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TheLostTenTribesofIsraelFound!

StevenM.Collins
ThisbookisdedicatedtotheLordJesusChrist, whowillliterallyreignoverthenationsafterhereturns.

TableofContents
EbookIntroduction AbouttheAuthor Acknowledgements Introduction Chapter 1:KingDavidandIsraelsRisetoGreatness 2:KingSolomonandtheGoldenAgeofIsrael 3:IsraelTheForgottenWorldEmpire 4:IsraeliteandJewishMigrationsfromPalestine 5:CarthageTheColonythatbecameanEmpire 6:TheScythianSacaeTheAsianSonsofIsaac 7:ParthiaAnIsraeliteEmpirerisesinAsia 8:ParthiaTheForgottenAncientSuperpower 9:TheLifeofJesusChristTheUntoldStory Part1:TheChildhoodYears(BirthAge12) Part2:TheMissingEighteenYears(Age1230) Part3:HisMinistryandDeath 10:IsraeliteMigrationsfromAsiaafterParthiasFall 11:TheTribesofIsraelintheModernWorld Epilogue Bibliography ExpandedFourBookSetontheTenTribesofIsrael ListofIllustrations IsraeliteMigration(circa740720B.C.) CarthaginianMaritimeTradeRoutes RoyalLineofKingDavid Israelites:TheCovenantPeople ParthianEmpire IsraeliteMigrationRoutes(circa230500A.D.) 1 3 4 6 11 53 112 150 200 247 295 319 374

452 532 615 618 625 185 218 307 314 324 482

Copyright1992StevenM.Collins AllRightsReserved LibraryofCongressCopyrightNumberTX4266787 FIRSTREVISEDEDITION Copyright1995StevenM.Collins PUBLISHEDINDIGITALVERSIONIN2011 SameCopyrightedEditionasCitedAbove Allprintandelectronicrightsreserved, includingtherighttoreproducethisbook orportionsthereofinanyformwhatsoever. PreviousPrintingsintheUnitedStatesby: CPABooks Boring,Oregon97009 Coverdesignusedwithpermissionfrom LouisianaMoundsSociety.Coverdesignfirstappeared ontheApril,1994issueofMoundsNewsletter

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EbookIntroduction Youareabouttoreadabookwhichhasbeenelectronically resurrectedfromthedead.Itisanelectronicversionofthe printedbookofthesametitle.Ithasnotbeenupdatedor reviseditisthesamebookwhichwasformerlyinprintedform, butithasbeenadaptedforpresentationonacomputerscreen insteadofaprintedpage. Theoriginalprintedversionofthisbookhadsmallprintsize, narrowmarginsandnospacesbetweenparagraphs.Tomakethe bookmorereadableinelectronicformat,theprintsizehasbeen enlarged,themarginswidenedandtherearespacesbetween paragraphs.Duetothesechangesinthematerialspresentation, thisnewdigitalversionofthebookisconsiderablylongerin pagesthantheoriginalprintedversion.Nevertheless,itisthe samebookwhichwasonceavailableinprintedform.Duetothe advancesintechnology,thisdigitalversionofthebookisbeing offeredtoreadersataconsiderablylowerpricethantheoriginal printedformofthebook. Thisdigitalversionofmyfirstbookwouldnothavebeenpossible withouttheableassistanceandeffortsoftwoindividualswho needtobespecificallythankedandrecognized.Inorderto resurrecttheprintedformofthisbooktoadigitalformat, considerableworkwasnecessaryastherewasnoelectronic versionoftheoriginalprintedversionofthebookavailable.A copyoftheoriginalprintedbookwaspainstakinglyscanned, pagebypage,byJohnnyL.Sutton,whoseeffortsmadetherest oftheprojectpossible.Mr.Suttonsenteachsectionandchapter oftheprintedbooktomeinanMSWordformat.Asthoseofyou whohaveusedscannersandOpticalCharacterRecognition (OCR)softwarerealize,thetextisreproducedwiththelossofall emphasismarkings,changedlettersandwords,etc.Inthiscase, thesmallprintsizeofmyoriginalprintedbookresultedinthe
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scannermisreadingportionsofthetextwhichhadtobereviewed pagebypagebymeandrestoredtothesamecontentand presentationastheoriginalprintedbook.Withouttheeffortsof Mr.Sutton,thisebookwouldnotbeavailabletoyou. AfterIrestoredthetexttoitsoriginal,printedcontentand presentation,theentirebookwasadaptedtoanelectronic formatandproofreadagainforOCRintroducederrorsbyCarter Nesbitt,thewebmasterwhomanagesmywebsite.Heownsand operatesCanWebDev.com,locatedinSiouxFalls,SD.Mr.Nesbitt didanexcellentjobofperformingthistask,andIthankhimfor hispatienceasheexplainedtometheprocesseswherebya printedbookisreconfiguredintoadigitalmediaproduct.Without Mr.Nesbittstechnicalskills,thisbookwouldalsonotcurrently beavailabletoyou. Attheconclusionofthisebookadditionalinformationisoffered aboutthe4bookseriesavailableinprintedform.Thosefour booksarederivativeworksbasedonthisbookandare recommendedforthosewhowishtoexaminethissubjectin greaterdepth.Mayyouenjoyandbeblessedbywhatyouare abouttoread!

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AboutTheAuthor TheauthorisaformerNationalMeritScholar,andagraduateof theUniversityofMinnesotawithaB.S.inPublicandPersonnel Management. Theauthor,whileemployedintheOfficeoftheMayorofSt.Paul Minnesota(19731974),researchedthefieldsofair transportationandradiationsafetyaswellasapplicable governmentregulationswhiledraftingthenationsfirstairport ordinance(atMinneapolisStPaulInternationalairport) monitoringtheairtransportationofradioactivematerials.This ordinancewasexaminedbyCBSTelevisiononanationaltelecast entitledMagazinein1974. TheauthorwasemployedbytheMinneapolisSt.Paul MetropolitanAirportsCommissioninanumberofcapacitiesfrom 1974to1983,themostrecentpositionbeingthatofPersonnel Manager.Whilesoemployed,theauthorperformedmany researchandwritingprojects,andalsopreparedformalexhibits forairroutehearingsoftheCivilAeronauticsBoard.These projectsinvolvedresearchandanalysisofawidevarietyof economic,demographicandairtransportationdata,andinan InternationalRouteCase,theauthoralsoservedasanoral witnessaspartoftheproceedings. Afteracareerendinginjury,theauthordirectedhisresearch skillstoacomparisonofsecularhistoricalrecordswiththe historicalaccountsoftheBible.Thismajorresearchefforthas resultedinthisfirstofaseriesoftwobooks.Theauthorisa formerBoardMemberoftheAssociationforChristian Development(ACD),Auburn,WA,andamemberoftheNational EpigraphicSociety.However,thisbookrepresentstheanalysis andjudgmentsoftheauthor,anddoesnotclaimtorepresent theviewsofeitherorganization.
