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Hardness, which is a measure of a materials resistance to localized plastic deformation (e.g., a small dent or a scratch). A qualitative and somewhat arbitrary hardness indexing scheme was devised, termed the Mohs scale, which ranged from 1 on the soft end for talc to 10 for diamond. Quantitative hardness techniques have been developed over the years in which a small indenter is forced into the surface of a material to be tested, under controlled conditions of load and rate of application. The depth or size of the resulting indentation is measured, which in turn is related to a hardness number; the softer the material, the larger and deeper the indentation, and the lower the hardness index number. Measured hardness are only relative (rather than absolute), and care should be exercised when comparing values determined by different techniques. The greater the hardness of the metal, the greater resistance it has to deformation.

Hardness tests are performed more frequently than any other mechanical test for several reasons: 1. They are simple and inexpensive ordinarily no special specimen need be prepared, and the testing apparatus is relatively inexpensive. 2. The test is nondestructive the specimen is neither fractured nor excessively deformed; a small indentation is the only deformation. 3. Other mechanical properties often may be estimated from hardness data, such as tensile strength.

And there is a three methods to measure hardness, the three methods determine the metal's resistance to the penetration of a non-deformable ball, cone and pyramid. The tests determine the depth which such a ball or cone will sink into the metal, under a given load, within a specific period of time. a. Rockwell Hardness Test: The Rockwell tests constitute the most common method used to measure hardness because they are so simple to perform and require no special skills. Indenters include spherical and hardened steel balls having diameters of 1/16,1/8,1/4 and in. (1.588, 3.175, 6.350, and 12.70 mm), and a conical diamond (Brale) indenter, which is used for the hardest materials. With this system, a hardness number is determined by the difference in depth of penetration resulting from the application of an initial minor load followed by a larger major load. The indenter may either be a steel ball of some specified diameter or a spherical diamond-tipped cone of 120 angle. A minor load of 10 kg is first applied, which causes an initial penetration and holds the indenter in place. Then, the major load is applied (60,100,150) for HRA, HRB and HRC respectively. Upon removal of the major load, the depth reading is taken while the minor load is still on. The minor load of 10 kg is NOT taken into account in the computation. Then, the hardness number can be read directly from the scale. See fig (1)

Fig (1): Hardness-Testing Techniques

Table (1): Rockwell Standards Tests Hardness Scale Total load in Kg (pre-load 10Kgf) Rockwell A 60 60kg Rockwell B 100 1 2 60kg 40kg Rockwell C 150 1 2 3 60kg 40kg 50kg

Actual weight Applied 1 marked as Indenter

Diamond cone 120 0

Steel Ball 1/16 dia

Diamond cone 120 0

Note: The type B of Rockwell test was used in experimenter.

Fig (2): Rockwell Hardness Scales

b. Brinell Hardness Test:

In Brinell tests, as in Rockwell measurements, a hard, spherical indenter is forced into the surface of the metal to be tested. The diameter of the hardened steel (or tungsten carbide) indenter is 10.00 mm (0.394 in.). Standard loads range between 500 and 3000 kg in 500-kg increments; during a test, the load is maintained constant for a specified time (between 10 and 30 s). Harder materials require greater applied loads. The Brinell hardness number, HB, is a function of both the magnitude of the load and the diameter of the resulting indentation Brinell hardness is determined by forcing a hard steel or carbide sphere of a specified diameter under a specified load into the surface of a material and measuring the diameter of the indentation left after the test. The Brinell number, is obtained by dividing the load used, in kilograms, by the actual surface area of the indentation, in square millimeters. After the impression is made, a measurement of the diameter of the resulting round impression is taken. The hardness is calculated by dividing the load by the area of the curved surface of the indention, Note: The area of a hemispherical surface is arrived at by multiplying the square of the diameter by 3.14 and then dividing by 2. Where: BHN = Brinell hardness number. F = the imposed load in kg. D = the diameter of the spherical indenter in mm.

