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Angola Angola LNG LNG Project Project

ESHIA ESHIA Disclosure Disclosure Report Report

Executive Executive Summary Summary



Project Project ESHIA ESHIA Disclosure Disclosure Report Report Executive Executive Summary Summary 2006 2006
ESHIAESHIA DisclosureDisclosure ReportReport
ESHIAESHIA DisclosureDisclosure ReportReport

Environmental, Socioeconomic and Health Impact Assessment:

Disclosure Report

September 2006

Reference 0031110

Environmental Resource Management

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This report has been prepared by Environmental Resources Management the trading name of Environmental Resources Management Limited, with all reasonable skill, care and diligence within the terms of the Contract with the client, incorporating our General Terms and Conditions of Business and taking account of the resources devoted to it by agreement with the client.

We disclaim any responsibility to the client and oth- ers in respect of any matters outside the scope of the above.

This report is confidential to the client and we accept no responsibility of whatsoever nature to third par- ties to whom this report, or any part thereof, is made known. Any such party relies on the report at their own risk.

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is made known. Any such party relies on the report at their own risk. ERM Consulting
Executive Executive Summary Summary
Executive Executive Summary Summary

Need for the Angola LNG Project

The decision of the Angolan Government to enact a policy to eliminate all flaring by the end of 2006, coupled with the commitments of the Project Participants to certain environmental and social responsibil- ities and responsible custodianship of hydrocarbon resources, resulted in the need for a solution for the man- agement of gas from oil and gas pro- duction offshore Angola.

In response to the policy to eliminate flaring and project participant com- mitments, a series of proposals for solutions for the management of gas were submitted to Sociedade Nacional de Combustiveis de Angola – Empresa Publica (Sonangol (1) ) by the oil and gas operators in 1997. The proposal from Texaco (now Chevron) promoting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) was selected as the preferred solution; subsequently Angola LNG was established.

Following a joint feasibility study, Sonangol and Chevron extended an invitation to the operators of the gas supplying blocks offshore Angola to join the Project. A Participation Agreement was executed in March, 2002 whereby BP Exploration (Angola) Limited, Esso Angola Gas Company Limited and Total LNG Angola with respective shareholdings of 13.6 percent became additional co-venturers. Chevron and Sonangol are the Project’s Co-Leaders with shareholdings of 36.4 percent and 22.8 percent respectively.

The Government of Angola and Sonangol consider the Angola LNG Project to be of national importance and the cornerstone of its plan to

be of national importance and the cornerstone of its plan to Fishing Village exploit and develop

Fishing Village

exploit and develop the country’s national gas resources and reduce gas flaring.

Development of the Angola LNG Project

The selected Project concept will ini- tially involve the collection of associ- ated gas (2) from offshore Angola oil production facilities and transporta- tion of this gas to onshore gas treat- ment and LNG process facilities. The LNG process facilities will then con- vert the gas into a liquid and store it, prior to export via tankers.

The Angola LNG Project has under- taken conceptual engineering design and implemented a rigorous prelimi- nary evaluation program in order to identify the preferred project alterna- tive and site location. In assessing alternatives, a number of factors were considered including environ- mental, socioeconomic, health and safety, operability, security, cost, schedule, potential to promote eco- nomic growth and stakeholder views.

The conclusion of the site selection work was that the Project should be located on partially reclaimed land on the north shore of Kwanda Island, in the Soyo Municipality of Zaire Province.

Sonangol is the owner of all associ- ated and non-associated gas for development purposes under Angolan law and will provide these resources to the Project. In this regard, approx- imately 900 million cubic feet per day of associated and non-associated gas from Blocks 0, 1, 2, 14, 15, 17 and 18 will be collected and trans- ported from offshore production facilities to the LNG plant. The plant will produce Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as well as Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and conden- sates. The plant will initially have one train of five million tonnes per year of LNG production capacity. LNG will be delivered to regasifica- tion facilities in the US and the gas into the US market and possibly other Atlantic Basin markets.

(1) The state oil company of Angola.

(2) Associated gas (AG) is gas produced as a secondary product with crude oil. Non-associated gas (NAG) is gas produced directly from gas bearing reservoirs.


Angola LNG


ProjectProject LocationLocation
ProjectProject LocationLocation

Angola LNG is in the process of undertaking a program of environmental and socioeconomic studies. These include consultation and disclo- sure as part of an ESHIA (Environmental, Socioeconomic, and Health Impact Assessment) for the construction and operation of the Angola LNG Project. The ESHIA is part of an ongoing process to develop the overall Environmental, Socioeconomic, and Health Management Plan (ESHMP) for the construc- tion and operation of the proposed Project.

the construc- tion and operation of the proposed Project. Offshore Gas Gathering Associated with the Angola
the construc- tion and operation of the proposed Project. Offshore Gas Gathering Associated with the Angola
Offshore Gas Gathering Associated with the Angola LNG Project
Offshore Gas Gathering Associated with the Angola LNG Project

The Project Location

The The Project Project Setting Setting
The The Project Project Setting Setting

Defining the Area of Influence of the Project

Although the scale of the Project is such that it has the potential to have an influence at the national and international level (e.g. in terms of employment, procurement, revenue payments, etc), the vast majority of the impacts – both positive and neg- ative - will be received by the com- munities and environment in the immediate vicinity of the project activities. Accordingly, the ESHIA focuses on the nearshore, estuarine and terrestrial areas around the Kwanda Island and the town of Soyo and the Zimbi Area (1) .

The Natural Environment

Kwanda Island

Kwanda Island is located near the mouth of the Congo River in the far Northwest of Angola. The river sep- arates Angola from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The island measures approximately 725 ha, much of which is occupied by Kwanda Base, an offshore industry support base. Soyo town lies imme- diately south of the island and is the largest town in Zaire Province, with

a population of around 55,000.

Terrestrial Habitats and Land Use

The plateau to the south of Kwanda

Island rises gradually from a height of approximately 5-10 m directly southwest to over 50 m at the coast due south. Much of this is scrubland or under cultivation, with isolated areas of mangrove along creeks and

a single small remnant of Atlantic forest.

To the east the land is generally lower-lying (<3-5 m) and inter- spersed with numerous creeks and channels. Mangroves are the domi- nant vegetation. Isolated areas of higher-lying ground are located within the mangroves, characterized by palm savanna habitat.

The Congo Estuary

The Congo River is the second largest river in the world with an average discharge of 45,000 cubic meters per second. Despite this, the physical configuration of its lower reaches gives it, unusually, an estuar- ine character. This is predominantly due to the presence of the Sereia Peninsula, that shelters the Baía do Diogo Cão from the sea. The Baía do Diogo Cão is a relatively shallow bay on the southern bank of the Congo River, generally less than 5 m deep. A network of channels and creeks communicate with the bay, the main ones being the Pululu Channel, the Moita Seca Channel and the Soyo Channel. This system is largely afforested with mangroves.

The Coastal Zone

The Atlantic coastal fringe of the Sereia Peninsula comprises a steep sandy beach backed by a low sand- stone cliff. The eastward migration of the beach is evident particularly near Ponta do Padrão.

The coastal cliff gives way north- wards to a low sand ridge immedi- ately behind which the land slopes down to the mangrove creeks associ- ated with the Baía do Diogo Cão. Further south, as the main plateau rises, the height of the coastal cliff increases correspondingly.

The Zimbi Area (2)

The sandstone cliff and steep sandy beach extends southward to the Zimbi Area. The Zimbi Resource Area comprises a 3,200 ha rectangle 7-11 km offshore Tomboco Municipality, which is approxi- mately 60 – 120 km south of Soyo. The offshore environment within the Zimbi Resource Area comprises rela- tively homogenous submerged sand banks.

Area comprises rela- tively homogenous submerged sand banks. Sereia Peninsula (1) The Zimbi Area is included

Sereia Peninsula

(1) The Zimbi Area is included as this encompasses the area of proposed marine sand extraction and associated local fishing communities.

(2) The Zimbi Area encompasses the "Zimbi Resource Area" which is the offshore location from which sand will be extracted, as well as the adjacent coastal strip with associated communities.


Angola LNG


TheThe ProjectProject SettingSetting
TheThe ProjectProject SettingSetting

The Human Environment National Context

The formal ceasefire agreement signed between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) in April 2002 marked the beginning of Angola’s economic and social recovery after almost 30 years of civil war. The civil war resulted in the displacement of approximately one-third of the country’s population, the destabiliza- tion of its economy and the destruc- tion of much of its physical and social infrastructure.

Although the civil war severely affected the productivity and per- formance of the Angolan economy, economic performance has been improving recently as a result of greater stability. Angola is currently the fastest growing economy in Africa, principally due to the oil sector. Unemployment nonetheless remains high, estimated at 67 percent of the total working popula- tion (1) . Additionally, Angola is ranked 160 out of 177 countries on the 2005 UN Human Development Index, a worldwide measure of national well-being.

Index, a worldwide measure of national well-being. 0û 5ûS 10ûS 15ûS 20ûS 25ûS 30ûS 35ûS Ubangi








Ubangi R. Lighthouse on Sereia Peninsula 10ûE 15ûE 20ûE 25ûE 30ûE 35ûE 40ûE 45ûE 50ûE
Ubangi R.
Lighthouse on Sereia Peninsula
Lake Turkana
Kasai R.
Lake Albert
Zambezi R.
Sao Tome
Port Gentil
L. Kivu
Congo R.
Zanzibar Island
Zambezi R.
Dar es Salaam
L. Tanganyika
L. Malawi
Lake Kariba
Congo R.
Victoria Falls
Limpopo R.
Walvis Bay
Orange R.
Congo R.
De Aar
Beaufort West
East London
Cape Town
Port Elizabeth
500 KM
Parallel scale at 15ûS 0ûE
Vaal R.
Ubangi R.

(1) The National Institute for Employment and Professional Training (INEFOP)

Local Context The population of Zaire Province is estimated at just over 360,000 inhabitants. Thirty

Local Context

The population of Zaire Province is estimated at just over 360,000 inhabitants. Thirty three percent of inhabitants originate from neighbor- ing provinces and countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) (1) . In 2005, the Zaire provin- cial government noted that Soyo Municipality had approximately 109,000 inhabitants, the highest population density per km 2 for Zaire Province (another estimate puts this even higher at over 122,500 (2) ). Differing figures are provided for the population of the Soyo Commune, but approximately 89,000 (3) people inhabit the 36 communities included in the Soyo Study Area in 11,500 households. The most populated area is Soyo town with 68 percent of the Soyo Study Area population.

The oil industry dominates the econ- omy of Zaire Province, which has significant oil reserves and is the sec- ond most important province in terms of oil resources. Most oil activity in Zaire Province is centered in the Soyo Commune (focusing on Kwanda Base and Total’s on-shore facilities near Quinfuquena). The oil industry is an important local employer in the commune and has had a highly localized impact on the economy of Soyo. Besides oil, the principal areas of economic activity are subsistence agriculture, animal husbandry and artisanal fishing.

For the purpose of the ESHIA, the 36 communities in the Soyo Study Area were divided into:

fishing communities;

fenceline communities (on Kwanda Island);

agriculture and fishing commu- nities (4) ; and

Soyo Town communities.

These communities (locally referred to as aldeias), with the exception of the fishing communities, were origi- nally located in rural areas. However, they were relocated by the Portuguese and subsequently by the Angolan Government to areas along the main asphalted road (running east/west across Kwanda Island and then north/ south through the Soyo Commune) to ensure better control and protection of the population. Temporary huts exist in more rural areas of the Soyo Commune, and these are used by descendants of the original resettled inhabitants and other community members as a base for carrying out agriculture and other livelihood activities such as fishing and wood collection.

Soyo Municipality, and particularly Soyo town, has better infrastructure and services than elsewhere in the province. This is largely because the presence of oil developments has attracted government investment and companies themselves have con- tributed to infrastructural improve- ment. Soyo is also well served by sea and air transport. Asphalted roads in the municipality are limited to a 15 kilometer road running from Kwanda Base, through Soyo town, south to Pangala community.