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Acknowledgments Thisbookistheresultofyearsofresearch,writingandongoing review.Duringthistime,Ihavebeenaidedbytheassistance andencouragementofothers,towhomgratitudemustbe expressed.Duringmyresearchforthisbook,manyrareandout ofprintbooksandliteraryworkscriticaltothisbookssuccess werefoundattheWilsonResearchLibraryoftheUniversityof Minnesota.Ispendmuchtimeatthislibrary,andwishto expressmyappreciationforitsexcellentresourcesinthefieldof ancienthistory.Anumberofrare,importantbookswerealso obtainedthroughthespecialpurchasingservicesofHatchards BooksellersofLondon,England. Thestalwartencouragementandenthusiasmforthisbookshown byCliffTannas,aCanadianfriend,hasbeengreatlyappreciated. Also,hissuggestionsasIwasobtainingcomputerhardwareand softwareformywordprocessingeffortswerequitetimely,and certainlyfacilitatedmywritingefforts.Specialappreciationand acknowledgmentisofferedtoKenRyland,whoseprofessional editingskills,editorialsuggestionsandpersonalsupportformy effortshavemadeasingularcontributiontothecohesivenessof thisbookanditsreadinessforpublication. Itisalsonecessaryandappropriatetorecognizethepioneering workofthelateDr.BarryFell,FounderandPresidentofthe NationalEpigraphicSociety,SanDiego,CAindecipheringand publishingmanyancientinscriptionswhichdemonstratethat manyOldWorldcivilizationswerepresentintheancient Americas.TheworksofDr.Fellandothercontributorstothe publicationsoftheEpigraphicSocietyhavebeenmosthelpfulin providingsourcematerialforhistoricalfactsandobservations citedinthisbookWheneverIcontactedDr.Felltoseekhis assistanceindirectingmetopastpublicationsoftheNational EpigraphicSocietydealingwithspecificresearchtopics,hewas
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alwaysmosthelpfulandcordial.WhileIamamemberofthe EpigraphicSociety,Iwishtostatethattheconclusionsofthis bookareminealoneandnotthoseoftheEpigraphicSociety. IamespeciallygratefultoDr.CharlesV.Dorothy(agraduateof ClaremontGraduateSchool,Claremont,CA,andDirectorof BiblicalResearchfortheAssociationforChristianDevelopment Auburn,WA),forinvaluablehelpincheckingmytransliterations fromancientlanguagesintoEnglish.Dr.DorothystudiedHebrew Greek,Aramaic,Syriac,AkkadianandUgariticatFuller TheologicalSeminaryinPasadena,CA,andiscurrentlyan AssistantProfessorofBiblicalStudiesatFaithLutheranSeminary inTacoma,WA.Dr.Dorothysassistanceishighlyappreciated however,theconclusionsofthisbookwhicharebasedon linguisticinformationaremyown. Finally,Iwishtoacknowledgethepatienceandsupportofmy wife,Becky,andmytwodaughters,JenniferandAmy,whilethis bookwasbeingprepared.

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Introduction Ithasbecomefashionabletodoubtandderidetheaccuracyand reliabilityoftheHolyBible.EvensomeChristianchurchesand pastors,cowedbyevolutionarytheories,havebecomeapologists forGod.Consequently,muchoftheworldthinksthattheHoly BibleisanunscientificbookandChristiansstruggletomaintain theirfaithinspiteoftheBiblessupposedscientificshortcomings. Thistwobookseriessetsforth,inanondenominationalmanner, newevidencethattheHolyBibleisexactlywhatitsaysitis:the selfproclaimedwordofaCreatorGod.Afterreadingthem, insteadofhavingfaithinspiteofthescientificandhistorical record,youwillbeabletobelieveinaCreatorGodbecauseof thescientificandhistoricalrecord. Thisfirstbookspecificallyaddressesthesubjectofthelostten tribesofIsrael,asubjectwidelyignoredbymodernChristianity. WhiletheJews(descendantsoftheancientHebrewkingdomof Judah)arewellknowninhistoryandmodernsociety,most assumethenonJewish(andfarmorenumerous)tentribesof Israelbecamelost,unabletobetracedinhistoryoridentified today.Onthecontrary,thetentribesofIsraelwereneverlost aftertheirremovalfromthePromisedLandintoAsia.Inthe Bible,Godsentamessagetothetentribesviatheprophet JeremiahacenturyafterSamariafell,Hosearecordsa prophecythatGodwouldblessthetentribesofIsraelwith unprecedentedpopulationgrowthaftertheirexpulsionfrom Palestine,andanentirechapterofthebookofGenesisis devotedtopropheciesaboutthecharacteristicsofeachofthe tentribesofIsraelduringthelatterdays(atimeregardedby manyChristiandenominationstoindicateourmodernera).Many otherlatterdaypropheciesalsodeclarethatthedescendants ofthetentribesofIsraelwillhavemajorrolesinthegeopolitical eventsofthelatterdays.SincetheBiblenowhereteaches(or
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evenimplies)thatthetentribesofIsraelwoulddieoutorbe lost,thequestionbecomes:Whereweretheyduringhistory, andwherearetheytoday? Josephus,aprominentJewishhistorianofthefirstcenturyA.D. commentedontheimmensepopulationofthetentribesofIsrael intheirnewAsianhomelandandevenmentionedoneoftheir nationalborders.So,eightcenturiesaftertheirremovalfrom Palestine,aJewishhistoriandidnotregardthetentribesas beinglost.ThetentribesofIsraelcaneasilybeidentifiedin thefirstcenturyA.D.,andtheirsubsequentmigrationscanbe tracedintherecordsofsecularhistoryfromthattimeintothe modernera. Thisbookwilldocumentthefascinating(andlargelyunknown) historyofthetentribesofIsraelfromthereignofKingDavid untilmoderntimes,andwillproposeidentificationsforeachof thetentribesinthemodernworld.Themigrations,empires, victoriesanddefeatsofthetentribesofIsraelthroughhistory areverifiablebothinsecularhistoryandinbiblicalprophecies aboutthepostexilicfutureofthetentribesofIsrael.Thisbook willalsoaddresssomeaspectsofJewishhistoryinconjunction withthenarrativeabouttheirforgottenbrothertribes,butit willprimarilydiscussthehistoryofthedescendantsoftheten tribesofIsrael. Whilesomeofthisbooksmaterialisderivedfromrecently discoveredinformation,thereaderwillbesurprisedtolearnthat portionsofthematerialwereknownonbothsidesoftheAtlantic Oceanduringthelastcentury.Indeed,ajointsessionoftheU.S. Congresswasevengivensomeofthisinformationin1857!As thereaderwillalsosee,NorthAmericahadaprominentrolein theexplorationsandcolonizationsofthetentribesofIsrael duringseveralperiodsofworldhistory!Inadditiontoverifying biblicalaccountsofworldhistory,thisbookwillshredthe
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politicallycorrectnotionthatOldWorldcivilizationsnever colonizedtheNewWorldpriortothetimeofColumbus.This bookoffersabrandnew,biblicalviewofworldhistory, discussingnations,empiresandeventswhich(thoughwell knowntotheGreeksandRomans)areignoredbytodays educationalsystem. SincetheBibleisadamantthatthetentribesofIsraelwould survive,bemultipliedandbeidentifiablenationsinthelatter days,thoseChristianswhoassertthatthetentribesofIsrael diedoutorcannotbelocatedinthemodernworldunwittingly callGodaliar.SinceGodpromisedintheBiblethathewould vastlymultiplythetentribespopulationaftertheirexilefrom Palestine,andthattheywouldhavemajorrolesinthelatter days,ifitcanbeproventhatthesethingsdidnotoccur,thenit canbeshownthattheBibleisahoax.Nothinglessisatstake. Thosewhodenythemodernexistence(andidentifiability)ofthe tentribesofIsraelareactuallyattackingthefoundationofthe Christianreligion:thecredibilityandinfallibilityoftheBible! Asthereaderwillsee,however,theBiblescredibilityand infallibilitycanbeprovenviaGodsimplementinghisprophecies aboutthetentribesofIsraelthroughouthistory.ThatGodis implementingbiblicalpropheciesinourmodernworldfurther demonstratesthatGodisstillactivelyincontrolofworldevents inourtimeaswell. ThisbookwillalsoexaminethelifeofJesusChristinlightofnew perspectivesonworldpoliticsduringhislifetime.Asthereader willsee,JesusChrist(becausehewasoftheroyalseedofDavid) wasactuallyapotentialheirtothethroneofagreatempirein Asiawhichwasprimarilycomposedofthedescendantsoftheten tribesofIsrael.TheMagi(whopaidhomagetoJesus,andknew thathehadbeenbornaking)weremembersofthenobilityof thatempire,andwerewellawareofJesusChristsroyalblood.
