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Dictionary

Resource Library

Dictionary

Whether you're looking for an obscure phrase or your basic marketing definition, the AMA Dictionary has it all! Originating from the print version in 1995, we're always adding new terms to keep marketers up to date in the ever- evolving marketing profession.

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

Term

Definition

See Also

B2B

Stands for "Business to Business." A business that markets its products

 

or

services to other businesses. Source: SEMPO

B2C

Stand for "Business to Consumer." A business that markets its services

 

or

products to consumers. Source: SEMPO

baby boom

The period from the end of World War II until the early 1960s when the number of births increased significantly, resulting in a population surge characterized as "the baby boom generation."

 

back haul

1.

The rerouting of a freight shipment back over a route that it has

 

completed. 2. The use of a firm's empty delivery equipment to haul back purchases of merchandise from suppliers who are located near customer destinations.

back order

1.

(retailing definition) A part of an order that the vendor has not filled on

 

time and that the vendor intends to ship as soon as the goods in question are received, manufactured, or procured. 2. (physical distribution definition) An order not filled or shipped at time originally requested and "kept on the books" to be shipped later.

Backbone

A

high-speed line or series of connections that forms a large pathway

 

within a network. The term is relative to the size of network it is serving. A Backbone in a small network would probably be much smaller than many non-Backbone lines in a large network. Source: Lazworld

backdoor

1.

Sales to ultimate consumers by wholesalers who hold themselves out

 

selling

to

be sellers only to retailers. 2. A salesperson's practice of avoiding a

purchasing agent by visiting departments in plants to obtain orders without authorization from the purchasing agent.

backgrounder

A

brief review of an organization's history, mission, financial support, or

 

sheet

other information provided to the media with other publicity materials in order to supply basic information that may be used in a news story. It is also known as a fact sheet.

back-haul

Current transportation regulation authorizes a freight allowance for customer pick up of specific commodities rather than delivered pricing. This provision often increases utilization of transportation capacity.

 

provision

Backlinks

Backlinks are incoming links to a webpage. Backlinks are important for search engine optimization (SEO) because some search engines, give more credit to websites that have a good number of quality backlinks.

 

Sites with better backlink counts usually rank better in SERPs. Source:

 

Lazworld

backward

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

integration

backward

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

vertical

integration

bait

An alluring but insincere offer to sell whereby the advertiser does not

 

advertising

intend to sell the advertised product at the advertised price; the purpose is

to increase customer traffic. It also is called bait and switch advertising.

bait and

A deceptive sales practice whereby a low-priced product is advertised to

 

switch

lure customers to a store, where they are then induced to buy higher priced models by disparaging the less-expensive product.

bait and

The advertising of a product or service at an unusually low price with an intention to switch the customer to a higher priced item when the customer comes to the store to buy the advertised item. This practice is illegal if customers find it difficult or impossible to buy the advertised item.

switch

advertising

balance of

1.

(economic definition) The difference between monetary transactions of

payments

one country with the rest of the world in a given time period. 2. (global marketing definition) A record of all the economic transactions between a country and the rest of the world. For the world as a whole, theoretically,

imports must equal exports. The balance of payments can be divided into the so-called current account and capital account The current account is

 

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.

for goods and services, the capital account is for money and investments.

 

balance of

The balance of merchandise imports and exports.

trade

balance sheet

An approach used by salespeople to gain commitment from a buyer by asking the buyer to think of the pros and cons of various alternatives. It is often referred to as the Ben Franklin method.

method

 

Balance

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

Theory

balanced

A

comprehensive, top-down view of organizational performance across the

 

scorecard

entire enterprise, with a strong focus on vision, strategy and return on investment.

balanced

The composition of merchandise inventory in the colors, sizes, styles, and other assortment characteristics that will satisfy customer wants.

 

stock

balloon test

In

marketing research, a projective interviewing technique in which

 

respondents are presented with a cartoon strip in which there is a blank

balloon above the heads of one or more of the characters; respondents are asked to write inside the balloons what they believe the characters are saying. Also referred to as a Cartoon Test.

Ban

Also known as Delisting. Refers to a punitive action imposed by a search engine in response to being spammed. Can be an IP address of a specific URL. Source: SEMPO

 

Bandwidth

How much information (text, images, video, sound) can be sent through a connection. Usually measured in bits-per-second. A full page of text is about 16,000 bits. A fast modem can move approximately 15,000 bits in one second. Full-motion full-screen video requires about 10,000,000 bits- per-second, depending on compression. Source: Lazworld

 

bangtail

Detachable advertisements on the reply envelop commonly included with credit card or telephone bills.

banner

A

series of cross tabulations between a criterion or dependent variable,

 

and several, sometimes many, explanatory variables in a single table.

banner ad

A

graphical Internet advertising tool. Users click on the graphic to be

 

taken to another Web site. The term "banner ad" refers to a specific size image, measuring 468 pixels wide and 60 pixels tall (i.e. 468x60), but it is also used as a generic description of all graphical ad formats on the Internet.

banner

A

term referring to the tendency of Internet users to ignore banner ads.