As a result of poor living conditions and nutrition, low awareness of the causes, prevention and treatment of disease among other factors, Soyo has high levels of infectious diseases including HIV-AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, malaria, tuber- culosis, hepatitis and African try- panosomiasis (sleeping sickness). Although the health services in Soyo Commune are better than those found in other communes in the municipality, they remain insufficient to meet demand and lack supplies, medicine and trained staff.

meet demand and lack supplies, medicine and trained staff. Fifteen communities in the Zimbi Area have

Fifteen communities in the Zimbi Area have been identified that fish in the Zimbi Resource Area (5) . These communities, which are within Tomboco Municipality, consist of semi-permanent dwellings with mini- mal facilities and have population sizes that range between 273 and 804 permanent residents. These com- munities are grouped into five loose social and political groups that are sometimes represented by a Regidor, although this is not the rule. One of the communities identified during scoping, Mangue Grande, is located on the Soyo-Tomboco Municipality border and is a trading town with a higher level of infrastructure and facilities. Households in Mangue Grande who fish use an area to the north of the Zimbi Resource Area.

(1) Development Workshop and Terra, 2005

(2) Ibid.

(3) No exact figures are available and this is based on an assumption that the 11,592 households identified in the field have on average 7.7 inhabitants

(4) Communities that depend predominantly on fishing, but have households who also undertake fishing

(5) Pers Comm, Dr Kumbi (IPA), Pesnorte and the Soyo Administrator.


Angola LNG


TheThe ProjectProject SettingSetting
TheThe ProjectProject SettingSetting

Key Sensitivities Overview

Key sensitivities have been identified and are a particular focus of atten- tion in the assessment of impacts. There is a significant degree of inter- action between the sensitive features of the Soyo Study Area. The interac- tion is due to the nature of the region; i.e. many of the environmen- tal features derive from the fact that it is an estuarine environment. This influences the physical environment, its habitats and the livelihoods of local people.

Spatial Sensitivities

Key following spatial sensitivities were identified and are identified in the map below.

Sensitive habitats. Other than widely distributed sensitive mangrove habitats, there is a single area of Atlantic forest remnant that is of biodiversity importance. This represents the last tract of this habitat type in the region.

Nesting turtles. Turtles, in par- ticular the olive ridley and pos- sibly the green turtle, are known to nest along the coast from Ponta do Padrão possibly as far south as the Zimbi Area and beyond.

Human settlements. The Project area has relatively high density population distribution particu- larly in Soyo Town and Kwanda Island.

Agricultural areas. The majority of households, particularly poorer households, are at least in part dependent on agricul- tural activities for income and

part dependent on agricul- tural activities for income and Fishing Community Consultations subsistence. Food shortages

Fishing Community Consultations

subsistence. Food shortages have been reported in the Soyo Area.

Fishing locations and access routes. Thirteen fishing commu- nities depend on fishing in the Soyo Study Area as a source of income and subsistence when they are unable to fish at sea (due to lack of access to a boat with a motor, weather etc). Other communities in the Soyo Study Area include households where fish as one of a number of sources of subsistence and income. Most of the coastal communities in the Zimbi Area depend on fishing. Fishermen in the Zimbi Area fish over an extensive range, up to 40 km offshore.

Cultural Sites. The study area is rich in cultural sites which are highly important to the local people. Cemeteries are also important as the resting place of ancestors that are highly revered in Basolongo society.

Key Social Services. Key social services such as hospitals, schools and emergency facilities will be particularly sensitive to noise, traffic and other impacts that may be caused by project activities.

Traffic Hotspots. Accident rates in the study area are high, par- ticularly given the relatively low traffic volumes on the roads. Nine traffic hotspots have been identified, which are particu- larly prone to congestion and accidents.

which are particu- larly prone to congestion and accidents. Example of Tall Mangrove Habitat Near Kwanda

Example of Tall Mangrove Habitat Near Kwanda Island

Temporal Sensitivities

No significant socio-cultural or socioeconomic temporal sensitivities have been identified. Environmental temporal sensitivities appear to be limited to:

the seasonal use of Atlantic beaches by nesting turtles; and

the seasonal migration of hump- back whales with calves through the Zimbi Resource Area.

While fisheries vary seasonally in terms of catch and species, it is assumed they are equally sensitive to disturbance year round.

Spatial Sensitivities Map Vulnerable Groups Vulnerable groups are defined by the World Bank as those
Spatial Sensitivities Map Vulnerable Groups Vulnerable groups are defined by the World Bank as those

Spatial Sensitivities Map

Vulnerable Groups

Vulnerable groups are defined by the World Bank as those that are ‘excluded’ or ‘weak’ and liable to serious hardship and poverty because they are unable to take advantage of opportunities or have limited defenses if shocks occur.

Youth is locally considered the most vulnerable group in the Soyo Area, as a result of high unemployment. Local youth share a general perception that Soyo residents are not being treated fairly and that oil from Soyo is used for the develop- ment of other areas, with little tangible benefit for local people.

Other vulnerable socioeconomic groups include single mothers, poor households, the disabled, young women, residents suffer- ing from illnesses that could be exacerbated by the Project (e.g. asthma), and the elderly or chil- dren who have less immuity to diseases.

the elderly or chil- dren who have less immuity to diseases. Fishing Community Consultation E NVIRONMENTAL

Fishing Community Consultation

TheThe AngolaAngola ProjectProject ESHIAESHIA
TheThe AngolaAngola ProjectProject ESHIAESHIA

Purpose of the ESHIA

The intent of the Angola LNG Project is to conduct the program of studies, consultation and disclosure that comprise the ESHIA to be con- sistent with World Bank Guidelines and appropriate international industry guidelines, while meeting the Angolan legislative requirements for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA).

The ESHIA will:

provide input to the Angola LNG Project team and design engineers to ensure an optimized design that reduces environmental, socioeco- nomic and health impacts as far as practicable;

identify and aim to enhance, posi- tive impacts and opportunities aris- ing from development of the proj- ect;

be thoroughly integrated, meaning that impacts and related mitigation measures for environmental, socioe- conomic, and health aspects are coordinated;

incorporate stakeholder input as the studies are developed and executed; and

communicate successfully at key points with a wide range of stake- holders.

The Angolan EIA Regulations and the World Bank Policies require that EIA be undertaken on behalf of the Project sponsor by a suitably qualified independent organization. Angola LNG has therefore contracted Environmental Resources Management (, an independent international consul- tancy firm, to undertake the ESHIA on its behalf.

consul- tancy firm, to undertake the ESHIA on its behalf. The key stages in the ESHIA

The key stages in the ESHIA process are shown in the figure above.

Because the project design is evolv- ing, an addendum report will be issued once the design concept is finalized. The ESHIA Addendum will provide additional specific informa- tion on design, mitigation and monitoring that is not available at this stage in the ESHIA process. It also affords an opportunity for stake- holder feedback generated by disclo- sure of the present report to be incorporated.

Scope of the ESHIA

It is important to note that this report does not represent the culmi- nation of the ESHIA process; rather it documents the results of the ESHIA process to date and sets out future actions. This ESHIA report assesses the environmental, socioeco- nomic and community health impacts of the following aspects of the Angola LNG Project:

site preparation works (i.e. con- struction dredging and land reclamation);

construction and operation of the Angola LNG Project facili- ties as well as temporary facili- ties associated with the con- struction phase; and

installation and operation of feed gas pipelines from the 20 m isobath to the LNG plant, including the landfall and beach crossing.

Decommissioning is not addressed in detail as plans will be drawn up at a later date to allow for changes in the project context as well as advances in technology in the intervening period.

Concepts for such items as housing facilities for the construction and operational phases and possible ded- icated road and bridge from the housing facilities to Kwanda Base are under development and thus not included in the scope of this ESHIA. It is envisaged that additional ESHIAs will be undertaken and pre- sented to Angolan authorities for any such works.

OverviewOverview ofof thethe AngolaAngola LNGLNG ProjectProject
OverviewOverview ofof thethe AngolaAngola LNGLNG ProjectProject

Project Schedule

The overall design life for the onshore LNG facilities is 20 years. The cur- rent estimated duration of the design, construction and commissioning of the Angola LNG Project is approxi- mately 42 months based on a sched- uled initial start-up for the Angola LNG Project facilities in mid 2010.

The first phase of the construction program will be the site preparatory works; essentially comprising dredg- ing of the channel and turning basin, land reclamation and infrastructure improvements. These works are scheduled to commence in late 2006 for a period of approximately 18 months.

The construction and commissioning of the offshore gas collection pipeline system will be phased over several years. The first phase will be com- pleted to ensure an available gas sup- ply for the initial start-up of the LNG plant in 2010.

sup- ply for the initial start-up of the LNG plant in 2010. Process Overview The process

Process Overview

The process of conversion of gas to a liquid, referred to as cryogenic lique- faction, involves treatment of the gas followed by a refrigeration process entailing alternate pressurization, cooling and decompression of the refrigerant medium, and use of the refrigerant medium in heat exchang- ers in order to reduce the tempera- ture of the gas to a point at which it condenses to form a liquid.

The plant will produce Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as well as

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and condensates. The plant will initially have one train of five million tonnes per year of LNG production capacity. LNG will be delivered to regasifica- tion facilities in the US and the gas into the US market and possibly other Atlantic Basin markets. In addition, a supply of natural gas will be made available from the process- ing plant for use within Angola as determined by Sonangol and the Government of Angola.

as determined by Sonangol and the Government of Angola. Giant Black Sable E NVIRONMENTAL R ESOURCES

Giant Black Sable

OverviewOverview ofof thethe AngolaAngola LNGLNG ProjectProject
OverviewOverview ofof thethe AngolaAngola LNGLNG ProjectProject

Project Footprint

The land allocation for the facility is approximately 320 ha (including up to 97.5 ha of reclaimed land), 77 ha of which lies inside the boundary of Kwanda Base. This comprises the plant site, supplemental construction laydown areas, buffer zones, infra- structure dock, and heavy haul road. Areas of water to the north, east and west of the plant total an additional approximate 340 ha and include the marine facility pier, flare, ship berths and turning basin.

The proposed Angola LNG develop- ment will comprise the following key components:

An offshore gas gathering pipeline system will collect dense-phase gaseous hydrocar- bons from several offshore fields and bring it ashore at a point on the Angolan coast near the pro- posed LNG facilities (1) .

A cross-country pipeline corri- dor will run from the Atlantic coast to the LNG plant on Kwanda Island. The pipeline landfall will be to the south of the man-made canal, with the route running approximately northeast to the LNG facilities. The pipeline will be buried for its entire length at a depth con- sistent with safety requirements. The route makes a number of deviations to avoid settlements and sites of environmental and cultural importance.

Production will be achieved using a single ‘process train’ that treats, processes and liquefies the received natural gas. The proposed onshore LNG plant will include inlet facilities and


facilities and 10 E NVIRONMENTAL R ESOURCES M ANAGEMENT Aerial View of Kwanda Island Showing Proposed

Aerial View of Kwanda Island Showing Proposed Angola LNG Components

slug catcher, condensate separa- tion and stabilization, acid gas removal, dehydration, mercury removal, liquefaction, LPG recovery and fractionation, product storage facilities, utili- ties, flare system and support facilities.

The marine terminal will com- prise two dedicated marine berths, one for LNG only, and one for LPG and condensate. These berths will be located on the north side of the LNG facili- ties on the plant site. The marine terminal will be served by an approach channel approx- imately 14 m deep and 250 m wide, constructed by widening and deepening the existing ship- ping channel from Ponta do Padrão to Kwanda Island and the dredging of a new dedicated turning basin.

A marine operating base (MOB) will be located immediately adjacent to the plant site. This dock will serve as a tug boat, pilot boat, and general support vessel operating base during normal LNG Plant operations.

An infrastructure/construction dock will be located to the west of the plant site, immediately adjacent to and north of the existing commercial jetty at Kwanda Base. An upgraded heavy haul road will connect the infrastructure dock with the LNG plant site. Its initial use will be as the Onshore Facilities EPC (2) contractor’s construction dock. After completion of con- struction, it is planned that this dock facility and road will be made available for use by other commercial and industrial enter- prises in the Soyo Area to accommodate future industrial development.

Angola LNG

(1) It is noted that separate Environmental Impact Assessments are being undertaken by the individual block operators on the construction of the offshore gas gathering works and are therefore not considered in detail in this ESHIA. The ESHIA considers the pipeline from the 20 m isobath to the plant. (2) Engineering, procurement, and construction.

Additionally, construction worker housing is anticipated to be built as permanent style accommodations located south-west

Additionally, construction worker housing is anticipated to be built as permanent style accommodations located south-west of Soyo. After construction is completed the housing accommodations will be evaluated for use by the community. The location of the permanent supporting facilities such as offices, residential housing for opera- tional workers and associated service infrastructure has not yet been determined. These facilities are in conceptual development and thus not within the scope of this ESHIA.

Site Preparation


The site preparation works encompass the following.