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ThisancientIsraeliteempireandRomeweremortalenemies,but Jesuswasbornduringatimeofdetentebetweentheserivals. TheRomansandGreekspreservedvolumesofinformationabout thisgreatAsianempire,butitshistoryhasstrangelybeen deletedfrommodernhistorytextbooks.Thisbookalsooffers intriguinganswersforthemysteriouseighteenyeargapinthe BiblesaccountofJesuslifewheredidhegoandwhatdidhedo betweenagestwelveandthirty?Theanswerswillsurpriseyou! Thisbookhasbeenwritteninamannerintendedtobeboth informativeandinterestingforthegeneralpublic.However, scholarsarealsolikelytoreviewthematerial,andtheyare accustomedtoseeingtechnicalhistoricalmaterialpresentedin formatswhichthegeneralpublicmightregardasesotericand hardtoread.Therefore,inanattempttosatisfybothaudiences, thisbookpresents,discussesanddocumentsthetechnical historicalmaterial,butitdoessoinlaymanslanguageto appealtoamassaudience.Biblicalquotationsappearinthe booksnarrativewhilesecularhistoricalsourcesarecitedinan extensivesetofendnotesaccompanyingeachchapter.Sincethe conclusionsofthisbookareratherrevolutionary,carehasbeen takentobuttressitsconclusionswithmultiplesourcesof evidence.Therefore,intheeventfuturescientificreviewalters thecontextordatingofaparticularpieceofevidencecitedin thisbook,thebooksconclusionswillnotfailduetochanged futureconclusionsaboutanysinglepieceofevidence. Thereaderwillbenefitmostfromthisbookifthechaptersare readinnumericalorderbecauseinformationandconcepts neededtounderstandlaterchaptersarepresentedinearlier chapters.ThisbookbeginsatatimewhenGodsblessingsofthe combinedtribesofIsraelreachedanapexintheancientworld: duringthereignsofKingsDavidandSolomon.Thisbook documentsthatthepowerandscopeoftheancientUnited
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KingdomofIsraelwasfargreaterthanisgenerally acknowledged.Youwilllikelymarvelathowmuchinformationis availableaboutthetentribesofIsraelinallhistoricalperiods. Youmayalsocometowonderwhysuchinformation(even thoughitisreadilyavailable)hasbeendeletedfrommodern historytextbooks. ThesecondbookintheserieswilldocumentthattheBibles accountsoftheearthsprehistoryandmankindspresenceonthe earthareentirelycompatiblewiththediscoveriesofmodern science.Itwillalsodebunktheunscientificdogmaofevolution, conclusivelydocumentthatwearelivinginthebiblicallatter days,andevenexposecertainunbiblicalChristiandogmas whichhavegiventheBibleitsundeservedreputationasan unscientificbook.Itwillalsocontinuethethemeofthisfirst book,examiningnumerouspropheciesabouttheroleoftheten tribesofIsraelinourmodernworld,offeringpossiblescenarios fortheirfulfillment.Thesecondbookwillconcludewithan examinationofhowlifeonearthwillchangeafterthereturnof JesusChrist,basedonspecificbiblicalpropheciesand precedents.Bothbookswillofferthereaderanumberofmajor surprises. Afterreadingthesebooks,yourviewsoftheBible,worldhistory andthefuturewillneveragainbethesame.