 

blindness

 

banner

An advertising network where participating sites display banner ads in exchange for credits which are converted (using a predetermined exchange rate) into ads to be displayed on other sites.

exchange

bar code

An information technology application that uniquely identifies various aspects of product characteristics as well as additional information regarding delivery and handling instructions. The information is read by scanning devices and greatly increases the speed, accuracy, and productivity of the distribution process.

barriers to

The economic, legal, technical, psychological, or other factors that reduce competitive rivalry below the level that would otherwise occur naturally. Barriers include branding, advertising, patents, entry restrictions, tariffs, and quotas. Product differentiation is a barrier to competition.

competition

barriers to

The economic, legal, psychological, technical, and other forces that limit access to markets, and hence reduce the threat of new competition.

entry

barter

1. (advertising definition) The practice of trading time or space in

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advertising media for merchandise or other nonmonetary forms of compensation. Syndicated television or radio programs are often carried by television and radio stations on a barter basis with the local stations receiving the syndicated program including some commercials in return for being able to sell the remaining commercial positions to other advertisers. 2. (global marketing definition) A type of trade transaction in which there is a direct exchange of goods or services between two parties. Although no money is involved, both partners construct an approximate shadow price for products flowing in each direction, without

the use of money; e. g., A West German company sells a $60 million steel making complex to Indonesia and is paid in 3,000,000 barrels of Indonesia oil. (The shadow price of the oil would thus be $20 per barrel.)

Baseline

Time-lagged calculations (usually averages of one sort or another) which provide a basis for making comparisons of past performance to current performance. Baselines can also be forward-looking, such establishing a goal and seeking to determine whether the trends show the likelihood of meeting that goal. They become an essential piece of a Key Performance Indicator (KPI). Source: SEMPO

 

Metrics

basement

A

formerly typical department store division (not necessarily located in a

 

store

basement) that is organized separately from the main store departments.

It

handles merchandise in lower price lines, features frequent bargain

sales, purchases and offers considerable distress or job lot merchandise, and usually offers a much more limited range of services and breadth of assortment than main store departments.

basic low

The lowest level of inventory judged permissible for an item. It indicates a conception of the smallest number of units that could be on hand without losing sales at the lowest sales period of the year or season.

 

stock

basic stock

An assortment plan for staple merchandise that is continuously maintained in stock, usually for a period of a year or more.

 

list

basing-point

A

variation of delivered pricing. The delivered price is the product's list

pricing

price plus transportation from a basing point to the buyer. The basing point is a city where the product is produced. But, in basing-point pricing, the product may be shipped from a city other than the basing point.

basis of

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

segmentation

batting

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

average

Bayesian

A

probability based on a person's subjective or personal judgments and

 

probability

experience.

BCG

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

BDI

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

behavior

The overt acts or actions of consumers that can be directly observed.

behavior

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

modeling

behavior

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

monitoring

behavioral

A

sales management evaluation and control method for monitoring sales

 

analysis

force performance. A behavioral analysis involves evaluating the actual behavior of salespeople as well as their ultimate performance in terms of

sales volume. Examples of behavioral analysis techniques include self- rating scales, supervisor ratings, and field observations.

behavioral

A

cognitive plan to perform a behavior or action ("I intend to go shopping

intention

later"), created through a choice/decision process that focuses on beliefs about the consequences of the action.

 

behavioral

A

process by which a salesperson adopts certain procedures to control

 

self-

his or her behavior in order to achieve favorable results (such as improved performance). Examples of behavioral self management techniques include salespeople's monitoring their own behavior (e.g., recording the

amount of time spent calling on customers), setting personal goals (e.g., determining the number of new accounts to open), and rehearsing the

management

desired behavior (e g

practicing a sales presentation) Use of behavioral

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. self-management affords sales managers additional time to engage in particularly important managerial activities and provides sales personnel opportunity to practice successful time management.

.

.,

 

Behavioral

The practice of targeting and serving ads to groups of people who exhibit similarities not only in their location, gender or age, but also in how they act and react in their online environment. Behaviors tracked and targeted

include web site topic areas they frequently visit or subscribe to; subjects

 

Targeting

or

content or shopping categories for which they have registered, profiled

themselves or requested automatic updates and information, etc. Source:

SEMPO

 

belief

1. (consumer behavior definition) A cognition or cognitive organization about some aspect of the individual's world. Unlike an attitude, a belief is always emotionally or motivationally neutral. Krench and Crutchfield define belief as a generic term that encompasses knowledge, opinion, and faith an enduring organization of perceptions and cognition about

 

some aspect of the individual's world. It is the pattern of the meanings of a thing, the cognition about that thing. 2. (consumer behavior definition) The perceived association between two concepts. A belief is synonymous with knowledge or meaning in that all refer to consumers' interpretations

of

important concepts.

belongingness

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

below-the-line

Any cost in the advertising production process that is not specifically itemized in the production budget.

cost

Ben Franklin

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

method

benchmarking

A

point of reference for measurement, often against other companies.