Fig (3): Brinell Hardness Test

Di = diameter of the resulting indenter impression in mm.

c. Vickers Hardness Test: It is the standard method for measuring the hardness of metals, particularly those with extremely hard surfaces: the surface is subjected to a standard pressure for a standard length of time by means of a pyramid-shaped diamond. Vickers hardness is a measure of the hardness of a material, calculated from the size of an impression produced under load by a pyramidshaped diamond indenter. The indenter employed in the Vickers test is a square-based pyramid whose opposite sides meet at the apex at an angle of 136. The Vickers number (HV) is calculated using the following formula: HV = 1.854(F/D2), F: the applied load (measured in kilograms-force) D2: the area of the indentation (measured in square millimeters).

Table (2): Vickerss & Brinells & Rockwell Bs Standards VICKERS 30 HV30 Total Load in kg 30 (pre-load 3kgf) BRINELL HB 2.5/187.5 187.5 (pre-load 10kgf) 1 2 3 4 60kg 40kg 50kg 37.5kg

Rockwell B 100 (pre-load 10kgf) 1 2 60kg 40kg

Actual weight Applied marked 30kg as Indentor

Diamond Pyramid Steel Ball 1360 1/16 in dia

Steel Ball 2.5 mm dia

2. Objective:
To measure the hardness of the materials by Rockwell, Brinell and Vickers hardness test. To make engineering sense for the different of readings. To become familiar with Combined Digital Hardness Tester.

3. Apparatus:
Combined Digital Hardness Tester Its a machine which used to give us accurate and reliable measurements of hardness in metals, alloys and plastics by Rockwell, Brinell or Vickers methods suitable for all types of materials, hard or soft, whether flat, round, or irregular in shape. Totally enclosed anti-deflection frames for keeping mechanism free from dirt. See Fig (4)

Fig (4): Combined Digital Hardness Tester

4. Procedure:
Switch on the machine and Set the Range to be tested. Select the type of measure and the indentor required, i.e. Rockwell Cone Diamond; Rockwell steel Ball; Brinell 2.5 mm dia. Steel Ball' Vickers Pyramid Diamond. Set the pre-load for the suitable test by inserting the weights in the back of machine. Adjust the main load in the testing machine. Choose the test (Rockwell, Vickers or Brinell) and put the suitable indenter in testing machine.

Ensure that the Main load is disengaged with the lever at position 'A' (Forward). Place the work piece to be tested on the anvil. Make sure that there is no interference on the bearing surfaces. Follow the steps on the keyboard display. Click start, and Raise the tests piece against the indenter by means of the hand wheel to apply the pre-load.

When the keyboard display show that the piece in the test range, machine will beep. When the machine beep apply the main load by gently moving the operating handle to the rear of the machine from 'A' to 'B' towards the rear of the machine.

Then, the display will show a timer and give an audible beep to indicate the time to remove the main load.

Finally, the hardness value will show in the upper LED screen. Repeat the same procedure for further test pieces.

Note: For carrying out tests the following procedure should be carefully adopted. Any carelessness may
lead to damage of the indentor.

5. Results:
In this experiment, Rockwell B, Vickers 30 and Brinell 2.5/187.5 was used, and calculated the hardness value.

Table (3): Readings & Results Rockwell B 76.8 78.8 84.1 80.6 True = 85.9 Average = 80.075 error = 6.78% Brinell 509.1 614.5 621.7 628.1 True = 317.3 Average = 593.35 error = 86.99% Vickers 447.9 473.3 471.5 480.8 True = 451.8 Average = 468.375 error = 3.67%

We see some error is huge and unacceptable, that mean there is error, which, listed below: Human error: the experimenters who takes the readings dealt with the machine as a beginner, therefor the outputs of machine will not be accurate. Some error appears environment, condition of use, place.

Recommendations: Be careful when you takes the readings. It should to the experimenter to see and analysis the readings by engineering sense and make comments.

7. References:
Books: Callister, Jr, William D. and others. Materials Science and Engineering An Introduction, Eighth Edition.