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1.KingDavidandIsraelsRisetoGreatness

Thischapterwillnotsimplyrestatewhatisalreadyknownabout KingDavid.Interestingnewinformationandnewperspectives abouthislifeandreignwillbepresented. AsthesecondmillenniumB.C.drewtoaclose,thegreatpower politicsofthatdayinvolvednationsandempiresinwhatwenow calltheMideast.ManyreadershaveheardoftheFertile Crescent,andthatknowledgewillassisttheminlocatingthekey nationsofthatage.OntheeasternarcoftheFertileCrescent(in theareaoftheTigrisandEuphratesRivers),werethe establishedMesopotamianpowersofAssyriaandBabylon.On thewesternarcoftheFertileCrescentwerefoundsuchnations asIsraelandEgypt.Letusfirstexaminethegeopoliticalsituation fromtheperspectiveofonelookingatthesenationsasthefirst millenniumB.C.wasabouttobegin. Atthattime,theeasternMediterraneancoastwashometo severaldistinctgroupsofpeople.TyreandSidonwerethechief representativesofamercantile,maritimeconfederacyofcity stateswhichareknowntomodernmanasthePhoenicians(the termPhoenicianhasbeengenerallymisunderstood,butthere willbemoreonthatsubjectlater).Furthersouthonthecoast werethePhilistines,centeredaroundseveralcitystatesoftheir own,suchasGazaandEkron.Additionally,theIsraeliteswere spreadthroughouttheregionsknowntoustodayasPalestine, southernLebanon,andwesternJordan.TheIsraeliteswere composedoftwelvetribalunitswhichhadonlyrecentlybeen broughtunderthejurisdictionofasinglemonarch.Theirfirst monarch,KingSaul,hadbeendefeatedandkilledinbattleby thePhilistines.David,theexiledsoninlawofKingSaul,became kingovertheIsraelitetribeofJudahwhiletheHouseofSaul continuedtoruleovertheremainingIsraelitetribesforseveral years.Finally,DavidbecamekingoverallthetribesofIsrael,
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andbeganmoldingthemintoaunifiedkingdomwithapowerful militaryforce.Theyearisapproximately1000B.C. KingDavidofIsraelwasawarlikemonarchwhodramatically expandedIsraelsbordersandinfluence.Histerritoryofdirect reignreachedfromtheborderofEgyptsdomainonthewestto theEuphratesRiverontheEast(IChronicles18:3).KingDavids campaigntoexpandIsraelsborderswasanexceedinglybloody one.TheBiblerevealsthatheslaughteredmanythousandsin theprocessofconqueringthekingdomsofthePhilistines, Moabites,Ammonites,EdomitesandtheSyrians(the Aramaeans).AccordingtoIISamuel8:2,heactuallylinedupthe defeatedMoabites(mostlikelytheadultmales)andexecuted twothirdsofthem,leavingonlyonethirdofthemalive!Ina seriesofbattleswithSyriankings,almost60,000Syriansdied (IISamuel8:313and10:1619).WhileDavidwaspunishedby GodforattemptingtonumberIsraelsmilitarymanpower(such anactwasasteptowardrelyingonmansmightratherthan Gods),theBibleneverthelessrecordedthesizeofIsraelsarmy forourinformation.WiththetribesofLeviandBenjamin uncounted,Davidcommandedanarmyof1,570,000 soldiers(IChronicles21:16)!HowmuchofDavidsarmy consistedofstandingarmycontingents,andwhatportionwas essentiallyatrainedreadyreserve,wedonotknow.For comparisonpurposes,however,anarmyofthatsizewould comparewiththegreatarmiesofmajornationsinthemodern world.Thistotalshouldnotbeunderstoodtoimplythatancient Israelspopulationrivaledthatofamodernlargenation,butit doesreflectthemilitarymanpoweravailableinadifferentage whenvirtuallyalladultmalesweretrainedinmilitaryartsand availableformobilization. ThereisanimportanthistoricalfactintheBiblesdiscussionof thismilitarycensus.Theabovepassagestates:
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AndJoabgavethesumofthenumberofthe peopleuntoDavid.AndalltheyofIsrael wereathousandthousandandanhundred thousandmenthatdrewsword:andJudah wasfourhundredthreescoreandten thousandmenthatdrewsword. AfterthedeathofKingSaul,DavidbecameKingoverJudah whilearivalruledthenationofIsrael(IISamuel2:310).Aftera periodofsevenandonehalfyearsinwhichthetwoHebrew kingdomswereperiodicallyatwarwitheachother(IISamuel 2:1331,3:1),theywerefinallyunitedunderKingDavid(II Samuel5:15).Theabovemilitarycensusshowsthateven duringtheunifiedperiod,IsraelandJudahconstitutedseparate administrativedistrictswithinthenation.Sincetheirarmieswere stilltotaledasseparateunitswithintheoverallarmy,itindicates thattheamalgamationofIsrael(thenortherntentribes)and Judah(asoutherntribewithcontingentsoftheothertribes)was atenuousone. Byanystandard,thiswasaverypotentmilitaryforceinthe ancientworld.Davidswillingness(indeed,eagerness)tousethis vastmilitaryresourcetoaccomplishhisendsstruckfearintothe othernationsofthattime.Asweshallseelater,thismilitary forcedidnotgountestedbytheestablishedkingdomsof MesopotamiasuchasAssyriaandBabylon. WhileDavidhadhisshareofhumanfaults,hedidhavean attitudeofsubmissionandworshiptowardtheCreatorGod.The BookofPsalmstestifiesofhisworshipfulattitudetowardGod. ThisattituderesultedinGodsfavoronDavidsactions.In discussingDavidsconquests,IChronicles18:6states:Thusthe LordpreservedDavidwhithersoeverhewent.WhileDavidwasa veryskilledwarriorandleader,thegreatnessofhiskingdomwas aresultofGodsfavoronhisactions,asDavidhimselfrealized
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(IISamuel7:1829). Letusnowexaminethehistoricalcontextofthattimetogauge thereactionofthePhoeniciancitystates(locatedimmediatelyto thenorthofIsrael)toDavidsascendancy.ThePhoeniciancity states,principallyTyreandSidon,wereincontrolofafarflung tradingandcommercialempireheldtogetherbyanextensive merchantfleetandnavy.Productsfromaroundtheworldflowed intotheircitystates,whichactedasfocalpointsbetween 1 maritimeandoverlandtraderoutes. IthaslongbeenknownthatthePhoenicianshipstraded throughouttheMediterranean,thewesternshoresofEuropeand Africa,andtheBritishIsles.Phoenicianartifactsandmany historicalwritingsconfirmtheirpresenceintheseareas. However,thePhoenicianshadlittlehinterlandtosupportthe populationoftheircitystates,andconsequentlyneededto importfoodstuffs.Phoeniciasmaintradingpartnerforfood,its 2 breadbasket,wastheareainhabitedbyIsrael. TheBiblealso confirmsthatIsraelsprimarytradingcommoditywithPhoenicia wasfoodstuffs(Ezekiel27:17). Besidesaveryclosetradingrelationship,threeotherfactors workedtowardanaturalaffinitybetweenPhoeniciaandIsrael. Thesefactorswereacommonlanguage,acommonraceanda commonenemy. LanguagespecialistshavelongknownthatPhoeniciaandIsrael possessedcloselyrelated,Semiticlanguages.Theyareboth classifiedasbeingintheCanaanitebranchoftheNorthWest 3 Semiticfamilyoflanguages. Toillustratetoallreadershow similartheselanguageswere,thecommentsoftwohistorians willbecited.Thefirstnotes: thewordsmostcommonlyinuse,the particles,thepronouns,theformsoftheverb,
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theprincipalinflexions(andwemayadd,the numerals)inPhoenicianareidentical,or nearlyidentical,withthepureHebrew.4 TheBibleconfirmsthecloserelationshipbetweenthetwo languagesbyrecordingthatwhentheIsraeliteprophetElijah stayedwithaPhoenicianwidowinZarephath,aSidoniansuburb, theyhadnodifficultywhatsoeverincommunicating(IKings 17:916).Thealphabetsofthetwolanguageswerestrikingly similaraswell.ThenineteenthcenturyBritishhistorian,George Rawlinson,explainedthesimilaritiesbetweenHebrewand Phoenicianasfollows: ...thePhoeniciansspokeaSemitictongue, verycloselyalliedtotheHebrew.Amongthe ancients,Jerome,AugustineandPriscian, statethefactintheclearestterms.The inscriptionswhichexistconfirmit...Agood Hebrewscholarhasnodifficultyin understandinganylegiblePhoenician inscription,assoonasheknowstheletters. Thelettersareidenticalwiththosewhichthe Hebrewsusedanciently...Auniformalphabetic system,withslightmodifications,appearsto havebeenemployedbythePhoenicians,the Jews,theSamaritansandtheMoabites...This alphabetisthatwhichhascommonlybeen calledPhoenician,becausetheGreeks ascribeditsinventiontothatpeople.Itis,like theHebrew,analphabetoftwentytwo letters.5 Whilethereweredialectaldifferences,itisclearthatthe IsraelitesandthePhoenicianssharedacommonlanguage.
