
<p\iaeo><;
(W.
That
Cf
is,
in square only.
148
.
Book X, Def
As
only the square upon the line but square upon the line.
149
paragraph
p. 486,
1.
J. L.
7.
p. 485,
1.
16
in Euclid.
150
151
As SUTER says (note 98), this The short lemma before proposition 24 does not carry the comparison so far as Pappus does here. Pappus seems to have based his comparison on props. 21 25. See Book X, prop. 23, Porism; props. 24 and 19. See Book X, prop. 25.
Cf.
HEIBERG, Euclidis Elementa, Vol. V, above in the translation. resemblance is nowhere expressly stated
162
SUTER, Appendix
6,
who
= \/15, (2) 2\/W. 3\/W = 6V6"= A/180' (3) V^.Y/^ = \/900 = V30; (1) 3.5 = 15, or VT8.V8"= 12, (2) V27.V/48 = \/i296 = 6.
The Greek
of this sentence
11.
153
is
23
T&V
5).
Suvdt^ci a
TTOCVTCX;
Iivou
(jtlcn).
(W.
p. 20,
1.
112
164
WOEPCKE'S emendation of the text is correct, as may be seen from the We must read "Commensurable in square," not "Commensurable in length." The error occure, however, in the Greek text, cf. J. L. HEIcontext.
11.
25
27:
TJ
&
TWV
The Arab T6rs (JLSV Y)TY), T6re 8& JJL&JY). fbyjTtov [ry]xet, au^lrpcov translator probably did not notice the error and translated mechanically
165
(W. p.
20,
1.
8).
156
That is, the two rationals or the two medials commensurable in square. The Greek is given in J. L. HEIBERG, Eudidis Elementa, Vol. V,
p. 486,
jxlvcov
11.
6:
diTiariov
T$)V
is
o5v
TYJV
avaXoyCav
<5bcpcov
TTJ<;
T&V
Trsptexo
x (0 P^ cov 8ia90pa<;
(jLera^u
T&V
etc.
The
it
pri
mary meaning
the Greek ^
of Ikhtilatun
renders
Sia9<>pdc.
1,
Cf. Khiltun,
AlTarafani is the technical Arabic term for the extremes and does not mean, as SITTER supposes, the length and breadth of the area, although they are here that also.
p. 394, col.
1).
Supplement, Vol.
The Greek
given
157
Cf.
168 159
Cf. Cf.
gives only the first and last of the three types of means the Arabic text (W. p. 20, 11. 1213). Cf. Para. 4 above (W. p. 5). X, props. (20).
118
leo
181
cf,
Cf.
p ara
is,
5,
1.
7).
Book X,
162
163
That
SITTER quite rightly remarks (note 103) "Clearer would have been the expression, "And the diagonal of the square described on the rational
(Extrait du Tome XIV dee Memoir es VAcademie des Sciences de Vlnstitut imperal de France Essai d'une Restitution de Travaux perdus d'Apollonius, p. 37, note 1) takes the diagonal as a in his example. The side
line".
WOEPCKE, however,
a
presentes
is,
then, as
SUTER
says,
/^.
WOEPCKE
Arabic word translated, diagonal , also means diameter and shows how this meaning of the word might be interpreted geometrically. But the
meaning, diagonal, gives the simpler and the better idea (W. p. 21,
1.
5).
184
WOEPCKE
a
j
I/
the apotome
~a
\
^ ut * n
mv
Pi ni
n th ey
are, the
medial line
J/a
Y/2a
113
the binomial
==
2 \/2 a
f
the apotome
2 \/2 a
a.
Both
a)
irrationality
.
(Asammu) must be
undoubtedly correct cf Book X, prop. 37 and the next paragraph (W. p. 21, 1. 12). b) That a f \/b + \/cis not "rational", = \/d can be proved as
supplied
t
would follow that a + \/b \/ df y/c, i. e., a binomial would be equal to an apotome, which according to Euclid X, 111, is
follows. It
impossible. G. J.
lee
WOEPCKE'S
of the two of
conjecture, "One of them" (Ahaduha), instead of "One them" (Ahaduhuma) is supported by the reading of the text later in the paragraph (W. p. 22, 1. 9). "Again, let there be three medial lines commensurable in square, such that one of them (Afia
duhd)". The following Ma'a may have caused the intrusion of the and the A (W. p. 21, 1. 21). between the
167
is Majmu'almurabba'i, i. e., the sum of the square But the reference is to [areas] that is produced by the two of them. prop. 39 of Book X, and the phrase is best rendered into English by
The Arabic
"The sum of the squares onthem." Cf note 190 for this and "synonymous"
.
168 IBS
SUTEB thinks that Pappus applied this extension wrongly to irrationals which he had not discussed. But this is only a question of method of treatment (W. p. 21, 1. 21). Cf. Book X, props. 40 and 41.
Arabic phrases.
a ) "Namely, the
gloss.
first
bimedial
is
The paragraph
See prop. 37, Book X (W. p. 22, 11. 10 11). The previous sentence presupposes something impossible. Three 4 4
__
If now each with either of the remaining two form a rational the r, rectangle, product of the first two is rational, viz. \/a b r 3 The three multiplied together Likewise *\/a cm == r 2 \/b cm give ab cm \/m = r, r 2 r 3 That is, a square root is equal to a rational
\/c \/m.
m=
170
number, which is nonsense. G. J. That is, binomials, bimedials etc. On the mathematical implications
of the paragraph see WOEPCKE'S Essai, notes to pp. 37 42; T. L. Heath's "The Thirteen Books of Euclid's Elements" (1908), Vol. Ill,
pp.
171
Cf.
JungeThomson.
114
172
Q r> "Which
173
is to be cut off", taking the participle in its gerundial clause in a general sense. the sense and cf. T. L. Heath's "The Thirteen Books of Euclid's "Annex" the a) On
Elements" (1908), Vol. Ill, p. 159. The Greek is $ rcpooap(jt6^ou<ra. The Arabic (AlLijqu) means To join and sew together the two oblong
pieces of cloth of a garment,
i.
e.
b)
Annex
or
TJ
7cpooap[ji6ouaa
Subtrahendus.
lines.
Euclid's
apotome, a
b, is
If
trahendus, b, something be subtracted, c, a new apotome arises, The difficulty mentioned by WOEPCKE (Essai p. 43 a c). (b
=
174
175
700)
is,
is
thus resolved. G. J.
the annex of the apotome last arrived at. That is, not only apo tomes but also first and second apotomes of a medial, minors etc. can be produced by the same method of subtraction.
That
176
177
Compound lines are those formed by addition. SUTER adds logically enough in his translation, "And
irrationals".
178
Jumlatun means a part or a chapter of a book (See Dozy, Supplement, Vol. 1, p. 219, col. 1), not a Class in this case, as SUTER translates it
(W.
p. 23,
1.
10).
1 79
180
181
182
Book X, prop. 1. Book X, prop. 2. Cf. Book X, props. 3 9; cf. also props. 11 & 14. 9, esp. 5 Cf Book X, prop. 10, and Definitions 1 & 2. That is, the incommensur.
upon
based upon their lineal measurements only or and square measurements. SUTER translates, "In square only", taking "Inlength" (Flltuli) in the second case to be an
ability of lines
may be
their lineal
(W.
183
p. 23,
1.
14).
Cf. props.
15
18.
The "Them"
and incom
184
mensurable continuous quantities. Prop. 16 of our Euclid is manifestly referred to in the previous
clause;
cf.
Cf. J. L.
Vol. V, p. 484,
185
810.
StSaoxei
HEIBERG, Euclidis
1.
13),
and
Ssixvticov
(Ibid,
p. 547, p. 23,
1.
24).
"To
Discuss" has
186
17).
props. 19 26. Prop. 21 is referred to in the phrase, "The production of it" or "The finding of it" The Annaha after the third Dhakara of
this
paragraph
may
be an interpolation.
115
corresponding to
esp.
is?
1.
it (J.
L.HEIBERG,
1.
Ibid., p. 484,
11.
11
14)
(W.
p. 23,
18).
.
p rop.
10 of our Euclid.
Cf the
lemma to prop.
18,
190
Prop. 21. Props. 27 & 28 respectively. For the first clause cf. J. L. HEIBERG, Euclidis Elementa, Vol. V, p. 501, no. 189 (cf. p. 503, 11, 34). The reference is to prop. 33. The Greek is T& piv ouyxeC^evov ix
T<OV doc
1
&UT&V TSTpaycovcov.
For
MajmiSulMurabbcfilkcfini minhumd (para. 22); AlMurabba ulladhi minhuma ma'an (para. 26, twice); AlMurabba u (Same paragraph, a line later, but manifestly depending for
its
sense on the
previous phrase; AlMurabba'ulmurakkabu min murabbtfaihima (para. 27); AlMurabbcfulladhi min murabbcfaihima (para. 27);
AlMurabba'ulladhi minhumd, (para. 27) This last phrase is shown by its context to be identical in moaning with the two previous phrases
all
1.
35 respectively.
(/8
SUTER
\/W2 and
4y/ 2).
"V/^
^^ n
are incommensurable
in square; the
sum
product
medial (\/32
1W
193
194
195
Book X,
That That That
props. 3641. the is, binomial, prop. 36. is, the first and second bimedials, props. 37 and 38. is, the major, the side of a rational plus a medial area, and the
side of the
areas.
Cf.
These two
lines are
not qualified
is
The reference
to
WOEPCKE'S conjecture
is,
therefore, correct.
We must
read "Incommensurable in square" and not "Commensurable in length". The error is probably a copyist's mistake. The phrase,
"Commensurable in length" occurs in the MS. directly above on the previous line and again two lines before at the end of the line (W. p. 24,
11.
1920).
196
"And two straight lines, is, in the previous paragraph, 26: neither medial nor rational, but incommensurable in square, which make the sum of the squares upon them rational, but the rectangle
That
contained by
them medial
etc.".
116
197
And,
of
as follows:
The two last clauses might be translated "Two because of the two medials etc. and one because the two rationals etc.". But the preposition, Min, can hardly
therefore, irrational.
;
this note, as in
convey both the sense given it in the translation and that given it in SUTEB'S translation, even if, ultimately, such is the
198
199
meaning to be attached to the text (W. p. 24, 11. 21 22). Book X, props. 3638 & 3941 respectively. The phrase, Fi kulli wahidi min hadhihi (in the case of each one of these), translated above: "In the case of the three latter propositions", refers evidently to props. 39 41, in which these irrationals are formed from lines incommensurable in square (W. p. 25, 1. 3).
200
a)
The text
medial".
is
incorrect.
It should run:
"The whole
line
would be
Proof:
x2
f
\/a,
i.
i.
e.,
the
sum
of the squares
is
is
medial.
xy
'Y/a,
e.,
the rectangle
with \/a.
xz
+ 2xy +
f
2
2/
= V<M* +
.
2w
>
The whole
line
# x
y y
f
2n
2n
= =
medial. medial.
"
2nd
bimedial.
= 'Va~
(y/l j2rT
yT^~2nj
= 2nd apo
tome of a medial; x and y are not commensurable in length. G. J. b) This is undoubtedly, however, the text of the MS., and there is no The only question is just reason for supposing a scribal error.
whether the error
author.
201
is
one of translation or a
slip of
the original
202
Book X, props. 4247. The Arabic word, Ma a, usually meaning "With" "Along with" probably
f
(jierdc
1.
15).
Book X,
Props. 48
prop. 48.
53.
Cf. for these
two sentences
J. L.
HEIBERG, Ewdidis
phrase, Wa huwa Elementa, Vol. V, p. 534, no. 290. a the Greek sittati 5 X&>S 8ia7coixiXXo(j(,svY)v anhd'in, gives mn^arrafun <afo
The Arabic
(W.
205
p. 25,
1.
16).
it
The
Hu
(it)
(it)
(these)) refers
back to the
Hu
in
which
refers
back to Amrun,
117
which is the finding of the six binomials. In the next clause Alladhi and 'alaihi (by means of which) also refer back ultimately to Amrun.
206
Humlsta'addahuby "These" for the sake of clarity (W. p. 25, 11. 1617). That is, that the squares upon these six irrationals formed by addition are equal to the rectangle contained by a rational line and one of the
six binomials respectively.
207
Book X,
For
p.
5659.
J. L.
208
this
paragraph
cf.
209
210
Book X, props. 6670. Book X, props. 60 65. SITTER has not grasped the meaning of the text. The Greek runs J. L. HEIBERG, etc., p. 547, 1. 23 p. 548, 1. 5
(
and
11.
5):
TI Ta<;
8u valets
dcuTo>v Trapa
r)Ta<;
TP<XV
The Arabic does not say that these proto As a matter of fact they form the first seven. positions belong part mentioned in group part eight. Did propositions 60 65 come after
propositions 66
211
70 in Euclid
65.
72.
Cf.
(W.
p. 26,
11.
7).
212
'inda ba'din, given in the MS., without comment. It is true that this phrase is riot necessary in the Arabic for the sense of the clause. But
it
gives
the Greek:
,
fjv
g/ouatv
oti
XOCTOC
auv&eaiv
dcXoyot
7cp6<;
represented, therefore, in the Arabic not only by the status constructus, but also by this clause. For the paragraph in
dXX7)Xa<;
is
which
the Greek
21 3
cf.
J. L.
HEIBERG,
23 (W. p. 26,
1.
11,
Book X,
.
214
props. 7378. Cf Part II of the translation, para. 12, towards the end
Cf. also
is
13, 14,
WOEPCKE'S conjecture
unnecessary.
The meaning
216
phrase, FllTarkibi, is quite clear (W. p. 26, 1. 20, note 5). I think that it would be better to adopt the marginal reading, Fl 9
in full as
above (W.
p. 26,
1.
84. On annex cf. note 173 above. For the paraprops. 79 in the Greek cf. J. L. HEIBERG, Eudidis Elementa, Vol. V, graph no. 359. p. 553,
Book X,
218
Book X,
singular,
props. 85
90.
p. 27,
1).
118
219
220
221
props. props.
9196.
103107.
102. That is, the squares on the various irraprops. 97 tionals applied to a rational line give as breadths the various apo tomes.
222
228
224
22*
prop. 115.
226
"Abandoning irrationality, on the ground that it proceeds Cf. paragraph 4, above, (end): "Wa tarakalNazara " bila nihayatin' ild ma Id Tamurru \ fil$ummi likhurujiha nihayata?
Literally,
without end".
'
is a circumstantial clause (a mafulun liajlihi) giving the reason for 114 the relinquishing of the investigation. Observe that props. 112 are not referred to at all. But cf. note 4 above (W. p. 27, 1. 18).
PART
Book
treatise
1.
II
of Euclid's Ms. 31 v.
II of the
on the elements 1
following is, in short, what should be known con Page of the irrationals. In the first place the classification cerning Euclid explains to us the ordered [irrationals], which are homo
The
29.
Some
whereas others are ordered, in some degree comprehensible, and related to the former (i. e., the unordered) as the rationals are to themselves (i. 6., the ordered). Euclid concerned himself solely
with the ordered
rationals
[irrationals], which are homogeneous with the and do not deviate much [in nature] from these. Apollonius, on the other hand, applied himself to the unordered, which differ from the rationals considerably.
In the second place it should be known that the irrationals are found in three ways, either by proportion, or addition, or division (i. e., subtraction 3 ), and that they are not found in any
2.
other way, the unordered being derived from the ordered in these [three] ways only. Euclid found only one irrational line Page
30.
six
by
addition,
and
six
all
the irrationals
with respect to the areas to which the squares upon them are equal, and observe every distinction between them with respect
to these [areas],
and investigate
upon each one of them are [respectively] equal, when these 5 [areas] are "parts" (or "terms") and to which the squares upon
,
120
them
when
"
wholes" 6
In this
way we
upon the medial [line] is equal to a rectangle contained by two rational lines commensurable in square, and each of the others we treat in like manner. Accordfind that the square
ingly he
(i.
e.,
Euclid)
squares [upon them to a rational line] in the case them and finds the breadths of these areas 7
.
one of
Whereupon,
zealous to
make
by addit
For when he adds together a rational and a medial area, ion four irrational lines arise and when he adds together two medial
;
arise.
These
lines, therefore,
are
also
named compound
lines
named apotomes
is
equal
10
;
equal to the area (or rectangle) contained upon rational lines commensurable in square [only] 11
it is
.
by two
4.
facts,
we should
Page 31
ke rational, then they are either commensurable in length or commensurable in square only, but that if they be both irrational,
then they are either commensurable in length
another), or commensurable in square only another), or incommensurable in length
(i. (i.
e., e.,
that
one be rational and the other irrational, then they are both necessarily incommensurable. If the two rational lines
if
containing the given rectangle are commensurable in length, the rectangle is rational, as the Geometer (i. e., Euclid) proves,
viz.:
rational lines
com
mensurable in length
rational"
13
;
if
is
irrational
is
and
is
called medial,
and the
line
equal to
it, is
medial, a
"The proposition which the Geometer also proves, viz: two rational lines commensurable in rectangle contained by
square only
equal
is irrational,
and the
be
line the
[called]
commensurable in length
is
rectangle
necessarily irrational, as he
which method of
proof applies to
all irrationals.
But
if
mensurable in square only (i. e., with oneanother), the rectangle can be rational or irrational; for he shows that the rectangle
contained by two medial lines commensurable in square [only]
is
And,
e.,
finally, if the
two
lines
(i.
in length
is
he finds two straight lines incommensurable in square con17 and he finds likewise two others taining a rational [rectangle]
;
(i.
e.,
in each
is
what
is
meant by
.
incommensurable in length also 19 Thus he finds by geometric proportion that the medial
a square equal to a medial rectangle, equal to that contained by two rational lines
it
line
That
is
by
formed by addition21 are explained by means of the addition of the areas to which the squares upon them are equal, which areas can be rational or
The
medial22
For
just as
we
by means
of the
rationals alone, so
we find the
formed by
122
addition,
by means
of the
two former,
i.
e.,
23 medials, since the irrationals that are nearer [in nature] to the
know
24 Thus the ledge of those that are [in nature] more remote lines that are formed by subtraction, are also found only by
formed by addition 25 but we will The lines that are formed by addition, discuss these later. are found however, by taking two straight lines. Two straight
means
lines
must be
either
incommensurable in square and length 26 If they are commensurable in length, they cannot be employed to find any of the remaining irrationals 2 For the whole line that
in square only, or
.
is
composed
of
two
lines
kind
If,
two
lines
sum
is
also rational;
and
if
medial.
continuous quantities are added together, their sum is commensurable with each of them; and that which is commensurable
is
commensurable
7.
The two
lines, therefore,
be necessarily either commensurable in square only, or incommensurable in square and length. In the first place let them be commensurable in square and to begin with let us imagine the
:
possible cases
is
rational
and point out that either the sum of their squares and the rectangle contained by them medial, or both
30
sum
of their squares is
medial
and the rectangle contained by them rational, or both of these are rational. But if both of them be rational, the whole line is rational31 Let them both (i. e., the sum of the squares and the
.
Page
33.
rectangle) be rational,
us apply to the rational line AB the rectangle AC equal to the square upon the whole line LN and let us cut off from it (AC) the rectangle AF equal to the
and
let
sum
of the squares
upon
LM
and MN,
123
Fig.
1.
rectangle
PD
is
LM
and MN.
rational line
AB
rectangles applied to the are rational, therefore both the lines, and
ED,
fore,
are rational
line
AC
rational.
LN LN
i.
is,
is
We
must
not, therefore,
e.,
the
sum
of the squares
sum
converse of
If the
sum
it
of
is
For
it
when a line is divided into two unequal parts, twice the rectangle contained by the two unequal parts is less than the sum of the 33 squares upon them Conversely, i. e., if the rectangle contained
.
lines
which are commensurable in square only, of their squares medial, the whole line
the square upon
it
being
124
equal to a rational plus a medial area, where the medial is greater than the rational 34 If, however, to state the remaining case, both of them, i. e., the sum of their squares and the rectangle
.
Page
34.
contained by them, are medial, the whole line is irrational, namely, the second bimedial, the square upon it being equal to two medial areas, these two medial [areas] being, let me add,
If they be not so, incommensurable [with oneanother] 35 let them be commensurable [with oneanother]. Then the sum
.
36 upon LM and MN is commensurable with the rectangle contained by LM and MN. But the sum of the squares upon LM and MN is commensurable with the square upon LM, the square upon LM being commensurable with the square upon MN, since the two lines, LM and MN, were assumed to be commensurable in square, and when two commensurable lines are added together, their sum is commensurable with each of them 37 The square upon LM, therefore, is commensurable with the rectangle contained by LM and MN. But the ratio of the square upon LM to the rectangle contained by LM and MN is that of the line LM to the line MN. The line LM, therefore, is commensurable with the line MN in length. But this was not granted the hypothesis): they were commensurable in square (i. e., in 38 The sum of the squares, therefore, upon LM and MN is only
of the squares
by
these lines.
produced when the two given lines are commensurable in square. 8. Three other [lines] are produced when they (i. e., the two be given lines) are incommensurable in square. Let LM and
MN
incommensurable in square.
Then
sum
of their
squares and the rectangle contained by them are rational; or these are both medial; or one of them is rational and the other
medial, which gives
lines
two
two
commensurable in square But if both the sum of the and the rectangle contained by them squares upon LM and MN
line
[LN]
is
rational40
125
B
Fig.
2.
line [AB],
and
let there
be applied to
it
to the square
let there
be cut
off
from this
rect
angle [AC] the rectangle AF equal to the sum of the squares upon LM and MN, so that the remaining [rectangle] FD is equal to
PD
twice the rectangle contained by and MN. AF, then, and are rational and have been applied to the rational line AB.
LM
Both
of them, therefore, produce a breadth rational and commensurable with the line AB. Therefore AE and ED are
and
AD
is
commensurable
35.
and commensurable p age is, in length with the line AB. But the rectangle contained by two rational lines commensurable in length is rational41 Therefore
therefore, rational
.
the rectangle
rational.
AC
is rational.
Therefore
LN
is
Therefore the square upon LN is rational; since the line the square
is
upon which is equal to a rational (i. e., is rational), Since, therefore, we desire to prove that the whole
is irrational,
rational.
Ms. 33
r.
line (i.e.,
(i.
of the areas
e.,
the
LN) sum
of the squares
and the rectangle LMMN) to that both of them are medial, or that one
and the other medial, which latter instance For either the rational [area] or the alternatives.
rational
if
they were equal [to oneanother], they would be commensurable with oneanother, and the rational would be a medial and the medial a rational. If the sum of the
is
medial
126
and be rational, but the rectangle consquares upon tained by LM and medial, let [the whole line] LN be [called]
LM
MN
MN
the major, since the rational [area] is the greater42 Conversely, if the sum of the squares upon LM and be medial, but the LM contained and rational, let LN be [called] by rectangle
.
MN
MN
the side of a square equal to a rational plus a medial area43 since its name must be derived from both the areas, from the rational,
,
namely, because it is the more excellent in nature, and from the medial, because it is in this case the greater. If, however, both
the areas are medial, let the whole line
side of
(i.
e.,
LN) be
[called]
the
a square equal
45
.
to
also
commensurable
9.
We
are formed
of lines in
by addition, as [resulting from] the adding together two ways46 but rather as [the result of] the adding
,
.
together in two ways of the areas to which the squares upon these Euclid lines (i. e., The six irrationals by addition), are equal47
makes
48
,
where he
proves that if a rational and a medial area be added together, four irrational lines arise, and that if two medial areas be added
together, the
[lines] arise.
It
is
obvious, then, in
lines are
since
it is
impossible that
Page
36.
they should be commensurable in length. Enquiry must be made, however, into the reason why when describing the [lines] commensurable in square, he (i. e., Euclid) also mentions their kind (or order), saying, namely,
rationals
[in
the enunciation],
,
"Two
commensurable in square or two medials"49 whereas when positing (or describing) the incommensurable in square, he
does not
He ought,
[as
a matter
has in the
example:
"When
127
two
straight lines
commensurable
in square [only]
which make
the sum of the squares upon them medial, but the rectangle contained by them rational51 be added together, the whole line is irrational let it be called the first bimedial' and in like manner
,
'
[should have been stated the proposition dealing] with the second bimedial. For this is the form of enunciation which he gives in
the case of the [lines which are] incommensurable in square, naming them neither medial nor rational, but making such an
i.
e.,
the
sum
of the
and the rectangle contained by them, squares upon positing either that both are medial, or that one is rational and
the other medial, with either the rational or the medial the
point out, then, that I consider Euclid to lines are commensurable in square, the square upon each of the lines is rational, if the sum of the squares upon them is rational, and medial, if the sum of the squares upon
greater
.
52
Let
me
them
is
square, the square upon each of them is not rational, sum of the squares upon them is rational, nor medial,
sum
of the squares
upon them
is
medial.
,
posits [lines]
commensurable
in square53 he
upon which are equal to a and lines the squares upon which are
when he
posits [lines]
is
no
naming
them
upon each
tional,
one of which are equal to a rational area, should be named ranot those the sum of the squares upon which is rational, but the squares upon which are not [each] rational. For a
rational area
He names
not necessarily divided into two rational areas. medial also those lines the squares upon which are each
is
*
equal to a medial area, not those the sum of the squares upon which Page 37. ^8 33 v< is medial, but the squares upon which are not [each] medial. For
a medial area
is
128
10.
Such was
his
(i.
e.,
55
Euclid's) idea.
two
lines
are rational
commensurable
in square
of the squares
rational or medial,
and that
not hold concerning them, when they are incommensurable in Let the two lines, LM and MN, be commensurable square.
in square,
and
let
the
sum
of the squares
LM
is
line
MN
in square, there
MN.
sum
Therefore the
sum
of the squares
of
them
is
But the
Therefore
lines,
of
them
rational.
is
rational.
Therefore the
in square.
LM and MN,
now, the
these
are rational
and commensurable
be medial.
Let,
sum
of the squares
two
For since
LM
and
MN
are com
mensurable in square, therefore the squares upon them are commensurable. Therefore the sum of the squares upon them is
commensurable with
the
[the square
But
sum
LM and MN are medial. Therefore they e., the two lines, LM and MN) are also medial. For that which is commensurable
with a rational,
is rational,
is
commensurable
is
with a medial,
is
rational,
is
which
is
medial.
upon
they
LM
(i. e.,
and
if
MN
the
sum
e.,
the line
is
LN)
is
medial; and
sum
upon them
medial, then
the lines,
LM and MN)
56
.
LM and MN
however, be
lines,
incommensurable in square. I maintain, then, that they are not rational, when the sum of the squares upon them is rational,
nor medial, when
it
(i.
e.,
the
sum
129
Assume
this to
rational line
38.
MN. Then
LM
incommensurable with the square upon MN, since these are incommensurable in square, it is obvious that AF is incomis
L
\
M
*
M
i
J)
B
Fig. 3.
mensurable with EC. The line AE, therefore, is incommensurable with the line ED in length. But because the squares upon LM
are rational, therefore the rectangles, AF and EC, are rational; and they have been applied to the rational line AB;
and
MN
AE and ED,
are rational
and commensurable
But
AF is incommensurable
with the rectangle EC, therefore the lineAE is incommensurable with the line ED in length. The line AD, therefore, is a binomial
and,
therefore,
irrational57
.
But the
rectangle
AC
is
sum
is
of the squares
upon
LM and
MN, which
line
is
rational;
and
it
line
AD
therefore,
and
9
sum
of the
squares upon
are incommensurable
130
in square, be medial.
let
LM and MN AB be rational,
maintain, then, that the squares upon are not medial. Assume this to be possible, and
1
but
let
(i.e.,
AF
?
and
EC) be
Ma. 34
r.
medial
The
lines,
AE
and ED,
,
are, then,
both rational and commensurable in square only 60 fore, is a binomial and, therefore, irrational. But
rational, since the
AD
there[also]
it is
sum
and
it
has been
rational breadth
(i.
upon LM and MN is medial, applied to the rational line AB producing a The squares upon LM and MN are, e., AD).
of the squares
It has
incommensurable in square are not also rational or medial, when the sum of the squares upon them is rational or medial 61
.
shown
this
(i.
e.,
is
commensurable
incommensurable
name the
03
.
latter
in square simply
Page 3d begin with, only lines commensurable in square and lines in
commensurable
by adding rational areas with medial areas, or by adding together medial areas which are incommensurable with oneanother 65
,
these
two kinds
produced by rational
area, are rational,
surable) in
they are either so (and therefore also commenlength, in which case the area contained by them is
square, in
other] of these
by means of the fact that rational lines Let this description which two [kinds of] areas.
of the irrationals that are
we have given
formed by addition,
suffice, since
their order
e.,
commen.
in square) 67
find the six [irrationals] that are formed by subtraction, by means of those that are formed by addition. For if
We
we
we have
dis
cussed
and
(i.
e.,
composed, as a w hole line and the other as a part of the remainder which is left over from it (i. e., the then that, remainder left after taking the term treated as a part from that
which
it is
line) constitutes
one of these
of
it
six irra
When
When
and a part
produce
[by
subtraction]
the
apotome
they produce [by addition] the first bimedial, [by subtraction] the first apotome of a medial arises. When they produce [by addition] the second bimedial, [by subtraction] the
arises.
When
j
they produce [by addition] the side of a square equal to a rational plus a medial area, [by subtraction] that (the line) which proarises. When they of a the side produce [by addition] square equal to two medial areas, [by subtraction] that which produces with a medial area
medial whole
arises.
Thus
it is
tionals] are produced from the former six, that they are their
likes (or contraries) 7 *
;
formed
homogeneous with those that are formed by with the binomial, the ^ addition, the apotome being homogeneous & Page first apotome of a medial with the [first] bimedial [the two terms
by subtraction, are
1
40.
of which,
two medial
straight lines
commensurable
in square of a
apotome
medial with the [second bimedial [the two terms of which etc.,] contain a medial rectangle, the others being the likes (or
contraries) of oneanother in like manner.
13.
formed by
subtraction,
afjotomes, only because of the subtraction of a from the whole [line], need no more be supposed
[irrationals]
On
the contrary
only with respect to the areas to which, when added together, the squares upon them (L e., the six irrationals formed by addition) are equal.
 Let the
A
i
line
Fig.
we name them [HO] only with respect to the and subtracted from, just as we named
AB
>
line]
B
i
........................ .........
4.
BO
a binomial
73
.
Now
AB
and
BO
are equal
AB
and
BO
rational,
(i.
e.,
twice
ABBO) from
a
is
AB 2 + B0 2
),
(i.
AO 2
),
is
by
adding together a medial and a rational [area], where the rational is the greater, so if a medial [area] be subtracted from a rational,
the line the square upon which is equal to the remaining [area], is the apotome. We designate the binomial, therefore, by addition, (or The line formed by addition) and the apotome by
by subtraction), because in the former case we add together a medial [area], which is the less, and a rational, which is the greater, whereas in the latter case we
tfuhtroGtian, (or
The
line formed
subtract the very same medial [area] from the very same rational;
and because
is
in the
line the
square
upon which
the
sum
of the
two
areas),
line the
?
square upon
which
equal to the remaining [area] (i. e. after subtraction of the media] from the rational). The apotome and the binomial
are, therefore,
other 77
homogeneous, the one being the contrary of the Again if the two lines, AB and BC, are commensurable
of the squares
in square,
upon them
,
is
rectangle contained
by them
rational 78
the
medial
(i.
[area]
2
)
e.,