Site clearing, grubbing, and grading activities of existing land areas, including clearance of unex- ploded ordnance (UXO) and installation of tempo- rary security fencing and lighting. Vegetation and UXO clearance have already been approved by the Angolan authorities and are not assessed in this ESHIA (1) .

Construction of additional residential units at Kwanda Base for site works personnel (but not including the EPC contractor’s workforce).

Local infrastructure improvements comprising con- struction of a new infrastructure / construction dock and a heavy-haul construction road linking this to the Project site.

Enlarging the existing shipping channel from Ponta do Padrão to Kwanda Island and dredging a turning basin to accommodate for the safe arrival and depar- ture of tankers to and from the proposed marine ter- minal. In addition, dredging of a channel to the pro- posed MOB.

Land reclamation in the shallow waters on the northern shore of Kwanda Island to create the north- ern portion of the LNG Project site. The reclaimed area will comprise a parcel of land extending approximately 750 m into Baía Diogo Cão.

(1) Detailed assessment of the area has been limited by the hazards associated with UXO. Angola LNG has proceeded with additional studies as increased access has become possible e.g. ornithological (bird) surveys and identification of mammals and reptiles.

Land Preparation

Following the clearance of vegetation and UXO, the site will be filled with additional material and leveled to achieve the required height and stability to allow the EPC contractor to commence construction. This will also involve construction of the heavy-haul road. The road will be approximately 2.3 km long and 12-16 m wide.

It is currently anticipated that existing accommodation at Kwanda Base will be utilized to support the proposed site preparation activities. However, some additional residen- tial units may need to be constructed to fully support these activities. Kwanda Lda., the management company that operates the base, has existing infrastructure in place, which will facilitate the support required for these operations.

will facilitate the support required for these operations. Aerial View of Proposed Pipeline Corridor E NVIRONMENTAL

Aerial View of Proposed Pipeline Corridor


Angola LNG


OverviewOverview ofof thethe AngolaAngola LNGLNG ProjectProject
OverviewOverview ofof thethe AngolaAngola LNGLNG ProjectProject


The existing shipping channel to Kwanda Base will be deepened and widened to approximately 300 meters wide at the entrance to the Congo River, tapering to 250 meters towards Kwanda Base. The proposed channel runs north-south, roughly perpendicular to the flow of the

Congo River. The channel will end in

a turning basin to enable LNG and

LPG carriers to safely maneuver and moor at the Angola LNG facility.

The required dredged depth for the channel and turning basin is 14 meters below LAT (lowest astronom- ical tide) with an approximate 7 hor- izontal to 1 vertical side slope, in accordance with PIANC (1) guidelines.

The site preparation works may include the dredging of an approach channel 600-800 meters long to a Marine Operating Base (MOB) to facilitate construction. The MOB will be used as a service and supply base for construction and Project support vessels and as an unloading point for occasional equipment that is brought to the site by sea. The extension of the channel to the MOB will not be used by any LNG or LPG vessels thus the required depth for the MOB will only be 6 to 8 m below LAT.

It is predicted that the total volume

of material required to be dredged will amount to 30-35 million cubic meters. Some of this material will be used in reclamation, but there will be approximately 22 million cubic meters of surplus material. Alternative uses for the surplus dredged material are being evaluated; however if disposal is required it will take place through bottom dumping or through horizontal discharge at least 5 m below the surface in the


main estuary of the Congo River north of the Baía do Diogo Cão. This will ensure the disposed spoil is rap- idly dispersed by the strong flow of the river. This material has previously been geochemically analyzed for compliance with London Convention guidelines and all disposal activity will be in accordance with this Convention to avoid significant impacts to water quality.

All the proposed dredging and spoil disposal operations will be managed to minimize environmental impacts by ensuring that all practicable tech- niques are used to control dispersal of suspended sediment. The dredging contractor will be required to pro- vide for all necessary management measures (e.g. monitoring) in order to comply with environmental con- straints set out in the technical speci- fications, approvals, permits, ESHMP, local regulations and/or other third party requirements. Dredging areas will be contained within an exclusion zone, defined by a 300m wide Working Boundary beyond which impacts to appropriate variables such as dissolved oxygen, suspended solids, and/or accretion rates will be monitored (2) and action taken as required. Pre-work to be completed prior to start of any dredging will include testing to deter- mine a representative baseline for dissolved oxygen and suspended

a representative baseline for dissolved oxygen and suspended Model solids concentrations. Specific vari- ables to be


solids concentrations. Specific vari- ables to be monitored along with intervals and consequences will be incorporated into the Dredging and Land Reclamation specific ESHMP and contractors work execution plan.

In order to ensure the safety of all vessels during the dredging opera- tions, the contractor will provide temporary navigation aids to ensure the safety of other marine users (e.g. other commercial shipping, fisher- men, local ferries etc.). The dredging works will be required to minimize disruption to navigation and not cre- ate any additional hazard to naviga- tion in the area. A simultaneous operations (SIMOPS) plan will be developed that will incorporate the marine traffic information.

On completion of the dredging works, new permanent navigation aids for the shipping approach chan- nel and turning basin will be installed.


Approximately 97.5 ha of land will be reclaimed from Baía do Diogo Cão, comprising an area 1,290 meters wide, with the western side approximately 800 meters long and the eastern side 750 meters long. The land will be reclaimed to a height of approximately 3.5-3.8 meters above LAT after settlement, subject to the final EPC contractor design basis.

The area to be reclaimed will first be filled to above the existing water- level. Subsequent filling to the required elevation (and allowing for settlement) will be bunded in order to contain the materials and will be structurally and geotechnically sta- ble. The reclamation and fill material

Angola LNG

(1) The International Navigation Association

(2) Note there are two sensitive environments potentially impacted by different parame- ters caused by the dredging that necessitate different monitoring programs, mangroves to the west of the shipping channel and fishing areas to the east of the channel.

will be clean granular soils. During placement of the fill material, it will be sampled

will be clean granular soils. During placement of the fill material, it will be sampled and analyzed on site by the contractor for gradation (grain size distribution) and in-situ density. Up to 15 million cubic meters of fill material will be required to complete the reclamation. It is currently antic- ipated that the fill material may come from two sources, namely:

material retained from dredging the turning basin, and

sand dredged from the Zimbi Resource Area.

The expectation is that material sourced from the turning basin will be mined with a cutter suction dredger and pumped directly to the reclamation area through a floating line. Fill material from Zimbi Resource Area will be extracted using a trailing suction hopper dredger and delivered directly to the site.

The contractor will be required to incorporate measures to protect final shore lines from waves, wakes, cur- rents, and propeller wash. Shoreline protection is designed to protect the reclamation area up to a 50-year return period storm event (1) . In addi- tion, the environmental impacts of the reclamation works will be managed to reduce potential impacts to the environment of Baía do Diogo Cão.

Reclamation operations will use all practicable methods to control dispersal of sediment from the recla- mation area. In particular the con- tractor will trap run-off slurry (containing excess fines) from the reclamation area by means of silt traps (or equivalent) and dispose of it in an area designated and approved by Angola LNG.

Typical Reclamation Site Showing Pumping of Fill
Typical Reclamation Site Showing Pumping of Fill

Zimbi Sand Sourcing

It is proposed that sand will be extracted from the Zimbi Resource Area using dynamic (i.e. mobile) dredging by Trailing Suction Hopper Dredgers (TSHDs). Sand extraction is planned to take place to a depth of approximately 2-3 m below the seabed.

It is proposed that two or three dredgers will be used for the sand

extraction. The size of the vessels is likely to be of the order of 97 m to

133 m overall length. A safety exclu-

sion zone will be required around the

vessels. The exact size of the exclu- sion zone will be dependent upon the final dredging work plan and may range from approximately 150 to

500 meters around each individual

dredger, in accordance with interna- tional maritime law and best prac- tice. It is not envisaged that there will be a requirement for an exclusion zone around the resource area itself.

The sailing route of the dredgers between the Zimbi Resource Area and Baía do Diogo Cão will be the most direct route while seeking to

avoid inshore areas where artisanal fishermen operate (i.e. beyond 5 km of the coast). The only area in which the dredgers will travel closest to shore will be in the approaches to Ponta do Padrão in order to turn into the Congo Estuary.

Workforce and Procurement Requirements during Site Preparation

Site preparation will require an aver- age of 220 people in late 2006 and 230 people for 2007, peaking at a workforce of around 450 in the sec- ond quarter of 2007. On average, over that time it is estimated that the skills requirements will be 35 percent skilled, 20 percent semi-skilled and 45 percent unskilled labor. The high percentage of skilled labor is mainly a result of the specialized dredging and reclamation activities. This is balanced by the requirements for unskilled and semi-skilled labor in the site clearance, infrastructure, fencing and accommodation and erosion control activities.

(1) A due diligence review is being undertaken to determine if a 50-year return period storm event is sufficient.


Angola LNG


OverviewOverview ofof thethe AngolaAngola LNGLNG ProjectProject
OverviewOverview ofof thethe AngolaAngola LNGLNG ProjectProject

Construction and Commissioning

Main Facilities Construction and Commissioning

The LNG plant will be constructed on two parcels of land totaling approximately 175 ha. Construction activities will utilize supplemental laydown areas (total area of approx- imately 50 ha) located south and east of the LNG plant site. The bulk of the construction material and pre-fabricated modules will be brought to site by sea to the infra- structure/construction dock.

It is anticipated that the LNG plant will be built using a ‘stick built’ (1) process. The main stick built parts will likely include:

LNG train;

LPG recovery/fractionation train;

utilities plant;

LNG/LPG/Condensate storage tanks;

LNG and LPG/condensate loading berths;

main/major foundations; and

underground and interconnect- ing systems between the process units.

The following elements will probably be pre-fabricated:

buildings in the administration area and possibly some process plant buildings;

flare structures;

LNG and LPG/condensate loading jetties; and

minor foundations/supports/ sleepers etc.

Piles will be driven for support of heavy loads in all major process and

utility areas and in all other areas with heavy loads including the stor- age tank areas. It is anticipated that piles may be driven 24-hours per day during part of the construction phase.

Commissioning the Plant, Storage and Export Facilities

It is anticipated that the commission-

ing period for the LNG plant may extend as long as six to eight months, including a two month startup. Plant commissioning will include hydrotesting (pressure test- ing) of tanks using demineralized water. After testing, the water will be directed to the wastewater treatment plant, prior to discharge. The equip- ment will subsequently need to be dried, probably using nitrogen to avoid any possibility of corrosion.

A limited amount of flaring will be

inevitable during the commissioning phase. It will be minimized wherever practical and will be conducted in a manner that reduces impacts on the environment to as low as reasonably practical (ALARP) levels.

Any venting will be scheduled to minimize disturbance to the local population. It will be conducted in a manner that does not cause undue risk to the environment and local population (i.e. when atmospheric conditions will carry the unburned gas away from land).

conditions will carry the unburned gas away from land). Priest praying for the site blessing. Terrestrial

Priest praying for the site blessing.

Terrestrial Pipeline Construction

Onshore, the pipeline will be installed using a conventional spread technique.

The spread technique involves the following activities:

The route is identified and marked out using temporary fencing.

The area is checked for UXO. It may be necessary to carry out explosive ordnance detonation (EOD) for the safety corridor (in areas outside mangroves), if initial investigations reveal the presence of a significant UXO hazard

Topsoil is stripped from the ribbon of land used for construction (the ‘working width’, in this case an area 70 m wide) and segregated pending reinstatement.

The pipe is laid out along the route on temporary supports, welded together, welds are tested and joint protection is applied.

The trench is excavated to the required depth.

The pipeline is lowered into the trench by sideboom tractors.

The trench is backfilled and the working width reinstated.

After replacement of the topsoil, final restoration can commence. Segregation of topsoil during con- struction means that seeds, rhizomes etc. of local plants (commonly referred to as the ‘seed bank’) will be preserved intact. Native vegeta- tion will thus re-establish over the working areas without the need for specific seeding.

(1) Stick built process refers to construction on-site from the ground up.

The onshore route will cross wetland and mangrove areas, though the alignment has been selected

The onshore route will cross wetland and mangrove areas, though the alignment has been selected to mini- mize the impact of this. The pre- ferred crossing method will involve bundling the pipelines, to reduce the width of the crossing and minimize the time taken. This allows a single trenching operation rather than mul- tiple trenches for each individual line. If the pipelines are bundled, it is envisaged that this will take place along the right of way and no addi- tional landtake would be required for bundling. For water crossings, sheet piles will be used as required to contain the trench through these areas and prevent slumping, allow- ing the working width to be kept to a minimum. The pipeline will then be floated into place and covered with gravel or sand protection.

into place and covered with gravel or sand protection. Typical Restored Field Following Pipeline Installation In

Typical Restored Field Following Pipeline Installation

In addition to providing working areas for the spread, construction will also require laydown areas for equipment and line pipe storage along the route. All these features will necessarily be outside the 70 m corridor. A dock, main pipe storage area, and bridge are also required to enable the line pipe to be delivered by barge, thereby avoiding signifi- cant heavy road traffic through communities.