 

benefit

A

sales approach in which the salesperson states a benefit of the product

approach

or

service that will satisfy a prospect's need.

 

benefit

The process of grouping consumers into market segments on the basis of the desirable consequences sought from the product. For example, the toothpaste market may include one segment seeking cosmetic benefits such as white teeth and another seeking health benefits such as decay prevention.

 

segmentation

benefit

A

method used by salespeople to secure a prospect's commitment by

summary

reviewing the agreed-upon benefits of the salesperson's proposal.

method

benefit,

The value provided to a customer by a product feature.

 

product

Bernoulli

A

probabilistic model in which the probability p that an event of interest

process

occurs remains the same over repeated observations. That is, p stays the same over time, and does not depend on the outcome of past observations. This stationary, zero order model has been used to represent brand choice behavior or media viewing behavior by individuals

(Greene 1982; Lilien and Kotler 1983).

best seller list

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

best sellers

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

Beta binomial

A

probability mixture model commonly used to represent patterns of

model

brand choice behavior or media exposure patterns. The model assumes that each individual's behavior follows a Bernoulli process. That is, an

individual performs some behavior of interest (e.g., buying a brand of

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interest) with probability p on each possible opportunity (e.g., occasion on which a purchase is made from the product category of interest). The number of times that the behavior of interest is exhibited, out of a given number of opportunities, has the binomial distribution for any individual. The model further assumes that the probability values p vary across individuals according to a beta distribution (Greene 1982; Massy, Montgomery, and Morrison 1970). A generalization of this model to represent choice among more than two items is termed the Dirichlet multinomial model. These models are used to predict future brand choice

 

or media exposure patterns based on individuals' past behavior.

beta

A measure of the systematic risk (the risk that cannot be diversified away

 

coefficient

by holding a diversified portfolio) of an asset or security-where the variance of the return distribution is used as the risk surrogate. Beta is generally estimated as the slope coefficient of a linear regression of the asset or security's return on the market's return for some "representative" number of periods.

beta

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

distribution

 

beta error

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

better

These are nonprofit organizations sponsored by local businesses. They currently number 150 and offer a variety of consumer education programs and materials, handle consumer inquiries, mediate and arbitrate complaints, and maintain records of consumer satisfaction and dissatisfaction with individual companies.

 

business

bureaus

bid

A

legal document in which a seller agrees to provide products and/or

 

services to a potential buyer at a specific price under specified conditions.

Bid Boosting

A

form of automated bid management that allows you to increase your

 

bids when ads are served to someone whose age or gender matches your target market. This level of demographic focus and the "bid boosting" tool

are current Microsoft adCenter offerings. Source: SEMPO

Bid

Software that manages PPC campaigns automatically, called either rules- based (with triggering rules or conditions set by the advertiser) or intelligent software (enacting real-time adjustments based on tracked conversions and competitor actions). Both types of automatic bid management programs monitor and change bid prices, pause campaigns, manage budget maximums, adjust multiple keyword bids based on CTR, position ranking and more. Source: SEMPO

 

Management

Software

bidding

An invitation to potential suppliers to submit their offers and a price for a particular opportunity. A closed bid is formal, written, and sealed, and usually all closed bids are opened and reviewed at the same time, with the contract being awarded to the lowest bidder who meets the specifications. An open bid is usually more informal and is used when specific requirements are hard to rigidly define or when products vary substantially.

 

bill of

An unconditional order in writing addressed by one person (the drawer) to another (the drawee), signed by the person giving it, requiring the person

exchange

 

to

whom it is addressed to pay on demand, or at a fixed or determinable

 

future time, a sum certain in money to, or to the order of, a specified person or to bearer.

bill of lading

1. (global marketing definition) A vital document in international trade that

 

is

required to establish legal ownership and facilitate financial

transactions. The bill of lading serves the following purposes: (1) as a contract for shipment between the carrier and the shipper; (2) as a receipt

from the carrier for shipment; and (3) as a certificate of ownership or title

to

the goods. 2. (physical distribution definition) The basic document in

the purchase of transportation services. It describes commodities and quantities shipped as well as the terms and conditions of carrier liability. Current law allows the bill of lading to be electronically generated and transmitted.

bill of

An assessment of the combination of assemblies, subassemblies, parts, and materials needed to support planned production as detailed in the materials requirement plan.

 

materials

(BOM)

billed cost

The price appearing on a vendor's bill before deducting cash discounts, but after deducting any trade discounts and quantity discounts from the list price.

 

billed cost of inventory

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

binomial

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

distribution

 

biolo ical

Refer to "See Also" column to the ri ht

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g

 

g

.

p

y

g

drives

 

bird dog

An individual who, for a fee, provides sales leads to a salesperson. The individual also is called a spotter.