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Racially,theIsraelitesandthePhoenicianswerebothSemitic 6 people,andsharedacommonracialorigin. Thisfactoralso contributedtotheclosecompatibilityofbothnations. Additionally,bothnationshadacommonenemy:thePhilistines. TheIsraeliteshadalonghistoryofbattleswiththePhilistinesas manybiblicalnarrativesshow,andthePhoenicianswerehostile 7 tothePhilistinesaswell. IsraelandPhoeniciawerejoined togetherbytheprincipleoftheadage:theenemyofmyenemy ismyfriend.
8 ThekingofTyreatthistimewasnamedHiram, andhewas surelyawareoftheimmensemilitarypowerofIsraelbeing flexedtohissouth.WithsomuchincommonbetweenIsraeland Phoenicia,HiramhadnodesiretobeanenemyofKingDavid. SincethePhoeniciancitystateswerealsodependentonIsrael andJudahfortheirprimaryfoodstuffs,heinitiatedapeaceful approachtowardtheIsraelitemonarch(IISamuel5:11).Hiram sentmaterialsandcraftsmentobuildDavidaroyalhomeasa tokenofhisfriendship.

Thisgiftofaneleganthomemayhavebeentheinspirationfor DavidseventualdesiretobuildagreattempleforGod(II Samuel7:13).Intakingthisaction,Hiramwastakingthe classicactionofalesserpowerseekingtobuildgoodwillwitha greaterpower.Thispointwillbeofgreatimportancewhenwe laterexaminesecularhistoricalrecordsontherealextentof IsraelitePhoenicianinfluenceintheancientworld.The Phoeniciancitystatesdidnothavetheresourcestochallenge Israelonland,andDavidcouldeasilyhavecutoffallPhoenician overlandtraderoutesifangered.WhileHiramsingratiating actionwaslikelyanactofgoodpoliticstopreservehis mercantilepositions,hisactionledtoastrongalliancebetween IsraelandPhoenicia.Infact,aclosepersonalfriendship developedbetweenKingsDavidandHiram(IKings5:1).
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9 KingHiramwastheleaderofthePhoeniciancitystates, soitis logicalthatallofthePhoeniciancitystateswerealliedtoIsrael atthattime.AnyPhoeniciancitystatethatwouldhaveopposed thealliancewouldhavebeencommittingmilitaryandeconomic suicide.KingHiramwaswellknownthroughouttheancientworld duetohisextensivetradingcontacts,andKingDavidwasalso wellknownduetoIsraelsmilitaryprowessandterritorial expansionism(IISamuel7:9).

ThePhoenicianIsraeliteallianceunitedtheworldsgreatest commercialandnavalpowerwiththeimmenselandpowerof Davidsarmy,makingthisallianceoneofthestrongestmilitary powersintheworldatthattime. Anindicationofjusthowpowerfulthisalliancebecameisinthe factthatAssyriaswarlikeempirehadnosuccessinwestward expansionduringthetimeoftheunitedkingdomofIsraelandits 10 alliancewiththePhoeniciancitystates. Othersourcesshow thatAssyriaenteredaperiodofdeclineduringIsraelsriseto power.ColliersEncyclopediareferstothetimebetween1100 B.C.and900B.C.asaperiodofAssyrianconfusionbetween 11 twowarlikeandexpansionaryphases. Thistimeperiod coincideswiththereignsofKingsDavidandSolomonoverthe unitedtribesofIsraelandtheirvassalstates.HalleysBible HandbookalsocommentsonIsraelssupremacyintheancient worldatthattime,andtherelativeweaknessofAssyria,Babylon 12 andEgypt. ItmustberememberedthatDavidsoneandone halfmillionmanarmywasnottheonlymilitaryforceathis disposal.Phoeniciasnavywasalliedtohim,andthevassal statesofSyria,Edom,Moab,Ammon,etc.couldbecalledupon tocommittheirforcesinservicetoDavid(althoughthevassal statesforceswerelikelysuspectintheirloyalties). Assyriasrecordedquiescencewasduetothefactthatithad challengedandhadbeendefeatedbyKingDavidsIsraelite
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forces.Whilethisstatementwillsurprisemanypeople,thereis ampleBiblicalandsecularevidencetosupportsuchaconclusion. Indeed,theBiblegivesanaccountofamajorarmedconflict betweenIsraelandtheMesopotamianpowers(i.e.Assyria)in whichtheMesopotamianpowersweresoundlydefeated. TheBiblestatesinIChronicles19:17thattheAmmonites(a subjectpeopleofIsrael)provokedawarwithKingDavidand hiredaverylargenumberofsoldiersfromMesopotamiannations andSyriatofightKingDavidsarmy.Thisbiblicalpassagestates theAmmoniteshiredavastarmyof32,000chariots(thenumber offootsoldiersisunspecified)forthiswaragainstKingDavids Israelitearmy.Somemayfindatotalof32,000chariotshard tobelieveasthatisanincrediblenumberofchariotsinany ancientcontext.Doesthisrepresentatotalofchariotsfilled withfightingmen,ordoesitrepresentamoregeneral descriptionofallhorsedrawnvehiclestransportingsoldiers?This authorrecognizesthatreasonablepeoplecandisagreeabout whattheoriginalwriterofChroniclesmeantbytheword chariot. However,theIsraelitesdidfaceanarmyofverypowerful enemieswhocouldfieldaverylargecombinedmilitaryforce. ThetermMesopotamiaisbroadenoughtoincludeAssyria, Babylonandtheiralliedvassalstates.Theirnumberswere furtherswelledbythearmiesofAramaean(Syrian)kings(I Chronicles19:6listsSyriaMaachahandZobahastwo examples).WewillalsosoonexaminethelikelihoodthatPsalm 83:18discussesthisverywar,listingothernationswhichjoined thisallianceagainstKingDavid.Therefore,itmustberealized thattheBibledoesnotattribute32,000chariotstoone nationalarmy,butratherstatesthatwasthetotalnumberof chariotshiredoutofmanynationstoopposeKingDavids army.