Line pipe will transferred by barge

to an offloading dock in the Pululu Channel near the mouth of Pangui Creek. The pipe will be off loaded across the dock and trucked to the main pipe storage area located east

of the dock, before final transport to

the pipeline corridor. The main pipe

storage area will also contain a construction equipment maintenance area.

A temporary pontoon bridge will be

installed alongside the pipeline corri- dor right of way (RoW) to transport the pipe across Pangui Creek. The dock, main storage area, and pipeline corridor will all be con- nected by a haul road. After comple- tion of construction, the dock, stor- age area, bridge, and haul road will be removed, and the areas restored.

Marine Pipeline Installation

At the pipeline landfall, twin sheet piles will be installed that will extend from the high water mark to approximately the 4 meter isobath (approximately 300 meters off shore). The area between the piles will then be excavated to form the pipelaying trench. This trench will be extended seawards for approxi- mately 800 meters using a cutter

suction dredger, creating a pipeline trench approximately 4 meters deep.

A shallower 2 meter trench will be

extended from this point to the 10 meter isobath, to provide temporary protection to the pipeline from storms during installation.

A cutter suction dredger will also be

required to cut a 2 meter deep trench

through a clay/gravel out-cropping located in about the 12 meter water depth. This section will be approxi- mately 500 meters long.

depth. This section will be approxi- mately 500 meters long. Inaugeration of Community Center, Soyo A

Inaugeration of Community Center, Soyo

A shallow draught lay barge will be set up and the pipes will be pulled onshore using a shore based winch. After the pipe has reached shore, the barge will then move offshore, laying the pipe to the 20 meter isobath. This will be repeated as necessary until all of the pipelines have been

installed. The sheet piles will then be removed and both trenches back- filled. After installation of the pipelines they will be jetted into the seabed starting at the seaward end of the 800 meter long cutter suction excavated trench and ending at the

15 meter isobath. This jetting opera-

tion will include that section of the pipeline in the 2 meter deep tempo- rary-protection trench and the natu- ral undisturbed seabed between the

10 and 15 meter isobath.

Jetting involves the use of a jet-sled, a device that uses high pressure water jets to locally fluidize the seabed. As the sled is pulled along the pipeline, the pipe sinks into the seabed under gravity. Because no actual trenching or backfill is required, this technique minimizes disturbance to the seabed and re-suspends relatively little seabed material.

OverviewOverview ofof thethe AngolaAngola LNGLNG ProjectProject
OverviewOverview ofof thethe AngolaAngola LNGLNG ProjectProject

Pipeline Commissioning

The pipelines will be hydrotested using filtered water. In this process, the pipeline is flooded and held at high pressure for an extended period to check for leaks. Biocides and cor- rosion inhibitors may be added to the water and will be selected for their minimal persistence in the marine environment. A plan for dis- posal of water used for hydrotest will be developed with careful con- sideration given to the impact, if any, of remaining chemicals on the environment. It is currently envis- aged that pipeline dewatering will take place offshore. In any event, the impacts of the chosen dewatering option will be assessed in order to ensure that environmental impacts are ALARP. In the event that onshore dewatering is required, the discharge will either:

be routed via pipeline to below the low water mark at the coastal landfall location; or

routed via pipeline to the Congo River beyond the confines of the bay.

Workforce and Housing Requirements for the Construction Phase

The construction of the Angola LNG plant and terminal will take place between 2007 and 2010, requiring a workforce that will vary between 4,000 and 8,000 workers at peak. Due to the technical and spe- cific nature of the Project, many of these jobs will require skilled and semi-skilled labor and it is therefore estimated that up to 80% of the workforce may be from outside the Soyo Area and require Project accommodation.

The location of the construction workforce housing is yet to be con- firmed. It will be in operation throughout the construction sched- ule, i.e. approximately 40 months. Additional site preparation worker housing may need to be provided for separately.

Procurement Process for the Construction Phase

The cost of the Project is estimated to be between US$4 billion and US$5 billion. Around 60 percent of

this is related to those facilities and operations that are within the scope

of this ESHIA. The largest portion of

the onshore spend is related to the construction of the plant and termi- nal, while the remainder is related to the site preparation, infrastructure works and construction of the pipelines.

Due to the highly technical nature of the Project and its equipment, the majority of expenditure during con- struction will go to overseas suppli- ers. In total, 13-18 percent of pro- curement expenditure will be on nationally sourced goods and serv- ices, equal to between approximately US$300 million to US$500 million.

The major part of the procurement during construction will be under- taken by the EPC contractor, which

will be required to demonstrate how they will prioritize Angolan content.

A minimum requirement is that local

content (including procurement and employment) should be between 10 and 15 percent (in dollar value).


Pipeline Operations

Angola LNG will be responsible for the operation of incoming feed gas pipelines. The operation of the pipelines will largely involve moni- toring the state of the pipeline and auxiliary equipment, monitoring activities in the pipeline corridor to ensure pipeline safety and monitor- ing of land restoration.

Plant Operations

The main plant operational activities are summarized below.

The LNG facility will receive gas from offshore facilities.

This raw gas will undergo pre-treat- ment to remove acid gas (CO 2 and H 2 S), water (dehydration), and mercury. The treated and dehy- drated gas stream will be chilled below its condensing temperature of minus 162°C at atmospheric pres- sure. Once liquefied, the volume is one six hundredth of its gaseous form, making it easier to transport and store. It is converted back to gas by raising the temperature.

The product from the final chilling stage is LNG, which will then be transferred to an LNG storage tank for storage prior to export by ship. During the chilling processes, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and conden- sates will be removed from the system and routed to the LPG frac- tionation unit, producing propane, butane and stabilized condensate. The LPG and condensate will be transferred to dedicated tanks for storage prior to export.

Plant operations will be continuous. The LNG plant will be designed for a 20 year

Plant operations will be continuous. The LNG plant will be designed for

a 20 year lifetime. It is anticipated

that it will be routinely operated by two twelve hour or three eight hour shifts per day.

There is no planned flaring in rou- tine operations. Gas flared from non-routine flaring is expected to be less than 1 percent of the total emis- sions. The largest flare volumes will naturally occur during the startup period. As a rough indication, flar- ing may initially occur for roughly 50 hours per week, falling to 10 hours per week by the end of the second month. Thereafter, routine operations would be expected.

Marine Operations

For marine safety reasons only one ship at a time will be allowed to

move to/from the berths. On average

it is anticipated that the marine ter-

minal will receive about 3 LNG tankers and 2-3 refrigerated LPG and condensate tankers per month.

The turnaround time from entrance

to exit will be approximately 20

hours with 14 to 16 hours at the dock.

For safety and security reasons ves- sels will be required to maintain a state of readiness for immediate departure at all times while moored

at either of the berths. Vessels will

also have a moving safety zone of 1,000 meters ahead, 300 meters astern and 100 meters on each side. While vessels are berthed, the safety zone will be restricted to 150 meters around the ships.

A boil-off gas recovery system is

designed to recover vapors associ- ated with LNG and LPG storage, holding and loading operations.

LNG and LPG boil-off vapors will either be routed to the plant fuel system or compressed and recycled back to the process.

Emergency Systems

The selected EPC contractors will develop and implement all response plans for the period during construc- tion. Angola LNG will develop all relevant response plans and proce- dures and implement and maintain its own dedicated response capability during operation

Safety and loss prevention systems incorporated into the Project’s design will include the following:

fire and gas detection and alarm systems;

fire protection systems;

emergency communications equipment;

area classification and equipment selection; and

spill (hydrocarbons and non- hydrocarbons) response plan and equipment.

Operational Workforce, Accommodation and Procurement

The operation of the Angola LNG plant and terminal should begin in 2010 and will require around 300- 500 permanent employees. Operation of the plant will require a high level of skilled and semi-skilled personnel. Initially around 30-40 percent of these jobs may be filled by Angolans. This will increase over time, with training programs, with more than 60 percent of the work- force expected to be Angolans by the 7th to 8th year of operation.

Given the lack of available housing stock in the Soyo Area, it is probable that the Project will seek a new housing development. The location and style of this housing develop- ment is still to be decided.

Procurement spending on materials and operational services at the site will amount to between US$45 and US$50 million per annum. Many of the supplies to the Project during will be highly technical in nature and will need to be procured internation- ally. Other goods and services such as low tech equipment and mainte- nance services may be provided by national companies.


Decommissioning refers to the process of dismantling the operating assets after completion of the operat- ing life cycle. Due to the long-term operation of the LNG plant (20 years) the proposals for decommis- sioning will be specified towards the end of the life of the Project.

Angola LNG will develop a decom- missioning plan at the appropriate time in the future, prior to perform- ing any decommissioning work. In addition, a specific ESHIA of decom- missioning will be carried out as required by Angolan regulations. The assessment of decommissioning activities in the future will have the benefit of reviewing the actual as-built Project and utilizing current prevailing technologies and waste management and infrastructure practices.

StakeholderStakeholder EngagementEngagement
StakeholderStakeholder EngagementEngagement

Stakeholder engagement refers to a process of sharing information and knowledge, seeking to understand the concerns of others and building relationships based on collaboration and partnership. It is a long-term process that requires the building of trust through open dialogue and the delivery of commitments.

Disclosure of information and stake- holder consultation during the devel- opment of the ESHIA is a substantial component of overall stakeholder engagement. It is fundamental to the development of the ESHIA itself in the following ways:

Information is shared in a meaning- ful and timely manner to enable the public to provide considered feed- back.

The ESHIA team is fully able to understand and characterize the potential environmental, socioeco- nomic and health impacts of the Project.

It enables the Project to develop effective mitigation measures and management plans that are sensi- tive to the local context.

Opportunities can be identified for affected communities to participate in mitigation, monitoring and enhancement measures.

Stakeholder engagement is central to Angola LNG’s vision. Angola LNG recognizes that open and transparent communication is essential due to the importance of the activities in which it is engaged and the impact on the local, regional and national economies and individuals.

the local, regional and national economies and individuals. Consultation During Site Selection Project stakeholders are

Consultation During Site Selection

Project stakeholders are identified in order to understand the individuals or organizations that will be affected by or may influence the Project or related activities either positively or

negatively. During the site selection stage, an initial list of Project stake- holders was developed. This list has been regularly reviewed and updated.

Primary Stakeholders

Secondary Stakeholders

Project Participants

Angola National Government

(management and

Local government


Community leaders

Local community mem- bers

Special interest groups

Churches and other religious organizations

Non-governmental organizations

Vulnerable sub-groups (eg youth, disabled peo- ples, women)

Community-based organizations


Training centers

Potential suppliers and contractors

Potential customers (LNG buyers)

Gas suppliers

Local businesses/co- operatives (e.g. fishing)

Other upstream companies

Trade associations, industrial bodies etc.

Labor unions

Political parties

Financial community

International, national, regional and local media

Overview of Consultation Process The ESHIA consultation program has been designed to conform to Angolan

Overview of Consultation Process

The ESHIA consultation program has been designed to conform to Angolan national legislation. In addition, the Angola LNG Project’s intent is to be consistent The World Bank /International Finance Corporation requirements for public consultation and disclosure.

A number of consultation phases

have supported the ESHIA to date,

in both the Soyo and Zimbi Areas

and will continue as the ESHIA moves towards disclosure. These include the following:

Site Selection Consultation;

Scoping Consultation;

Baseline Data Collection Consultation; and

Impacts and Mitigation Consultation.

ESHIA Disclosure Consultation will commence with the release of this ESHIA Disclosure Report to the public.

Key Consultation Findings to Date

Physical Environment

Initially, impacts to the physical environment were not emphasized by local stakeholders. Slightly more emphasis was placed on this in later consultations particularly relating to the extraction and transport of fill material. NGO and local community stakeholder concerns related mainly

to the extent of the dredging

although local stakeholder concern

were not high due to the perceived advantages that Angola LNG may bring to the area.