 

Black Box

Black box is technical jargon for when a system is viewed primarily in terms of input and output characteristics. A black box algorithm is one where the user cannot see the inner workings of the algorithm. All search engine algorithms are hidden. Source: SEMPO

 

Algorithms

black market

The availability of merchandise at higher than ordinary prices when difficult

 

or

impossible to purchase it under normal market circumstances. This

commonly involves illegal transactions.

 

Blacklists

A

list of Web sites that are considered off limits or dangerous. A Web site

 

can be placed on a blacklist because it is a fraudulent operation or because it exploits browser vulnerabilities to send spyware and other unwanted software to the user. Source: SEMPO

blanket order

A

general order placed with a manufacturer without specifying detailed

 

instructions, such as sizes, styles, and shipping dates, all of which are to be furnished later, often in several orders for specific shipments.

bleed

The print ads or brochures for which the color, graphics, and/or artwork extends to the edge of the page. Such pages have no unprinted margins

 

advertisement

or borders and are usually sold at a premium price.

block plan

A store layout plan that delineates the actual sizes, shapes, and

locations of all store components.

   
 
 

blocked

A

currency regulated by its government in a manner that precludes it

 

currency

being taken out of the country or converted to other currencies.

blog

A

hybrid form of Internet communication that combines a column, diary

 

and directory. The term, short for "Web log" refers to a frequently updated collection of short articles on various subjects with links to further resources.

blueline

A

print of an ad, brochure, or other advertising materials produced on

photosensitive paper (hence the blue color). It is used to confirm the location of all artwork, headlines, graphics, and text components before printing.

blunder

An error that arises when editing, coding, key punching, or tabulating the data.

 

body copy

The text of a piece of print advertising that provides more detailed information than provided by headlines and subheads.

 

body

The nonverbal signals communicated in sales interactions through facial expressions, arms, legs, and hands.

 

language

BOM

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

 

bonus

1. (sales definition) A special compensation option that is a payment made at the discretion of management for achieving or surpassing some set level of performance. Whereas commissions are typically paid for each sale that is made, a bonus is generally not paid until the salesperson surpasses some level of total sales or other aspect of performance. The size of the bonus, however, might be determined by the extent to which the salesperson exceeds the minimum level of performance required to earn the bonus. Thus, bonuses are usually additional incentives to motivate salespeople to reach high levels of performance rather than a part of the basic compensation plan. 2. (sales definition) An element in a salesperson's compensation that is paid infrequently in a lump sum, often based on subjective judgments of performance.

 
 
 

bonus pack

A

special container, package, carton, or other holder in which the

 

consumer is given more of the product for the same or perhaps even lower price per ounce or unit than in the regular container.

 

book

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

   

book inventory

An inventory that is compiled by adding units and/or the cost or retail value of incoming goods to previous inventory figures and deducing them from the units and/or cost or retail value of outgoing goods. Or, the units and/or cost or retail value of goods on hand at any time per the perpetual inventory system records.

 

booking

The act of order-taking, especially for delivery at a later date. Frequently

 

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the amount of production is based on the booking of advance orders.

 

bookmark

A

special link stored in a Web browser to a Web site. Internet Explorer

 

uses the term "Favorites" instead of bookmark.

boomerang

A

method used by salespeople to respond to customer objections by

method

turning the objection into a reason for acting immediately.

Boston

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

Consulting

Group

Bot

Abbreviation for robot (also called a spider). It refers to software programs that scan the web. Bots vary in purpose from indexing web pages for search engines to harvesting e-mail addresses for spammers. Source:

 
 

Lazworld

bounce back

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

coupon

bounce back

A

coupon or other selling device included in a customer ordered product,

offer

premium, refund, or other package that attempts to sell more o? the same or another product to the recipient.

boundary

A

concept describing job tasks or responsibilities beyond the traditional

 

spanning

managerial area. Boundary spanning can be internal to the firm (extending beyond traditional organizational departments) or external to the firm (crossing between channel members).

boutique

Actually, in French the word means "little shop," but in American retailing, the term has come to mean a carefully selected group of merchandise with unusual displays and fixtures, informal and attractive decor, and an atmosphere of individualized attention in the personalized manner of the image created in the operation.

boutique store

A

form of retail store layout pattern that brings together complete offerings

layout

from one vendor or for one use in one section as opposed to having the items in separate departments. For example, a tennis boutique in a department store will feature rackets, balls, shoes, and tennis outfits.

 

Box-Jenkins

A

method for forecasting sales that relies on procedures for identifying

method

models that best fit a set of time series data and statistical tests to examine the adequacy of the fitted models, where the models consist of a combination of autoregressive and moving average terms.

boycott

A

refusal to deal with, or cooperate with, a firm or nation to signal extreme

 

disapproval of its policies and actions. Boycotts induce change, as, for example, when consumers boycott a retail chain to gain redress for perceived inequities.

