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APPENDIX A

Read the article below and complete the tasks for your assignment. The Dodo Bird 1 The Dodo (Raphus cucullatus) is an extinct, flightless bird that was endemic to the Mascarene island of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean, where it (0)lived undisturbed for so long that it lost its need and ability to (1) fly. It lived and nested on the ground and ate fruits that had fallen from trees. There were no mammals on the island and a high diversity of bird species lived in the dense forests.

The Dodo was about one meter tall, and may have weighed approximately 1018 kg in the wild. Its external appearance is now evidenced only by paintings and written accounts from the 17th 10 century. Because these vary considerably, and because only a few (2)sketches are known to have been drawn from specimens in the wild, its true physical appearance remains a mystery. Similarly, little about its habitat and behavior is known with certainty. It has been depicted with brownish-gray plumage, yellow feet, a tuft of tail 15 feathers, a gray-colored, naked head, and a black, yellow, and green beak. It used gizzard stones to (3)help digest its food, which is thought to have included fruits, and its main habitat is believed to have been the woods in the drier coastal areas of Mauritius. It is 20 presumed that the Dodo became flightless because of the ready availability of abundant food sources and a relative absence of predators on Mauritius. In 1505, the Portuguese became the first humans to set foot on Mauritius. The island quickly became a stopover for ships engaged in the (4)spice trade. After that time, the bird was preyed upon by hungry sailors, their domesticated animals, and other invasive species introduced during that time. Later, when the Dutch used the island as a penal colony, pigs and monkeys were brought to the island along with the (5) convicts. Many of the ships that came to Mauritius also had uninvited rats aboard, some of which escaped onto the island. Before humans and other mammals arrived the dodo bird had little to fear from predators. The rats, pigs and monkeys preyed upon vulnerable dodo bird eggs in the ground nests. The combination of human exploitation and (6)introduced species significantly reduced dodo bird populations. Within 100 years of the arrival of humans on Mauritius, the once abundant dodo bird became a rare bird. The last dodo bird was killed in 1681. Although the tale of the dodo bird's demise is (7)well documented, no complete specimens of the bird were preserved; there are only fragments and sketches. The dodo bird is just one of the bird
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APPENDIX A

species driven to extinction on Mauritius. Many others were lost in the 19th century when the dense Mauritian forests were converted into tea and sugar plantations. Of the 45 bird species originally found on Mauritius, only 21 have managed to survive. 7 Although the dodo bird became extinct in 1681, its story is not over. We are just beginning to understand the effects of its extinction on the ecosystem. 8 Recently a scientist noticed that a certain species of tree was becoming quite rare on Mauritius. In fact, he noticed that all 13 of the remaining trees of this species were about 300 years old. No new trees had germinated since the late 1600s. Since the average life (8)span of this tree was about 300 years, the last members of the species were extremely old. They would soon die, and the species would be extinct. Was it just a coincidence that the tree had stopped reproducing 300 years ago and that the dodo bird had become extinct 300 years ago? No. It turns out that the dodo bird ate the fruit of this tree, and it was only by (9)passing through the dodo's digestive system that the seeds became active and could grow. Now, more than 300 years after one species became extinct, another was to follow as a direct consequence. Will more follow? Luckily, some creative people discovered that domestic turkey gullets sufficiently (10)mimic the action of the dodo bird's digestive system. They have used turkeys to begin a new generation of the tree, which is now called the dodo tree. If these seedlings survive to produce their own seeds, the species will be saved.

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Adapted from: bagheera.com/inthewild/ext_dodobird.htm

TASK 1: GRAMMAR (20%)


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APPENDIX A

Identify the class of the words given below (as given in the text) and another possible class for the words . Construct a sentence each to show the difference. You may change the form of the words.
NO WORDS WORD CLASS SENTENCES

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fly (line 4) fly

verb noun verb noun verb noun noun verb verb noun verb noun adjective adverb noun verb

The birds fly on the sky. A fly was buzzing against the window. He sketches the view from the window. The artist is making sketches for his next painting. They help me to paint the picture. She stopped smoking with the help of her family. We need an exciting trip to add some spice to our lines. He exaggerated the details to spice up the story. The judge convicts him for the murderer. The van took the convicts to the prison. He introduced his wife to his friends. This album was my first introduction to modern jazz. She is well dressed. The meeting was very well organized. The batteries had a life span of six hours. The traveller get from one side to other by walking across a footbridge that spans a litter stream. I love him more with each passing day. His passing will be mourned by many people. He could mimic anybody He is a mimic in that office.