Relatively little concern has been expressed by stakeholders regarding biodiversity issues. The views of national environmental stakeholders tended to focus on the perceived socioeconomic importance of the

Project. At a biodiversity consulta- tion workshop held in Soyo in September 2005 the general feedback was that biodiversity was not a sig- nificant issue for the Project, how- ever this attitude may have been influenced by the perceived benefits

of the Project. It is possible that in

the future as general awareness of environmental issues increases, there may be more biodiversity concerns.

A concern was raised regarding the

potential impacts on mangrove areas. In particular there was a level

of concern regarding the pipeline

route as people expected that this would cause significant impacts.

Comments during consultation referred to the fact that it is not enough for the Project to claim it will monitor impacts on biodiversity, the Project also needs to have a response strategy should it have a (potentially unforeseen) impact on biodiversity.

Environmental Quality

Consultation on environmental qual- ity issues associated with the Project (including water and air quality and noise levels) has not generated a par- ticularly significant response from stakeholders. Generally the percep- tion of environmental issues by stakeholders has been secondary to the socioeconomic issues of concern and the perceived benefits that stake- holders believe Angola LNG may provide. However, consultation has highlighted that the potential reduc- tion of flaring as a result of the Project is welcomed by local commu- nities due to the perceived impacts on particular crops.

nities due to the perceived impacts on particular crops. Fishermen and Middle Women E NVIRONMENTAL R

Fishermen and Middle Women

StakeholderStakeholder EngagementEngagement
StakeholderStakeholder EngagementEngagement


Throughout the consultation process, stakeholders were concerned that Soyo would become a magnet for in-migration. Although migrants are generally accepted into the local community, many stakeholders did express concern about losing poten- tial employment opportunities to in-migrants. It was also identified that the increased number of people moving into the area would exert greater pressure on basic infrastruc- ture services such as health, water, electricity, sanitation and housing.

There was no ill-feeling regarding in- migration from other parts of Angola. Many of those living in Soyo from other provinces are cur- rently well-integrated within the community with their children going to local schools etc. Similarly, though there are high expectations that the Project will provide employ- ment for local youth, according to the Rei do Povo, foreign workers “are free to come and work here, everyone is welcome”.

There was a recognition that the Government was ultimately responsi- ble for land planning and needed for the Government to develop an infrastructure plan to account for future developments. Many stake- holders stressed the need to clearly communicate employment opportu- nities to prevent speculative employ- ees traveling to Soyo. Consultees also recommended that the Project should support the Government in the management of this issue.

support the Government in the management of this issue. Blessing of the Land by Rei do

Blessing of the Land by Rei do Povo in Soyo

Integration of Workers

During the consultation in Luanda, some workshop participants expressed a strong consensus that the Project decision to implement largely closed construction housing may produce a community backlash and represent a missed opportunity to provide benefits to Soyo. Other participants expressed strong opin- ions that the construction housing be closed.

Cultural Heritage

Many people consulted asked that, “local culture be respected, particu- larly sacred sites such as cemeteries”. It was noted during consultation that failure to respect local culture, including cultural sites (particularly cemeteries) would represent a serious violation of the culture and could potentially cause serious problems.

The Project was encouraged to establish regular courtesy visits with the Rei do Povo to discuss plans for

the area and seek advice since these would be welcomed by the tradi- tional authorities and would demonstrate that the Project values local culture. The Rei do Povo in Soyo clearly stated that he desired a cultural ceremony to kick-off the Project, which was done in April 2006.

Recreation and Amenity

A number of stakeholders observed

the lack of recreation and amenities

in Soyo, specifically at Praía dos

Pobres. However, no potential impacts specific to the beach were raised by consultees at this time.

During a consultation meeting with the community of Songo e Tona, community members stated that they have received no benefits from Kwanda Base specifically recre- ational amenities: “Even though we own the land, our children have no recreational areas.”

Health It was observed by one health center professional that there needs to be a


It was observed by one health center professional that there needs to be a strategy for the treatment of malaria in hospitals since the approach to treatment is more reactive than preventative. Similar concerns were expressed regarding AIDS and sexu- ally transmitted infections, which are felt to be a growing problem.

It is a common belief among the local community that acute respira- tory diseases were linked to air pol- lution due to the flaring.

During a group meeting of health care professionals, it was stated that they want support from the Project, specifically in the assistance to spread awareness of prevention (HIV, malaria) and for the Project to increase the levels of sanitation and education in the community. A recurring comment was the lack of medical structure in the region, the poor quality of facilities, lack of medication and insufficient numbers of beds for patients.


Employment has been a dominant theme throughout consultation. The need for employment and training of local and Angolan people is a key issue of concern for many stakehold- ers. There was an overwhelming expectation and demand for employ- ment opportunities specifically for the local youth. In addition, there is frustration concerning the current recruitment practices within the oil industry, for example, the practice of ‘hello money’ appears to be wide- spread. Nepotism and patronage are also common, excluding local youth from permanent jobs.

Although women were identified as a vulnerable group it was also noted that the impact from the Project could potentially be positive since it may reduce their work load. However, the director of the Department for Women’s Affairs in Soyo observed that even women who hold college degrees have few oppor- tunities available to them.

Members of fishing communities stated that even the educated youth have been unable to find work and therefore have had to fish along with the rest of the family. They observed that this is causing frustration, and expectations for the Project to provide jobs are high.

People from Soyo made it clear that they wanted to be prioritized for work positions but also had con- cerns that they did not possess s ufficient skills to be able to compete for jobs. Zimbi Area communities also requested priority for jobs. They expressed a concern regarding previous non-transparency in the recruitment process and feelings of being overlooked during oil company recruitment.

Skills and Education

Stakeholders expressed a desire for the Project to work with the local government Municipal Employment Center to ensure that local people with the right skills are employed by the Project. Stakeholders felt that the Project could have a sustainable benefit by providing training and skills development, particularly in collaboration with government and other organizations.

Some stakeholders raised their con- cerns about the need for improved educational facilities. In addition, the Soyo community highlighted that few training facilities existed and therefore appealed for the Project to build a vocational training center, provide training and education scholarships to assist the local community.


It is widely believed that existing flaring of gas has resulted in reduced crop yields. Interviewees explained that they remember the yield of local fields has declined. Some stakehold- ers are convinced that the flaring process has seriously undermined their livelihoods. Many stakeholders believe that cessation of flaring will enable the crops to recover and thus increase food supplies.


Generally, there is a concern that the Project will disrupt the activities of the local fishing communities and this will have an impact on their livelihoods. Local groups including Pesnorte and IPA also expressed their concerns that the Project would have an adverse affect on fish stocks and fishing activity.

Many of the fishing communities had very high expectations that the Project would bring employment, fishing equipment, healthcare and infrastructure (provision of electric- ity). Some community representa- tives stated that they would support the Project, “provided that they received benefits” from the Project.

StakeholderStakeholder EngagementEngagement
StakeholderStakeholder EngagementEngagement

Local Businesses

Stakeholders in Luanda were con- cerned that oil companies in Angola should open the doors to local busi- nesses and also comply with the new legislation regarding partnerships with local organizations. They went on to state that the Project should actively seek local companies to partner with.

Stakeholders also felt that this would have a positive effect on prices, because local business development would reduce reliance on expensive imported goods and services in Soyo.

Local Economic Development

Overall, stakeholders felt that Angola LNG can play a key role in the economic development of Soyo particularly through the provision of gas and/ or electricity, and assisting in the improvement of infrastructure, land planning, information-sharing and provision of facilities. Micro- financing was also suggested during consultation by stakeholders in Luanda.

During baseline consultation, some stakeholders were concerned that the Project will only benefit those within the confines of Kwanda Base, and suggested that the Project be expanded more into the community, potentially having an office in Soyo town, and also accommodating visi- tors and workers in the hotels and houses outside of the base.

Infrastructure, Utilities and Services

Stakeholders had very high expecta- tions about provision of improved services and utilities through the Project. Some consultees complained that they had “no water, schools and hospitals” and stated that to date oil companies had not responded to demands to improve the weak serv- ices in Soyo.

The provision of energy in the form of electricity (preferably) or gas was raised as a key priority on several occasions both in Soyo and the Zimbi Area. In addition, some stake- holders felt the lack of electricity severely hinders business develop- ment and that the Project should address the poor infrastructure pro- vision in the area. A number of Soyo women hoped that the provision of electricity would reduce accidents in the home from candles and lamps. Those interviewed clearly expected that the Project would result in affordable bottled gas so that they would no longer have to collect fire- wood or buy charcoal.


The community of Songo e Tona identified the increase of traffic along the heavy haul road as a concern. Few other transport con- cerns were raised during stakeholder consultation, although this may have been because information on traffic volumes on the roads was not presented.

Consultation Findings on the Project and the ESHIA Process

The vast majority of local commu- nity members consulted stated that the community will support the Project providing that sufficient benefits are experienced in the local communities.

Throughout the stakeholder consul- tations many stakeholders expressed their appreciation that the Project is engaging them in workshops and also for Angola LNG’s proactive steps to involve external stakeholders.

A number of participants com- mented on the importance of involv- ing local consultants in the Project in order to increase Angolan capac- ity to carry out such studies and to ensure that the ESHIA fully takes account of the local context.

Some stakeholders expressed that the industry in general, including the Angola LNG Project, has not been communicating effectively with local people. Further consulta- tion revealed that some groups had not been informed about the scop- ing consultation meetings in Soyo. The perception was that the ‘com- mon’ people did not have very much information about the Project.

did not have very much information about the Project. Soyo Area 22 E NVIRONMENTAL R ESOURCES

Soyo Area

ImpactsImpacts andand MitigationMitigation
ImpactsImpacts andand MitigationMitigation

Identification of Potential Impacts

The potential impacts of project con- struction and operation on the natu- ral and human environment have been evaluated for the following key impact areas:


hydrodynamics and seabed processes;

environmental quality (land- scape, visual, light, noise, air and water quality, wastes);

fish and fisheries;

socio-cultural impacts and com- municable diseases;

socioeconomics (employment, livelihoods, income, local econ- omy, land use and agriculture)

non-routine events.

omy, land use and agriculture) ■ non-routine events. Fisherman Assessing Significance The significance of impacts


Assessing Significance

The significance of impacts has been assessed using defined objective cri- teria, derived from the following key elements.

compliance with relevant Angolan legislation and any rel- evant Project or industry poli- cies, environmental standards or guidelines;

the magnitude (including dura- tion) of the change, quantified where practicable;

the nature and level of sensitiv- ity of the receptor (physical, biological, or human); and

the likelihood (probability) that the identified impact will occur.

The major categories of impact sig- nificance have been are summarized below.

Positive impacts provide resources or receptors, most often people, with positive benefits.

Negligible impact is where a resource or receptor will not be affected in any way by a particular activity or the predicted effect is indistinguishable from natural background variations.


Minor impact is one where an effect will be experienced, but the impact

magnitude is sufficiently small (with or without mitigation) and well within accepted standards, and/or the receptor is of low sensitivity/value.


Moderate impact is one within accepted limits and standards. Clearly to

design an activity so that its effects only just avoid a major impact is not best practice, thus the emphasis for moderate impacts is on demonstrating that the impact has been reduced to a level that is as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP).


Major impact is one where an accepted limit or standard may be

exceeded, or large magnitude impacts occur to highly valued/sensitive resource/receptors. An aim of ESHIA is to get to a position where the Project does not have any major residual impacts, certainly not ones that would endure into the long-term or extend over a large area. However, for some aspects there may be major residual impacts after all practicable miti- gation options have been exhausted (i.e. ALARP has been applied; it is the function of the permitting authority to weigh such factors against positive ones in coming to a decision on the Project.

Does this Demonstrate ALARP?





Impacts with Moderate Residual Significance

Angola LNG



(1) Assuming all agreed mitigation is applied.

Yes - Permanent habitat loss is unavoidable. The project has carefully selected the site and conceptual pipeline route to minimize impact to sensitive habitat

There is no practical pipeline route that can a pproach Kwanda Island without some impact to–

fringing mangrove habitat. The only way to do this would be a marine pipeline up the Congo estuary

that would have other significant impacts.

The ranking of Moderate is cautious, as the fi sh communities are poorly understood at this

stage. The impact is unavoidable, but the Project has committed to implement dredging management

measures to minimize the generation of turbidity plumes. Yes – A fisheries RAP is being developed to ensure that impacts to local fishermen are mitigated.


Yes – Confined to Ponta do Padrão. Considered at site selection stage.Sediment


Yes - Change in landscape is inevitable with the transition from palm savannah to built environment.Landscape

The facility will be landscaped appropriately to fit into the context of Kwanda Base.