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TheIsraelitepowerprevailed,andtheMesopotamianarmies returnedtotheirhomenationsbeatenandbloodied,butthereis muchmoreherethanfirstmeetstheeye.Assyriaandtheother MesopotamianpowerswereawareofthemeteoricriseofIsraels powerandDavidsexpansionism,andundoubtedlylookedupon KingDavidasapotentialrivalforpreeminenceovertheancient world.Asestablishedmilitarypowers,theyprobablywantedto challengeDavidspowerbeforeitgrewevenstronger.When DavidsarmiesreachedtheEuphratesRiver,theAssyrianEmpire couldignorethemnolonger. TheAmmoniteswereasmalltributarynationsubjecttoDavid andwerenodoubtawarethatDavidhadexecutedtwothirdsof theMoabiteswhohadrebelledagainsthim.Whythenwouldthey daretotaketheapparentlysuicidalactionofhumiliatingDavids ambassadorsandprovokingDavidintoawarlikeresponse(I Chronicles19:15)?Theonlylogicalexplanationisthatthe Ammoniteswereactingasagentsforsomeoneelsewhowanted tochallengeDavid,andthattheAmmonitesknewtheywouldbe backedbypowerfulfriendswhosupportedtheirhostileaction. Therestoftheaccountsupportsthatconclusion. IChronicles19:69statestheAmmoniteshiredaforceof 32,000chariotsandanuncountednumberofSyrianand MesopotamianwarriorstofightKingDavidsarmyontheir behalf.Asacomparisonofhowvastthisforcewas,King Solomonislistedashavingnomorethan1,400chariotsduring thezenithofhispower(IKings10:2426).SinceAmmonwas payinggoldandsilverastributetoIsraelalready(IChronicles 18:11),ithardlyhadtheresourcestohirevirtuallytheentire nationalarmiesofthenationsinMesopotamia.Indeed,verse6 indicatestheAmmoniteshadnogoldleftwithwhichtohire mercenariesandcouldpayonlyinsilver.Apparently,theother nationswantedtochallengeIsraelinconsiderableforce,and
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Ammonsrevoltwasthepretexttoarrangesuchaconflict.The AmmonitesknewitwashighlydangeroustoprovokeDavids wrath,andtheywouldnothavedaredtotakesuchanaction withoutpriorknowledgethatthemightyMesopotamianpowers (principallyAssyria)wouldsupportthem.Thatthishuge Mesopotamianarmywouldallowitselftobehiredwithout receivinganygoldatallindicatesthattheirpresencewasa nationalpolicyofAssyriasking!Aforceof32,000chariotscould onlyhavebeenmusteredwiththeapprovaloftheAssyrian Empire,thedominantpowerofMesopotamia. TheBiblesuseofthetermMesopotamiatodescribethe homelandofthisvastforceofforeigntroopsindicatesthatitwas ajointexpeditionaryforceofmanyMesopotamiannations (Assyria,Babylon,etc.).Verses67statethatmanySyrian troopswerealsohiredbytheAmmonitestojointhe MesopotamianarmiesinfightingKingDavid.SinceDavidhad alreadyconqueredportionsofSyria,theSyrianswereeagerto joinalargealliancetofightagainstDavid.Thisbattlethenwas aneffortbythekingofAssyriatodefeatthegrowingpowerof KingDavid.Hearrangedforvirtuallyhisentirearmy,alongwith otherMesopotamianalliesandvariousSyriankingstobehired (forapittance)byoneofDavidssubjectnations(Ammon)to getridofthethreatposedbyKingDavidspower. Interestingly,theseMesopotamiannationsandSyriahadenough respectforKingDavidandIsraelthattheydidnotdeclarewar openly,butallowedtheirnationalarmiestofightas mercenariesofasmallnation.Inthismanner,ifthingswent badly,theycouldgohomeandsaythattheywerenottechnically atwarwithIsraelonanationallevel.However,asevidencethat thesenationswereactuallyarrangingawarwithKingDavid,the Biblestatesthatthekingsofthemercenaryarmies(the MesopotamiannationsandSyrians)camewiththeir
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armiestopersonallywatchthebattle(IChronicles.19:9). With32,000chariotsandanunspecifiednumberoffootsoldiers, thisforceactuallyconsistedofthenationalarmiesofAssyriaand itsallieswarringuponIsraelwithoutthebenefitofanopen declarationofwar.Thepresenceofthesenationskingsatthe battlemakesthispointobvious.Thisbattleforsupremacyofthe ancientworldwasfoughtintwostages.Theinitialstageofthe battleisdescribedinIChronicles19:815.Israelsarmymetthe combinedforcesofAmmon,Syria,andtheMesopotamian nations,anddefeatedtheminatwofrontbattle.Thefactthat Israelhadtosplititsforcesandfightintwoseparatedirections indicatesthatIsraelsarmywasnotexpectingtofightsolargea forceandfounditselfsurroundedbyanumericallysuperior army.Israelsarmylikelyexpectedtofightonlytheupstart Ammonites,andwassurprisedbythepresenceofsomany enemies.Nevertheless,Israelsarmywonthebattle,andthe Mesopotamianarmy(i.e.theAssyrianarmy)apparently retreatedtoitsownterritory,astheyarenotmentionedinthe secondstageofthebattle. Davidquicklyrealizedthatthisconflictinvolvedfarmorethana revoltbythelittlenationofAmmon.Itwasactuallyanattempt todestroyIsraelsarmyandnationalpower,andtopreventit fromsupplantingAssyriaasthepreeminentnationintheancient world. DavidsthoughtsonthiswararerecordedinPsalm83.Davids psalmswerefrequentlyinspiredbytheeventsofhislife,andthe contextofthischapterdirectlyparallelstheeventsofI Chronicles19.Psalms83:34referstoacraftycounselof manynationswhichwereassembledtodestroytheIsraelite nation.Psalm83:8showsthatthesenationshadconspiredto helpthechildrenofLot.AmmonwasoneofLotschildren (Genesis19:3638),andIChronicles19statesthatanalliance
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ofmanynationswasfightingIsraelundertheguiseofcomingto assisttheAmmonites(Lotschildren).Thisstronglyindicatesthat Psalm83andIChronicles19aredescribingthesameevent.To furthercementthesetwobiblicalaccountstogether,Psalm83:8 specificallystatesthatAssyria(Assurwastheforefatherofthe Assyrians)wasamemberoftheallianceattackingIsrael.This parallelsthereferencetoMesopotamiansinIChronicles19,as AssyriawasthedominantMesopotamiannationofthattime. AnumberofthenationsreferredtoinPsalm83were,like Ammon,subjectpeopleofIsraelwhowerelikelyeagertothrow offIsraelsdomination.ThePhilistines,Edom,Moab,andAmalek wereallsubjecttoKingDavidofIsrael(IChronicles18:11),and joinedAmmonsrevoltagainstKingDavid.Psalm83:7alsolists GebalandtheinhabitantsofTyre(bothPhoeniciancities)as beingpartoftheenemyalliance.Thisindicatestheconspiracy againstIsraelincludedsomePhoenicians,wholikelythought theyweresidingwithawinnerbyopposingIsraelandbacking Assyria.KingHiramofTyre,Davidsally,apparentlyexperienced arebellionofAssyriansympathizersamonghisownpeople. However,thewordingofverse7(itstatesthatsome inhabitantsofTyre,nottheleadershiporwholecityofTyre, werepartoftheenemyalliances)indicatesthatHiram,theking ofTyre,andpartofhispeopleremainedloyaltoDavid.Sidon, anothermajorPhoeniciancity,apparentlystayedloyaltoDavid, astheyarenotincludedinthelistofIsraelsenemiesinPsalm 83.SinceKingHiramremainedaclosefriendofKingDavidand Israelafterthisbattle,itisapparentthattheleadershipofTyre remainedloyaltoKingDavid.WhiletheaccountinIChronicles utilizesthegeneralnameofMesopotamianstodescribeDavids foes,DavidsownaccountinPsalm83ismorespecificinnaming theAssyriansashismilitaryopponents.WhiletheKingJames VersionoftheBibleusesthetermAssur,inPsalm83:8,many otherversionsoftheBible(theRevisedStandardVersion,The