is
e.,
twice
Con
e.,
twice
ABBC) from
is
a medial
(i.
e.,
AB 2 + BC 2
AC)
79
.
),
41.
e.,
AC 2
),
is
the
first
apotome
of a
medial
(i.
e.,
Consequently
bimedial by adding a, medial [area] with a rational, granted that the rational is the less and the medial the greater, so, we maintain, the first apotome of a medial
just as
first
is
we produce the
is
Again
if AB and BC produce, [when added together], the second bimedial 80 so that the sum of the squares upon them is medial
,

81 and the sum of the [and also the rectangle contained by them AB is than twice the rectangle and BC squares upon greater
,
contained by them, by the square upon the line AC 82 subtracting, then, a medial [areaj (i. e., twice ABBC) from a medial
,
(i.
e,,
AB + BC
2
2
),
where the
medial and
subtracted area
83
are
commensurable
2 square upon which is equal to the remaining [area (i. e., AC ), 84 is the second apotome of a medial For just as the line the
.
is
was named
is
equal to these two medial areas when added the second bimedial, so the line the square
upon which
of the less
equal to the area which remains after subtraction of the two medial [areas] from the greater, is called the
second apotome of a medial. Again when the two lines, AB and BC, are incommensurable in square, the sum of the squares
134
upon them
by them medial,
twice
e.,
ABBC)
(i.
e.,
AB + BC 2
2
it (i. e. ?
the line
(i.
.
AC)
is
e.,
85 For the square upon the latter is equal major to the [sum of the] two areas, whereas the square upon the former is equal to the area that remains after subtraction (i. e. of the
two
MB.
3f>
r."
he names the major. Again if the sum of the squares upon AB 86 be but the andBC medial, rectangle contained by them rational and twice the rational area (i. e., twice ABBC) be subtracted
,
from the medial, which is the sum of the squares upon them 2 + BC 2 ), then the line the square upon which is equal (i. e., AB
to the area that remains after subtraction,
is
is
the line
AC; and
it
named
Page
42.
obvious that the square upon it plus twice the rectangle contained by the two lines, AB and BC, which is 87 rational, is equal to the sum of the squares upon AB and BC
whole, since
.
Again
if
AB
in
square, the sum of the squares upon them and the rectangle contained by them medial but incommensurable with one
by
them
the
(i.
e. ?
twice
AB*BC) from
is
sum
of the squares
upon them
e.,
AB
fBC
2
),
(i.
AC 12 ),
is
AC; and it is named the line which produces with a medial [area] a medial whole, since the square upon it and twice the rectangle contained by AB and BC are together equal to the sum of the squares upon AB and BC, which is medial 88
.
14.
If,
80
[re
to the
sum
of
135
two such
addition.
rational
of this
But
if
from medial, or medial from medial, it is obvious that we have the irrational lines that are formed by subtraction. In
we do not subtract a
rational from a
rational,
would be
For
that the line the square upon which is is rational. If, then, the line the square upon which is equal to the area that remains after subtraction, is to be irrational,
it
from
a
it is
from
Three
possibilities remain,
from
a rational, or a medial
we produce,
the two squares upon which are equal to the two remaining areas, For if the two lines containing the medial area are commensurable in square, the apotome arises; but if they are
are irrational.
incommensurable
other [irrational]
in square,
And when we
two
we
likewise produce
the two lines containing the are rational and subtracted area commensurable in square, the
if
For
first
apotome
of a medial arises;
in square, that
whole, arises.
a
but if they are incommensurable which produces with a rational area a medial Page And, finally, when we subtract a medial area from
43.
medial,
if
which
area are commensiirable in square, the line [the square upon is equal to] the remaining [area] is [the second apotome of
if they are incommensurable in square], that which a medial area a medial whole, [arises] 93 with For, in produces the case of addition, when we joined medial areas with rational,
a medial; but
the
areas,
he commen.
To sum up.
[Firstly],
when
a medial area
is
is
added to a
is
35
v.
upon which
it,
binomial
when
it is
subtracted from
which
it
is
(i. e.,
square medial, the line the square upon which is equal to the sum, is a first bimedial when it is subtracted from a medial, the line the
;
in
is an apotome, granted that contained by two lines commensurable [Secondly,] when a rational area, is added to a
square upon which is equal to the remaining area, is a first apotome of a medial, granted that it (i. e., the rational area) is
contained by two lines commensurable in square 97 [Thirdly], when a medial area is added to a medial, the line the square upon which is equal to the sum, is a second bimedial; when it is
.
subtracted from a medial, the line the square upon which is equal to the remaining area, is a second apotome of a medial,
granted that
it
(i.
e.,
when a medial
upon which
is
area
is
added to a
equal to the sum, is a major; when from a rational, the line the square upon which
is
subtracted
equal to the
a minor, granted that it (i. e., the medial area) remaining area, is contained by two lines incommensurable in square which make
the
sum
is
of the squares
is
upon them
is
rational".
[Fiftly,]
when a
rational area
Page
44.
line the square upon the side of a square equal to a rational phis a medial area; when it is subtracted from a medial, the line the square upon which is equal to the remaining area, is
which
the line which produces with a rational area a medial whole, granted that it (i. e., the rational area) is contained by two lines
incommensurable
in square
137
100 upon them medial
[Sixthly,]
is
added
is
upon which is equal to the sum, the side of a square equal to two medial areas; when a medial subtracted from a medial, the line the square upon which is
equal to the remaining area, is the line which produces with a medial area a medial whole, granted that the lens area itself is contained by two lines incommensurable in square, the sum of
the squares upon which
101 The areas equal to the greater be taken, therefore, in three ways, either a medial is joined
is
may
with a rational, or a rational with a medial, or a medial with a medial. A rational is never joined with a rational, as has already
The
may
be of two
kinds: either commensurable in square or incommensurable in square. That they should be commensurable in length is im~
possible.
The
The
areas
may
from oneanother.
10.
(i.
e.,
those*
formed by
They
oneanother:
areas (i

firstly,
e.,
example, we sometimes add a medial to a rational, and sometimes we subtract a medial from a rational 103 secondly, with
,
respect to the lines containing the less areas, the squares upon which are equal to the greater, since these are sometimes com
mensurable
square
104
;
square and sometimes incommensurable in and thirdly, with respect to the areas taking the place
in
since, for
example, we sometimes subtract a rational from a medial and sometimes a medial from a rational,
of oneanother,
and sometimes a
rational
and
less area is
is
added
to a medial
105
.
and
less
area
added to a rational
The
that are formed by addition are respectively the contraries of those that are formed by siib traction so far as
e.,
whether
138
With
reference to the lines which contain the less areas, the first
by addition and
of those
formed by
And
Page
45.
with respect to the areas taking the place of oneanother, are the contraries of oneanother taken in
threes 106
manner
17.
in
Such, according to the judgment of Euclid, is the which the irrationals are classified and ordered.
of irrationals), declare
Those who have written concerning these things (L e,, that the Athenian, Theaetetus, assumed
two
lines
commensurable
in square
if
he took
between them a
line in ratio
(the geometric mean), then the line named the tactUal was produced, but that if he took [the line] according to harmonic
proportion (the harmonic mean), then the apotome was produced 107 We accept these propositions, since Theaetetus
.
we add
[in
question]
[and only
is]
the
mean
(or
square
is
mean one
proportion produce
all
Fig.
5.
and there
when two lines are rational and commensurable is taken between them a line proportional
e.,
to
is
named
39
will
now show
Take two
straight lines,
A and B, and let C be the arithmetical mean between them. The lines, A and B, when added together, are, then, twice the line 0,
since this
If, is
then, the
two
lines,
A and B,
is
are rational
a binomial.
For,
But when added together, they produce a then, the line C is their half [and so commen,
(i.
e.,
0)
is
also a bino
But
if
the two
lines,
mensurable in square and contain a rational rectangle, their sum (A + B), which is the double of the line C is a first bimedial.
The
is
extremes
however, they (A and B) are Page medial and commensurable in square and contain a medial
B).
If,
and
rectangle, their
sum (A
B)
is
a second bimedial.
since
It
is
also
line 0,
C
If,
is
its half.
Therefore
in square,
the squares upon them is rational, but the rectangle contained by them irrational (i. e., medial), the line (> is a major. For the sum of the two lines, A and B, is a major; it is also the double
of the line C; therefore the line
('
is
a major.
But
if,
con
versely, the
two
lines,
in square,
of the squares
upon them
is
contained by them rational, the line C is the side of a square equal to a rational plus a medial area. For it is commensurable
with the
sum
of the
two
lines,
A and B and
;
their
sum
is
the side
If,
however,
the two
the
lines,
A and
and both
sum of the squares upon them and the rectangle contained is the side of a are medial, the line them square equal to by two medial areas. For the sum of the two lines, A and B, is the
~~
140 i ^t:V/
the side of a square equal to two medial areas. is the side of a square equal to two medial Therefore the line
double of C and
IB
Ms. 36
v.
areas.
The
all
line C, therefore,
when
it is
produces
18,
be stated as follows.
Jim
there he taken a
mean
(or medial)
between two
lines rational
and commensurable
(L
e.,
in square
according to arithmetical
is
proportion a binomial.
the arithmetical
(2). Jf there
be taken the
mean
112
between two
lines medial,
and commensur
first
bimediaL
(3) Jf
mean
1
,
between two
lines medial,
and commensurable
is
in square
and
second bimedial.
If there
straight lines
incommensurable
is
sum
of the squares
upon which
Page
47.
rational,
medial, the given line is irrational and is named the major. (5) If there be taken the arithmetical mean between two straight
incommensurable in square, the sum of the squares upon which is medial, but the rectangle contained by them rational,
lines
is
the side of a square equal to a rational plus (6) If there be taken the arithmetical mean
between two straight lines incommensurable in square, the sum of the squares upon which is medial and also the rectangle contained by them, the given line is the side of a square equal to tAvo
all
of
them 113
is
that since
mean and
(i.
e.,
the
means
114
)
are
[or
another] of
these irrationals.
19.
We must now
formed by subtraction, are produced by the harmonic mean. But first let us state that the special characteristic of harmonic
141
proportion is that the rectangles contained by each of the extremes in conjunction respectively with the mean, are together
1 and, equal to twice the rectangle contained by the extremes in addition, that if one of the two straight lines containing a
,
anyone
by
one
of the [irra
that are formed by subtraction, the contrary, tional] 110 For example, if one of the two lines namely, of the first containing the rectangle be a binomial, the other is an apotome;
.
if it
if it
be a
first
is
first
is
apotome
if it
of a
medial
be
a second apotome of a
medial;
if it
minor;
be the side of
a square equal to a rational plus a medial area, the other is that the line) which produces with a rational area a medial (i. e.,
whole and
;
the other
whole.
be the side of a square equal to two medial areas, that which produces with a medial area a medial 117 let us Assuming these propositions for the present
if it
is
A
between them.
B
Fig
0.
Then
it
AB
and commensurable
is
is
in square
48.
medial. But twice the rectangle contained by them is equal to the rectangle contained by the two lines, AB, BD, plus the rectangle contained by the two lines, BC, BD. Therefore the sum
of the rectangles contained respectively
is
by
ABBD
and
BCBD
also medial.
of the rectangles
contained re
_
spectively
142
MR. 37
r.
BCBD is equal to the rectangle contained by the whole line AC and the line BD. Therefore the rectangle contained by the two lines, AC and BD, is medial. But it is contained by two straight lines, one of which, AC namely,
by
ABBD
and
is
a binomial.
AB
BD
square, and contain a rational rectangle, and we proceed exactly as before, then the rectangle contained by the two lines, AC and
BD,
two
is
rational.
But the
line
AC
is
first
bimedial.
Therefore
the line
lines,
BD is a first apotome of a medial. If, however, the AB and BO, are medial, and commensurable in square, BD
and contain a medial rectangle, then, for exactly the same reasons, the rectangle contained by AC and BD is medial. But
the line
AC
is
a second bimedial.
If,
is
AB
on the other hand, the two and BC, are incommensurable in square, and the sum
upon them is rational, but the rectangle contained them medial, then twice the rectangle contained by them is by medial, and, therefore, the rectangle contained by AC and BD is medial. But the line AC is a major. Therefore the line BD is a minor. But if the two lines, AB and BC, are incommensurable in square, and the sum of the squares upon them is medial, but the rectangle contained by them rational, then the rectangle contained by the two lines, AC and BD, is rational. But
of the squares
the line
AC
is
medial area.
the side of a square equal to a rational plus a Therefore the line BD is that (i. e., the line)
which produces with a rational area a medial whole. If, however, the two lines, AB and BC, are incommensurable in square, and both the sum of the squares upon them and the
rectangle contained
contained by the two lines, AC and BD, is medial. But the line AC is the side of a square equal to two medial areas. Therefore
the line whole.
that which produces with a medial area a medial When, therefore, the arithmetical mean is taken between
is
BD
143
the lines that are added together
lines),
(i.
(i.
lines
to
e.,
a compound line)
is
mean
line
produced; whereas when the harmonic taken, one of the [irrational] lines that are formed by
is
subtraction,
is
20.
formed by the addition of the given lines. Let the enunciations of these [propositions] be also
(1). If
stated as follows.
the harmonic
40,
two
is
which [added together] form a binomial, the given line an apotome. (2). If the harmonic mean be taken between two
lines
lines
first
line is
apotome
of a medial.
(3).
taken between two lines which [added together] form a second bimedial, the given line is a second apotome of a medial.
(4).
If the
lines
a
which
[added together] form a major, the given line is (5), If the harmonic mean be taken between two