- Given the siting of the facilities, the visual impact will be mitigated from some points of view

through screening and landscaping. However, it is not possible, given the scale of the development

and the fact that many viewpoints are across water, to mitigate visual impacts further. Yes – The project has defined strict operational noise standards and also has a proposed program for

managing noise from traffic on the heavy haul road. Additional mitigation for fenceline communities

The residual impact is nonetheless rated as moderate, as the design has not yet

is being considered.

been finalized and the actual performance characteristics of the facilities with respect to noise are not

known. In Part – The Project has pre-mitigated emissions by defining strict functional specifications, consistent with international standards. The residual impact is nonetheless rated as moderate, as the design has not yet been finalized and the actual performance characteristics of the facilities with respect to atmospheric emissions are not known. Because local communities have a negative perception of flaring (issue of smuts etc.) and flaring will be evident for the first two months of

startup. Yes – The facilities will be relatively small source of GHGs. Given that one of the Project’s aims is to contribute to the elimination of offshore flaring in Angola, it can be viewed as a net benefit.




Moderate (negative)

Moderate (negative)


Moderate (negative)


Moderate (negative)


Moderate (negative)


Moderate (negative)

Moderate (negative)

Moderate (negative)


Moderate (negative)

Minor (negative) to

Moderate (positive)

Minor (negative) to

Minor (negative) to


Minor (negative) toOperation


Biodiversity Permanent habitat loss


Habitat fragmentation

Minor (negative) toConstruction

Fisheries Disturbance to fish from dredging


Disruption of access Dredging



Environmental Quality




oni nitcurtsoCesoN Operation


Combustion Emissions:

NOx, SOx, PM 10 impacts to local communities and vegetation


Combustion Emissions:


Does this Demonstrate ALARP?





Angola LNG




Yes – Despite mitigation measures fugitive emissions may still occur. In addition, non routine flaring

will still take place albeit infrequently. Yes – Dispersion of sediment will be controlled. A dredging management plan will be developed

Yes - The project has defined strict quality standards for effluents consistent with internationalSewage

It will be the FEED contractor’s responsibility to demonstrate that the design of any outfall


can achieve these objectives.

– The project has pre-mitigated impacts of effluents by defining strict functional specifications,

consistent with international standards. In addition, adopting air cooling (rather than water cooling)

reduces the scope of impacts from effluents significantly. The residual impact is nonetheless rated as moderate, as the design has not yet been finalized and the actual performance characteristics of the

facilities with respect to effluents are not known. Yes - The project has recognized the limitations of existing waste facilities and has committed to responsible disposal of special wastes in a dedicated local facility.

Yes – Non-routine events, by their very nature, cannot be entirely avoided. The project has demonstrated that reasonable precautions, both in terms of response capability and organizational planning will be in place. Additional work is ongoing to develop countermeasures plans including an assessment of those resources most at risk and in need of protection in the event of a spill.

Yes – The risk of this event, given the Project’s mitigation measures, is extremely low. AdditionalCatastrophic

work is ongoing to develop countermeasures plans including an assessment of those resources most at risk and in need of protection in the event of a spill.


Yes – The location of the Project, close to Soyo town, was in part driven by the desire of the Angolan Government for Angola LNG to catalyze development of the Soyo Area. Given its location a high degree of interface with the local community is unavoidable. However, the Project is implementing reasonable precautions to act within the cultural norms of the society and to prevent potentially

damaging interaction with the construction workforce. Yes – Expectations management will be an ongoing challenge for the Project.


Yes - The Project is committed to develop a plan to manage an outbreak of avian influenza. An outbreak is highly unlikely. However, should it occur it will be extremely difficult to contain. The main responsibility for response will be with the health authorities. The medium residual rating is made under the present scenario that human-to-human transmission of the virus is not possible.


Moderate (negative)


Moderate (negative)

Moderate (negative)


Moderate (negative)


Moderate (negative)


Moderate (negative)

Moderate (negative


Moderate (negative)

Moderate (negative)

Moderate (negative)


Minor (negative) to

Minor (negative) to

Leadership patterns, cultural norms, conflict and crime

Minor (negative) toFugitive



Minor (negative) toConstruction

Local water quality (change in salinity, temperature and turbidity)







Special Wastes



Non routine Scenarios Bunker fuel spill





Cultural norms


Conflict and Crime

Operation Transmission of communicable diseases


Avian Influenza


Does this Demonstrate ALARP?





Angola LNG




Yes – The Project is committed to implement measures that are reasonably practicable. An outbreak is highly unlikely, however, should it occur it will be extremely difficult to contain and the main

responsibility for response will be with the health authorities. Yes – The Project is committed to undertaking all that is reasonably practicable to prevent transmission from its own workforce. It will also explore ways to enhance prevention and

management of HIV/AIDS in the community. Yes – The Project is committed to implement measures that are reasonably practicable. An outbreak is highly unlikely, however, should it occur it will be extremely difficult to contain and the main responsibility for response will be with the health authorities.


In part – The key barrier to employment is lack of skills for jobs that will be required during the

The majority of this training will be undertaken by the

contractors. However, it would be beneficial to commence training activities prior to contractor selection. See ‘conflict and crime’ above. The Project has committed to a number of measures that will assist the transition from construction to operation. An Angolanization plan for the operational

phase Project would complete the mitigation package. Yes – Effectiveness will however depend on the mitigation strategies that are taken forward which have not yet been developed.


Yes – The project’s housing and procurement strategy will minimize unsustainable market demand and potential impacts on prices. The presence of the Project should be positive over the long-term as supply systems to Soyo are improved.


No – The closed housing strategy is driven through a desire of the Project to minimize negative impacts that can be caused by a large construction workforce. However, there is an expectations gap between the Project and the local community that needs to be narrowed to avoid the construction housing area becoming a source of tension. In the longer term, provision of housing during operations is a positive impact.

construction and operation phase.

Moderate (negative)

Moderate (negative)

Moderate (negative)

Moderate (positive)

Moderate (positive)

Moderate (negative)

Moderate (negative)

Moderate (positive)

Moderate (positive)


Moderate (negative) to

Moderate (positive)

Moderate (negative) to















Local business and economic development











Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

HIV/ AIDS, Hepatitis B,


Marburg and Ebola virus

Employment and capacity

Direct, indirect and

induced employment

Enhancement/ upgrade

of skills and experience

Community anger and

resentment at not being


Skills transfer away from

key workers

Procurement of goods

and services

Increased business

experience, training and


Impact on prices

Retailing/ other business



Workforce housing

Does this Demonstrate ALARP?





Angola LNG





Yes – The Project has sought to minimize any impacts on the health of the community. However, this will in practice be very difficult. Opportunities to improve community health have not yet been identified, but could result in benefits. There is an opportunity for the Project to develop its health care strategy in a manner that also benefits the local community. The process of evaluating the feasibility of this opportunity has not yet begun.

In part – Commitments are appropriate but opportunities are yet to be identified and ability to ensure opportunities are taken forward during construction is limited. There is a context of high local expectations. There are many opportunities to develop the Project in a manner that also provides benefits to the local community. The process of evaluating the potential opportunities has not yet begun.

Yes – Safety is the Project’s primary concern and the Project is committed to implement the highest standards of safety in the conduct of its employees and those of its contractors.


Yes – Safety is the Project’s primary concern and the Project is committed to implement the highest standards of safety in the conduct of its employees and those of its contractors. Further government resources to prevent over laden, and sometimes illegal, small boats will be necessary as the movements of large boats increase.

Moderate (negative) to


Moderate(negative) to


Moderate (negative)

Moderate (negative)


Major (positive)


Major (positive)







Road transport Road traffic accidents

Operation Marine transport and navigation



Social services Increased pressure on healthcare facilities


Utilities Expectations of improvements to local facilities

Safety of small vessels and damage to equipment

ImpactsImpacts andand MitigationMitigation
ImpactsImpacts andand MitigationMitigation


The development of mitigation measures has been guided by a vision and common strategic approach. In each impact area, the Project has established objectives that have guided the development of specific mitigation measures.

Mitigation Objectives:

To contribute to long-term sustain- able development in Angola by promoting economic growth with full consideration of social equity and environmental quality.

To work to maintain positive rela- tionships and the support of local community, government and institutions and wider society.

Strategic Approach to Mitigation

To prioritize initiatives that will i) deliver short-term contribution to sustainable development that pro- vides the foundation for longer term contributions; and/or ii) deliver cost effective short-term contribu- tions to sustainable development.

To work with others in Angola (individuals, government, private sector, institutions) wherever possible and appropriate to meet common objectives.

To build on existing projects and programs where appropriate to deliver the mitigation or enhance- ment measures required for the Project.

To achieve buy-in with affected communities, key decision makers and those involved in implementa- tion through transparent consultation.

An objective of the ESHIA is to iden- tify means of avoiding unnecessary damage to environmental and socioeconomic resources and recep- tors. In developing mitigation, the first focus is on measures that will prevent or minimize impacts through the design and management of the Project rather than relying on rein- statement and compensation meas- ures. In this respect it is important to

note that this principle was first applied during site selection, when well-informed choices allowed the Project to avoid potentially signifi- cant impacts associated with other sites. Applying a ‘hierarchy’ of miti- gation measures is one way in which the ESHIA and design have inter- acted. The hierarchy of mitigation measures for planned activities and unplanned events is outlined below.

Avoid at Source; Reduce at Source: avoiding or reducing at source through the design of the Project (e.g. avoiding by siting or re-routing activity away from sensitive areas or reducing by restricting the working area or changing the time of the activity).

Abate on Site: add something to the design to abate the impact (e.g. pollution control equipment, traffic controls, perimeter screening and landscaping).

Abate at Receptor: if an impact cannot be abated on-site then control measures can be implemented off-site (e.g. noise barriers to minimize noise impact at a nearby residence or fencing to prevent animals straying onto the site).

Repair or Remedy: some impacts involve unavoidable damage to a resource (e.g. agricultural land and forestry due to creating access, worker housing or materials storage areas) and these impacts require repair, restoration and reinstatement measures.

Compensate in Kind; Compensate Through Other Means: where other mitigation approaches are not possible or fully effective, then compensation for loss, damage and disturbance might be appropriate (e.g. planting to replace damaged vegetation, financial compensation for damaged crops or providing community facilities for loss of fisheries access, recreation and amenity space). It is emphasized that compensation to individuals with residual impacts to livelihood or quality of life will generally be non financial and will have a focus on restoring livelihoods.

The objectives of mitigation are often established through legal or best practice standards such as

The objectives of mitigation are often established through legal or best practice standards such as those of the World Bank. Where standards are not available, objectives have been established by the Angola LNG Project based on international best practices. A goal of the Project is to be consistent with World Bank Guidelines and appropriate interna- tional industry guidelines. Several international standards of good practice guidelines have been devel- oped for the hydrocarbon industry and these play an intrinsic part of basic design and construction meth- ods. Thus, the majority of mitigation measures fall within the upper two tiers of the hierarchy and are effectively built into the planned operation.

Key Residual Impacts

Complete mitigation of an impact is not always achievable. A residual impact is the impact that is predicted to remain once mitigation measures have been designed into the intended activity.

There is an iterative element to this process so residual impacts initially judged to be ‘major’ or ‘moderate’, even with the application of mitiga- tion measures, will receive ongoing management attention including further sequences of prediction, evaluation and additional mitigation measures being identified. This process will continue with the production of the ESHIA Addendum once the Final Investment Decision (FID) has been taken and the EPC contractor is engaged.

The residual impacts of moderate significance are summarized on the tables on the following four pages.

Cumulative Impacts and Their Mitigation Overview

Soyo has been designated by the Government of Angola as one of six industrial growth poles in the coun- try and the Angola LNG Project is viewed as a catalyst for this growth. While there are plans for future industrial projects, the nature and potential locations of such develop- ment are not known. Given the lim- ited detail available regarding such future developments, the assessment of cumulative impacts is necessarily of a generic nature.

Types of Cumulative Impacts Relevant to the Angola LNG Project

Accumulative: the overall effect of different types of impacts at the same location (for example, fugitive dust emissions, construction noise and construction traffic all impacting Songo e Tona).

Interactive: where two different types of impacts (which may not singly be important) react with each other to create a new impact (that might be important) (e.g. water abstraction from a watercourse might exacerbate the impacts caused by increased sediment loading).