BPI

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

bracket creep

The movement of consumers to higher and higher income tax brackets during periods of inflation regardless of the lack of any real increase in income. This phenomenon is less serious since the 1986 tax reform, which greatly reduced the number of tax brackets.

 

brainstorming

A

group method of problem solving, used in product concept generation. It

 

is

sometimes thought to be an open, free-wheeling idea session, but

more correctly is a specific procedure developed by Alex Osborn, with

precise rules of session conduct. Now it has many modifications in format

of

use, each variation with its own name.

branch house

An establishment maintained by a manufacturer, separate from the headquarters establishment and used primarily for the purpose of stocking, selling, delivering, and servicing the manufacturer's product.

 

branch house

A

national, regional, or sectional wholesaler who operates a number of

 

wholesaler

variously located establishments to provide better customer service in all parts of the territory covered. It differs from a chain wholesaler in that each

branch is closely supervised as an extension of the main wholesale house.

branch sales

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

manager

branching

A

technique used to direct respondents to different places in a

 

question

questionnaire based on their response to the question at hand.

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brand

A brand is a "Name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers." Source: The MASB Common Language Project. http://www.themasb.org/common-language-project/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brand

Language Project. http://www.themasb.org/common-language-project/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brand advertised brand
brand extension
brand generic
brand image
brand name
 
  brand
branded
branding
individual
branding
line family
competitive
distributor\'s
family brand
fighting brand
flanker brand
generic

Brand and

"A brand is a customer experience represented by a collection of images and ideas; often, it refers to a symbol such as a name, logo, slogan, and design scheme. Brand recognition and other reactions are created by the accumulation of experiences with the specific product or service, both directly relating to its use, and through the influence of advertising, design, and media commentary." (Added definition) "A brand often includes an explicit logo, fonts, color schemes, symbols, sound which may be developed to represent implicit values, ideas, and even personality." Source: SEMPO and Wikipedia

 

Branding

brand

Brand awareness is a marketing concept that enables marketers to quantify levels and trends in consumer knowledge and awareness of a brand's existence. At the aggregate (brand) level, it refers to the proportion of consumers who know of the brand. Source: The MASB Common Language Project. http://www.themasb.org/common-language- project/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brand_awareness

 

awareness

brand choice

The selection of one brand from a set of alternative brands.

 

brand choice

These stochastic models of individual brand choice focus on the brand that will be purchased on a particular purchase occasion, given that a purchase event will occur. This type of model includes Bernoulli processes and Markov models. Models in this category vary in their treatment of population heterogeneity, purchase event feedback, and exogenous market factors (Lilien and Kotler 1983).

of population heterogeneity, purchase event feedback, and exogenous market factors (Lilien and Kotler 1983). Bernoulli

models

Beta binomial
Defender
Dirichlet
 
elasticon
Elimination-By-
Hendry model
linear learning
logit model
Luce\'s Choice
Markov model
Negative
nested logi

brand

Any information bearing experience that a customer or prospect has with the brand, the product category, or the sponsoring organization that relates to the marketer's product or service.

the product category, or the sponsoring organization that relates to the marketer's product or service. database

contacts

 

brand

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

brand Refer to "See Also" column to the right. buying

decision

brand

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

brand Refer to "See Also" column to the right. decision

decision

model

 

brand

A measure of the extent to which the sales of products in a market category have captured the total potential in a geographical area, based on the population of that area and the average consumption per user nationally. The brand development index is usually calculated for separate metropolitan areas, and is used to determine high-potential (underdeveloped) areas for new product entries or for primary demand promotions.

 

development

index (BDI)

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brand equity

Brand equity is a phrase used in the marketing industry to try to describe the value of having a well-known brand name, based on the idea that the owner of a well-known brand name can generate more money from products with that brand name than from products with a less well known name, as consumers believe that a product with a well-known name is better than products with less well known names. Source: The MASB Common Language Project. http://www.themasb.org/common-language- project/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brand_equity

 

brand equity

The value of a brand. From a consumer perspective, brand equity is based on consumer attitudes about positive brand attributes and favorable consequences of brand use.

 

brand

A

product line extension marketed under the same general brand as a

 

extension

previous item or items. To distinguish the brand extension from the other item(s) under the primary brand, one can either add a secondary brand identification or add a generic. Thus an Epson FX-85 printer is an extension of Epson that used the secondary brand of FX-85, while Jello Instant Pudding is an extension of the Jello brand that uses a generic term. A brand extension is usually aimed at another segment of the general market for the overall brand.

brand generic

This is the second half of a product's identifying title. Brand is the first half, and identifies one seller's version, while the generic is the second half and identifies the general class of item. [Example: Jello (brand) gelatin dessert (generic)]. This is not to be confused with generic brand (such as on some low-price items in supermarkets), for which there is no individual brand.

 

brand image

The perception of a brand in the minds of persons. The brand image is a mirror reflection (though perhaps inaccurate) of the brand personality or product being. It is what people believe about a brand-their thoughts, feelings, expectations.