minor.
lines
which
added together] form the side of a square equal to a rational plus a medial area, the given line is that (i. e., the line) which
If the ((i). produces with a rational area a medial whole. harmonic mean be taken between two lines which [added together] form the side of a square equal to two medial areas, the
given line is that which produces with a medial area a medial whole. The geometric mean, therefore, produces for us the first of the irrational lines, namely, the medial; the arithmetical mean
produces for us
subtraction,
all
the lines that are formed by evident, moreover, that the proposition of
.
Theaetetus
two
lines
119 For the geometric mean between hereby verified rational and commensurable in square is a medial line
is
the arithmetical
is
an apotome 1211
This
is
the
sum
and substance
of
our knowledge concerning the thirteen irrational and order of them is concerned
144
Ms. 37
v.
together with their homogeneity with the three kinds of proportion, which the ancients extolled.
But we must now prove by the following method the proposition that if one of the two lines containing a rational or a
21.
medial rectangle is anyone of the irrational lines that are formed by addition, then the other is its contrary of the lines that are
Page
5<).
formed by subtraction. Let us first, however, present the following proposition. Let the two lines, AB and EC, contain a
rational rectangle,
and
let
AB
On
line
the line
AC
describe
BD
at
The
it is
mean
lines,
AB
if
we
it is in
a semicircle.
Draw
the line
AF
at
it
rightangles to the
line
DA;
DB,
so that
at the point F; and draw a line at rightthe [at point, 0]. This line, then, 1 maintain, will not meet the line DF at the point F, nor will it pass outside
meets the
angles to
line
AF
DC
DF, but touch within it 121 If possible, let it meet [the line DF] at F. Then the area DAFC is a [rectangular] parallelogram,
.
145
since all its angles are right angles.
than the
line
AF,
since the opposite sides Therefore the squares upon BC and BF (BC 2 + BF 2 ) are greater than the squares upon AB and BF (AB 2 + BF 2 ). Therefore BC is greater than AB; which is contrary (i. e., to the hypothesis),
for
it
But the
is
line
DA
is
CF
was [given
as] less
than AB.
and C are
and BC, perpendiculars [to OF], right therefore the rectangle contained by DB and BF is equal to the square upon BC. But it is also equal to the square upon AB.
angles and the
lines,
AB
But we
BC.
Let
I
equal to the square upon BC. have assumed the line AB to be greater than the line
is
AB
In the same
(i.
e.,
the line
DF
meet DF,
therefore,
maintain, then, that the rectangle contained by FB and BE is equal to the square upon DB, which is rational. For DCE is a
rightangled triangle, and the line CB a perpendicular [to DE]. Therefore the two triangles (CBE and CBD) are similar triangles
Therefore the angle at E is equal to the same reason the angle DCB is angle equal to the angle BDA, and the angle BDA to the angle BAF, since the angles at ( \ D, and A, are all right angles. There(i.
e.,
of the
same
order).
DCE.
But
angles at
(i.
angles of the
E is equal to the angle BAF. But the two Therefore the e., CBE and ABF) are right angles. BCE are equal [respectively] to those of triangle
the triangle BAF. Therefore the ratio of the line BF to the line B A is that of the line BC to the line BE, since they subtend
is
equal angles. Therefore the rectangle contained by FB and BE equal to the rectangle contained by AB and BC. But the
rectangle contained by
DB.
10
AB and BC is equal to the square upon Therefore the rectangle contained by FB and BE is
rational.
JungeThomsou,
146
F*
Having first proved these propositions, we will now 322 Let the t\vo lines, AB and prove what we set out to prove has proved that a a rational Euclid eontain BO, rectangle.
22.
.
an apotome
line
first
of the
same order
a
If,
then, the
AB
is
BO
is
binomial,
BO
is
first
apotome.
If it is a
BO is
i
a second apotome.
.
If it is a third [binomial],
BO
is
a third
first
bimedial.
Suppose, now, that the line AB is a Proceeding, then, as before ', we can prove that
1
'the line
BO
is
first
apotome
of a medial.
line
second binomial, since the square upon a first bimedial applied to a rational line produces as breadth a second binomial. And the line BE is a second apotome, since the rectangle
is
BF
contained by
FBBE
is
rational,
and
second binomial produces as breadth a second apotome. Theretore the line BO is a first apotome* of a medial, since the side of
a square equal to
apotome
Pn?'
r>2.
is
a first
an area contained by a rational and a second Let now the line AB apotome of a medial.
BO
a
a rational rectangle.
BO
is
second apotome of a
lint
1
AB
line
BF
is
upon a second
produces as breadth
And
the line
BE
is
rectangle contained by FBBE is rational; and if one of the two lines containing a rational rectangle be a binomial, the other is an
apotome
is
of the
But the
line
BF
a third binomial.
BE
is
a third apotome.
But the
and the
contained by a rational line and a third apotome is a second apotome of a medial therefore the line BO is a second apotome
;
by
BEBD
is
equal
47
a right angle.
to the square
Again,
line
let
is
the line
a minor.
is
AB
be a major.
BC
the line
line
AB
is
For proceeding exactly as before, because major, and the line BD rational, therefore the
BF
BE
is
rational.
line
Therefore
of exactly
BE
is
a fourth
BF is
them
being rational. Because, then, the line BD line BE a fourth apotome, the line BC is
is
rational
and the
rational
by
is
a minor.

Again,
that
let
the line
AB
be
I
plus a
(i.
medial area.
the
line)
BC
is
e.,
which
produces with a rational area a medial whole. For proceeding exactly as before, because the line AB is the side of a, square equal to a rational plus a medial area, and the line HI) rational,
therefore the line
BF
is
square upon
when
And
Bl)
because the rectangle contained by FB BE is rational, p a ge 53. therefore the line BE is a fifth apotome. Since, then, the line MB. 38 v.<>

is
rational,
the line
BC
is
For
upon
equal to a rectangle contained bv a rational line and a fifth apotome. Finally let the line AB be the side of a square
which
is
is
equal to two medial areas. 1 maintain, then, that the line BC that which produces with a medial area a medial whole. For
proceeding exactly as before, because the line BT) is rational, and the line AB the side of a square equal to two medial areas, therefore the line BF is a sixth binomial. But the rectangle
contained by
sixth
10*
FBBE
is
rational.
line
BE
is
apotome.
But the
BD
rational.
Therefore the
148
square upon BO is the square upon a line which produces with a medial area a medial whole. Therefore BO is that which pro
If,
therefore, one of
the two straight lines containing a rational rectangle be anyone formed by addition, the other is its contrary of the lines that are formed by subtraction.
discussion has proved this.
23. It will
Our
itions that
if
by
addition,
FIR.
8.
is its
But
first let
two straight
lines to
commensurable
line
in square.
line
A to the
B
is
one of which
to the rectangle D, be that of the rectangle rational and the other medial, or both of which are
Let the
line
NR
be rational, and
let
us apply to
it
the rectangle
RM
equal
U9
to the rectangle C,
and
RL
angle D.
The two
lines,
two rectangles applied to the rational line (NR) are either rational and medial respectively, or p a g e both medial but incommensurable with oneaiiother. Because,
commensurable
in square, since the
MN
to the line
LN
is
that of the
rectangle KM
to the rectangle
I),
RL, that
ratio
is,
of the rectangle
to the rectangle
and the
of the
rectangle
to the
rectangle
I) is
MN
to the line
LN
to the
But the
lines,
MN
A
square.
Having demonstrated this, let us now proceed to prove what we set out to do, namely, that if one of the two straight lines containing a medial rectangle be anyone of the
in square.
Ci
Fig.
!>.
formed by addition, the other is its conformed by subtraction. Let the two AB and contain a medial rectangle, and let AB be lines, CD, one of the lines that are formed by addition 127 1 maintain, then,
.
line,
CD,
is
formed
by
Apply
to the line
AB
byAB
is
BF, then,
as
one
trary, namely,
of the line
rectangle. But because the rectangle contained by AB and CD is medial and that contained byAB and BF is rational, therefore
150
the ratio of the line
FB
to the line
CD is
that of a rational to a
medial rectangle.
as
we have
ional lines
Wherefore they are commensurable in square, 129 Consequently whichever of the irratjust proved formed by subtraction the line CD is, the line AB
.
contrary)
130
,
FB
is
exactly similar
in order) to CD, the two rectangles to which the squares Therefore when are equal, being commensurable 131 them upon one of the two straight lines containing either a rational or a medial rectangle is anyone of the irrational lines that are formed
e.,
.
Ms. 30
r*
by addition, the other is the line which those that are formed by subtraction.
these propositions,
it is clear,
contrary) of
Having demonstrated
all
then, that
Pagr
55.
that are formed by subtraction, are produced from the lines that are formed by addition by means of harmonic proportion in the
since
now
set forth
The
binomials, as
The reason why they are six in kind is obvious. The greater and less terms of the binomial, namely, are taken, and the squares upon them distinguished.
For
it
is
is
that
is
upon a
line
upon the less either by the square upon a commensurable with the greater, or by the square that is incommensurable with it 134 But in the case
.
upon the greater term being greater than the square upon the less by the square upon a line commensurable with the greater, the greater [term], or the less, can be comof the square
mensurable with the given rational line, or neither of them. Both of them cannot be commensurable with it, since, then, they would be commensurable with oneanother, which is impossible.
And
square upon the greater term being greater than the square upon the less by the square upon a line incomin the case of the
mensurable with the greater, it follows likewise that the greater term, or the less, can be commensurable with the given rational
line, or
neither of them.
for exactly the
Both
of
with
it
same reason
given above].
There
term
is
when the square upon the greater greater than the square upon the less by the square upon
a line
three,
commensurable with the greater; and there are likewise when the square upon the greater term is greater than the
1
square upon the less by the square upon a line incommensurable with the greater. And since we have pointed out that when the
ratio of the
whole
line to
one of
its
[two] parts
is
terms of
a] binomial,
135
,
apotome
whole
and
since
then the other part of the whole line is an it is selfevident that the square upon the
line is greater
first
mentioned
part cither by the square upon a line that is commensurable with the whole line, or by the square upon a line that is incom
mensurable with
it,
and that
in
line
can be commensurable with the given rational line, or that part of it \\hich has the ratio to it of the [two terms of a binomial, or Page neither, but not both, just as in the case of the binomial, there]
apotomes are
six in
up
to the sixth.
design he (i. e., Euclid) discusses the six apotomes binomials only in order to demonstrate completely the different characteristics of those irrational lines that are for
By
and the
six
med by
For
he shows that they vary from one another in two respects, either with regard to the definition of their form 130 or with regard to the breadths of the areas to which the squares upon them are
,
equal, so that the binomial, for example, differs from the first
bimedial not only in form, since the former is produced by two rationals commensurable in square and the latter by two medials
commensurable
in square
152
of the squares
upon them to a
rational line.
is
The breadth
so
produced
it is
former
first
a third binomial; in the case of a major a fourth in the case medial area, a
and
two medial
to the irra
areas, a sixth.
The binomials
are equal in
number
by
Ms, 30
latter to a rational
first,
second, and
which
is
the
breadth of the area of the square upon the side of a square equal In to two medial areas when applied to a rational line.
exactly the same
way he appends the six apotomes in order to demonstrate the difference between the six irrationals that are
formed by subtraction, which is not a mere matter of difference of form alone. For the apotome differs from the first apotome of
Page
57. line (part)
a medial not only in that it is produced by the subtraction of a the ratio of which to the whole line from which it is
subtracted,
latter is
that of the [two terms of a] binomial, whereas the produced by the subtraction of a line the ratio of which
is
it is
subtracted,
is
terms of a]
a
first
upon an
apotome, when
first apotome, whereas the square upon a first apotome of a medial produces as breadth a second apotome. And the rest of
equal in
The apotomes, therefore, are number to the irrational lines that are formed by subtraction. The squares upon the latter, when applied to a rational
the lines proceed analogously.
produce as breadths the six apotomes in order, the square upon the first producing as breadth the first apotome, the square upon the second the second apotome, the square upon the third
line,
153
tome, the square upon the fifth the fifth apotome, and the square upon the sixth the sixth apotome, the sum total of both kinds
[of lines],
i.
e.,
of
apotomes and
formed by subtraction.
with the
last
first,
And they correspond in order, the first the intermediate with the intermediate, and the
with the
26.
last.
The
should, however, discuss the following propositions. square upon one of the irrational lines formed by addition
We
when applied to a rational line, one of the binomials as breadth, and the square upon one of the irrational lines formed by subtraction produces, when applied to a rational line, one of the apotomes as breadth; apply now these same squares not to a
produces,
rational
but to a medial
line,
and
it
fl
Fig. 10.
first
or
second apotomes of a medial in the case of those lines that are formed by subtraction 137 We must begin our proof of this, however, [with the following proposition]. If a rational rectangle be
.
applied to a medial line, the breadth [so produced] is medial. Let the rectangle AC be a rational rectangle applied to the medial line AR. I maintain, then, that the line AD is medial. Describe on AB the square ABEF, w hich is, therefore, medial
T
and has
area.
to the rectangle
AC
The
ratio of
AF
to
AD
rational area.
Therefore the
lines,
AF
_
surable in square.
154
AF
is
AD
AD
is
Having
first
proved
this [proposition], J
now maintain
that
upon a binomial or the square upon a major be applied to a medial line, it produces as breadth a first or a second bimedial. Let the line AB be a binomial or a major,
if
the square
the line
CD
a medial,
equal to the
M
11.
Take a
rational line
LM, and
Ms 40
r"
^^
AB
If,
138 but if the obviously a first binomial 139 as has be a major, then LP is a fourth binomial line the of with to the been application respect already proved
LP
is
AB
Divide
LP into
its
two terms
at the point O.
(First
Then
in
commensurable with the given rational line LM, the rectangle MO is rational, and the rectangle PN is medial 141 since the two lines, LM and LO, are commensurable in length, but the two lines, NO and OP, rational and
line
is
,
LO
commensurable
in square [only].
Cut
off
f>9.
the
rectangle
MO.
KG
is,
there
fore, medial.
applied to
DF
line
is
a rational rectangle
7
CF
therefore,
is
medial,
as has been
since it
is
And
the square
upon CD,
then,
(11),
can
be regarded
angle
rectit
EG,
or incommensurable with
it.
In the
first
place let
be commensurable with
upon CD FG, since they have exactly the same therefore, commensurable with the line
But, then, the ratio of the square to the rectangle E(J is that of the line CD to the line
height.
The
line
CD
is,
FG
in length.
The
e.,
line
FG
in,
therefore, medial.
Therefore the
lines,
OF and FG,
(i.
are
mediate.
The
CF
line
CD
FC
ratio
CD
CF
to the line
FG
by
CD
and
to that contained by
CF and FG,
if,
then,
you
place the two lines, CD arid FG, in a straight line, and make the line CF the height, the rectangle DF is commensurable with
the rectangle contained by CF and FG J4r\ But the rectangle DF is rational. Therefore the rectangle contained by CF and FG is also rational. Therefore the line OC is a first hi medial 146
.
now the square upon CD be incommensurable with the rectangle EG. The ratio of the line CD, then, to the line FG
Let
is
it.
that of
a,
This will be obvious, if we describe the square upon CD. the For square so described and the rectangle EG have exactly the same height (CD, namely); wherefore their banes, the linen,
FG
and
01),
as they have, the latter line (i. e., CD) being equal to the base of the area (i. e., the square) described upon it. CD, therefore, is
commensurable
in square with
FG,
is
as has been
shown above.
are
therefore,
medial.
FG
itself
is
medial.
lines,
CF and FG,
the rectangle contained by them is, 1 maintain, medial. For since the rectangle DF is rational, but the rectangle EG medial, therefore the ratio of OF to FG is that of a rational
medial.
1
And
156
to a medial area.
Therefore
OF and FG
are
commensurable
in
CD
age
<*A ol).
incommensurable in length with the line FG, the rectangle contained by BF incommensurable with the rectangle ^ CF and o
the rectangle
FG, and
DF
is
rational,
therefore the
rectangle
lines,
contained by
CF and FG
CF
and FG, are medials commensurable in square only. But the rectangle contained by two medial lines commensurable in
square
is
prop. 25).
CF and FG,
>0 (JG is
not rational,
is
medial.
a second bimedial (Book X, prop. 38). When, therefore, the square upon a binomial or the square upon a major is applied to a medial line, it produces as breadth a first or a second bimedial 146
28.
,
Again
let
the line
AB
be either a
first
bimedial or the
OB
AB, and
let
MP
upon AB.
line
The
a
line JLP
is,
and a
fifth
binomial,
AB
is
is
first
bimedial,
AB
equal to a rational plus a medial area. Divide LP into its two terms at the point 0, Then in the case of both of these binomials
fifth)
(i. e.,
the line
OP
is
commensurable
NP
is
ra
MO
is
the rectangle
rectangle
BF
is,
Cut
EG
NP. The
rectangle
rational
line
BF
is
is,
therefore, medial.
rectangle applied to
FG
is a medial rectangle And since the rectangle the therefore line to medial the CB, square upon CB applied or incomcan be either commensurable with the rectangle
medial.
BF
BF
157
mensurable with
with
it.
it.
In the
first
place let
it
be commensurable
line
Then the
line
CD
is
OF.
is
The
line
OF
is,
therefore, medial.
line 01) in
And
FG
line
CD
line
OF
in
length,
line
therefore 117
in
the line
[only].
FG
But
is
OF
square
line
is
CD
is
OF
in length,
and the
OF
that of the rectangle contained by OD and FG to that contained Pa^o by OF and FG, therefore these [rectangles] are also commen
ri.
But the rectangle contained by OD and FG is rational, since it is the rectangle EG. Therefore the rectangle contained by OF and FG is rational. Therefore the line OG is a first
surable 14
**.
bimedial. Let now the square upon OD be incommensurable with the rectangle DF. The ratio, then, of the line OD to the line OF is that of a medial area to a medial area incommensurable with
able in square.
the line
The lines, 01 ) and OF, are, therefore, commensurBut the square upon OD is medial. Therefore OF is medial. And in the same way as before it can Init.
line
OG
is
a second bimedial.
If,
therefore,
bimedial or the side of a square equal to a rational plus a medial area be applied to a medial line, it produces as breadth a first or a second bimedial.
first
be either of the two remaining lines of the irrationals that are formed by addition, i. e., either a
29.
Again
let
the line
AB
second bimedial or the side of a square equal to two medial areas. Let the line CD be medial, and the line LM rational; and let the
before.
The
line
commensurable
(i.
in their
with the
line
LM
in length; the
two rectangles,
;
MO
andNP,
therefore, the two rectangles, DF and EG, are also medials. But since the line OD and the two lines, OF and FG, are medial,
158
Ms. 41
r.
it is
them
is
line
01)
or
e,,
in length),
whenever
150
DF
commensurable with the square upon CD. The rectangle contained by OF and FG is [also], then, commensurable with one
EG,
is
of
them
lr>1
.
OF and FG
But
is
if
medial,
The
OG,
is
therefore,
is
a second bimedial,
e,,
DF or
(
the line
is
*D
KG), then neither OF nor' FG is commensurable with Therefore the rectangle contained by OF and FG
(i
e.,
DF
or EG), the
two
OF and FG,
1
only,
and the
rectangle
152
.
rational or medial
Jf,
Ptipe 62.
bimedial or the side of a square equal to two medial areas be applied to a medial line, it produces as breadth either a first or a
second bimedial; which fact has already been proved in the case of the other lines 153 Therefore the square upon each of the
.