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NewJerusalemBible,TheNewScofieldStudyBible)plainly translatethiswordasAssyria.TheRevisedStandardVersionis especiallyclearisstating:Assyriaalsojoinedthemtheyare thestrongarmofthechildrenofLot.Giventhefactthat AssyriawastheleaderoftheMesopotamiannations,andthat theAmmoniteswerethechildrenofLot,therecanbelittle doubtthatIChronicles19andPsalm83refertothesamewar. InthesecondstageofthebattlerecordedinIChronicles19:16 19,theIsraelitesandtheSyriansmobilizedtheirentirenational militaryresourcesandclashedanew.Thistimetherewasno morepretensethattheSyrianswereAmmonitemercenaries. Also,theAssyrianswereapparentlynolongerengaged,buthad retreatedafterbeingsoundlydefeatedbytheIsraelitearmy.The accountstatesthatDavidgatheredallIsraelandSyriadrew forththeSyriansthatwerebeyondtheriver(meaning reinforcementsfromeastoftheEuphratesRiver).Thesecond battleofthiswarinvolvedKingDavidandhisfullymobilized armymarchingeastwardfromtheJordanRivertofighteveryone theSyrianscouldmuster.Aftersuffering47,000dead,including theircommander,theSyriansyieldedtoKingDavidandbecame hisservants,meaningtheybecamevassalnationsofIsraelwho paidtributetoKingDavid. Toputtheintensityofthisbattleintoperspectiveformodern readers,theSyriansdidnotyielduntiltheyhadlost approximatelyasmanysoldiersinonebattleastheUnited StateslostintheentireVietnamWar!Thisservesasanindicator tomodernreadersofhowincrediblyviolentandgoryancient warscouldbe.Italsoindicatesthatthenumbersofmen engagedcouldeasilyhavebeeninthehundredsofthousands,as theSyrianshardlyfoughttothelastmen.Thedeathoftheir commander,combinedwithalikelyawarenessthatthebattle wasgoingagainstthem(IChronicles19:1719),causedthe
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Syrianstosurrender. WhatbeganasaneffortonthepartofAssyriaandits MesopotamianalliestocrushIsraelsmilitarypowerresultedin IsraelbecomingsovereignoveralltheengagedSyrians,andthe Mesopotamianpowersbeingputtoflight.TheAssyriansand theirallieslearnedfirsthandthattheycouldnotsuccessfully standagainstIsraelspower.Thisbattleoccurredin approximately990B.C.,andwasoneofthemostcrucialbattles ofthatera.Strangely,thisepicbattlebetweenIsraelandAssyria duringKingDavidsreign(soclearlyrecordedintheBible)isnot includedinhistoricalaccounts.ItsabsenceinAssyrianhistorical recordsshouldsurprisenoone.Whilethehistoricalrecordsof ancientnationswaxedeloquentinselfpraiseabouttheir victories,theywereloathetorecordtheirdefeats.Whilethis battleisnotrecordedinsecularhistoricalaccounts,its aftermath,thesuddendeclineoftheAssyrianEmpireduringKing DavidsreignoverIsrael,isveryevidentinthesecularaccounts (asweshallsee). ConsideringwhatweknowofKingDavidsmilitaristicnature,itis inconceivablethatKingDavidwouldhavehadaliveandletlive attitudetowardtheAssyriansaftertheyperpetratedaconspiracy todestroyKingDavidandhisnation.Hisattitude(andthatof thewholeIsraelitenation)likelyparalleledtheAmericanattitude ofrageaftertheJapaneselaunchedasneakattackonPearl Harbor!Davidspredictableactionwouldbetolaunchawarof retributionagainstAssyria.WhiletheBibledoesnotrecordsuch anattack,secularrecordsarguethatitdidoccur.Historical accountsrelatethatalthoughAssyriawasverypowerfulunder KingTiglathPileserinthecenturypriortoKingDavidsrule, AssyrianpowerwasbrokenandAssyriabecameveryweak duringthereignsofKingsDavidandSolomon.Itisthisbooks contentionthatthemainimpetusforAssyriasdeclinecamefrom
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itsdefeatatthehandofKingDavid.Letusexamineevidence supportingthisconclusion. AssyriapossessedalargeempireduringthereignofTiglath PileserIaround1100B.C.Assyriasmilitaryconquestsincluded Mesopotamia,Syrianterritoryalongthenorthernportionsofthe 13 EuphratesRiver,andevenintoArmenia. Assyrianaccountsof TiglathPileserIsreignstatethathispowerextendedtothe MediterraneanSeaintheregionofArvad(aPhoeniciancity 14 state). Itisrecordedthat,underTiglathPileserIslongreign (about11161078),theMiddleAssyrianEmpirereachedthe heightofitspower.15 YetthegreatAssyrianEmpirequickly becameweakandpowerlessduringthereignsofKingsDavid andSolomonofIsraelwasthisonlyacoincidence?Thisperiod ofAssyrianweaknessisdescribedasfollows: Afterthedeathofthegreatking[Tiglath PileserI],hissuccessorssteadilylostground beforetheadvancingAramaeans.Under AshurrabiII(about1012972),the AramaeansdrovetheAssyriansfromtheir ancientEuphratesfrontier,andunderhis grandson,TiglathPileserII(about966935), theyadvancedasfarastheTigris,confining Assyriatoitsnarrowestrecordedlimits. Assyriawasreducedtodirestraits,andthe povertyofitspeopleisvividlydescribedinthe inscriptionsofAshurdanII(934912),under whomtheAssyrianEmpirebeganitslong climbbacktoitsformerpower.16 Theabovedatesareverysignificant,astheyillustratethat Assyrianfortunesareinverselyproportionaltoeventsoccurring simultaneouslyintheancientKingdomofIsrael.Theabove accountshowsthattheAssyriansweredrivenfromthe