 

brand

A

purchasing pattern characterized by a low degree of brand loyalty.

indifference

 

brand label

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

Brand Lift

A

measurable increase in consumer recall for a specific, branded

 

company, product or service. For example, brand lift might show an increase in respondents who think of Dell for computers, or WalMart for "every household thing." Source: SEMPO

brand loyalty

1.The situation in which a consumer generally buys the same manufacturer-originated product or service repeatedly over time rather than buying from multiple suppliers within the category. 2.The degree to which a consumer consistently purchases the same brand within a product class. Source: The MASB Common Language Project. http://www.themasb.org/common-language-project/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brand_loyalty

brand

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

management

organization

brand

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

manager

brand

Often used to describe a set of techniques designed to represent brands

 

mapping

and their similarities in a visual "brand space". Useful for providing highly intuitive representations in order to position brands on dimensions critical

to

consumer perceptions in that brand space, a variety of simple to

complex statitsical methodologies can be used to create them. Some of the latter include multi-dimensional scaling, factor or cluster analytical methods, and conjoint analysis. Usually these techniques result in brands being mapped on 2 to 3 dimensions. Two dimensional maps are the most popular as they are most easily understood and interpreted by clients. There is also substantive agreement that consumers use only a limited number of separate (though sometimes complex and integrative) concepts to assess brands

Brand

Brand mapping is a research technique to identify and visualize the core positioning of a brand compared to competing brands on various dimensions.

 

Mapping

brand mark

The brand mark is that part of a brand name that cannot be spoken. It

 

most commonly is a symbol, picture, design, distinctive lettering, color,

or

a combination of these.

Brand

Creative messaging that presents and maintains a consistent corporate image across all media channels, including search. Source: SEMPO

 

Messaging

brand name

The brand name is that part of a brand that can be spoken. It includes letters, numbers, or words. The term trademark covers all forms of brand

 

(1)

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(brand name, brand mark, etc.), but brand name is the form most often meant when trademark is used.

 

brand name

Name used to distinguish one product from its competitors. It can apply

 

(2)

to

a single product, an entire product line, or even a company. Source:

IEG

brand

Brand penetration occurs when a company enters/penetrates a market in which current products already exist. Source: The MASB Common Language Project. http://www.themasb.org/common-language-project/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brand_penetration

 

penetration

brand

This is the psychological nature of a particular brand as intended by its sellers, though persons in the marketplace may see the brand otherwise (called brand image). These two perspectives compare to the personalities of individual humans: what we intend or desire, and what others see or believe.

 

personality

brand

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

 

positioning

 

brand

One of the indicators of the strength of a brand in the hearts and minds of customers, brand preference represents which brands are preferred under assumptions of equality in price and availability. Source: The MASB Common Language Project. http://www.themasb.org/common-language- project/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brand_preference

 

preference

Brand

The position a company brand occupies. Source: SEMPO

   

Reputation

brand

A

purchasing pattern characterized by a change from one brand to

switching

another.

 
 

Brand Tribe

A

brand tribe is a formal or informal group of consumers whom share the

 

same awareness, passion and loyalty for a brand or a portfolio of brands. Brand tribes can be identified as strong drivers of brand strengths for many international brands like LEGO, Bang & Olufsen, Nike, Giorgio

Armani, Banyan Tree Hotels and Resorts, Singapore Airlines, Timberland and many other unique brands. The consumer decision process involves brand attributes and brand associations, which are largely image driven, intangible and symbolic. The group as a social institution serves as an important part of these consumer decisions as the importance and strengths of intangible brand attributes and brand values are related to how these factors are perceived and ranked in a group or clusters of groups of which the consumer is part of.

BRANDAID

A

decision support system for determining the marketing mix for a

particular brand. The model has submodels dealing with advertising spending level, price, and salesperson effort (i.e., dollars per customer per year). Its parameters can be calibrated by combining historical data (e.g., on sales, market share, advertising spending, etc.) with structured

subjective judgments (Little 1975).

 
 

branded

Goods that are identified by brands. This contrasts with generic brands, which are identified only by commodity type.

 

merchandise

Branding

The attempt to develop a strong brand reputation on the web to increase

 

Strategy

brand recognition and create a significant volume of impressions. Source:

SEMPO

 

branding,

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

 

family

 

branding,

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

 

generic

 

branding,

Using separate brands for each product, without a family brand to tie them to other brands of that firm. Individual brands are used when the

 

individual

products are different physically, are of different quality levels, are targeted for different users or uses, or vary in some other way that might cause confusion or loss of sales if brought together under a family brand umbrella.

branding, line

Using a family brand to cover only some of a firm's products. It contrasts with those cases where the term family brand is used only to designate the firm's entire product line.

family

brand-

A

two-way table that indicates which brands a sample of people

 

switching

purchased in one period and which brands they purchased in a

matrix

subsequent period, thus highlighting the switches occurring among and

between brands as well as the number of

ersons who

urchased the

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p

p

 

same brand in both periods.

break-bulk

The process of dividing larger quantities into smaller quantities in the transportation-warehousing system as goods get closer to the final market.