medial
30.
produces as breadth a first or a second bimedial. Having dealt with the irrational lines that are formed by
addition, let us
now
Let
AB
let
be a medial; and
us describe upon
it
the rectangle
DG
equal
AB.
OG
is
apotome
Let the
line
LM
be rational; and
to the square
(if
let
us describe upon
the rectangle
MP
equal
upon AB.
The
line
LP
is,
then, a first
apotome
the line
line
AB
be an apotome], and a fourth apotome if the be a minor. Let the line PO be the annex of the line
AB
EG
MP
to the rectangle
so that the ratio of the the rectangle T)G to the rectangle line LP to the line PO is that of the line OG to the line FG.
EG
159
rA
N
But 155 the rectangle
first
M
MO
is
rational, since
we
15( and the rectangle fin length] with the given rational line contained by them, therefore, rational, since they are com
LO LM \
DF
commensurable
mensurable in length.
rational,
The
rectangle
is
also,
therefore,
since
it
is
But
DF
is
medial
CD,
FC
a.
is
medial.
LM
lines
LP
is
is
either
first
EG
Therefore they
or
KG
and (T) 2
are either
commensurable
Let
The
line
FG
is,
then, commensurable with the line 01) in length!, as we have shown before 157 Therefore the two lines, FO and FC, are me.
dials.
lines,
CD
and
are,
to the line
FG
is
contained by
CD
FC
to that contained by
FC
and FG.
These
rectangles
therefore,
commensurable.
But the
MH. 41
v.
rectangle DF is rational. Therefore the rectangle contained by FC and FG is rational. Therefore the line CG is a first apotome But of a medial. the square upon CD is incommensurable with the rectangle EG, then the line FG is not commensurable
if
100
with the
of
line
CD
is
CD
is,
to
FG
square only, since the ratio that of the medial square upon CD to a medial
in length,
but
in
it,
namely, EG.
therefore,
FG
therefore, medial,
and
FG is,
FC
is
CD
CD
in
are
commenis
the line
line
is
FG
and the
ratio of
CD
to the line
FG
the rectangle DF is rational. Therefore the rectangle contained by FC and FG is irrational. But the two lines, FC and FG, are medial lines commensurable
also
that of the rectangle DF to that therefore 158 these two rectangles are
Therefore the rectangle contained by them is medial, since the rectangle contained by two medial lines comin square only.
mensurable in square is either rational or medial. Therefore the line CG is a second apotome of a medial. If, then, the square
upon an apotome or the square upon a minor be applied to a medial line, it produces as breadth a first or a second apotome
of a medial.
31.
Again
!
medial or that
whole
let
AB be either a first apotome of a which line] produces with a rational area a medial the line CD be a medial and let us describe upon it a
let
the line
rectangle
(DG)
upon AB.
I maintain, then,
CG
apotome
of a medial.
it
For
1M>
the line
Page
64.
LM MP
rational,
^h
OP
be the
annex
of
LP;
MO; and
let
the rectangle
EG
equal the rectangle NP. Then because the line LP is either a second or a fifth apotome, therefore the line OL is a rational line commensurable in square with the given rational
line
line
OP
is
[a rational line]
commensurable
is
in
length with
NP
rational,
and
161
contained by two rational lines commensurable in length, whereas the latter is contained by two [rational] lines commensurable in square
the rectangle
medial, since the former
is
MO
Therefore the rectangle EG is also rational, but the rectangle DF medial. Because, then, the rectangle EG is a
[only].
CD
in
therefore
its
]
breadth
with the
FG
line
is
square [only
CD
medial
lines,
only
by But
DF
CD
are medial,
they can be either commensurable or incommensurable with oneanother. Let them be commensurable with oneanother.
Then the
is
line
CD
is
commensurable
in length
with the
line
FC.
FC
is
also
medial
But
FG,
commensurable
are
in
CD
FC and FG,
But since the
CD
is
CD
lines,
FG
and FC,
if,
then, you
line
CD
FG
two
lines,
CD
and FG, is commensurable with that contained by FG and FC. But the rectangle contained by CD and FG is rational. Therefore the rectangle contained
by
FG
and
FC is rational.
But
if
Therefore
the square
the line
CG
is
upon
CD
a first
of a medial.
CD
to the line
FC
is
it.
They
(i.
e.,
CD
in
and FC)
square
therefore,
commensurable
with
oneanother
Therefore the two [only]. The line FC is, therefore, medial. lines, FC and FG, are commensurable with oneanother in square [only], since each of them is commensurable with the line CD in square [only]. But because the line CD is incommensurable with the line FC in length, and the ratio of the line CD to the
11
J ujjgeThoiuuon
,
MB, 42
r.
102
line
FC
is
and FG,
that of the rectangle contained by the two lines, CD to that contained by FG and FC, therefore these two
But the
rectangle
EG
is
is
rational.
FC and FG
not rational.
Therefore the rectangle contained by But the two lines, FC and FG, are
medial lines commensurable in square. Therefore the rectangle contained by them is medial. Therefore the line CG is a second
apotome
of
a
of a medial. If, then, the square upon a first apotorne medial or the square upon that which produces with a rational area a medial w hole, be applied to a media] line, it
T
Gf>.
produces as breadth a first or a second apotome of a medial. 32. Again let the line AB be one of the two remaining irrational lines, either a second apotome of a medial, or that
let
the line
be a medial, arid the rectangle DG equai to the square be rational, and the rectangle, upon AB; and let the line
CD
LM
MP equal
to the square
a.
line
LP
is,
then, either
is
a third or
AB
either
the third or the sixth of the irrational lines that are formed by subtraction. Let OP be the annex of LP, and the rectangle EG
equal to the rectangle, NP. Then since the line LP is either a third or a sixth apotome, both of the lines, LO and OP, are
incommensurable with the given rational line LM in length, but are rational and commensurable with it in square 104 Both the rectangles, MO and NP, are, therefore, medial. Therefore
.
upon CD
is
DF
But
since the
rectangle
DF
EG,
or
it is
incommensur
them. For, then, the rectangle DF would be commensurable with the rectangle EG; i. e., the rectangle MO would be commensurable with [the rectangle] NP; i. e., the line LO would be
line
OP
[in
CD
be
103
of the rectangles,
DF
or
EG.
Then
DF
FG
in square
But
since the
DF or EG,
FC or FG,
square upon CD is commensurable with one of the rectangles, the line CD is commensurable with one of the lines,
in length.
is
medial.
But they
is
medial,
e.,
square) that
medial.
The
lines,
FC and FG,
is
are,
commensurable
tained by
in
square [only].
But
CD
CD
is
and FG,
is
media], and likewise that contained by therefore the rectangle contained by FC and FG
and
FC
CD
of the lines,
FC
or
FG,
in length.
Therefore the rectangle contained by FC and FG us medial. Therefore the line CC is a second apotome of a medial. But if the of is CD incommensurable both with the square upon
rectangles.
of the
Page
66.
DF
and
EG
16r>
,
line
CD
a
to each
two
lines,
FC and FG,
medial
it.
lines,
FC
and FG, are commensurable with the line CD in square [only]. But because the rectangle DF is incommensurable with the
rectangle
EG, and
the line
FG
lines
FC incommensurable with the line two lines, FC and FG, are medial
[only],
commensurable
in square,
CG
is
apotome
Our
investigation, then, has shown that the squares upon everyone of the irrational lines that are formed by subtraction, produce, MS, 42 when applied to medial lines, either a first or a second apotome
of a medial, just as the squares
v.
upon the
11*
164;
formed by addition, produce the two lines that are the contraries of these, namely, the first and second bimediaL
Various kinds of applications (i. e., of the squares upon irrational lines to a given irrational line) can, however, be made,
33.
If,
for example, 1
of the lines
apply the square upon a medial line to anyone that are formed by addition, the breadth is one of the
formed by subtraction, the contrary, namely, of the formed by addition, as we have shown above 166 And if
.
formed by subtraction, anyone apply the breadth is that line formed by addition which is the contrary of the one formed by subtraction. For if OTIC of the two straight
it
to
lines containing a
of a] square
medial area, in this case, namely, the [area a upon medial, be one of the irrational lines that are
formed by addition, the other is its contrary of the lines that are formed by subtraction, and conversely, as we have demonstrated
before 167
.
We
if
we apply the
squares upon the irrationals that are formed by addition to the lines that arc formed by subtraction, and conversely, if we apply
the squares upon the lines that are formed
lines that are
formed by addition.
[or to those
formed by subtraction 18 **], we find many of the definitions which govern these things (L e., ultimately, the irrational lines under discussion) and recognize formed by addition,
various kinds of propositions 169 34. We will content ourselves at this point with our dis170 since it is [but] a concise outline of the whole science cussion,
.
Pago
67.
of irrational lines.
the irrationals) 171 and we arc also well enough aware of the fact that the irrationals are not only many but
e. 5 of
infinite in
mentioned]
proved [with respect to the lastwhen he established that "from a medial [straight]
165
line there arise irrational [straight] linen infinite
[in
number],
and none
if
the same as any of the preceeding 173 ". But from a medial line there can arise lines infinite in number,
of
them
is
obvious to everyone what must be said concerning those that arise from the rest of the irrationals. It can be affirmed, namely, that there arise from them, infinite times a finite numit is
can
ber 174
But we have discussed the irrationals sufficiently. We can investigate by means of the facts that have been presented,
35.
If a rational any problems that may be set, as, for example: and an irrational line be given, which line is the mean proportional 171 between them, and which line the third proportional
*
(i.
e.,
of
Each of the irrationals is dealt with, in its turn, analogously. For example, if a rational line and a binomial or an apotome be given, we can find which line is the mean proportional between them, and which is the third proportional to them; arid equally so with the rest of the lines. Also if a medial line is given, and then a rational or one of the irrational lines, we can find which line is the mean proportional between them, and which the third proportional to them. For
?
since the breadths produced by the application [of their squares] can be determined 170 and we know that the rectangle contained
,
by the extremes
is
it
is
easy for us to do this. The end of the second book and the end of the commentary Page on the tenth book of the treatise of Euclid translated by Abu
;
08.
Uthman
AlDimishqI.
The
praise
is
to God.
May
he bless
Muhammad and his family and keep Ibn Muhammad Ibn *Abd AlJalil
Jumada
1.
them.
in
Written by
Ahmad
month,
Shlraz in the
H.
(=
March, 909).
NOTES.
1
Cod, the Compassionate, the Merciful' an addition of the Muslim, translator, or, obviously
of
Ul,
SUTKK
read,
Mu awwiratun
or
or
Mu'awwamtvn
(note 138),
Corruptible
first place,
But, in the
corrupted
matter
in
PI atom sm,
or Nooplatonism,
Neopytha
generally (Sec the Timaeus* 52 a.). In the second place, MifwiTQtwti, or Mu'crurwiratun, or Mi^avwaratun, is apj)hed in this sense only to men as depraved so far as 3 can find, and even this is a
goreamsm
',
late usuage.
(C'f.
On
is
50a.
Carcntem
quahtatci
51 a. TOXVTOV
C/i.
^XTOC;
I,
tun
means Needy or
p. 29,
1.
Destitute
Part
(W.
n
4
3).
r>
1, para. 9 (beginning). L. HKIBERCJ, tiucMis Elementa, Vol. V, p. 415, 11. That IK, the areas which constitute by addition or subtraction those
Of. Cf.
Part
,!.
26.
areas to which the squares upon the irrationals are equal, as hi propositions 7172, 108110. Literally translated the last clause would
run:
6
The syntax
91
96,
condition that (or provided that) these areas are parts". of the Arabic is simple, SITTER'S note 140 notwithstanding. Cf. the previous note. The reference is to propositions 21 22, 5459,

"On
where the areas to which the squares upon the compound areas (W. p. 30, 1 7).
irrationals are
Book X, props. 22, 6065, 97102. Book X, props. 7372, cf. 108 110, I read Kal~Mujiddi (like one who is zealous) instead of Ka~lMu1\iddun 9 (W. p. 30, L 12).
i
lines is acceptable these are the lines that are formed by But apotomes is incorrect; for it is spoken about the lines that are formed by subtraction. G. J. See Bomerkungen, page 25.
Compound
addition.
H>7
b)
gives Mtmfa8ilatun
Either, then,
which
is
we have an
extension of the
term, apotome, to include all the irrational lines that are formed by subtraction, or a false or dubious translation of the original Greek term, whatever it was, or an error of the copyist. The term occurs
3 of this
Part (beginning).
Perhaps,
JUMGE
suggests,
we should
Murakkabatun (W.
p.
30,
11.
13
down
30,
1.
or
making
To
(W.
p.
19.)
13
J4 15
lfi
J7
Book X, prop. 19. Book X, pro}). 21. Book X, prop. 24. Book X, pro]). 25. a) Book X, pro]) 34,
b) It
is
.
cf.
prop. 40.
18
the line the square upon which is equal to a rational plus a medial area, Ia 5 See Borne rkungen, p. 25. (i. ,1. A, Book 33 35; cf. props. 39 & 41. a) X, props.
is, the major, and the line the square upon which is equal to two medial areas; twice two linos. See Bomerkimgen, p. 25. G.J. The last three clauses are somewhat tautological. The commentator,
b) That
19
20
however, wishes to explain the phrase, '"Wholly incommensurable That is, the line. What RUTKR is translating, 1 do not know. This
.
11
paragraph
included in
is
and should be
it.
after
t/dan (also),
Cf.
Book X, prop.
21
p.
32,
1.
J.
22
23
Book X,
Part
I,
props. 71
&
72.
ff.
Cf.
is,
and W.
p. 5,
1.
7).
That
24
35
In this case the irrationals formed by addition. This is noi wholly correct. The lines that are formed by addition, are
coordinate with those that are formed
by
subtraction.
(*.
J.
168
2fi
a)
That
is, all
11).
The following
oneanother
lines
text
assumed
line.
G. J.
27
2* 2
15.
Book X, Def.
According to
30
The Dictionary of Technical Terms etc., A. SPBKNGKK, Vol. II, p. 1219 (foot), Qimnatuu has the same general moaning as Nahbtw (Substitute etc.). Ista'iriahi can mean To feign a thing
(W.
p. 32,
11.
3819),
signs this proposition
is
:il
Witli
modern
a,
very simple.
Let.
the
sum
of
the
squares
twice the rectangle, b, where a and b are rational in the the modern). The whole o., Euclidian) sense (as also
*y a

6,
(>. *1.
a)
b)
Book X, prop. 71. See Bemerkungen, page 24. Always taking what was stated at the beginning of
as granted, namely, that the lines are
commensurable
square with
J.
as 36
Book X, prop. 59, Lemma. Book X, prop. 71. See Bemerkungen, page 24. Book X, prop. 72. See Bemerkungen, page 24. Using the same letters, but following the text and figure given both in the MS. and by WOEPCKE, this passage runs "Then the sum of the is and NM commensurable LN with the rectangle consquares upon tained by LN and NM", arid so on throughout. SITTER'S reconstruction
:
and probably represents the true text, since the following proposition in para. 8 (W., p. 34, 1. Jf>) uses the same fiand MN. gure, but gives the lines as
LM
37 38
Book X, prop.
Lot
15.
jr
\
the line
LN
y,
where
wo.
is
.r
has to
2
i/
the ratio of a
x~
number
y
z
to
a.
Presupposed
s
?y
,
is
y~
;r
commensurable
2
eornm. with
,r// ?
therefore
?/,
f
is
comin.
2
,
or
.r
with
gianted.
Cf. Cf.
the foregoing figure. The explanation of the following in modern signs is the same as in Note 31 above (Part II). C. J.
41
Book X, prop.
19.
169
42
a)
Book X,
a
prop. 39.
of the \\ord
b)The explanation
]/
Major
in
the text
is
hardly true,
called
\/6 is y/6 is, indeed, Major, Mhere a > \/h* But pa Minor, and here the rational part, a, in also greater than the
Cf,
medial, \/b.
1842,
4J 44
U)
NEHSKLMANN, Algebra
rfer
(iriechen,
Berlin
S. 176.
G.
40.
41.
.7.
above, Part
II,
p. 33, last
line,
to
p. 34,
46
1.
1).
Cf.
simply,
Hook X, props. 36 to 38 and 39 to 41 respectively. The Arabic says "The two additions of hues'*, j. e., the addition of lines comin
mensurable
square, as in these propositions. The Arabic may be road as either Tarkibani hututin or Tarktbdni hutittan (Cf. do 8acy\s Grammar, 2nd
Ed., Vol. II, p. 183, and FLETST'HEK^ Kl. tfrhr.. Vol. 1, Toil I, p. 637 on de Sacy). On the use oi the dual oi the infinitive, cf. KI.KISCHKR,
ibid.p, 633 to de JSae v,ll, 175
t
(W.
p. 35,
1
1.
17).
47
Cf.
Book X,
and a medial
4H
two medial
1.
the previous
here, Section
(W., p.
3f>,
17).
in props. 71
treatise
and
72.
(W.
p. 35, L
4M
'"
Book X, Book X,
note
3) is
Cf Book
.
( f.
Book X,
area
props. 39 to 41.
the
is
incorrect.
The
Arabic means
sum
of the squares
upon
areas.
"The
which
composed
of the
sum
of the squares
upon them'
p. 36,
1.
out of
w AH
tfl
in
(W.
8).
>>
read Yalttajja(i), not Yuhtdj (need) (W. p. 36, 1. 18). The whole argument of the paragraph shows that Pappus
I
is
lien
1
,
SFTER
is in
and that the reference should be to the squares upon the separate lines. But if the squares upon the hues are rational or medial, so then are the lines; and Pappus may quite well have stated the proSee also Bernerkunpeii p. 30. blem in this way.
170
58
SUTER omits
this last
57
SB 59
compound line made up of LM upon them. (W. p. 37, 11. 1617.) See Bomerkungen, page 24
YVJijoii^
But the sense is AlMurakkabu mintia can mean the and MN as well as the sum of the squares
as
SUTER adds,
is
impossible.
That
is,
which
let
is
2
and
LM
a
and
AB
a rectangle
LM
,

Therefore
70
AF
and
EC
are medial.
Because, as SITTER says, two rational lines commensurable in square only form a medial rectangle.
Cf. SITTER,
01
note 172,
who supposes
Pappus tries to set up another mode first hexad (as he puts it).
02
that in the propositions just given of division for the irrationals of the
63
*
That
Cf,
These propositions appear in Euclid implicitly but not explicitly, O. J. is, without qualification by any such term as rational or medial.
Book X, Def. 2. That is, the six irrationals formed by addition. Of. Book X, props. 71 and 72. m Cf. Book X, props. 19 and 21 respectively. 07 See the whole discxissioii from para. 4 to para. 8 of Part II, where the order and number of these irrationals are discussed (W., p. 30, foot, to
65
p.
68
6i*
35).
That is, the six irrationals formed by addition. a) That is, one of the six formed by subtraction.
HI) irrational formed by addition, then .r y is an formed by subtraction; granted rr > ?/. G. J. That is, the greater and the IOHB of the two terms (or lines) that added together produce one of the six irrationals formed by addition, con
b) If
.r
is
irrational
70
and as a part
of it as above. See
Bemerkungen,
In the
Naztr
may mean
like,
next paragraph (W. p. 40, 1. 19) the apotome and the binomial are said Wahiduhuma yukhahjulakhara ) to be contraries of oneanother (
;
in paragraph Hi
(W.
p. 44,
11.
1.
1)
addition and subtraction are said to be contraries respectively of oneanother; and the like is asserted of them in paragraphs 19, 22, 23 (W. p. 47, 1. 14; p. 48, 1. 23; p. 53, 11. 11, 13), only here the word, Muqa
Contraries, moreover,
balun (opposite, contrary), replaces tho YttkMlifu of paragraph Hi. may be homogeneous, belonging to the same
genus at opposite polos of it (Of. Aristotle's Metaph., 1055 a. 3ff., The meaning of Nazlr, therefore, would fieern to be osp. 23 ff.).
they are the same terms or but since lines, produced by contraries, they are addition and subtraction 1. produced by 19), respectively (W. p. 39,
etc. are likes, since
73 73
74
I have used, however, like contrary. inasmuch as Binomials etc. and Apotomes
(or
contrary),
throughout,
Cf.
Part
II,
note
0.
AB and BO
BO
and commensurable
is
in
square only.
a) Of. prop. 7,
Book
AB
and
MS. nor
75
m
j
WOEPCKE.
76
b)Itis,4# 2 BC*=~2AB.BC+A&, smwAC z  (AB BG)*. O. J. AB and BO being commensurable in square (AB BC, a binomial), The clause, "Now the squares medial (J nMttrabba n
\
iJ
mawsitatt) t pro\mh\y represents a Ureek genitrve absolute construction. BC is a Pappus shows by Euclid's prop. 7, Book II, that if
AB
ABBC Z "2AB=^ BC f AC*. Therefore AC* AB* BC* 2ABBC. llnt.AB* BC* is rational mid 2A B BC is medial; and AB" > BC by the
binomial, then
is
AB
BC
an apotomo.
'
For
\
v.v
line
Therefore
\/AC^
77
(i.e.,
AC

AB
BC)
an apotomo.
11.
comj)are it with prop. 71 (W. p. 40, Of. note 71, Pait II.
11).
78
BC is in
11.
If
Oh Book X,
props.
7y
AB
first,
BC
is
first
bimedial,
AB
BC
is
apotome
of a
medial.
H0
the
Part II (W., p. 40, 11. 89): "Lot AB produce with BO a binomial". The text is quite sound as it stands, and does not need to
Lct AB and BO be commensurable in square", as SITTER erroneously suggests (note 183). WOEPCKE 's suggestion (p. 41, note 2) that' this phrase be added to the text is sound, if not exactly necessary. In fact, since + BC is
be emended
ik
to,
81
AB
given as a second himodial, the previous phrase is also unnecessary. But both are perfectly sound consequences of the given fact, and if the first be given, so should the second.
28
It does not
seem necessary to
Mwrabha'ai
mm,
as
(3))
78,
is
It
say H, "The sum of the squares etc. being greater than twice the rectangle, That is, it is greater by the it is, then, the square upon the line AC".
square
83
S4
upon
if
AC.
That That
is, is,
the lines,
AB
AB