Additive or In-combination: where impacts from the primary activity (i.e. the construction and operation of the Angola LNG Project) are added to impacts from third party activities (e.g. other major projects in the vicinity of the Project which are already occurring, planned or may happen in the foreseeable future).

planned or may happen in the foreseeable future). In the absence of further detail, a number

In the absence of further detail, a number of developments can be hypothesized including power gener- ation, metals and chemical plants. In addition to the above, various secondary industries might be expected. There is also the possibil- ity of road construction from Soyo to the south, along with airport expansion. With this development, in-migration would escalate signifi- cantly. Over time it is likely that in-migrants would outnumber the original inhabitants of the area several times over.

ImpactsImpacts andand MitigationMitigation
ImpactsImpacts andand MitigationMitigation

Wide Scale Cumulative Impacts

The key wide scale cumulative impacts that may arise are related to:

Air quality impacts (with atten- dant health implications) due to emissions of nitrogen oxides and the formation of ground level ozone.

Boost to the regional and national economy from indus- trial developments.

In-migration from other coun- tries in the region, particularly the DRC and other West African countries and attendant immigration pressures along the northern border of Angola.

Local Cumulative Impacts

Local cumulative impacts are more wide-ranging as local development will touch on most aspects of people’s lives and the environment of the Soyo Area.

The main potential areas of cumula- tive impact are related both to the physical footprint of development and the influx of job-seekers to the area. Some of the key areas are as fol- lows:

Loss of mangrove and associated ecological function would result from dredging in the Pululu channel. A combination of land- take, increased population and disturbance would also exert pressure on terrestrial habitats and their fauna.

The industrialization of the Soyo Area would result in increased visual impact, noise and higher levels of environmental pollution locally. Air quality is likely to be a particular issue.

In addition to the potential loss of fish if mangroves are dam- aged, the increase in local popu-

lation and marine traffic will put more pressure on fish stocks and local fishing livelihoods, includ- ing disturbance to fishing from increased shipping activity.

Cumulative land take impacts may reduce overall agricultural production in the Soyo Area. Without improvements in supply infrastructure, this could exacer- bate seasonal shortages of agri- cultural produce, which it is understood have occurred in recent years in Soyo. Land take may also require the displace- ment of agriculture or people. These losses are likely to be par- ticularly severe for any commu- nity if a substantial portion of its land is permanently acquired and/ or whose primary source of income or subsistence is derived from agriculture activities.

It is assumed that future indus- trial development will avoid important cultural sites, but the Mermaid’s Sanctuary and Mermaid’s Forest could be com- promised because of their prox- imity to zones earmarked for future development. Similarly, access to recreational areas such as Sereia Beach could be further reduced over time.

The development of Soyo as an industrial town and business center would encourage the Government to improve trans- port links and create a more favorable business environment. This in turn would attract more investment into Soyo as it would be considered a more accessible market with potential for growth. It is likely that the devel- opment of Soyo as an economic hub would draw job seekers away from rural and less devel- oped urban areas to seek oppor- tunities in Soyo.

The increase in more highly paid workers in the Soyo Area also provides opportunities to improve the housing stock of the

Soyo Area. Such housing may be constructed by companies oper- ating locally or by construction companies looking to sell or rent to those working in the area.

In-migration would lead to the unplanned expansion of commu- nities and pressure on local utili- ties, services and infrastructure including health and transport (both road and marine).

There may also be construction of new roads, such as the road envisaged between the new Angola LNG housing area south of Soyo and Kwanda Base. Such roads, if planned well, could re- route traffic away from residen- tial areas and relieve congestion. Increased movement of people may also encourage the introduc- tion of bus services.

Some in-migration will be illegal. Illegal immigrants are likely to accept lower pay and undertake more dangerous and difficult jobs than locals. Vulnerable groups may be exploited and human trafficking may increase as a means to transport people illegally across borders.

The demand for labor would encourage government and pri- vate spending on training and education. Increased disposable income would stimulate the local economy and attract further investment and secondary busi- nesses. An increase in the supply of goods and services in the area, as well as competition between suppliers, is likely to exert down- ward pressure on the current high and unstable prices of goods and services in the area.

Large numbers of in-migrants who do not have shared history and respect for local norms may erode traditional leadership pat- terns and reduce community cohesion. Crime may increase as a result. However, positive cul- tural exchange could also take place with, for example, local

residents learning from the entre- preneurial endeavors of in- migrants from the DRC. ■ New

residents learning from the entre- preneurial endeavors of in- migrants from the DRC.

New religions or branches of established religions could be introduced from neighboring countries, though ancestor wor- ship is likely to continue. However, traditional music, dance and ritual could be influ- enced or abandoned over time in favor of the cultural practices of other cultures (particularly west- ern culture).

Unless new companies make sub- stantial efforts to employ and make benefits felt locally, current alienation (particularly among unemployed youth) could esca- late into hostility against compa- nies and their non-local staff.

In-migrant communities in unplanned areas are most likely to suffer from communicable dis- eases such as TB, cholera etc. There is also the potential for an increase in HIV/AIDS and sexu- ally transmitted infections with a rising population. In-migration also could potentially trigger an outbreak of a severe infectious disease such as Ebola, Marburg, Avian Influenza or SARS. There are no reports of these diseases in Angola at present but the potential exists for one or more of these diseases to be intro- duced into the area. Construction activities in the area might lead to temporary standing water (in ditches etc.) where mosquitoes could breed, resulting in a higher prevalence of malaria. There are no known developments that could cause cumulative impacts to the Zimbi Resource Area. However should any development take place that could impact the Zimbi Resource Area before it has replenished its seabed sand layer, or in a location that cuts off the influx of sediment into this area, then this could result in a significant habitat change.

Management Considerations for Cumulative Impacts

Angola LNG has a far lower ability to influence the wider development of the Soyo area that will result indi- rectly from the Project and from industries that may be drawn to the area due to the presence of the Project. Here the prime responsibil- ity rests with the Government of Angola, although there are areas where the Project may be able to provide support and assistance (e.g. in the preparation of a strategic development plan for Soyo). It is certain that the Angola LNG Project provides a significant development opportunity for the Soyo Area. The sustainability of the development will in large part depend on the measures put in place by the Government and other stakeholders in the coming years.

Once further information is available on the industrialization plans for the area, it is strongly recommended that the Government of Angola under- takes a Strategic Impact Assessment. The results of this assessment would be able to shape the development of a strategic plan of the Soyo Area such that economic benefits are delivered in a manner that is socially equitable and that protects the environment. Angola LNG is interested in working with the Government of Angola to carry out such an assessment.

Implications of Uncertainty

For this Project, much of the front end design information that would usually be available for an ESHIA is confidential at this stage. Once the EPC Contractor is enaged, the Project will issue an ESHIA Addendum to stakeholders with further project details and revised assessments where relevant. The addendum will also take into account the findings of additional work undertaken by the Project to reduce baseline data uncertainty, particularly with respect to noise, air quality and fisheries.

The other main area of uncertainty in an ESHIA relates to the responses of the natural and human environ- ment. Two main actions serve to reduce this:

The establishment of a monitor- ing program will support the Project through construction and operation. This monitoring program will evaluate if mitiga- tion measures are being implemented effectively and if the environment is responding as predicted.

Systematic community consulta- tion aims to clearly communi- cate to communities the activi- ties and predicted impacts of the Project and to listen and respond to their concerns.

of the Project and to listen and respond to their concerns. Overview of Mangroves in Soyo

Overview of Mangroves in Soyo Area

Environmental,Environmental, SocioeconomicSocioeconomic andand CommunityCommunity HealthHealth ManagementManagement
Environmental,Environmental, SocioeconomicSocioeconomic andand CommunityCommunity HealthHealth ManagementManagement

Approach to ESH Management

The Angola LNG Project is system- atically managing health, environ- mental, safety, reliability by implementing a project-specific Operational Excellence Management System (OEMS) that will be devel- oped further in the context of the overall Project Team Vision.

Project Team Vision

We are recognized and respected by our investors, hosts and customers for delivering a World Class LNG enter- prise that is known for its innovative and sustainable solutions in facilitating Angola’s hydrocarbon development.

We are recognized and respected for our results regarding people, safety, environment and health.

Every Person – Safe – Every Day.

Transparent and ethical behavior.

Positive social contribution.

Proactive and decisive leadership.

Strong capability in Health, Environment, Safety, Efficiency and Reliability.

In the context of the Project Vision, Angola LNG has developed a set of core values. These address the following:

Integrity, honesty and ethics in business;

Protecting people and the environment;

Openness in relationships with others;

Diversity and learning from the cultures in which it works and interacts with and excellence and continuous improvement

Angola LNG will achieve these core values through the HES Principles and Expectations and the Statement on Corporate Social Responsibility.


Vision Statement

Angola LNG’s approach to corporate responsibility will enable the Project to meet its business objectives by being recognized and valued within country and the local community for its strong environmental and social performance as well as its support for good governance and human rights.


In attaining our vision, Angola LNG will engage a range of stakeholders, including government, civil society, and local communities. Our approach to corporate responsibility will support our vision by applying the following principles:

1. Implement high ethical standards.

2. Use a participatory approach to actively engage stakeholders affected by Angola LNG’s operations and activities and use the results to inform decision-making, implementation, and evaluation processes, including for community engagement and other programs.

3. Assess the environmental, socioeconomic and health impacts of Angola LNG operations and activities and determine mitigation measures before plans are completed.

4. Maintain sound environmental practices in relation to all Angola LNG operations and activities, including through the protection of biodiversity.

5. Promote and support good governance, respects the rule of Angolan law and is consistent with the Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights.

6. Ensure Angola LNG operations, objectives, and community engagement programs support or complement government development plans as well as support the effective management of resource wealth.

7. Seek to improve the quality of people’s lives in Angola and the Soyo region by developing community engagement programs that:

are sustainable and not dependent on long-term donor support;

facilitate self-reliance and self-help among Project stakeholders;

help build and nurture human capacity to enable individuals to generate income and be economically self-sufficient;

integrate gender and age issues to foster equitable participation and bene- fits for all members of the community.

8. In developing community programs, Angola LNG will seek to meet or exceed leading industry practices to work with local and national organizations, its investors, and other companies, wherever possible, and to complement other existing projects and initiatives.

9. Learn from every community engagement project we support through effective monitoring and evaluation that identifies best practices and lessons learned.

10. Angola LNG will report publicly on the implementation of its corporate social responsibility policy.

Angola LNG is providing project management and supervision for the design and construction of the

Angola LNG is providing project management and supervision for the design and construction of the plant and associated infrastructure for the Angola LNG Project. The main vehi- cle for converting policies and prin- ciples into action will be the Environmental, Socioeconomic and Health Management Plan (ESHMP) for the Angola LNG Project. Within this framework, there are varying roles and responsibilities for imple- menting management actions.

Angola LNG will have the ulti- mate responsibility for deliver- ing ESH management measures. In this respect Angola LNG will review and approve contractor plans for delivery of ESHIA commitments and subsequently during project execution, will review contractor performance through monitoring, audits and inspection. Where the measures set out in the ESHIA do not result in the achievement of objectives, Angola LNG will work with lead contractors as relevant to refine the measures.

During construction, the con- tractor will be responsible for ensuring compliance with all relevant legislation as well as adherence to all environmental socioeconomic and community health controls and mitigation measures specified in the ESHIA report. The contractor is also responsible under the contract for minimizing the potential environmental, socioeconomic, safety and health impacts of all contract activities undertaken by themselves and their subcontractors.

Health and Safety

The Angola LNG Project is commit- ted to creating an Incident and Injury-Free culture, environment and performance for the benefit of all workers on the Project.

Angola LNG recognizes that realiz- ing this commitment requires more than a robust management system. Significant changes in leadership, cultures and behaviors are required.

The primary objective of Angola LNG’s health and safety program is to provide a healthy work environ- ment to prevent injuries and reduce associated losses to the company. This is accomplished by using a hazard communication, industrial hygiene and medical surveillance programs appropriate for the location that include procedures for identification and control of work- place exposures and on-going moni- toring and surveillance of affected personnel.

moni- toring and surveillance of affected personnel. Fishing Village Angola LNG also aims to implement the

Fishing Village

Angola LNG also aims to implement the following key areas of H&S activity:

Increase health issue awareness and prevention.

Communicate to a higher degree the importance of leading indicators as they relate to health.

Facilitate ongoing and improved procedures for early reporting of discomfort by creating a culture where care and concern leads to open and frequent reporting practices.

Ensure timely response to any industrial hygiene exposures or concerns.

Manage all potential injury/illness cases to ensure minimal pain and suffering to the affected employee.

Review all facility designs to ensure that best practice health designs are used.

Incorporate safety in designs for new facilities.

Develop employee sampling pro- grams, an employee biomedical surveillance program, on-site expo- sure evaluation process, data analy- sis and reporting capabilities.