 

break-even

A

method of examining the relationships between fixed costs, variable

 

analysis

costs, volume, and price. The objective of the analysis is to determine the break-even point at alternative prices and a given cost structure.

break-even

The sales volume at which total revenues are equal to total costs.

 

point

breaking bulk

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

 

breaking

Running out of stock on particular sizes.

   

sizes

 

Bretton

An agreed statement of aims for postwar monetary policy which resulted from an international monetary and financial conference held at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, in July 1944. Its aims were: (1) to make all

Woods

Agreement

currencies freely convertible and thereby encourage multilateral trade; (2)

and

to

keep exchange rates stable; (3) to provide some means of assisting a

country with temporary difficulties with its balance of payments; and (4) to

encourage economic growth and development.

 

bribe

A

payment made to buyers to influence their purchase decisions.

 

Bridge Page

Often used to describe the web pages that linked together many doorway pages on a web site. Source: SEMPO

broad class

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

 

broadcast

The media industries' standard for material that can be aired. Technical format and content are both aspects of broadcast quality. For example, 3/4-inch tape is broadcast quality, VHS tape is not. Publicity submissions that are not broadcast quality generally will not be used.

 

quality

broadcast

A

method of distributing television signals by means of stations that

television

broadcast signals over channels assigned to specific geographic areas.

brochure

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

 

broken case

Breaking of cases to sell smaller quantities, done by many wholesalers to accommodate retailers who cannot afford to buy in full shipping case lots.

 

lot selling

broken lot

An amount less than some understood standard unit of sale.

 

broker

A

middleman who serves as a go-between for the buyer or seller. The

broker assumes no title risks, does not usually have physical custody of products, and is not looked upon as a permanent representative of either the buyer or seller.

B-roll

Videotaped footage that is not included in the final edited version of a company's video news release (VNR). B-roll is given to television stations along with the VNR to give the stations the option of putting together their own version of the story, giving more time to aspects the station feels will be of particular interest to their viewers.

 

brown goods

Merchandise in the consumer electronic audiovisual field, such as televisions, radios, stereo sets, etc. The name came from the brown (furniture color) cases in which such merchandise is frequently manufactured. At one time the term also included all furniture.

 

browser

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

 

Browser

To speed surfing, browsers store recently used pages on a user's disk. If

 

Caching

a

site is revisited, browsers display pages from the disk instead of

requesting them from the server. As a result, servers under-count the

number of times a page is viewed. Source: Lazworld

 

Browsing

A

term that refers to exploring an online area, usually on the World Wide

 

Web. Source: Lazworld

 

Brussels

A

tariff classification system developed by an international committee of

Nomenclature

experts under the sponsorship of the Customs Cooperation Council. The rules were used by most GATT members up until January 1989, when the Harmonized Tariff System went into effect.

BTN

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

 

bubble plan

A

store layout plan that shows the rough placement and adjacency of key

elements of a proposed store.

 
 

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Bucket

An associative grouping for related concepts, keywords, behaviors and audience characteristics associated with your company's product or service. A "virtual container" of similar concepts used to develop PPC keywords, focus ad campaigns and target messages. Source: SEMPO

 

budget

The detailed financial component of the strategic plan that guides the allocation of resources and provides a mechanism for identifying deviations of actual from desired performance so corrective action can be taken. A budget assigns a dollar figure to each revenue and expense related activity. A budget is usually prepared for a period of one year by each component of an organization. Like the action program, a budget provides both a guide for action and a means of assessing performance.

 

build market

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

position

build strategy

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

bulk marking

The practice of placing the price only on the original shipping containers

 

or

at least bulk packages; individual units are not marked until the

merchandise is transferred from reserve to forward stock. It is also referred to as deferred marking.

bundle

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

bundling

Offering several complementary products together or offering additional services in a single "package deal." The price of the bundle is typically lower than the sum of the prices of the individual products or services included in it. Groups of services or products may be bundled in different combinations appealing differently to different segments in order to price discriminate among these segments and to avoid cherry picking.

bureaucratic

This term is associated with government, where official decision making is circumscribed by laws, rules, and regulations which often result in inflexibility, "red tape", and slowness to act. The term is sometimes applied to the hierarchical business structure, which is thought to lead to slow decision making and slow response to change. It should be noted, however, that business-unlike government operates in a competitive environment that does not reward slow decision making if it results in poor sales or customer service. Comment: To combat any tendency towards bureaucracy, particularly in large corporations, companies have speeded up decision making by measures such as decentralized and flatter organization structures along with computerized information and communication systems that alert management quickly to problems requiring resolution.

organization

 

bushelman

A

formerly common term referring to a repairer of garments, especially in

 

the alteration room for men's clothing.

business

This is a term of many meanings, and in marketing it is usually associated in some way with the evaluation of new product proposals. In format, it may consist of a five-year, discounted cash flow, net present value-type of financial analysis, or it may be a more comprehensive analysis of the entire situation surrounding the proposed product. Chronologically, it may come early in the development process (when it is used to decide whether expensive research and development should be undertaken), and/or late in the product development cycle when the commercialization decision is being made.