AB and BC is a
is
fiB
of
a medial.
\
AB
BC
72.
is
a second
BC
.
a major, ^17?
BC
is
a minor.
Cf.
Book X,
A B* is,
AB
Cf.
87
line incommensurable with AB. and BC being incommensurable in square. Book X, props. 1 09 and 71 If AB \ BC is the
,
AB
BC m
88
Cf.
Book X,
props.
JO
and
is
AB
BC
72. If + BC is the side of a square ^ 2 the line which piotluccs with a medial area
AB
SUTKR translates as if the Arabic word were a singular, probably for the
sake of clarity.
I accept.
90
WOEFCKE'S
accordingly, although the reading of the text could be considered satis "That a rational area remains Ironi a factory and rendered thus: rational urea (i. e., this case). (W., p. 42, 1. 13, note 4).
91
a)
Two
the following sentence informs us, there are cases of subtraction of a medial from a rational,
lines, since as
two
b)
\/
6,
to the
rational,
b:a z a produces the apotome, when a square number: a square number. Otherwise the minor arises. See para. 24 (Part. It) and Bomerkuiigen, page 25. C. J.
For
\/6
92
93
have supplied the words within brackets foj the sake of clarity. r brackets, from "The hnc to "Jr^.sV'have been sugWOKPCKE in his and text, except "Area," which is gested by incorporated
"
obviously to be supplied. The Arabic text is, as SITTER says (Note 186, WOEPCKE\S conjectures, however, are, p. 48), "atark verdorben". from the mathematical point of view, necessary and, from the linguistic
pomt
94
(W.
p. 43,
11.
4,
notes 3
&
4).
In that paragraph Pappus asserts that Euclid should have treated the compound lines after this method; and here and in the next paragraph he points
Cf.
Fait
(W. pp.
3536)
m
out
how clear then would be the homogeneity, with the opposition, of com pound, linrtt a nd those formed by subtraction. **7 wo"Tnust besupphed
7
1.
(>).
previous note and Book X, props. 36 41. Those last two sentences foiinect para. 14 wjth para. 9 and also refer to the beginning
Of. the
Of.
Of. Of.
Of.
Book X, props. 3li and 73 Book X, props. 37 and 74. Book X, props 38 arid 75. Book X, props 33, 30, and 76. The sum
100
and equal to the greater area, as is stated under "'Sixthly (prop. 35). Of. Book X, props. 34, 40, and 77. The sum of tho squares is medial
arid equal to the greater area.
Of. Book X, props. 35, 41, and 78 mid equal to the greater area. Of.
Of.
101
The sum
ot
Ihe squares
is
medial
102
1(H
Part
JI,
para.
7.
Book X,
prop?,. 71
(01
and 108
The
lines
Pappus says towards the end of the paragraph As SUTJBK says (note Pappus means by, "Are taken" \ the kind of relation which tho areas have with oneanother, whether they are to be added togethei or
190),
See Part
LI,
Of.
Book X,
props. 30
38 and 39
41, 73
75
says immediately after, the first throe of each kind are respectively the contraries ot the lust three.
106
Of.
Book X, props
is
109, 108,
and
71 (parts
and
3).
lie
the greater, the medial the less; in another the medial is the greater, the mtional the loss; and in the third case both the greater
rational
and the
i0fl
Pappus now goes on to state what lines are the likes (or contmnes) of oneanother in these different respects. That is, the irrationals formed by addition a,nd subtraction fall into
not understand the Arabic.
groups of three according as the areas are, 1) rational and medial, 2) medial and rational, and 3) medial and medial. (L J.
ID?
moan by means
of
is
it
produced, is not mentioned. If this failure he means that he omitted a whole line, which
probably began like the succeeding one with the Arabic words, Waidhtf akhadha (And if he took), whence his omission. Perhaps, however,
174
reproduce it. Part I, para. 1 (W., p. 2, 11. 23) says that Theaetetus divided the irrational linos according to the different means, ascribing the medial line to geometry, the binomial to arithmetic, arid the
Hpotorne to harmony.
308
r> ar (
7ff.)
explains
(i.
what Pappus
Euclid) always assigns the general term, [medial, to a particular species (i. e., of the medial line). For the medial line the square upon which is equal to the
e.,
"He
area contained
by two rational
lines
commensurable
in length,
is
necessarily a mean proportional to these two rationals etc., but he does not name either oi those [lines] medial, but only the line the square upon which is equal to the given area" (i. e., the one con
78).
109
J1
Book X, prop. 21. The Arabic has simply, "The remaining proportioning" (Infinitive). The infinitive gives the abstract idea. The context shows that we must interpret as above (W. p. 45, 11. 13 14).
Of.
U1
WOEPCKK (W.
MS*s//tttnnct
p. 45,
1.
4, foot,
The lorm
of the
tor the
1
have
supplied,
"And
argument given in the second succeeding case (W,, p. 46, L 2). The " Arabic would run: WamiittharikaH Itihinna* Sec J. L, HEIBT^RCS,
.
p.
5f>l,
II.
19,
is
used hero
and
mean"
That is, common to all the arithmetical means taken above. The text of the M8., given by WOKFCKE, is obviously corrupt.
says:
"Therefore, these
(i.
It
the various means, or, perhaps, the required irrationals) are incommensurable with the irrationals of one order or another". The demonstrative pronoun, Hadhihi (W., p. 47,
e.,
1.
7),
wliich
is
feminine,
must
refer
tionals or to the
"TOew"
of "All of
them"
and the
the
latter
is,
logically,
The
for
substitution of
the logically (Mubdyinatun) cannot "Commensurable" easily be ex(MusMrikatun) required the was antecedent of the thread the lost, argument plained. Perhaps of Hadkihi not being clear. Possibly the error occurred in the Greek
text's
"Incommensurable"
text.
115
That
%ab
is, if
and
c the
mean, then oc 4
be
or c =r
~" a
a
f b
Of.
Bemerkungen
p* 30.
116
Cf.
Part
II,
note 71.
21
317 318
Of Part
IT, paras.
and
22.
6)
is
shows
that.
incorrect.
kana
119
120
ktiatta
beginning (W., p, 45, 1. 3fi\). Hero, than, is used the Euclidian proposition, X, 112. The further propositions which are presupposed, over the other five lines that are
II, para.
Of.
Part
121
formed by addition and the corresponding ones foimed by subtraction, are first proved in para. 21. <J. J. That is, will meet DK within the points, I) mid K. Both WOKPCKK and the MS. have AF. But what succeeds shows that SITTKK is
1
Ci. Of.
first
sentence.
Book X,
upon a
internal stiaight
lino
applied etc/'
124
8uTEK\s note, 208, pointing out that Euclid does not prove those proassume them to he selfevident,
Euclid, X, 112, proves the whole of tins.
as in the previous paragraph with the
(*.
J.
126
127
same figure. STTTTCR quite correctly (note 210} supplies the woids within brackets, which do not appear in WOI^PCKE'S text nor in the MS. Sec "Notes on the Text" (W. p. SI, J. 15). The figure is not given in the MS. or WOKWKK. 1 follow Si'Tiai.
is,
That
! H
129
That
is,
m Part
IT, para.
22 (W., p. 51, L 8 If
).
At the beginning of this paragraph. Thereiore OD is one formed by subtraction and of the same ordei as JKB.
Cf, Part
II,
of the linefl
]3
331
note 71.
is
A proposition
is
nor our commentator enunciates, namely, vk lf a hno is commensurable in square with an irrational line formed by addition (or subtraction),
then
132
aay
it is also
of the
Of.
\y"e
same
order,
J.
Part
II, paras.
must
19 and 20 (W., p. 47, 1. 8ff.). either read, "AlKhututillati vnin ismainl walmunfa$ilatil
muqabalati tafia* \ and translate as above, or, ^Al~Khutt't>lladhi min ismaini wiilniunfaRiltlmuqilbali Jahu", and translate, "Points of
176
and the apotome, its contrary". The former gives a sense more in keeping with the contents of the paragraph than the latter. Read ""Yaji'n", not "Nuhnu". The last letter
difference between the binomial
is 134
(W. p. 55, 11. 34), For this and the following sentences of. Euclid, Book X, Definitions
certainly a
w>
IV
11,
130,
HEATH,
Of.
12
IB
9ff.).
If
e.,
AB
AO,
BC
an
AB
BC,
i.
is
apotome. ^AlMunfaxUa'' (W., p. 55, 1. 17) is an absolute nominative, which leeeives its syntactical relation when it is caught up and repeated in the phrase, ^lluwa twn.faqilun" (W., p. 55, 1. 19).
1
130
Ma'ua moans
text (W., p.
uV'/w?/o??,Sas
may
1.
ha seen from
4041.
7; p. 10,
21; p.
] 1,
1,
1; p. 27,
17).
AlAkutin
according to M. HORTKN, Z. IX
JVK G.,
means
1.
(W.
p. 50,
7).
e.,
f
in
137
j^ or
inerkungen,
138
JSmco
(>.
LM is rational
LM
is,
is
and
TV/7*
AB. AB'\
(('i.
Euclid,
BookX,
Book X,
Part
j>rop. 00.
J.)
ia9
HiiK^e
rational and
MP
(Of.
Euclid,
]>rop. 63.
a. J.)
140
141
That
( >f.
Of. Euclid,
Book X,
of the
prop. 71.
142
The names
1.
KG
should
p. 60,
Of.
urt
144
In the previous paragraph. Of. Euclid, Book X, prop. 25. OF medial and commensurable with OD in square. One would expect this sentence to begin, ^'Wadhalifca 'tnncthu
(14 linos later, W., p. 59,
is
lf
19) has,
7).
Ci. Euclid,
110
It is to
first
or a second bimedial,
i.
e., is
of
the form,
\/b) or \/ c (a \\fb). In the first case the two parts (terms) is rational, namely,
177
\/6 a ,\/b .\/b
.
ab; in
the second
case
it
is is
medial, namely,
147
any case rational. The two cases can also, therefore, ho distinguished from onoanother, according and the as FG is commensurable with CD in length or not, or, commentator always begins with this according as the rectangle T3G is commensurable with CD" or not. G. J. ftxjTj^ translates correctly, bid has failed to remark that his translation
is
\/c a \i c
This rectangle
geometrically
CD
in
Arabic
does not give the Arabic text as it stands. This last clause in the is conjunctive with the two previous and not the apodosis of
n conditional sentence.
not, "WaKttrtttif
148
.
.
/*
1.
and
20).
/\ as
WourcKK and
the
MS. (W.,
p. 00,
14lt
previous paragraph on this point at note 145. SITTER does not give the correct connection of the Arabic clauses. To make sense of this clause and to make it correspond with paras.
Of. the
27
150
32, the
is
binomials
line
LM. G.
UNais points out that we must translate thus in ordei to give a meaning to this clause. The Arabic reads, ""Waliannd", which would
Di
tl
ordinarily be translated,
''"But
new
1
statement altogether.
b *
Lianna \ one, as WoEprKK felt, when he suggested thai we read a 4i anna" instead of This suggestion, however, does not remove
the difficulty. It is probable that the Greek at this point had some which the Arab translator underparticle such as ore 01 inciSi]
,
stood in
15J
its
causal instead of
its
confusion into the text (W. p, 61, 1. 15). Namely, the one commensurable with CD.
Of.
162
Book X,
(Gf.
15:1
154
and Pappus has demonstrated hi* proposition, STTTTUR notwithstanding (See his note 232). That is, of those formed by addition. SuTKR dooms it necessary to give the construction of these rectangles,
himedial
38),
TG, and
therefore,
is
either a
first
or a second
is quite clear, as the text stands. vt T} 1P rfm dmg of the MS. ( But because the rectangle
is
rational etc.")
obviously incorrect. It, assumes what is to be proved, namely, the We must read simply "But^ rationality of the rectangle MO.
is
" Because** in", or better, perhaps, just "Wft") and omit the " his transas not understand the SUTKR did argument, ).
JttneTJiotnso&
178
156
According to definition.
See Euclid,
Book X,
Defs. Ill,
& 4
158
BERU, Vol. V, ]>. 255; HEATH, Vol. Ill, j>. 177) (W. p. 62, 1. 15). Of. Part II, para. 27 (W., p. 59, 1. 4ff.) Better to read "Fahadhum" find not "Wu*h(idhtini," as in the MS.
and
159
WoEJ*rKE, since this clause gives the result of the facts stated in the two former clauses (W. j>. 63, 1. 13).
in
So runs the Arabic text, referring evidently back to the last figure given, SITTER translates as if it were a part of the construction. The
sense
is
is,
3<i(l
That
according as AB is a first apotome of a medial or that which produces with a rational area a medial whole.
J(!J
BookX,
Defs. Ill, 2
&
5;
HEJ
HEATH,
IG "
I6ij
Of.
25.
Of.
164
6,
HEIBEBU,
HEATH,
corrupt,
is
correct.
We
must
read "Likull
16<5
Of.
Part U,
wcdwliri* (W. p. (>t>, 1. 1). para, 21, first sentence (W., p. 49 foot) and the whole of
f i
1.
12fi.).
Of. the
previous note.
SITTER quite rightly adds this phrase. The copyist probably inadvertently omitted it by haplography. See "Notes on the Text" (W. p. 66,
1.
81).
169
(f., e. g.,
Part
11, para,
a*s
26
etc.
oi
two
sentences* later,
WOEJH'KE, by
two sentences
which
170
171
the Arabic are dependent and conjunctive. "Mujizatun^f not ^JMuwahhadhaturt" (W., p, 67,
in
1.
1).
AH}
"
apparently, written, however, with an at the end instead of the UKiial Ya> The marginal reading is
"Qiwatf'*
,
The MS. text Hit/a", which with WOEPCKE 1 have adopted. could be translated, "And the possibilities of eommensurabihty" (i. e., which the iirationals show) (W. p. 67, 1. 2).
}>)
The allusion is, apparently, to the terms of an irrational line (formed by addition or subtraction), whether they are commensurable to
oneanother or to the given rational
line.
G.
J.
1711
Of.
Book X,
prop. 115.
insert a negative into the Arabic of this clause in
173
to reproduce the
Greek
179
sition 115;
the MS. there stands before "Bi^Hasabi", scored out apparently by two almost perpendicular strokes, but with
and
in
"
an asterisk above
This
it
calling attention to
ome
fact or other.
words,
The
two
La and Ha.
Tt calls
that the
Hu
is
scored out
by the lefthand stroke, and that the rightmaking with the Lam the negative La. Head,
p.
07,
1.
6).
a) 8 LITER rightly calls attention to the fact that the text given by WoKPOKifi has a meaning that is not to be taken in a strict mathematical sense,
namely,
'"Infinite
nine,
the
correct mathematical
lias it;
numbei
12
.1
CO (.Not 18
.r,
u# SITTKR
only the lines formed by addition and subtraction are referred to in this clause). But the MS. gives, as WOTCPCKTC shows
(P. 67,
note
4),
'"'(.jhftini
JlfuttMicih'ii/atin jHtrfiran
nmtatmhiynt'i,n"
For
1
number.
The binomials,
example, were
\/t5 ....
ad miimtum.
for Euclid,
On
13.
Our commentator, however, number oi the groups. The trinomial 1 \/ 2 H v 3), over new arc the tjuadrmomial (1 + \/*2 f groups, the \/b}, \/3
irrationals
were,
tieats of the
1
nurnl)er of
175
which
v
is infinite,
(t.
J.
l>ut
SFTEK
(W.
translates
1.
12).
17
Or,
ls definite
(W.
p.
19).
APPENDIX
Paragraphs 10 and
1 1
A.
of
Part
two paragraphs, since commentators of the Theaetetus seem to be hopelessly at odds over the interpretation of this passage and, in especial, concerning the meaning
of the
Suvafzu;
(e.
and TTpaycov^t.v.
(1809), B.
g.,
M. WOHLRAB
GERTH,
(1921)) hold that Suva^ in 147d. means the only sense in which it is used as a mathema
Index Graecitatis
term by Pappus Alexandrinus (Ci FR. HTTLTSCH, Vol. Ill, Others (e. g., L. EK. p. 30.) and by Euclid.
}
HEINDOKF (1809), SCHLEIERMACHER, JOWETT, CAMPBELL (1883), PALEY (1875), and A, DIES (1924) contend that it must be taken
in the sense of square root, or, in geometrical terms, ride oj a
square.
Some commentators
comparison of its use in 148 a. as a general term for all lines that are incommensurable in length hut commensurable in square,
what exactly I47d.ff. means. CAMPBELL (The Theaetetws of Plato, 2nd Ed., Oxford, 1883, p. 21, note 1.) supposes that Suva^tc in 147d. is an abbrebut
find, then, a difficulty in explaining
viation for
tion
etc.
i]
SovapisvT] ypapifjLY]
this
assump11
on Euclid's use of
Suvafjiv/] in
Book X,
Definitions 3
uses Suvajitc in
Book
181
side
Another argument in support of the meaning, square roof, or of a square, goes back to HEINPORF (1805), who says
14, Berlin 1805);
StifjtsTpo^ f\ Suvafza SITCOM;), sen latus quadrat) This suggestion is adopted by B. H. KENNEDY trepeclalis". (Cambridge University Press 1881) who omits, however, HEIN
p. 206. b. dicitur
and says: ^TpiTrouc, as HEINBORF says, is eu&eta Suva^et TptTrou^'; and naturally Suvajjuc i.s square root or siffa o/ a square. But the analogy of HEINDORF'S phrases
DORF'S
'
Scilicet"
is
in later
STALLBAFM
1,
18, M.)
and PALTRY (The Thcaelctiw of Plato, London, 1875.) also adoj)t HEiNDOJUf's inter] >rctati on of Suvafxt^ Tptrrouc^ They contend,
however, that Plato
in
147d.
is
posed of a threefoot and a fivefoot line. The relation, then, of 147 d. to the discussion in 148 a. is somewhat obscure, to say
the least,
for
^uvafjiic;
is
"Quwwahm", and
SPRENGER,
i.
it
means
Tke Dictionary
Vol. II, p. J230,
Terms
it
(Calcutta, A.
top.) defines
4t
"the square of the line", the .square which can be constructed upon the line", and goes on to say that the mathematicians treat the square of a,
as
u1Khatti*\
e.,
^Murabba
line as a
power of the
attribute.
4<
line, as if it
special
AlTfisI
The line is a length actually (reading "bilfi H "for" a square (murabbtfun) potentially (biJquwwati) and bil^aqli) Lines i. e., it is possible for a square to be described upon it. commensurable in power ("bilquurwati" ) are those whose
says:
squares ("murabbtfatuha") can be measured by the same area etc"; and in Book X he uses "Quwuxitun" in the sense of square
lines
commensurable
(etc.)
in
182
square and the square on a straight line etc; and in the latter phrase the word, "Mwrabba'im" (square) is sometimes used
instead of "Qumvatim"*
two paragraphs (10 & 11) shows that "QwMJvatwt" (power) is used in two senses. It is used in paragraph 11 once (p. 11, 1. 15) in the same sense as Suva^ in
analysis of our
An
i.
e.
is
cowmenit
means length. and square only. Its use in the first sense is quite exceptional and is explained by its occurring in a direct citation of the Theaetettis passage whore Suvoqjuc is used in this sense; and Pappus explains in paragraph 17 (p. J7, II. 10 17) that
In
all
other cases
the word Suvctf^; ("Quwwatwi" ) was used in this case, "because it (the line) is commensurable with the rational line in the
area which
is its
square
is,
(literally,
which
it
can produce)".
The
In paragraph 10
(p.
7,
8,
18)
the phrase,
rowwfw
2)
In paragraph 11 (p, 11, 1. 22 p. 12, we find the significant statement that 'Mt is difficult for
who seek to determine a recognized measure for the lines which have the power to form these powers, i. e., the lines upon which these power* can be formed to follow the investigation
those
,
of this
problem
(i. e.
of irrationals)",
must mean
square*.
Paragraph
11 (p. 11,
1718)
is
quite as
significant, pointing out that "The argument of Euclid, on the other hand, covers every power and is not relative only to some
assumed rational 7 tower or line, " where the words, "arJine," show
that power
is
Finally in
17
p. 11,
I.
s)
For in the first place, in square only. Euclid's definition of lines commensurable in length and square
as those
of a
ratio
18),
square
number
to a square
(cf,
number
(p.
9).
10,
11.
17
powers must
mean
squares
Bk. X, prop.
It follows also
mean
p.
uquarex
11,
1.
when
it
is
10,
1.
21
2)
Theaetetus) of determining those power* by means of the square numbers is a different idea altogether from that (in Euclid) of
their having to oneanother the ratio of a square
1
;
number
to a
or what' other basis for the comparison of square number' the two definitions is there ? The two power* of p. 11, 11. 2fL are
also squares; for they
ratio of a square
number
and
their
commensurable according to the same authority. The fact that the two jtowers of p. 11, 11. 2 8, are squares,
Arabic word, Eahba^a, and of the phrase, "The power whoso measure is a foot or three feet or five feet etc/* For it is evident
that the phrase,
feet",
k
is
eighteen
power here means square (p. 11, 3 the 11. 2 phrase, "A power whose measure 3) Accordingly is one foot ', can and does mean, "A } tower (square) whose measure
(or eight) square feet",
.
since
is
and the same argument is valid in the case of "The power whose measure is three feet", and
:
is
five
1.
11,
1011;
11,
11.
12).
The verb, rabba'a, occurs in two phrases, "The power* which square a number whose sides are equal", and "Those which square an oblong number" (p. 10, 11. 14, 15. p. 11, 11. 14, 15). The Greek word behind rnhba^a here is evidently the TST
of
Theaetetus 148 a.
But neither
rabbtfa
nor
r/,s
their means, as CAMPBELL supposes in the latter case. To form a To iwto /or?// xqwirc square, i. e., The square, on which is, but as WOHLRAB and m Ad it; puts figure, quadralaw forma redigere,
this
is
verb
the only sense in which Pappus Alexancirinus uses the TTp<xytov^6> (Of. ER. HTTLTSOH, 111, Index Glraecitatis,
p. Ill);
and he employs
its
participle TSTpaycovov
and
terpaycov
184
in the
circle.
of squaring the
Accordingly the phrase, "'The powers which square a number etc", means "The powers (squares) which form such a number
into a square figure" 2
WOHLRAB and APELT have interpretated the Theaetetus passage (148 a.) in this way, the former translating aLs Quadrat it, "A lie Linien welche die gleichseitige Produktzahl
.
darstellen",
and the
tl
latter,
nach Seiten und Flache kommensurabeln Quadrates bilden". To sum up. The Arabic word, Quwwatun means as a mathema,
tical
term square and square only. In our two paragraphs it signifies square save in one instance, where it is used to render the
Suvajjttc;
of Theaetetus
it
is
clearly excep
tional.
Such phrases, therefore, as The power whose measure is a foot", must be interpretated as "The power (square) whose measure is a square foot", and the verb, rabba^a, must be rendered.
To form
into
a square
Suvajjiiq
and the TSTpayow^ci) of 148 a. in the sense of to form That is, the phrase. "All the lines which into a square figure 2 sides are equal", in 148 a., meant for whose a number square
.
Pappus, "All the lines which are the sides of a square squaring such a number", as in the problem of squaring the circle: and what Theaetetus did, then, was to distinguish between squares
commensurable
in length
NOTES.
J
Cf.
p.
15,
11.
2122,
.
square measures That IK, 4, which is a square number, has lor its sides (factors), \/4 = 2. But 6, which is an oblong number, has for its sides, 3 and 2; and the Hide of the square formed from it would bo \/G, which is inexpressible
,
i.
e.,
in
whole numbers.
INDEX.
N. B.
The numbers
oi
to the paragraphs.
A.
Actuality.
Part
1,
13.
Part
3,
9.
Apollomus.
Apotonao.
19,
Part Part
I,
1;
Part 11,
1.
15, 17,
First
apotome
of
a,
medial.
Part
I,
22,
Second apotome
a media].
Pait
1,
23, 32;
Part
.11,
12,
13,
14,
15,
Athenian Stranger
Part,
2,
2,
B.
The
first
bimedial.
Pait
1, 22, 29,
7, 9,
Part
17,
1M,
I, 1,
Pait
Part
1,
13.
(I
Comrnensurabihty.
Part
i.
1,
e.,
1,
1,
0,
Part
11, 34.
Commensurable
(lines,
Part
1,
7,
Part
II, 0,
11 (Bee Quantities).
0.
Part
I,
1,
4.
D.
Part
3>
12.
186
E.
The Equal
Euclid.
(of
Pamionides).
1,
Part
I,
13.
Part
I,
3, 6, 7,
Part
12,
Euclid's Elements,
Part
3,
4,
I,
1.
11,
16 etc,
Part
II,
Extension.
Part
I,
13; Part
18,
10.
Part
1,
13.
(i,
The Finite. Part 1, 3, The First Cause. Part Form. Piirt I, 13.
The* Greater (of
8.
I,
13.
G.
Parmemdos).
Part
I.
J,
13.
Part
Part
I, 3, 7, 12,
IK
Inconceivable
(
Irrational),
I, I,
1,
Part
I,
2.
The
Infinite.
Part
Part
Part
1,
3. 9,
Irrationality.
Irrationals.
13.
7,
2, 3, 4, 5,
1, 1; 1,
II,
12,
14,
2.
1,
15, 18;
Part
IT, 4, 34.
Ordered irrationals.
Part
Part
1;
11,
K
II,
Unordered
Part
Irrationals
irrationals.
Part
Part
2.
Irrationals formed
II, 2, 3,
by
addition.
13,
Pait
lf,
1, 4,
12,
14,
17,
19, 25,
I, 4,
formed by subtraction.
12, 13, 14,
Part
Part
II, 2, 0,
IB, 17,
1, 5.
Irrational magnitudes.
Part
L.
Part
1,
JK
1,
Part
13.
Part
I, I,
13.
Part
13.
Compound
The
formed by addition). Part II, 3. square upon which is equal to a rational plus a medial area. Part I, 22, 32; Part 11, 4, 8, 12, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 25, 28. The line the square upon which is equal to two medial areas. Part I,
lines (those
lino the
22, 32;
Part
II, 4, 8,
12,
_
The
line
187
Part
1,
The
line
Part
I,
12,
13,
14,
15,
M
Magnitudes.
Part
Part
I,
I.
5,
t
13,
14.
4, 8,
The major.
25, 27.
Matter.
Part
I,
13.
Matter
Means.
intelligible
ami
J,
.sensible.
5.
Part
1,
13.
Maximum.
Part
I,
3,
9,
Part
1,
18,
19.
I,
i,
Arithmetical mean.
(Geometric mean.
Part
1.
9,
17; Part
U,
17, IS,
20
Part
Part
1,
9; Part 11,
17, 20.
Harmonic mean.
Measure
1
1,
1,
(unit ol ineaKuioment).
Part
14,
I,
5,
13,
14.
The medial.
5,
(i,
Part
1,
1,4,
<>,
7, 9,
Medial area.
Part
1,
1,
J, 3,
4,
19,
(i.
5,
14,
N.
Numbers.
Part
1,
3,
5,
8.
10,
11,
13
O.
One.
Part
1,
3.
P.
Part*.
Part
I,
3,
13.
Plane.
Plato.
Part. 1,
13.
1,
Part
1,
3,
10,
11,
7
13,
17.
Plato's
Plato's
De
Legibus.
Part 1
Part
Pait
3,
8.
Parmemdes,
Part I
Part
1,
1,
Plato's Theaetetuw.
Plurality.
t
10,
11,
12,
17, 20.
Potential.
I,
13.
Power Power
square).
surd).
Part
I,
1,
10,
11.
Part
I,
I,
11 (once).
Proportion.
Part
6,
9,
188
Geometric proportion. Part I, 19; Part II, 17, proportional. Part I, 19, 20, 22, 23; Part
Part/ I,
1,
Mean
Pythagoreans.
2.
Q.
Qittwlrinomial.
Part
I,
23, 22.
Continuous quantities, commensurable and incommensurable, rational and irrational, finite. Part I, 1, 3, 4, 5, (i, 8, SI, 13, 14, 24; Part II, 6.
K.
Ratio.
Part
1,
5,
6,
8,
9.
Rationality,
Rationale.
Part
1,
1,
15.
4,
1,
Part
I,
5,
4,
6,
7,
14, 23.
Rational area.
Part
19,
20.
17, 18, 20, 25;
Rational Linos.
Part
Part
II, 4,
Rational quantities.
Part
I,
3,
14.
Part
1,
9.
Part
1,
T.
Theaetotus.
See Plato.
Part, I,
1, 3.
Theodorus.
Total.
10,
11.
Part
Triad.
l^irst
Part. I, 9.
and second
Part
trhuedial.
I,
Part
I,
22.
Trinomial.
21, 22,
IT.
Unity.
Part
I,
3.
W.
Whole.
Part
I,
3,
13.
THE ARABIC
TEXT.
an
<ikal
lo
o
0^13
y*
JJfc
ilkiJl
^ JW
^^ d
V
0'
192
Pag. 2
uov
iij JLjuI)
J^^li
Uli .L
j>
Ulj
ilUil
tS
"
j
d j
Jj
L^U
d a^i l^J
LL.J1 ia*
*\
fllk;
8 3
jLJl
iJub
(1T)
JJU
*^ 0'
lJ^
Jc
^Vl
lili
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193
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LfeJUai b'JUaf
L?
iH Jb~ ^UYl
JL*
I'ttff.
^^
j^
^JiJ\
<3
b'Juai
^J
L*
U\ jM
5
r lLcVl
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Uj, 4,^115
Ul
oljj
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JungeThomnon.
194
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^^ *>\J\ jU dUjJi
UA
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Jail
Ub
4J
U Ul
^\
*J
'
J^iil Jl
Jj?Vl
ilJl ^AA
U
VI
jJl
j\J\
Jj?Vl
^^'J cN
iLl
^
J*^6 ^
U*J Ol
^^^ 3ki\
^jji oi
Jl U^L
jtai
jd^^
iTj
248
lj
,J*"*
^ JjVl l^\^
jur'l
v^ Jiu*
JUi\
Ijjt
Jai
J\
ctLr
^1^
^^^ 0^1
Jl JL^il
j^
4
jt
dili
l^b
Uj> JUJI
^ku
o^r
<>
A&
Pag.
f)
Ul
Jl ci^l
O^So Jj>Vl
lil
jl
Lal
.A3
JjVl
Jl^
jJl
*JuD
uMAa^l
j)\
J, : aiJl
iLailii
249
C2).
)
jJl
ui
J&*#
t
*LJH
ia>
j*
jJli
j
i
Ul
0/r
,> jjJ* ^^
jJI
^
J
J^idt
Ulj
Ai
^
>~
0'
Ua>c3
jl
*
Jst>t5
250
JU
Jj]
3
OK"
iL^l ^
;
as
Jc j
>
oj
1
Jl
ii
Jos*
0' cJJ^j
Ja*~tij*
7*^
'
51)
a^o
liaJLo
&
f"
i\
/iu?
LoL.
(352)
251
il
JA Ja
<L
J^i
Jai
Jaj>
U
jJI
JJ* ia^
OVj
Liu
^i^l*
jLk^
Jl
Jl
^
f
^ajl
iklx.
J^
J
<
jj
uX>lj>
pU
'
:^ 4U
<_
JJ1
Jail
llalA
;*^
A^*,xJ
^JA
Ja>
U'Luft
J^lall
LJtlaJL*
Oo
0^
LA!
jS
252
il
lk>
\il
^*
efjJI ^
JjVi ^^Jx^j* ^*
^ JJI
O^ O^o
Ja^^>
Jl JicVl
^LJt
AJ
**^ia*
AJ6
28
JA&
Ai J>uwa
/*^^*
o^
Jo^
^J>1
^g.^a..j^
uau^ja
4>
l^\
Ul
iiaio
AJT'l
Ic
^.jaJj
JL^aJ
liaU
Lc
c5^^ ^^
V3
*j^
**
^
4j
'
^UU
Vjl
'
'
J^
i^ uU L
Jjia
JtA
liasi
AJ
JLj
jJl
i^Jo
uJua
JU>
Fag
fil
<^jJlj>
253
^
**
*i
4J
^ L*
Ifr
!
Ul
oljJJI
U"
or J*
0V ^iUt
3
Ul
Jj
*A
ui^j5
^jLLo
'
^Lau^j^a
jj
^^
.
\jj&y*3
uUb
'
_ _
^
Ua~^
(37.V)
^ LkJ ^ ^* (3*
Ju>
.
Ja^A
(371)
Nf
j^.

