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Glucose Humans eat -linkages, bacteria and some animals eat -linkages -linkages cellulose, amylopectin

Nucleotides: pentose sugar, nitrogenous base, phosphate group Enzymes: some need cofactors (minerals or coenzymes) to function ; coenzymes are vitamins or derivatives of vitamins. Glycolysis: glucose 2 pyruvate in cytosol + 2 ATP + 2 NADH Fermentation: recycle NADH > NAD+ Pyruvate Acetyk-coA + CO2 + NADH TCA Cycle mitochondrial matrix each turn 1 ATP, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2 NADH 2-3 ATP FADH2 2 ATP Purines: A and G Pyrimidines: T and C GATC Replication 1. Helicase unzips the double helix 2. RNA polymerase builds a primer 3. DNA pol assembles the leading and lagging strands 4. The primers are removed 5. Okazaki fragments are joined Template/ anti-sense strand Coding/sense strand Prokaryotes polycistronic mRNA several gene in one transcript Euk pre-mRNA mRNA (5 cap GTP, 3 poly A tail) Introns remain in and are degraded in nucleus Start Codon AUG Stop Codon UAA, UAG, UGA RNA pol 1 rRNA Rna pol 2 mRNA RNA pol 3 tRNA ER bound ribosomes proteins to become membrane bound, nuclear envelope, golgi, ER, lysosomes, plasma membrane or secreted Signal peptide (20 AA sequence ) recognized by SRP

Mutations: Single base pair point mutation Missense change base new codon, may change AA sequence (silent, neutral) Frameshift add or remove base Non-sense stop codon Diploid = homologous pairs Haploid = doesnt contain homologues Interphase [G1SG2 ] M repeat S phase replicate DNA Mitosis (PMAT) Prophase chromatin condense to chromosomes , centrioles opposite ends, spindle apparatus Metaphase- chromosomes align at equator Anaphase sister chromatid split, cytokinesis actual splitting of cytoplasm Telophase nuclear envelope reform Meiosis After S phase primary oocyte or primary spermatocyte Prophase I Page 60