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Prace Naukowe Instytutu Maszyn, Napdw i Pomiarw Elektrycznych Politechniki Wrocawskiej Nr 62

Nr 28 2008

Studia i Materiay

magnetic circuit, synchronous machine, finite element method, ansys, magnetic field distribution, short-circuit current

Miroslav SKALKA*, Cestmir ONDRUSEK**


This article deals with analysis of short-circuit current effect to magnetic circuit of synchronous machine include magnetic field distribution by finite element method in ANSYS. Near the shortcircuit, an electrical circuit impedance with voltage are declining and to the short-circuit place creeps short-circuit current of all power source. The short-circuit current mirrored an electrically conductive phases connection or connection of one phase with ground. In case of 3-phase short-circuit we talk about a symmetrical short-circuit. The other case are an asymmetrical short-circuits. In this article are examined a symmetrical short-circuit problems of synchronous machine with a maximal DC component value in one phase then this phase has a maximal initiative short-circuit current value.

1. MAGNETIC FIELD DISTRIBUTION NEAR SHORT-CIRCUIT In short-circuit conditions clamps voltages equal zero. DC component of short-circuit current in one phase is maximal and remaining phases have a half value of maximal DC component with opposite polarity. The phases with maximal DC component has therefore maximal short-circuit current. A harmonic components are symmetrical with the amplitude regardless the instant of short-circuit origin. The Fig. 1. shows a magnetic field distribution at no-load condition of synchronous machine, the value of exciting current is 16.7A, which is applied as current density 940845A/m2. The Fig.3 shows a magnetic field distribution of synchronous machine in case of rated load. The value of exciting current is 45A and the value of generator current is 1000A. __________
* Brno University of Technology, Technicka 8, 61600 Brno, e-mail: ** Brno University of Technology, Technicka 8, 61600 Brno, e-mail:

338 Generator parameters:

Symbol SG UG cmax cosG xd IG IB0 IBN Ik

Value 1255 725 1,1 0,9 0,12 1000 16,7 45 8764,4

Unit kVA V A A A A

Fig. 1. No-load condition magnetic field distribution


Fig. 2. Pole detail at no-load condition

Fig. 3. Rated load condition magnetic field distribution


Fig. 4. Pole detail at rated load condition

Fig. 5. Short-circuit magnetic field distribution


Fig. 6. Poles detail in short-circuit

Fig. 7. Pole detail in short-circuit


The Fig. 5 shows a magnetic field distribution of synchronous machine in shortcircuit. The value of exciting current is 45 A and the value of short-circuit current is 8764,4 A.

2. CONCLUSION In case of no-load condition of synchronous machine (Fig. 1.) there is a creation of magnetic field only due to exciting current, then this field is symmetrical. For better comparison there are a detail views to magnetic flux lines for different condition in one pole, Fig. 2, 4 and 7. In case of rated load (Fig. 3.) the magnetic field is deformed due to winding distributions to slots. The field in one pole is asymmetrical, because the value of load current is not the same for each phases. Some of the magnetic flux lines are closing through the pole and pole extension of generator. In detail, on Fig. 6. is shown, which kind of way the magnetic flux lines are closed.

3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This article has been prepared under the support provided by research projects No. MSM0021630516: Sources, Accumulation and Optimization of the Energy Exploitation in the Conditions of Sustainable Development.

REFERENCES [1] O'KELLY D., Performance and control of Electrical Machines, 1991. [2] KOSTENKO M., PIOTROUSKY L., Electrical Machines, 1977.