jYj (JLL^*
j
Usu
""""
^ ^^
O^
0'
j*^
4.
<Jb
iu^
1.4 Ja>
A*
^J^X"
Uo
LXM
(:17(i)
:,*ii
Ol^
<Jl*J'
^^JaMj^
IM J^ bl j*
lj
.
JO
U^U
S;Uji
.it
lil
J*3
^b
Oyo
^ ol
Ul bi
iT*
(7),
jjjJy
O^j^*
*i^ lili
ux
LJI
j^^iail
^J*
la*j
JUS Cr^^
254
Jai
X (^
,**
JL
1)
jl
wX
r^
(8i7
rJ
*^A^
y
li
jx> (j
J>
jj
*^
J>
i
Ja>
^1
_iU
**>
(383)
Ul
zoo
u\
\*\
o\^
fJ
^ ^ ^ ^^ ^
0V
jt
U
,
*.
^^
(38(5)
_
^"
_

8 31
A*
A*
i5
3^
_
Ui)
256
'
"
cT*
4)
Pag. 64
Ulj JliU Ul
IJkl* J^J^^
Jtfidl ji
lap
0>ii
^jl l^L
Oj
J<*^
J^LU
;^SJ\
J jk
*$
0V
,U*>* C^
^^^
3^^* ^H
*J*
iljL
^j^
** juir*
J>U1
^**
J OUk
j oiC^^
oiu^il
*.
J^_
u'l
^kai ov
0>li
O^C^*
*>aM
J>
C^
d^
Jo
lIjLL* syll
>
f3
Jl o>
'
'
^b
JaJ^
^jJJ iljLl*
Joft
(*
^ LLa^ 4j fj A
Ja^
3J
^a^
^p
Lki
257
u,y
""'
(393)
13U
Jdl
CT
JajLl
JafcU
l3l
j$ Ja
J*^^
131
0^>
ia^^A !*>
jJJl
J6
*3
Ja^J
ul
jl
O3
~*y*J
jl
JSli
^LJl
^H
( l
JuUl
O^
O\ Ul
Ul
^i
^' *t J)
8)
o
j>
uXj ^
<s*"*5*
^^
(SjL^o JL*
u^
J^*
Jj ***
J
17
JungeTIiomso
258
L^JJ
J*
JL*
Ja^
lil
.X*
Ja^JJ ^UJLl
0V k^
JUI
Jjli
Jjb
Liul
JJb
V
jJl li\
4,
^
Jjb
lil
'
i^
\\
(402>
Png.
(56
J^
JLr>j
JS
J^l
J>
li AJ
4,0
JJ
y, jr L
uj^ jl LJtkl*
j!
1*1
4.
j
^
.
UJii
.
U
i
dut U
i.
.
U
,
M J\ C^il
.,
Ij
t(
J^^tJlj Jjl
ui
lil
Ual
liil
lib
Uil
Ux
JuLiii
259
4)
JliU jU!
O^^jJL
jJI
jJl
Ul
Jl
(40fi)
d!5i;
^jJl
jJI
jjl
Jl Ju^idl j)l
oUJJ U^l
(4
lil
U
jJl
Pag. 67
Jl
j\]
^JJI
.Jj^
L^ll
Jl
jl
^L^V\
ii^laJl
JUl j^
Lc
Sj^'^j^u Ux?\
^
[Jr^^
UU\ Llb^
oliUVl Jl
Jfr
^
>*
LLJ&
a.
JJ6
<^*
^
{
0'
3 45
Uli
^
JlTlil
Jfrl
JJLJLl
oJJ*
J^
^L
17*
260
Id
JUi
Jtl*
lil
Lb
UJ c'K'll
A;!
dU
dUjJ
Pag. 68
J. ^L^ OliJ
ijUi
SJLiil
iJUil jwi"
There
title
is
no general
title to
The
,
first
is
is
general
which WOEPCKB
gives,
^JJ
.....
AJUll
>*Ju
an adaptthe
tlbll
Book
11 of the treatise.
first
The second
**
title of
*
Book
of the treatise
title to
1
minus the
1
phrase,
JjVl
WoKPCKEi's
the
title of
Book
his
is
a combination of the
first
first
phrase of
Book
and
own
^' phrase, adopted by WOEPCKK, is f***v^ <j**V^ (**^ an either of addition the Arab translator, or more probably manifestly of the copyist.
The
WoKpc'KK reads
of the copyist
.Jj
instead of
~o>
"B",
T'\ "TH",
example,
l^jui
in
^uit
1.
(p. 4,
1.
10);
32,
u^> (p.
1.
5,
1.
4);
(p.
1^1
(p.
12,
4);
(p. 32,
3);
JJ
(p.
f>);
J^
30, L 3f1.};
uuT
(p.
42
1.
1.
margin which I cannot decipher, may be a note on ^~i, which has in the M.S, a sign over it. ^"i evidently means
in the
Some words
WOEPCKE
oLiLVl
rl^itjul
gl.
m.
gi.
3
(
)
LP^JJJ
(jL" is
m.
WOEPCKK
same
read
^\J
instead
of
(jlT.
Syntactically
in the
would be an accusative
4
(
of resjject in the
t.
same
relation as AL
Conj.
6
(
t>i
gl.
WOEPCKE). ok5"j m.
(*)
There
is,
then,
namely, ^^51
and
_
namely, <j*^j
jj^l
262
gloss probably serves the pur
The marginal
pose of giving clearly the correct reading of the text and also the
supralinear gloss.
7
(
Gl.
m.
gl.
^^yl
m.
t,
()
B
(
>l
The marginal
gloss,
which
it is
some
or Z^*
p. 417,
is
19
20,
given.
11
(
LLl
gl.
m.
supra.
gl.
12
(
)
<C**> gl.
13
(
jj^Sl Greek
Conj.
^jy
7)
m. WOKK'KE read
jj^Jl
j^5c)i J>jJi*.
^^
is
probably the
pov).
I
14
(
J^t.
The
and jjl)l are synonyms as used here. is more likely to be a dittograph than the A;
I
16
(
)
feminiTie
is
to be preferred.
16
(
)
17
(
)
I read
^jl^Jl gL supra. jUJ with SUTER instead of WOICPCKE'B and the MS's
jlJJ.
18
(
)
From J^Uj
j ^)>lll is
is
19
(
)
21
(
)
22
(
)
j^^T gL m. GL m. il t,
n ^Ulj m.
C
24
)
In the
first
place
^J^^\
to the second
#"^1*1
and
finally in
Oy^
neglecting the
first
and
3TyU can be read with the exception of one word, of which two letters can still be deciphered and which can be conjectured from the context.
in the margin.
in another therefore,
(O^,
I have,
263
reconstructed the text on this basis, enclosing, within square brackets
what
is
() yVl
2(J
(
ltfiVl
Ult gl,
m.
27
(
[^Jdl] Gl. m.
gl.
supra,
t.
;X&
J,tu jbJjMj
28
(
distinctly,
WOEPCKE
is
commonly
probably to be accepted.
MS.
30
(
c~4*
gl.
supra.
() GL m. () Id m.
j
(**)
35
f
)
a Lto
>
t.
^jD!
Conj.
J
(
a LJIj
m.
t.
WOEPCKE). jk*
supra.
36
(
)
j>^
U m.
gl.
37
(
3it
(
)
t.
()
40
(
)
J>JI m.
gl.
Jl*
supra.
41
(
CoilJ.
t.
.
42
(
WOEPCKE
conjectures
jJ^>
3 (*
)
>l m.
^o*
j;
44
(
)
^
g], gl.
?
^ul m.
supra.
5 (* )
(46) 47
(
)
WOEPCKE
^rwi
read <uAU
mipra.
gl.
(*
LA
u;
supra.
It reads u*S
49
(
m.
gl.
supra.
m.
5a
(
)
t.
The second
is
evidently a dittograph.
1.
(53)
m.
JJuJI is
used as a gloss to
jOi)l
p. 7,
13,
note 8 (para.
15; p. 11,
1.
0),
and
21,
p. 14,
11.
34.
MB
(
)
Ul
gl.
m.
264
(")
fiB
^LU Ujj
4jbbJl
gl. gl.
gl.
m.
lt*Vl
f
J J^UVl J*
gl.
<*) Jli
m. m.
gl.
<)
68
( )
t*l
<U*l
supra.
H H
61
(
)
JjLiVi
Jb*^ a*
Ul
AlV gl.
m.
j/}
m.
supra.
gives

Jjull gl.
62
(
)
The MS.
*UV
with
above the
line after
63
<
)
OJ^
Gl.
"i
M
(
)
66
(
6
(
)
Ut
t.
e7
(
ft
^"^is given
4*ldil gl. in.
in the
69
(
<*J
^
gl. is
*j\
gl.
m. WOKPCK.JS read
() JS
7l
(
)
m.
J**_j
added here
in the margin.
73
(
^Ul
aiL
w
gl.
supra.
74
(
JSS mgl.
() J^/j
7(l (
m.
gl.
supra.