Communicate corporate HIV / AIDS policy and the Sub-Saharan Africa Regional Malaria Control policy.

Establish a monitoring schedule and methodology to determine employees' on-the-job exposure to potentially hazardous substances or conditions.

Establish procedures to be followed if exposure exceeds specified levels.

Environmental,Environmental, SocioeconomicSocioeconomic andand CommunityCommunity HealthHealth ManagementManagement
Environmental,Environmental, SocioeconomicSocioeconomic andand CommunityCommunity HealthHealth ManagementManagement



In the course of the ESHIA, Project design decisions have been made taking account of the need to avoid, minimize and reduce negative envi- ronmental, socioeconomic and health impacts, and the opportunity to enhance positive impacts. These are reflected in the ESHIA as a set of commitments. To ensure that the commitments are managed fully and that unforeseen or unidentified impacts of the Project are detected and resolved, an integral part of the ESHIA is the development of the ESHMP.

The ESHMP will be supplemented with additional requirements as the FEED competition is concluded, detailed design proceeds and as con- tractors are selected and develop their working methods and proce- dures for the Project. In this respect it is a living document.

The ESHMP will include:

a register of legal and other require- ments (Project Standards);

a register of the ESHIA commit- ments;

subsidiary implementation plans for specific issues as required;

a register of monitoring require- ments; and

an overview of Angola LNG and Contractors’ ESH training program.

The key component of the ESHMP is the register of commitments made by the Project as reported in the ESHIA. For each commitment, the ESHMP sets out:

a comprehensive listing of the mitigation measures (actions) that Angola LNG will implement;

suggested designation of responsibility for ensuring full implementation of that action;

the parameters that will be monitored to track how effectively actions and mitiga- tion are implemented; and

the timing for implementation of the action to ensure that the objectives of mitigation are fully met.

These measures will be addressed as design proceeds, contractors are appointed and detailed working methods are developed. Although modifications to these measures are envisaged, there will be one overrid- ing principle; that none of the meas- ures identified in the ESHIA will be omitted or diluted without recourse to a robust assessment process. The figure below summarizes how an ESHIA commitment has a lifecycle whereby it is reviewed, incorporated into the ESHMP, contractors’ proce- dures and ultimately implemented. Implementation itself is not the final act since audit, inspection, monitor- ing and reporting are also involved.

The Project commitments are sum- marized in a Commitments Register at the end of this document.

ESHIA ‘Commitment ’ (e.g. to ESHIA ‘Commitment ’ (e.g. to mitigate an impact, monitor etc)
ESHIA ‘Commitment ’ (e.g. to
ESHIA ‘Commitment ’ (e.g. to
mitigate an impact, monitor etc)
mitigate an impact, monitor etc)
Summarized and highlighted in
Summarized and highlighted in
‘Commitments Register ’
‘Commitments Register ’
Commitment reviewed by Project
Commitment reviewed by Project
to ensure buy -in
to ensure buy -in
Incorporated into overall Project
Incorporated into overall Project
‘Environmental, Soci oeconomic
‘Environmental, Soci oeconomic
and Health Management Program ’
and Health Management Program ’
Where appropriate,
Where appropriate,
corrective action/
corrective action/
Commitments carried into
Commitments carried into
Contractual Conditions,
Contractual Conditions,
Contractor Control Plans, HES
Contractor Control Plans, HES
Bridge Documents
Bridge Documents
Commitment implemented by
Commitment implemented by
Inspection, audit, monitoring and
Inspection, audit, monitoring and
Stakeholder Engagement Angola LNG will continue to engage with stakeholders throughout Project construction and operation.

Stakeholder Engagement

Angola LNG will continue to engage with stakeholders throughout Project construction and operation. Communication with local commu- nities and other local stakeholders will be a key part of this engagement process and is one where Angola LNG and the contractors will need to work closely together during the construction period.

to work closely together during the construction period. Fishing Village Recommendations for Environmental and

Fishing Village

Recommendations for Environmental and Community Investment

Opportunities for investment in con- servation and biodiversity have been raised by consultees during the development of the ESHIA, including research projects on the local estuar- ine environment as well as manage- ment plans for specific animals (e.g. marine turtles, manatees).

The Project has undertaken a partici- patory needs assessment in parallel with the ESHIA and, as a result, has identified a number of priority areas for investment. In order to select projects that deliver sustainable benefits, a number of ‘operating principles’ are being developed. The ‘operating principles’ of the Community Investment Program will include the following.

All projects financed (in part or wholly) by Angola LNG will be identified through some type of consultative process to ensure that they address priorities identified by the intended beneficiaries.

The emphasis will be on collab- orating with local organizations (including NGOs, community organizations, government, businesses, etc.) in developing and implementing projects).

The community investment program will focus on projects that enhance peoples’ liveli- hoods, the local economy and the capacity of local govern- ment and local residents to participate effectively in the changing environment.

to participate effectively in the changing environment. Opportunities for Community Investment associated with the

Opportunities for Community Investment associated with the fol- lowing areas will be considered:

1. Families and Health:

2. Education and Training

3. Small/Medium Enterprise Development

4. Micro-credit

5. Basic Infrastructure associated with Education and Sanitation

6. Agricultural and Fishing Projects

The development and initial imple- mentation of the Community Investment Program will begin when the Project co-investors make a Final Investment Decision (FID) to award contracts for construction of the LNG plant and related facilities. FID is expected in late 2006.

Environmental,Environmental, SocioeconomicSocioeconomic andand CommunityCommunity HealthHealth ManagementManagement
Environmental,Environmental, SocioeconomicSocioeconomic andand CommunityCommunity HealthHealth ManagementManagement


The Angola LNG project, as any large industrial project, has the potential to cause both negative and positive impacts. The Project has either identified or committed to implement measures that will man- age these impacts within acceptable limits and in nearly all cases has reduced them to ALARP. Three issues are highlighted for further consideration by the Project where the gap between community expecta- tions and Project commitments could result in an erosion of local support of the Project.

Capacity Building and Recruitment. Employment is a key local expectation that the Project has responded to in commitments related to capacity building and local recruitment. However, opportunities for fur- ther increasing local content through the delivery of well tar- geted, early training are not as yet being realized.

Closed Worker Housing during Construction. Keeping the majority of the construction workforce in a closed housing area is an important measure to manage many environmental, social and health impacts. However, it is recommended that the Project engages more widely with the local leadership on this issue, in light of the repeated calls for a housing strategy that is more integrated into the community. It is also recommended that the Project identifies ways through which the community could benefit from end use of construction buildings or materials.

Opportunities to improve local facilities and health care services. The Project is consider- ing such opportunities in the context of high local expecta- tions. It is recommended this program explores in detail the potential interface with Project activities during both construc- tion and operation such that potential opportunities for the community can be identified and developed.

This ESHIA report is part of a wider, ongoing process being taken forward by Angola LNG to effectively manage the impacts of the Project. This ESHIA report has identified a number of areas where further work is required before a full picture of the likely impacts of the Project can be completed. The key areas of uncertainty, which will be addressed in an ESHIA Addendum, are:

detailed design and its implications on environmental quality;

employment levels and capacity building during construction; and

ongoing additional data gathering.

In addition to resolving these areas of uncertainty, the Project is approaching the critical stage of implementing the ESH Management System. The robustness of this sys- tem will be fundamental in ensuring the rigorous implementation of man- agement measures by the Project, its contractors and sub-contractors.

In addition to this ESHIA and its planned addendum, it is envisaged that additional ESHIAs will be undertaken and presented to Angolan authorities for any work such as housing facilities for the con- struction and operational phases and possible dedicated road and bridge from the housing facilities to Kwanda Base.

road and bridge from the housing facilities to Kwanda Base. 36 E NVIRONMENTAL R ESOURCES M
Stakeholder Engagement and Way Forward A previously highlighted, compre- hensive and effective community consultation,

Stakeholder Engagement and Way Forward

A previously highlighted, compre-

hensive and effective community

consultation, engagement and partic- ipation have been and remain key elements of the proposed Angola LNG Project. Stakeholder and specifically community involvement will continue throughout all stages

of the proposed project, and where

relevant, will be incorporated in the finalization of the project design and construction plans and ESHMPs.

ESHIA Disclosure Consultation will commence with the release of this ESHIA Disclosure Report to the public. This document will be placed

on public exhibition for 60 days dur- ing which time pubic comments will be sought. The Angolan Ministry of Petroleum (MinPet) and Ministry of Urbanism and Environment (Minua) will assess the ESHIA and coordinate the stakeholder engagement meetings within, Angola. It will also be dis- tributed to the government’s institu- tions including the national library and Universities in Angola and will be available on the Angola LNG website at, both

in Portuguese and English.

Printed copies of the ESHIA Disclosure Report will be available at:

Ministry of Petroleum

Ministry of Urbanism and Environment

Additional sites to be identified on the Angola LNG website and in newspaper publications announding public consultations

Additionally, the Project has opened and staffed a Community Center in the city of Soyo, a location where any stakeholder may obtain infor- mation about the Angola LNG Project. Comments and questions may be directed to the Angola LNG Project at:


Phone 222 692600 (ext.1245)

Phone number if calling outside Luanda: +244 222 692600 (ext. 1245) (Monday – Friday 8 am – 5 pm Luanda time)

Written Comments:

Angola LNG Project Avenida Lenin, nr.58 AAA Building – 2nd floor Luanda, Republic of Angola

All comments for the ESHIA Disclosure Report must be received by November 26, 2006.

Submission of Comments

Individuals and organizations are invited by the Project to submit comments on this ESHIA Disclosure Report verbally or in writing. A submis- sion may include comments, provide information, and/or express opinions about the information presented in the document.

If comments are presented verbally, the submitter will be asked for the information stated below. Written submissions should include reasons for conclusions stated in the submission to be stated clearly and supported by relevant data. The source of the infor- mation included where applicable. Comments from the public will assist government in making their decision to approve the project and under what conditions.

Submissions will be treated as pubic documents unless provided and received in confidence at the request of the submitter. Submissions may be quoted in full or in part of the addendum to the ESHIA.

Comments submitted in writing should include the following:

List of points so that the issues raised are clear

Refer each point to the appropriate Section of the ESHIA Disclosure Report (e.g. Section 7.4.5)

Include relevant, factual and sup- portive information with details of the source

Provide your name, address and date of submission

Indicate whether your submission is to be kept confidential.

Angola LNG










Pipeline routing






















7.2.5 BAPSection


Section 7.2.6,

Table 7.1

Sections 5.5.2, 7.2.2, 7.2.5, & 7.4.8

Section 7.2.5


Section 7.2.5

Section 7.2.5







The Angola LNG Project will develop a biodiversity action plan (BAP)

that will consider appropriate offsets through consultation with local

authorities, communities and other stakeholders.



The methodology for the pipeline installation will be designed to reduce

impacts to high value or sensitive habitats and species

appropriate. Topsoils will be segregated during excavation to allow re-

The pipeline route from landfall to LNG site will be reinstated as

establishment of local habitat.

Reinstatement requirements will be designed and written into contract

specifications for the pipeline RoW (terrestrial and marine) and other

areas as required.

During site clearance work, an onsite biologist and snake handling

expert will manage the relocation of snakes to reduce any impacts on the

local community. Large mammals will be allowed to escape and small

mammals will be trapped for identification purposes and released offsite.

by only using native species or those already naturalized for the purpose

Deliberate introductions of non-indigenous flora species will be avoided

of any landscaping works.



Biodiversity Management



species habitats



Terrestrial habitats

and species

Terrestrial habitats

and species

Terrestrial habitats

and species


Terrestrial habitats

and species

Terrestrial habitats

and species
















Section 7.2.5

Section 7.2.5

Section 7.2.5

Section 7.2.5

7.2.5, 7.4.8

7.2.5, 7.4.8






Vessel inspection


season, the Proj ect will implement a turtle manag ementg

Ballast water mana ement will reduce the risk of introductions of marineg

work. be cleaned to the satisfaction of

carriers will have antifouling and be regularly cleaned, primarily to safe

Beach surveys will be carried out during the turtle nesting season in the

implement a turtle management plan (to include avoiding turtle nests).

any discharge at the facility will be of clean water. Additionally, cargo

The Project will ensure appropriate dredging management techniques

If the sand extraction works in the Zimbi Resource Area coincide with

plan will be implemented

ballast water (salt water) approximately 100 nautical miles offshore so

species. All Angola LNG product transport vessels will take on clean

are implemented to minimize environmental impacts. Details will be