 

analysis

Business

The U.S. Department of Commerce's monthly publication of economic time series covering such data as business and consumer expectations, cyclical indicators, national income, foreign trade, and price movements.

 

Conditions

Digest

business

A

rhythmic wave-like pattern of changes in business conditions over a

cycle

period of time.

business

Statements made that are unfair or untrue about a competitor, its products, or its salespeople.

 

defamation

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business

Specifies the present and/or prospective scope of a strategic business unit's activities in terms of the boundaries of the arena in which the

definition

business elects to compete. The definition also serves to direct attention

to

the true function of the business-that is, the way that the business

meets the needs of its target customers. A complete definition requires choices about the business position a long four dimensions: (1) customer functions-addressing the benefits being provided; (2) customer segments- specifying the customer groups seeking similar benefits and sharing characteristics that are strategically relevant; (3) technology--specifying the alternative ways in which a particular function can be performed; and (4) vertical business system--specifying where the business chooses to participate in the sequence of stages in the vertical business system (or value-added system).

business

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

goals

business

The actionable information that comes out of data analytics techniques. Business intelligence incorporates the entire process of reporting, warehousing, data management, analysis of future trends and presentation of transactional information, as well as extraction and loading tools, to help users make better decisions.

 

intelligence

business

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

manager

business

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

market

business

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

market

segmentation

business

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

marketing

business

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

planning

process

business

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

portfolio

matrices

business

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

portfolio

models

business

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

reply card

business

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

reply envelope

business

The intangible product (service), such as banking and maintenance, that

 

service

is

purchased by organizations that produce other products. It is a type of

industrial product.

business

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

start-up

business

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

strengths

business

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

system

business-to-

An area of advertising for products, services, resources, materials, and supplies purchased and used by businesses. This area includes: (1) industrial advertising, which involves goods, services, resources, and supplies used in the production of other goods and services; (2) trade advertising, which is directed to wholesalers and retailers who buy the advertised product for resale to consumers; (3) professional advertising, which is directed to members of various professions who might use or

recommend the advertised product; and, (4) agricultural advertising, which

 

business

advertising

is

directed to farmers as business customers of various products and

services.

Business-to-

Programs intended to influence corporate purchase/awareness, as opposed to individual consumers. Source: IEG

 

Business

Sponsorship

 

button ad

A

graphical advertising unit smaller than a banner ad. Also called a tile

ad.

buy

Refer to "See Also" column to the right.

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buy one-get

A

sales promotion offer made to either the retailer or the consumer in

 

one free

which purchase of one unit of the product is encouraged or re-warded by providing a second unit of the same product free of charge.

buy-back

A

form of trade sales promotion in which channel members are offered an

 

allowance

incentive to restock their store or warehouse with the product to the level

in

place prior to a count and recount promotion offer.

buyclasses

Buying situations that are distinguished on four characteristics: newness

to

decision makers, number of alternatives to be considered, uncertainty

inherent in the buying situation, and the amount of information needed for making a buying decision. There are three buy classes: new task purchase, modified rebuy, and straight rebuy. A new task purchase is a problem or requirement that has not arisen before such that the buying center does not have any relevant experience with the product or service.

A

modified rebuy is a situation such that the buying center has some

relevant experience to draw upon. The alternatives considered, however, are different, or changed from the ones considered the last time a similar problem arose. A straight rebuy is the purchase of standard parts; maintenance, repair, and operating items and supplies; or any recurring need that is handled on a routine basis.

buyer

The organizational member that carries out the purchase procedures of a product. A buyer may or may not make the buying decision. The buyer will manage the buying process, e.g., place the order and process the paperwork.

buyer behavior

This term is often used as an alternative to consumer behavior, but also is used when the purchaser is not the ultimate consumer but rather an industrial buyer, a buying center, or other middleman between the seller and the ultimate user. It is defined by some as the more general term,

 

with consumer behavior and organizational buyer behavior as subsets.

buyer

A

measure of a buyer's intention to buy a product or service. It can be

intention

measured as the subjective probability that a buyer's beliefs and attitudes will be acted upon in a purchasing framework.

buyer

The buyer's stage regarding readiness to buy a certain product or service. At any time, people are in different stages: unaware, aware, informed, interested, predisposed to buying, and intending to buy.

 

readiness

stage

buyers' costs

The costs that buyers incur when acquiring and using products and services. Such costs include the price of the item being acquired, cost of information search, shipping costs, transportation costs, installation costs, and postpurchase costs that may affect buyers' perceptions of value of the item being acquired.