77
(
)
78
(
)
O^L 8L m J gl supra.
gl,
(") ^I>V!
(*<>)
m.
iu.jd\ to
^Vlj m.
read <J1T.
81
(
WOEPCKE
gl. gl.
The Greek
1.
is
3).
supra.
IB.
t.
JA
l^*
84
(
GL m, ^Jl
JL ju.
85
(
JS,
J>3
gl.
m.
WOEPCKE
.
read <uj.
88
(
87
(
WOEPCKE
conjectures
Li,
is
undoubtedly
_
gl.
89
(
)
265
ra.
t.
(>) iijk
91
(
)
m.
m.
Jbij
Ul
e2
(
)
All
Vl at the beginning
.
Obviously the
t.
95
(
4
(
ofi
(
jio/
gl.
supra.
^J* Jp
The MS,
m.
lias jl JL*I;
96
(
is
palpably an addition.
serve to
An
may
draw attention
"Ya"
an
error.
Cf.
jLjyi UL U
Conj.
[IOAJJ
supra.
t.
(*
(WOEPCKE) ufjl^
m.
[uf ]jl^*
1.
supra.
(")
lyo
(
]
^t
) )
gl.
c.;tT gl.
m.
jja<
gl.
m.
but the "Fa"
gloss runs:
I02
(
)
m.
reads,
? *
J0:i
( )
The MS.
or seems to read,
^f A> dUtJ**;
t
CJT
}>o
I04
(
o dUt^
in.
***^
would seem to
1,
C"^"
note 88.
^1
106
( )
Conj. (WOEPOKE).
jk>
t.
lofl
( )
^1
l
gl.
supra.
gl.
107
(
O ^*Vlj
jUl! gl.
supra.
108
(
in.
rf.
109
(
Jb.yi]
gl.
supra.
(") o^Sr
LU
(
)
m.
suggests x^ as a correction; but
t.
WOEPCKE
Gl.
it
is
unnecessary.
("
(
2
)
m.
Ulj
113
)
Conj. (WOEPCKE).
Ua^l
m.
t.
()
lia
(
)
J^o/ m.
^Ll* ^LSil
Jfi gl.
<) ^ol! 3
gl. in.
266
u7
(
***
gl.
118
( )
<>J./J*
^
m
in.
,
supra.
81
See
Tl> ans.,
t.
Part
1,
note 108.
119
(
()
(121)
(
Ul
t.
4J^#
m )*LJi
I23
)
gl.
gl,
1,
note 113.
#0^*
lil
to
ztf m.
J24
(
m.
t.,
l
125
(
U
he
m.
proposes
12G
(
)
WOEPCKE
O^Ll*
t.
us
better reading.
is
Gramatically
is justified;
U7
(
('**)
After
^1
m
131
cor
J^LJI ij is
(130)
(
)
^Jt
j^kJi
(
gl, gl.
m. m. m.
('^jtkJI
133
(
gl.
)Conj.
WOEPCKE). ^L* J m.
l
t.
jJ gl.
m. m.
la8
( )
j^
t.
(139)
14
(
)
WOEPCKE
jl
read:
^J
t.
1,
note 138,
m.
141
(
142
( )
m.
.suggests
(143)
WOKPCKE
J^to
JoiJJ
y>^
as a better reading.
is
But
it
is
possible
O
145
(
to be understood.
m.
t.
t.
146
(
14
(
')
Jlk. m. Jlki m.
j
t
148
(
(WOEPCKE).
J^kli
j uuk>
t.
1,
note 154.
267
16
(
)
Gl. in.
JM
t.
1&1
(
dUij to
U!j m.
t.
1&s
(
)
164
(
m
&e
167
t.
~*l. j* to
jJlll
(i
(
gL m.
GL
01.
supra,
^j
t.
t,
158
(
)
m.
pU
159
(
Conj. (WOKPCKE).
Uo^l
t.
lfll
(
)
Conj.
WOEPCKE).
t.
Sj*
t.
162
(
)
Sic l^b
Gl.
lil
163
(
)
m, m.
*,^Jl
t.
164
(
)
167
(
)
I68
(
)0onj, (WOEPCKK).
)
^1
t.
ltt9
(
jll to
bl
m.
37
(
)
t.
The text
of the
MS.
is,
however,
quite intelligible as
171
(
Gl.
m.
m.
172
(
it
stands.
t.
m
174
!J^
after J"j. It is probably an interpolation. The Greek has nothing corresponding to it. See J. JL. HEIBERG, Euclidts
11.
1115,
esp.
1.
14.
Conj.
to
176
(
)JoS
)
t.
177
(
J O^A^
t,
178
(
)
Porha])s
we should
read
J*.
Cf. JU.L
two
n9
(
)
lines later.
Uku
4
to
4,
m.
18
( )
rn.
11
J81
(
)Conj. (WOEPCKE).
t.
268
(182)
WOEPCKE
omits
tliis
sentence.
But
r)v
it is
I'^GUGLV
aXoyoi not only by the status construct/us, but also by this sentence.
J. L.
183
(
which
is
See
1.
23.
m
185
6
WOEPCKE).
Oonj. (WOEPCKE).
r
(
J
m.
(
187
)
Conj.
WOEPCKE), WOEPCKE).
*8
)
pj!
to J*jkll rn.
{
rij.
Conj. (WOEPCKE).
191
(
^ ^ ^
cJI
t,
t.
Jb!i
t.
pi.
supra.
vJu^.1 t.
t.
]92
(
)Conj. (WOEPCKE).
)
195
(
ISW
( )
Conj, (WOEPCKE).
t.
196
( )
j!
in.
At the bottom
is
of this
written: J'j*. "It has been collated"'?, margin, copied with another or others.
o.,
the
MS.
1M
(
01,
supra.
Aja^ll
t.
WOEPCKE
read
3^*ll
2.
in
the
preceding
OJi
line as
i^^l.
ig
The
phrase,
~^J1 <^*V^
copyist.
7
of the
Muslim translator or
(*
m.
ltg
(
Jb.1 t.
WOEPCKE adopted
as his reading
Jii.1
but suggested
in his note.
9
( )
Ul
pL
m.
supra.
20
(
gl.
201
(
Jivlj rn.
2oa
(
a^j
Gl.
gl.
supra,
(203)
WOEPCKE
read
()
m. jkll
J^T
t,
()
20e
(
liu?.
k gh
207
(
)
olj to iw*
m.
269
m.
aoe
(
)
After
Jlill
Gl.
m.
j*l\
t.
t.
2U
(
)
Conj. (WOEFCKE).
Oonj.
(
jJJI
t.
212
(
)
WOEPCKE). 4UL.
supra.
213
( )
*tk* gl.
214
(
)
^^A
Conj.
Jl
to
(
jku
m.
t,
215
(
)
WOEPCKE). k^.
216
(
)
m.
in the
217
(
)
margin after
ol and
jl>.
218
(
)
MS. has
*\ for
for
from
*>.
line 2 to line
5).
^
it
*>.
22
(
Conj.
<>
WOEPCKE). U^Tt.
WOEPCKK).
.
221
(
)
conj.
It is
necessary
28Z
(
)
AI
m.
after
^JuW
(323)
224
(
)
WOEPCKK
would be
better.
But JJ
is
possible.
LjU
V
gl.
ru.
(^)
22G
(
)
m.
t.
as
Cf.
2.
227
(
)
t.
A>
228
( )
a29
(
W*^
m.
^iii*^
I
(230)
(WOBPCKE).
t.
A
V.
case
of
haplography, the
of
of
t.
t,
B31
(
)Conj. (WOEPCKE).
)
U^^j
l*^yj uOl^
83a
(
23JJ
(
t.
t. t.
t.
83
( )
Conj. (WOEPCKE).
Conj.
(
O^A
*.\
35
(
WOEPCKE).
a36
(
)
Conj. (WOEPCKE).
^
237
(
)Conj. (WOEPCKE).
The MS.
lacks
270
P) Oonj. m Conj,
)
(WOEPCKE).
(WOEPCKE).
^JUJj
^yuji
t. t.
t,
t.
M1
(
)
Conj. (WOEPCKE).
Conj. (WOEPCKE). Oonj.
(
Ma
( )
jP
^Jk>
jLaLl*
243
(
WOEPCKE).
t. t.
t.
244
( )
Conj. (WoEPCXE).
245
(
246
(
2* 7
(
m. rjWlJ
in the
t.
of
Kj*l~j
MS
(
)
MS.
Conj.
iUf
t.
WOEPCKE adopted
i^JilJcJ*.
wrote
24e
(
^^
in error for
t.
^CU,
itself
an error
Conj. oJi^l
2BO
(
MS.
251
(
J : ^:\
t.
363
J
WOEPCKE).
See Trans., Part
dJUol t.
253
f
Read 3ui>?
11,
note 9b.
<264
(
255
(
)
5ti
t.
i
255b
(
)
U^U^.
t.
(* 2G7
(
lacking in the
MS.
t.
(268)
WOEPCKE
suggests that the phrase, lk^ 4, Jlk^ ^^lj, should be added hero to the text. Although not strictly necessary, the
WOEPCKE
The
it,
inserts here;
is
c$*^l* Cxfj*
*.
*J
^a
:^ L$^^
is
insertion
aided
by
it.
See Trans.,
2GO
(
WOEPCKE),
^^
t.
t.
2
(
(
Conj.
WOEPCKE).
Jou*^
t.
t.
263
(
Conj. (WOEPCKE). J\
264
( )
(*)
(266)
m. jkdl
^ JJM,
t.
The
text of the
gl.
MS.
is possible.
t.
WOEPCKE
rejects *j?X
_
267
( )
271
Conj. (WOEPCKE).
Oonj. (WOEPCKE),
268
(
Ak^
t.
269
(
Oonj. (WOEPCKE),
Conj. (WOEPCKE).
27
(
j*jA
t.
t,
271
(
272
( )
and
273
(
Conj. (WOEPCKE).
Not
in the
MS. The
first
before
J*.
LsJ!
t.
Gl.
m.
27S
(
Conj.
jbl
276
(
So given in the
MS;
for
t.
cf.
277
( )
Conj. (WOEPCKE).
Jfll m. Conj. (WOEPCKE).
oTX^
l$\
(*
(
78
)
279
)
t.
28
(
)
Conj. (WOEPCKE).
\a~y
Jau
t.
281
(
t.
(282)
JflU/ t.
283
( )
284
(
)
(285)
IU.
si
t.
(286)
WOEPCKE
conjectured jbj.
(287)
288
( )
Oonj. (WOEPCKE).
Conj.
i)j"ifi
which
is
possible.
Ul t.
where context
aiul construction
are similar.
289
(
)
Conj. (WOEPCKE).
jL>
t.
20
( )
t.
2t)1
(
Ul
t.
292
(
tL*
t.
11,
note 114.
2
(
3
)
^yulbli
(294)
296
( )
^^i
t.
(296)
(297)
(WOBPCKB).
*i
Conj.
V^
jl
t.
WOEPCKE
p. 48,
1.
suggestes:
6,
Jai jli.
Cf.
where the
next case
29
(
)
is
stated
t.
Conj. (WOEPCKE).
_
299
(
972
t.
30
(
^\
to JU^JLl m.
301
(
3 2
(
)
WOEPCKE WOEPCKE
read ^uT.
suggests
4il
.
4*l.
Observe
U
t.
is
the ^J before
S***
Conj. (WOEPCKE).
oij
j,
304
( )
WOEPCKE
CoilJ.
omitB the
considering
t.
t.
it
an
error.
30B
(
(WOEPCKE).
vJ
3oe
( )
Conj. (WOEPCKE),
^Jj
(so?)
Conj. (WOEPCKE),
^J
^*.j
TJ'
t,
(308) (^ Oll j
30
(
)
(WOEPCKE).
t.
Conj. (WOEPCKE).
t.
31
(
)
Conj. (WOEPCKE).
\j
t. t.
31l
(
<Jli!
)Conj. (WOEPCKE).
)
j!3j
t.
3IS
( )
314
(
315
(
)
Not
in the
MS.
316
(
)
3J7
(
As WOEPCKE
says,
we should here
fulfills
read,
^
(1)
^JDI
^,
since as the
of the
two functions:
c
As part
name,
Ja^v^*
^j
(2)
As
indicating,
t.
*
3l8
(
)Conj. (WOEPCKM).
)
Jc
31
(
Conj.
WOEPCKE).
^...S:.
^^
t.
321
(
)^5j
The
)
to
J^odl m.
is
3a
(
)
Conj. (WOEPCKE).
figure
(*)
323
(
The
ial
clause beginning
It
clause.
31
jU^Il
jS^
even o
324
(
jlT.
jlkL m.
325
(
a2ft
(
yj
m.
It
is
possible that
yj
^1
m,
S27
(
)Conj, (WOEPCKE).
_
t.
273
Conj.
329
(
t.
WOEPCKE
suggests
a*.
WOEPCKE
33
(
31
(3
t.
(332)
333
(
WOEPCKE
Conj.
<J
read </.
Jjbll
jMMJlj
t.
Possibly
we should
read: v*
<>
334
(
Sy m.
Conj. (WOEPCKE). jjLl*
t.
t.
335
(
(336) (Jonj,
337
(
)
(WOEPCKE). JjLl>
Conj. (WOEPCKE).
Conj. (WoEPCKE).
UJTt,
j^lLi
t.
Cf. p, 56,
1.
(338)
33
(
)
(340)
34)
(
j,^ m. Q on j (WOEPCKE).
t
ji is lacking
t.
the
MS.
Ma
(
)
(WOBPOKK).
Jblj t.
M3
( )
Conj. (WOEPCKE).
^M\
Jo
t.
t.
(344)
c on j, (WOEPCKE),
Conj. (WoEPCKE).
()
346
f
347
f )
Conj. (WOEPCKE).
Conj. (WOEPCKE),
Conj. (WOPECKE).
ji
348
f
)
Li
JA
j*
349
f )
t.
t.
35
(
)
Conj. (WOEPCKE).
Gl. rn.
M1
( )
rj
t.
^
t.
t.
(362)
3G3
(
C on j (WOEPCKE). JA
Coilj.
(WOEPCKE).
(
354
f )
Conj.
WOEPCKE). JA
t. t.
:>
for 3.
.
(,m) Conj.
356
(
(WOEPCKE). j*
Conj.
(WOEPCKE). **yj J*
oj^ *j~J>\
t.
JA
J^C
is
probably a
supralinear gloss which has crept into the text, JA the line upon which the square is described.
(i. e.
DC) being
M7
(
Conj. (WOEPCKE). J;
t.
t. t,
368
t
)
359
f
18
274
36
(
m
362 363
t, t.
t.
(Wt)EPCKE), wJUJj
Conj. (WOEPCKE).
*^i
3"
t.
)Conj. (WoJSFCKE).
)
m
3<5S
Conj, (WOEPCKE),
Conj, (WOEPCKE).
^
JJ
J.
t.
t.
f"
3 e
(
Conj. (WOEFCKE).
nj.
(367) (<
868
(
(WOEPCKE). j?
t.
^olls t.
369
(
)
87
(
Conj. JA
as
jfi
.
iaij
b.
WOEPCKE
suggests
Ju
a?1
(
Conj.
WOKPCKE), JA
should
l>e
t,
t7
(
) jb.1
(Jb^lj?)
added
t.
here, says
WOEPCKE.
37:i
(
Conj. (WoEPOKJs). JA
374
(
The
MB
gives jVj.
WOEPCKE
some such word as "When'", or "As soon as" had evidently some such phrase as ETUSI&YJ
the Arab translator took in C
(
e or
which
its
176
)
Conj. (WOEPCKE). jj
CU>nj.
(
t.
_
y>
lil
__
lil
376
)
WOEPCKE).
t>!a^j>
JJ Jai JU_^
j^
Li
t.
Clearly
a case of haplography.
377
(
)0onj. (WOEPCKE).
)
Sjill
J Jjb^
Jai^
t.
t.
378
(
Conj.
WOEPCKE).
jj> o>
S79
(
}>.
46,
11.
4 & 22.
lai.
(380)
J^aiJl ^1
o^Jl ^
added
(381)
MS. the
the figure
have been rather carelessly written, but there are no real errors as
WOEPCKE seems
8M
(
to claim.
t.
aaft
(
Conj.
WOEPCKE).
Ik.
t.
t.
(984) (JOIIJ.
(385)
(WOEPCKE). jldl
275
38G
(
Coilj.
(WOEPCKE). iu^.
t.
387
( )
Conj, (WOKPCKE).
jlk^
J^iili
388
i.
ao
( )
j
ufjll*
t.
391
(
)Conj. ^ullj
)
392
(
Conj. jlJub,
(303)
WoBPCKE
Conj.
(
suggests
llki*
But
t.
is
also correct.
SM
( )
Conj. (WOKPCKK).
Lu^.
jb^lj
a 5
(
WOKPCKK).
t.
t. t.
396
(
Conj. (WOKPCKB).
iu.^
jll
3&7
(
)
Conj, (WOEPCKE).
39
(
)
JjlL
rn.

(a&oj
40
(
)
"WoisrcKK remarks:
COITJ. (WoKrciKJs).
Thus the
MS.
It
is
not necessary.
40J
( )
Conj.
WOKPCKK). J+aL*
t.
40
(
^)
Conj. a^l^l
(V>nj.
(
03
(*
)
WOKPCKK). l*rL^
jl
t.
404
(
.square brackets
4t)5
(
)
4M
O
(
WOKPCKK
Gl. rn.
road
t.
SJia^*.
lyj
405
(
)
t.
409
<
)
t,
41
( )
411
(
Conj. Seo Trans., Part 11, note 173. Conj. See Trans., Part 11, note 174.
{"*) Conj.
413
(
)
cases.
18*
pretatione AlHadschdschadschii
cum commentariis
1,
AlNarizii,
H. indicates Euclidis Elementa, J. L. HEIBEEG, Leipzig, 1888, vol. V; Spr. indicates A Dictionary of the Technical Terms etc., A. SPREKGER, Calcutta, 1862; T. indicates Euclid's Elements, translated from the Greek by Nasir addin atT^si, Home 1594 "Heath" indicates The Thirteen Books of Euclid's Elements, T. L. HEATH, 1908.
Fascicule
1;
JU.I