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sketches (line 12) sketches

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help (line 17) help

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spice (line 25) spice

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convicts(line 30) convicts

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introduced (line 35) introduction

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well (line 40) well

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span (line 55) span

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passing (line 61) passing

adjective noun verb noun

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mimic (line 66) mimic

TASK 2: READING (30%) Read the text in Appendix A and answer the questions that follow.
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APPENDIX A

1. Why do you think the Dodo bird lost its need and ability to fly?Provide two reasons. (4 marks)

Dodo bird lost its need and ability to fly because i- lost of food sources. ii- absence of predators on Mauritius.

2. Give five features of the Dodo bird. (10 marks)

Five features of the Dodo bird are iiione meter tall. brownish gray plumage

iii- a tuft of tail feathers. iv- A gray-coloured head. v- black,yellow and green beak.

3. Who were responsible for the extinction of the Dodo bird? Give your reasons. (6 marks)

The extinction of the Dodo bird were responsible by iiihungry sailors make the Dodo bird as their food. Dodo birds eggs ate by the rats,pigs and monkeys.

4. Does the extinction of the bird have any effect? Briefly explain the effects. (8 marks)

The extinction of the bird have some effects. One of the effects is reducing the lifecycle of Dodo bird. Dodo bird lost of foods sources because Dodo bird eat the fruit at the Mauritius Island. The tree that
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APPENDIX A

provide food for Dodo bird is extinct.The tree species also reduce because it was not spread by Dodo bird. The seeds only can be spread and grow through the Dodo digestive system.

5. What is the topic sentence for paragraph 8? (2 marks) The topic sentence for paragraph 8 is a certain species of tree was becoming quite rare on Mauritius.

TASK 3: WRITING (50%) Read the article and write an essay by giving your opinion on the issue of extinction. Provide a title for your essay.

According to the House Dictionary, fauna means (Bio) whole animals living in a particular area. Extinction was defined as entirely exhausted, lost, destroyed everything and stalling. So, the extinction of fauna can be defined as the whole animal that lives naturally in a particular region increasingly disappeared, destroyed and dead.Human now like luxury and sophistication in their lifestyle. Human greed has resulted endangered flora and fauna. Extinction of flora and fauna has been on the dangerous level and should be taken seriously. There are several factors that can contribute to the extinction of animals. Among the causes are the exploration and illegal logging in forest areas. This exploration could destroy the growth of the trees, but also destroyed the animals habitat such as elephants, tigers and so on. Small forest areas will reduce the ability of animals to find food and find a mate for breeding. Deaths and reduced the number of animals is the main effect will occur due to this problem. In addition, demand for animal-based products is also a factor of animal extinction. Human lifestyle also lead to the destruction of animals. Illegal hunting in the forests is rampant. Although a variety of laws and regulations were introduced, such as hunting animals for leather, ivory and animal body parts merely to meet the very high demand through international and local markets. 5

APPENDIX A Pollution and open burning of forest habitat is also a contributor to the extinction of this species. For example, open fires will destroy animal life cycle because the animals have no place to take cover for breeding. More distressing, large forest fires cannot be controlled, it will destroy an everlasting animal species. Steps for reduce extinction fauna is through preservation and conservation. Preservation is the effort to protect, plan and manage nature to remain and continue. Conservation also is the effort to restore the resources that have been bothered to return to its original condition. There are various steps that should be taken to overcome this extinction. Among them was the creation of the forest management system that can guarantee and protect the natural environment in particular animals such as replanting of timber or trees that have been cut down. With the planting of trees, the habitat of the animals are secure and can prevent the extinction of animals and production. Holding seminars for the public awareness about the problem of extinction and its effect on the public.Children should be taught at school and at home to appreciate the environment and the flora and fauna. The government should also play a major role. For example,the tightening of laws on illegal hunting. The authorities must be sensitive and impose severe penalties for poaching offenses to ensure these activities are not widespread. NGOs should also play their role more effectively as holding seminars, workshops, etc. to the public. They can also give ideas or suggestions to solve this problem. In addition to the recognition of more forest areas as forest reserves, national parks, recreational parks, marine parks so that flora and fauna habitat can be protected. In conclusion, the extinction of flora or fauna, whether it is a life cycle associated with humans. Every living thing indeed need each other to meet the needs of life. However, for the satisfaction of human needs, these natural treasures are not taken care of properly there is nothing else left for future generations of human beings in particular. continue their