To take
Of.
for granted,
to assume
11
(W., p. 47,
1.
20).
Si^lll,
"Adsmnptum'
49,
1.
(Lemma)
(BH.,
I,
pp.
3839).
iy.U Given (W., p. The two terms
l
1;
'The given
line").
etc.)
of a binomial (or
major
(W., p. 58,
1.
16).
1.
6, etc.)
15;
cf.
W.,
p. 21,
11.
89;
p. 43,
4; p. 25,
1.
21).
11.
A
1.
Binomial (W.,
10).
p. 25,
L 13;
Li.
cf.
(W., p. 26,
1.2).
ijki.
1.
15).
I.
The
22).
in
this
edition of the
277
p. 25,
1.
23).
LJ
,LJ
& ^JUl ^
A
p. 21,
11.
10,
ID).
5).
The Quadrinomial (W., p. 21, L 11). The Elements (L e., of Euclid). Greek,
Gloss,
oLskJVl
(e. g,,
(W., p.
1,
1).
Harmony
c
harmony) (W.,
\Ju*
p. 2,
3).
Beginning
"One
11
of the
numbers) (W.,
J,ju"
5).
or the Variance
from oneI.
A synonym
of ^j^il.
(W., p. 50,
6).
a* Extension (W., p. 14, 1. 2). Distance or extension between things; shortest distance between things (Spr.,
Vol.
1,
p.
115).
Greek,
8i<xoT7][Jia.
jLJI
(T.,
Book X,
p. 226).
(i. e.,
the
22).
two
lines,
A and
B) (W.,
4*
p. 46,
1.
4;
.
cf. p.
46,
Synonymous with
L"
jllau^. ^JDl
Incommensurability (W.,p.
of JljUl q. v.
4,
1.
17).
It in the opposite
^*
Incommensurable
dau[X(Ji:Tpo^.
(W.,
p.
31,
11.
3,
20).
q. v.
Greek,
It is the opposite of
Jjl^.
(T.,
Prime
p.
(of
numbers to oneanother)
Book VIII,
169).
p. 8,
17, n.5).
The Triad (W., p. 9, 1. 6 cf Translation, Part I, note 52) The Greek is given, H., Vol. V, p. 484, 1.23, Tpiot.;.
J]
1.
20).
4,
1.
*.^
The Part
p. 39,
1.
(of
7;
11). It is
278
Part.
(i.
or
an aliquot part
U)
2122).
I.
The Sum
p. 40,
1.
(of lines or
5;
20).
Greek, TO SXov.
lines)
1.
19).
p.
13,
9).
Greek,
(TUyxplC7l<;
tu
The Whole"
(of
a magnitude) (W., p.
).
3,
1.
8; p. 4,
7).
q. v,
(The whole
is
line),
12
of the
same page.
1,
Chapter or Part of a
Book (W.,
p, 23,
H>; p. 26,
7),
The Greek
II.
5,
xecpaXaiov.
p. 23,
1.
1.
Homogeneity (W.,
H., Vol. V,
19)
The Greek
Tho Greok
is
given,
p. 484,
14, rruyyeveia.
Homogeneous (W.,
Vol. V, p. 418,
1.
p. 7,
ItJ,
2).
is givori,
H.,
6[zoyevG>v.
p. 14,
11.
II.
2, 5).
Greok,
6y>co<;*
To Define (W
The Limit
p. 14,
11.
p.
11,
14,
15).
1.
or
Bound
3, 8). It is
13ff.;
and PnTmcnidcs.
Standard
(i.
ex,
practical purposes) (W., p. 0, 1. 21; p. 7, 1. 17). The point of bisection in a line, the line of bisection
m
1,
body
(Spr. Vol.
1.
6).
4,
1.
1).
The Greek
0, o>
279
OJU.
To
arise or be
1.
produced (W,, p.
10
39,
11.
15,
16,
17;
p. 40,
&
11).
,jU
4f^>.
13,
14,
15).
It is the opposite of
^J^j,
,J jja>
To be comprised
genus) (W., p.
or
comprehended
4).
i.
3,
To determine
character.
(a thing),
e.,
make known
p. 4,
1.
1
its
1.
form or
4),
To contain
]>.
10,
1.
13).
Greek, Mod.,
(Cf.
To draw (a line) (W., p 50, 1. 3) To produce (i. e., extend a line) BH. 1, p. 10), The finding or discovery of (W.,
Greek
is
BH.
I, p.
10).
1
( f.
p. 23,
1.
1.
19).
Tho
15, eupeai^.
1.
To
is
rjli.
])rovo or
demonstrate (W.,
V, p. 551,
of a line
1.
]>.
26,
8).
The Greek
given,
II.,
23, ejctSeixvuGV.
Beyond
(i. e.,
i.
meeting another, AB, for example, e., not within AB, which is Ji1.5)
10).
Line.
1.
12).
The Greek
1.
4, Sioccpopa.
To he the contrary
Difference (W.,
Vol. V, p. 551,
e.,
of
1!); p.
8).
The Greek
given, H.,
25, $La<popa.
(i.
To take the
111
place of oneanoiher
e.,
of areas;
e, g.,
rational area
17).
1, p.
Case (Casuw,
Vol.
1,
TCToiaic;)
(BH.,
40,
1.
B; nee
Heath,
Introd., p. 134).
280
Unequal
(of
1.
15).
Greek,
6,
L 14 ),
is
1.
13, TCTJ/U?.
(teach, explain,
p. 26,
1.
17, 18;
13,
show by argument) (W., The Greek is given, 1. 3). and p. 547, 1. 24, SiSitrxet,
1.
StaXsyerai Scixvticov.
Definition (or Thesis) (W., p. 11,
5).
oil* I;
Bonds (W.,p.
31 c.
0,
1.
14).
Greek, 6
SS<T[JLO<;
of Timacus,
*>j
To
i. e., form it into a square A. (W., p. 10, 11. 14, 15; p. 11, figure. Appendix The Greek is the TSTpaycovL^to 11. 5, 7, 14, 15). of Theaetetus 148 a.
"sqiiare" a
Cf.
number,
Square
(of (of
Square
p. 11, 1L
1, 3, 4).
p.
10,
1.
13;
p. 24,
p.
1.
11,
11).
1).
The sum
this
of the squares
upon (W.,
But
meaning is derived from the The square upon HZ. (W., p. 33, 1.
Ijil
context.
1
;
Cf
cf.
W.,
p. 34,
1.
3),
9,
p. 33,
].
8; cf. p. 24,
11.
5,
6).
p. 40,
1.
21;
cf.
W.,
p. 57,
18 the phrase (lJul ol^Jll). 1. 14ff.; NB. 1. The square upon a line commensurable (incommensurable) with
p. 52,
1.
it
(W., p. 55,
11.
1.
16;
3).
To
cf.
describe (a square
upon a
Greek,
line)
(W., p. 58,
1.
3;
BH,,
1, p.
24,
1.
1.
18).
ypajJtfjLTj.
5).
Height
r
(of
a rectangle) (W.,
p. 59,
5).
281
Addition (Of magnitudes to one another) (W., p.
1.
5,
2; p. 9,
six
1.
5; p. 20,
1.
18; p. 35,
11.
16, 17). p.
The
1.
irrationals
1.
8; p 40,
6).
26,
p. 551,
1.
23,
oti
xardc duvOecriv.
W.,
p. 39,
1.
9.
The
irrationals
1.
24,
1.
15;
p. 35,
16).
(i.
Compound Lines
(W., p. 20,
1.
e,,
1.
formed by addition)
1.
20; p. 22,
15).
Compound
jlki.1
8).
linen
[to
7;
48,
1.
21),
The sum
21, 22),
(of
two
lines, of
11.
25,
11.
W.,
1.
p. 24,
11.
910;
11.
p. 25,
11.
5,6; p. 46,
I.
11.34;
11.
p. 41,
20; p. 33,
8, 16; p. 36,
11).
The sum
of the squares
p. 34,
11.
33,
10,
TT ^T
"
2^3, 89,
1.
12, 15,
18; p. 41,
19) (Ct.
W.,
p. 33,
12).
The sum
of the squares
is
p. 37,
1.
10).
The sense
Anglo.
\i\jj
At
1.
4).
1.
LljjJl ^ISJl
22; p. 31,
1.
8 etc.).
;^lj Addition
<J"
(W., p. 23,
1.
5).
jtL
Area, Plane
STrforsSoc;
(W., p. 17,
17).
Here
it
renders the
30,
1.
of Theaetetua
148b.
On page
T.,
is
19, it
In
It
Book X,
p. 268, it
"Rectangle"
(Cf.
(as
1>82
140b.
it
e. d.)
(W.
p. 13,
1.
0; cf. p. 3,
11.
17,
18,
where
tcrov.
is
Greek, TO
The Unequal (W., p. 3, pp. 18, 19; see Equal). Numbers such as are the product of equal sides (i. e., factors (W., p. 10, 1. 12). The Greek is tcrov lordcxi^,
Theactetus 147e.
cf
jO Span
<*,
(W., p.
13,
6,
yj
1.
14).
The Greek
is
p. 418, L
<77u6afjL7).
(With
^ & Ace.)
is
to liken or
To compare one thing to another, i. e., represent them as similar (W,, p, 19, 1. 16).
given, H., Vol. V, p. 485,
1. 1.
The Greek
jl
<I^>
is
,l
17,
0^0 to to.
It scorns that
(W., p.
9,
1.
11; p. 20,
11.
5).
The Greek
is
3, 23,
Sotxev.
U And such
ID).
The Greek
.
given,
15.
OCTO,
TOiauTOt.
1.
17)
1.
See
^Ull
3,
18),
Seo ^jULl
(W
]j.
2,
i.
15; see
VoL
1,
p. 702).
The Greek,
6[JLOLOT7]^
probably.
KSuiiilar (of
I.
21).
JSjLlVl
Commei insurability
of
(W.,
p. 2,
1.
5).
^Ld!
7,
8,
Jl]jLl>
9,
10,
1.
19).
Greek,
CTUJJL
Comrnonsuralile
prop.
6,
(with
oiieanotlior)
(T.,
Book X,
p. 230).
Commensurable (with one another) (W., p. 18, L 16, 19). Common., e. g., there iw 110 quantity which is common
quantitioH (W., p. 3, 1. 10); of a characteristic common to several things (W., p. 5, 1. 3, N. 3); of an
to
all
made so that it is adjacent to two others and forms with each a larger angle (BH., 1, p. 24, 1. 3). Incommensurable (with onoanother). Cf. the uwe of
angle
H.,
Vol. V,
p.
414,
1.
10.
Is this the
_
this idea
?
283
_
4/,
5).
*
express
Geometrical figure
(W., p. 50,
1.
(W., p.
14,
1.
Proposition
1).
1.
16).
The Greek
is
given,
VoL V,
Tho Less
140b.
(as
an
with the
d.)
(W., p. 13,
I.
6).
Greek, TO gXAotTTGV.
(W,, p.
22,
1.
The minor
p.
(the irrational
line)
IB;
26,
1.
17).
[>.
**a
*wl
1,
2; p. 2,
1.
2,
and
1.
3).
Of.
jk>.
p.
Form
p.
14,
(Idea), as
11
13,
1.
18;
3,
4).
14,
I.
2).
g.,
the
first hi medial
by the addition
p. 41,
1.
2).
J*
A^U*5
&*
etc.).
Greek,
y)
icXeupa.
Breadth
prop.
Side,
I(>
i.
(of
=
a rational area
(Of. T.,
Book X,
p. 231),
Greek, TO TuXdcTO?.
10,
1,
e.,
14; p. ll
5).
Tho Greek
tho
yj
TrAsupa
of
TliracMM
147d. 14Hb.
^jU*!
To apply
1.
1.
5; p. 30,
10;
p. 38,
11.
6).
The Greek
is
given, H.,
VoL V,
7,
1.
j>.
548,
2~3, TtapapaXXox
5),
5* Us
The Greek
is
given, H.,
VoL V,
p. 418, L
18,
73
JL!1
The Extremes
proportion)
oi cbtpot
(i. P.,
of a series of
20,
1.
numbers
Of.
1.
in
continued
.
(W.,
p.
13).
Jauj
5).
Greek,
(See H.,
VoL V,
p. 486,
284
Doubt, Suspicion
*
(in
the phrase,
c>*^ UJbJ>
jJl
meaning,
'Irrefutable*',
W.,
p. 1,
1.
8; p. 2,
1.
4).
The
phrase probably renders the Greek word, dtveXeyxTOV. Cf. G. FRIEDI^IN, Prodi Diadochi in Primitm Euclidis
Elementorum Librum Cornmentarii, p. 44, L 14, Simply, Without Qualification (W., p. 24,
p. 38,
jlk/*
1.
1.
19;
22).
e.,
"whole" [continuous quantity], i. homogeneous one {W., p. 7, 1. 1, N. 2). Part I, note 36.
finite
and
Cf. Translation,
Oblong (the figure) (W., p. 10, ]. 14). Oblong (of number, i. a., an oblong number) (W., p. 10, L 15; p. 11, 11. 45). The reference is to Plato's
Theaetet'tis
148 a,
Ttpojryjxec;.
Cf.
p. 6,
1. 1.
14,
3).
21; p. 14,
1.
15; p. 15,
1.
2; p. 16,
N. 9; See
Translation. Part
I,
note 34.
p. 11,
1.
4;
of. p. 10,
11.
12
14^
equal factors*".
347e.
148a.)
An
11.
45;
cf.
p.
is
10,
the
lens factor".
See Plato's
148 a.).
6).
1.
1.
10).
2).
kt
p. 1,
AtTusi
fiays
(T.,
Book X,
p.
225,
1.
Iff.):
The continuous
quantities are five, the line, the plane, the solid, Space, T<X [LZjiQf] of H., and Time", lt*Vl (W., p. 7, L 2)
Vol. V, p. 418,
p. 3,
1.
1.
7.
Cf.
14.
285
The major
L 17
etc.).
1.
22; p. 26,
The Greater
(as
Equal and the Less, a reference to Plato's Parmenidea UOb.c.d.) (W,, p. 13, 1, 6). Greek, r6 (xelCov. To convert (the two terms of a proposition) (W., p. 15,
L
6),
The converse
Cf, H,, Vol.
(of
1,
8 and
1.
1,
14).
6.
Greek,
1.
10; p. 25,
11.
45).
1.
24,
1).
Greek,
perpendicular
(W,,
(line)
(W,, p. 50,
1.
1.
16).
7).
** Definition
p. 40,
I.
p. 6,
7;
p. 56,
1.
Cf.
BH.
1,
9.
1.
3),
See Translation,
Fart
TI,
note
2.
jj*
To cut off
(a rectangle
p. 33,
8,
1.
).
Assigned, Given.
4).
p. 22,
Subtraction
p, 8,
fieri
"
(W., p. 22,
1.
18).
"Diatinctio"
(BH.,
5)
distiiiguit inter
potest, et ejus,
quod
fieri
non
potest.
1.
15).
Greek, H.,
14,
d^octpscn^
Definition or Specification (Greek, 8iGplCT(i6i;) (BH. I, p. 36, 1. 5). It states separately and makes clear what
is
which
is
sought in a proposition
Heath, Vol.
I,
Introd., p. 129).
jl ^Jl
J*jJ*ll
The
11
irrational lines
p. 26,
1*, 20;
286
The Greek
p. 553,
11.
to p. 26,
11.
1213
is
XOCT* ot9aipeartv.
The
L
irrational lines
p. 20,
20).
The
1.
irrational
formed by subtraction
(W., p. 40,
16).
JUili
Subtracted
Subtraction (W., p. 22, L 15; p. 42, 1. 15). (e. g., the rational and subtracted area;
W.,
p. 42,
1.
21).
(e. g.,
Subtracted from
is
subtracted from a
3,
1.
13).
It
is
the opposite
1.
3; p. 22,
21; p. 26,
first,
I.
13).
(Jreek,
7)
aTTOTOfjnf].
The
,
(W., p.
51,
jldl
11.
12
14;
51,
1.
19).
J/Vi
la
^1 J+O&A
(jbll)
The first
p. 26,
11.
(second)
15
apotome
of a
]
1.
16;
Greek,
[XS<yy]
dTCOTO[JLY] TtpCOTT]
(SsUTSpa).
(JbH)
First
p. 57,
1.
20).
Tlie
Hemamder
one
line
from
II).
Opposite, (Contrary (i. e., of two things within the same genus, o. g., the binomial and the apotome) (W., p. 47,
1.
14;
p. 48,
1.
23; p. 53,
11.
11,
13)
p. 1205).
Opposite
1.
(of
12).
;
13,
18).
p.
14,
11.
13,
17;
p. 6,
2ff.).
P. 13,
1.
7 it gives
287
Parmenidea 1 40 b.
c. d.
A^Turn defines
it
as the relation
or proportion of one
^.i'Y&Qoc,.
The
ratio of
to 2,
to 3 (W,, p.
15).
1.
Enunciation
(of
14).
To divide
0,
1.
5; p. 20,
18; p. 25,
(i.
1.
9).
Greek, Siaipeais.
etc.)
Term
e.,
(W., p. 55, L
Greek, TO
ovofjia,
1,
6).
r JT
3,
1.
8; p. 4,
3).
p. 21,
5)
(Of.
BH.
1,
0).
Base
(of a rectangle or
1.
15).
^I
JJS *
The
(A)
Minimum
(W., p.
7, 9).
Greek,
eXot
^
Jit
To enunciate,
1,
3,
(>).
Jj5
35,
1.
].
15).
3; p. 10,
1.
BH.
1.
I,
p.
36
1.
10).
*]U*
Theorem? (W.,
Part or section
10,
17).
a book) (W.,
p. 50,
1.
p. 35,
7).
18).
<JlS
Right
(of
an angle) (W.,
L 3;
quality to (W., p.
3,
p. 4,
1.
14).
Part
1,
note
12.
1.
17).
In a straight line
(BH.,
p. 59,
I, p. 18,
1. 1.
(i.
e.,
of the production of
line)
8)
lines,
W.,
9),
U ^y To
288
the square upon which is equal to such and such an area etc. (W., p. 11, L 17; p. 12, L 1; p. 19, 11. 6,
e.,
Ll
^ ^JUI
7,
Ijli
jU
U,
p. 19, 1L 6
reproduces
^ gy* jU*
L 11;
in
1.
6,
Greek, Siivaptai.
(^) s
^e
18; p. 35,
p. 44,
U ^j*
<J ^
iAl The (A) side of a square equal to two medial areas (W. p. 22, 1. 2; p. 26, L 18; p, 35, 1. 14; p. 44, L 4).
t
*:
~*\
Greek,
vj
Siio
[JL^CTOC
Square (W.,
11.
2,
p. 12,
1.
1).
Square root, surd (W., p. 11, 1. 15). See Appendix A* Here ^5 renders the SuvocfJLii; of Theaetettis 148b*
Potentiality or power
(W.,
p.
13,
1.
13).
Greek,
The representative or imaginative power, the psychological faculty (W., p. 14, L 5).
i^S)l*
Greek,
tiva(Ai<;.
11.
17, 18).
It is the opposite
(C^II
The
of J*A)l (actually), p. 13, L 19. Greek, Suva(a.ei, side of a square equal to a rational plus a medial
JaL^>.j
area (W., p. 44, L 1). See ^ etc. The side of a square equal to two medial areas.
See
1.
20ff.).
It is the
Multitude or
of
o>.ljJl
many (W., p.
3,
20ff.).
It is the opposite
(One).
jtfl
Maximum
The sum
(W., p.
(of
3,
1.
13).
See JJi
p. 43,
1. I.
Ji!
Jjdl
10).
p. 3,
13).
The comingtobe or the comingtobeandthepassingaway (W., p. 2, 1. 16, n. 9). See Translation, Part I,
note
7.
In the
first
case
it is
synonymous with
^joi.1
and
it is
is
(Cf.
Form
(W., p. 56,
11.
7, 9, 22).
II,
note 136.
are the forms or
ways
in
exist.
jiLJI
The
1.
''annex'
it is
(W., p. 22,
Jfitlll
1.
22; p. 26,
iail;
i.
1.
21).
P. 22,
22
defined as,
J^aiil
e.,
the rational
line,
lino
commensurable
in
line, leaves as
remainder an apotome.
,llll
Greek,
2,
1.
yj
7rpoarocpji6oucra.
The
See
Peripatetic (W. p.
4).
1.
**
"After"
j*
(=
and
15).
y
*Z+A
r5"^t.
1.
11).
1.
j^J
(W., p. 26,
10).
24,
Jjj
To take
(e. g.,
lines
commens
2).
1.
2uJ
5,
1.
1;
p. 6,
6fL; p.
8,
14ff.).
Greek, Aoyo?.
1.
JLJ
<~J
The
The
ratio of 2 to 1 (W., p. 7,
14). 14).
1.
ratio of 3 to
(W., p.
7,
1.
AJ U
19
17).
JungeThoiuson,
290
Lc.
(In extreme
and moan
ratio).
^3
LJ
Ic.
Jo**
JLL^JI
^^^tdl
J^,
Jo*.
In proportion. The whole phrase means, "The geometric mean" (W., p. 45, 11. 45).
J <rJ
p. 45,
11.
6.
L**oJl
20,
I.
I.
6).
4).
Greek, H.,
dcvaXoyiocv.
7,
23,
TTJV ysa>(jLTpi>cY)v
^^b"
1;
7).
p.
9,
1.
4).
p.
23,
5).
17).
iJLJl
_M/bJI
P
Ldl
45,
p.
1.
6).
11.
45,
1510).
L 1).
L>
iii.
Geometrical proportion (W., p. 45, L 12). The geometric mean. (W., p. 45, 1. 12).
Pro]X)rtional (To oneanotlier) (T.,
Book X,
p.
231).
Senucircle (W.,
JI
..Jus
j>.
50,
1.
3).
1.
Irrationality (W.,
]>
14,
1.
9).
Rational
(W.,
p.
1,
2 etc.).
Greek,
pvjTOV.
See
,jj
J_^iaJl
^ ^=L;>
S^SlI
Rational lines commensurable in length and square (W., ]>. 5, 11. 6, 8, 9, 10, 11). Seo Translation, Part I,
note 22.
P
Sjr^'
11.
1314).
p. 54,
Like or contrary (W., p. 39, 1. 19; p. 40, 1. 2; 11. 17, 20). See Translation, Part TI, note 71.
Uai
Standard
Ordered
(of
2,
L
1.
1. 1.
16).
1).
Classification
Jill*
the irrationals)
(W., p. (W., p.
2,
(W., p. 29,
1.
1.
(of irrationals)
7; p. 29,
7,
5). 6).
Unordered
(of irrationals)
2,
p. 29,
291
(With Ace. & y*} To subtract something from (W.,
I.
p. 40,
11).
p. 23,
1.
6).
Reduction, bisection (W., p. 4, 1. 15). Subtracted from (e. g., the areas subtracted from)
(W., p. 40,
Hka;
1.
11).
f>0,
1.
point (W., p.
9).
3,
1.
15).
Creek, TO
11.
7ulpa<;,
V U
OUi
15,
17, 19;
p. 4,
1,
3)
Greek, TO $7tipov.
3,
1.
,\j
Finite (W., p.
16).
1.
4>(j y>
Infinite (W., p. 4,
2). C,
11.
Jf'
J
j!
V U
Ad infimtum Ad infniitiun
or indefinitely (W., p.
7,
8).
or indefinitely (W., p. 4,
3,
11.
1.
16).
jk\
^bb>
18, 21).
magnitudes) (W.,
Vol. V,
p. 418,
p.
1.7,
3,
1.
8;
2ff.)
Greek, H.,
Defined
(of plurality or
multitude)
(W., p.
8,
1.
17,
N.
5).
p. 14,
11.
3, 8).
C^reek,
J^l
J^Ji
]>.
14, 1.1).
Greek,
uXy] atcr67]T7].
1,
note 104.
p. 14,
11.
matter (W.,
1,
3).
Greek,
xlXyj
I,
note 104.
Jj To subtend
J_)
(of
1.
4).
Diameter, chord
67,
ID).
Unity (W.,
(Plurality).
p. 3,
1.
10).
It is the opposite of
i}&\
o^iyi
19*
One
numbers) (W.,
p. 4,
1.
4).
292
A
p.
1.
11).
The means
2,
1.
(W v
2).
The medial
PI.
line
(W., p.
5,
11.
7, 8, 9,
11
1.
12; p. 19,
21,
olk^l
11.
5, 12, 16).
p. 5,
11.
89,
11).
is
The
full
phrase,
11.
jlk^
1718;
J)
11.
J>J> J 06"^
1,
given,
p. 19,
p. 20,
3.
1.
0* tS*^ The
first
14).
The
Jbl
first
1.
10; p. 36,
1.
1.
5).
15).
^ t^"
Jlyll
Jldl ^^Jfl^^*
p. 57,
11.
1920).
The second bimotlial (W., ]). 36, 1. 6), The first trimedial (W., p. 21, 11. 19 The second
trimedial (W., p. 21,
11.
20).
1920).
line which produces with a rational area a medial whole (W., p. 22, 1. 17; p. 26, 1. 17; p. 44,
2).
The
line
whole (W.,
which produces with a medial area a medial p. 22, 11. 1718; p. 26, 1. 18; p. 44, L 5).
]OL~,JA
The
arithmetical
moan
(W., p. 45,
1.
15; p. 46,
11.
p. 49,
1.
5).
19).
293
The means (W,,
(Sing. L,jr)
p. 9,
I.
9) (geometrical, arithmetical,
harmonic).
p. 45,
1.
7).
1.
p. 45,
8).
45,
19,
1.
9).
5, 9;
11,
p. 21,
1.
1.
15).
21,
1.
5; p. 24,
1.
3).
p, 46,
16,
19).
Continuous
opposite of
(of quantity)
J^afli*.
(W., p.
3,
I.
14).
It is the
Book X,
p. 287).
Book X,
p. 288).
yja^ *^^
To put two
lines in
p. 59, L. 9).
MJ
To
7).
9,
l6sTO
To
posit,
i.
e.,
assume
(W,
p. 16, L
2).
By
is
1.
convention (W., p.
6,
L 13;
Greek,
p. 14,
11.
14, 15).
It
HM
VoL V,
p. 414,
Hypothesis (W.,
reference
is
p. 13,
1.
6).
Greek, UTiAOecnt;.
The
Parmenides,
140b.
c.
d.
Of
16ff.;
6, 7, 9, 10).
It
is
practically
16,
11.
synonymous with
9,
15,
18.
L 13
As "rectangle"
(CL p. 30, L
TO.
19).
Greek,
H.,
VoL V,
p. 484,
1.
13,
294
To establish (W.,p,
note
12.
30,1. 19).
Best (W.,
p.
3,
1.
18).
It is the opposite
3T^il
(Movement), To be produced
i.
example, by rational
p. 39,
1.
line^,
e.,
to be contained
by them) (W.,
3).
method) (W.,
p. 4,
1.
12; p.
1,
1.
7).