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EuphratesRiverduringthereignofKingDavid(circa1010970 B.C.).ThisisthesameperiodoftimethattheBiblerecordsthat DavidsarmyreachedtheEuphratesRiver,anddefeatedalarge AssyrianMesopotamianarmy.Assyriaisindirestraitsand povertyduringthereignsofKingDavidandKingSolomon(ca. 970930B.C.),whenIsraelsempireandpowerwasatitszenith. AssyriacouldnotreassertitselfuntilafterIsraelscivilwarwhich causedittosubdivideintotheseparate(andoften,warring) nationsofIsraelandJudah.ItwasduringAshurdanIIsreign thatIsraelandJudahfoughtahorrendouslybloodycivilwarin whichoverahalfmillionIsraeliteandJewishsoldierswerekilled (IIChronicles13).ThewarsbetweentheIsraeliteandJewish kingdomssodepletedtheirmutualstrengthsthatnations (Assyria,Syria,etc.)whichDavidhaddefeatedwereableto throwoffIsraelitedominationandreassertthemselves. TheabovehistoricalaccountcitesAramaeansastheforce whichsubjugatedtheAssyrianEmpireduringthereignsofDavid andSolomon.TheAramaeansarecalledSyriansintheBible. TheBible,however,assertsthatKingDavidhadthendefeated theSyriansandmadethemhisservants.Howcanthetwo accountsbereconciled?Therearetwopossibleanswers.One mustrealizethattheancientSyrians/AramaeanswereSemitic peopleliketheIsraelites.Theirnationshaddescendedfrom ArphaxadandAram,twoofthesonsofShem(Genesis10:21 25).Sincetheywereraciallyrelatedpeople,itispossiblethat theIsraelites(whodefeatedtheAramaeans),cametobeknown bythenameoftheterritorythroughwhichtheyattacked Assyria.SincetheAramaeanswereservantsofDavidaftertheir surrendertotheIsraelitearmy,theymayhaveservedas IsraelitevassalsinwarsagainstAssyria. TheBibleconfirmsthecloseraciallinkbetweentheIsraelitesand theAramaeansinDeuteronomy26:15inwhichIsraelites
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makingaparticularofferingweretoconfess,awandering Aramaeanwasmyfather(RSV).Theracialbondbetween IsraelitesandAramaeansisfurtherconfirmedinGenesis2425 inwhichAbrahamsendshisservantto...mykindred(Genesis 24:4)toobtainawifeforhisson,Isaac.Theservantisledby Godtothehouseofmymasterskinsmen(Genesis24:27), leadingtoIsaacsmarriagetoanAramaeangirlnamedRebekah (Genesis25:20). Indeed,oneAramaeanruler,KingTou(orToi)ofHamath,was alreadyawillingallyofKingDavidpriortotheIChronicles19 warofmanynationsagainstIsrael(IISamuel8:311andI Chronicles18:310).SincetheAramaeansbecameDavids servantsaftertheirdefeatatthehandsofIsrael,secular recordsaboutanAramaeanpowerfromthewestoverwhelming astrongAssyrianEmpireduringKingDavidsreignhavemissed thelikelihoodthatmuchoftheAramaeanpowerresultedfrom IsraeliteinvasionsofAssyriaviaAramaeanterritory.Giventhe raciallinksbetweentheIsraelitesandAramaeans,theIsraelite rolecouldeasilybemissedbyhistorianslivingmillenniaafterthe eventsoccurred. ThereisasecondreasonwhytheAramaeanshadamotiveto attackAssyriaaftertheirdefeatatthehandofDavid.Assyria hadbeenalliedwiththeAramaeansinthefirstbattleagainst KingDavidsforces,butapparentlyretreatedtoAssyriabefore thesecondbattle,leavingtheAramaeanstofightDavidby themselves.TheAramaeanscouldeasilyhavefeltdouble crossedbytheAssyrians,andsubsequentlybecamewilling alliesofKingDavidseffortsagainsttheAssyrians.SinceI Chronicles19:16recordsthatKingDavidhaddefeated(and presumablymadeservantsof)Aramaeanslivingeastofthe EuphratesRiver,theroleofKingDavidandIsraelinAssyrias subjugationwaslikelyquitesubstantial.TheAramaeanrole,
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howeverlarge,muststillbeseeninthecontextthattheywere actingassubordinatevassalsofKingDavid. Anotheraccountgivesusadditionalinsightintotheeventsof thetime.TheEncyclopaediaBritannicastates: AnAssyrianrevivalculminatedinthe successfulcampaignsofTiglathpileserIabout 10901060B.C.thiskingwas,however, activelyengagedinrepellingAramaeantribes, andfromabout1050950B.C.the invasionofSyriaandnorthernBabylonia bythispeopleexhaustedBabyloniaand Assyria.17 (Emphasisadded.) Beforeexaminingthisaccount,itmustbestressedthatthe biblicalSyriansweretheAramaeansofthisaccount.The EncyclopaediaBritannicaacknowledgesthattheterritoryofthe AramaeanswascalledSyriaintheSeptuagintandVulgate 18 Bibles. HarpersBibleDictionaryalsonotesthattheSyriansof theBiblewerethepeoplereferredtoasAramaeansinsecular 19 accounts. Therefore,itmakeslittlesensetosaythat AramaeansinvadedSyria.ThefactthatthisinvasionofSyria andexhaustionofMesopotamiannationsoccurspreciselyduring thereignofKingDavidoverIsraelstronglysupportstheBibles accountsthatKingDavidsIsraelitesconqueredboththe AramaeansandtheAssyrian/Mesopotamianarmies.The EncyclopaediaBritannicaaccountalsonotesthatwhileTiglath PileserIhadnoapparentdifficultyindefeatingAramaeans priortothereignofKingDavid,theAramaeansattackingfrom thewesthadsufficientpowertoexhaustAssyriaandBabylon duringDavidsreign.Itseemsreadilyapparentthatthe AramaeanswhoinvadedandexhaustedAssyriaand MesopotamiawereKingDavidsIsraelitesalliedtoAramaeans whohadbecomeDavidsservantsduringthattime.
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Besidesbeingraciallyrelated,thereisanotherreasonwhythe IsraeliteroleintheAramaeaninvasionofAssyriacanbe missed.TheHebrewandAramaiclanguageswerecloselyrelated atthebeginningofthefirstmillenniumB.C.MoscatisAn IntroductiontotheComparativeGrammaroftheSemitic LanguagescategorizesHebrewandAramaicasrelatedNorth WestSemiticlanguages,andaddsconcerningAramaic:[Its] earliestmanifestationgoesbacktothebeginningofthefirst millenniumB.C.20 HarpersBibleDictionaryisabitmore specificinstatingthatAramaic(thelanguageoftheAramaeans) was: aSemiticlanguagecloselyrelatedto Hebrew.IthasbeenspokenintheLevant fromtheninthcenturyB.C.untilthe present...ItoriginatedamongtheAramaeans ofnorthernSyria,saidtobeamongthe ancestorsofAbraham(Gen.28:25Deut. 26:5)...SeveralpassagesintheOTarewritten inOfficialAramaic...Jesusprobablyspokea dialectofWesternAramaicandsomewordsin theNTcomefromAramaic...21 (Emphasis added.) NotethatHebrewandAramaicweresocloselylinkedthatit wouldhavebeendifficult(ifnotimpossible)todistinguish betweenIsraeliteandAramaeantroopsamongthearmieswho invadedMesopotamiaduringthereignofKingDavid.Indeed,the aboveaccountstatesthattheAramaiclanguagewasspokenin theregionfromtheninthcenturyB.C.Thisisquite significantastheAramaeanswhodefeatedAssyriaand BabylondidsointhetenthcenturyB.C.(thecenturybefore AramaiccanbeclassifiedasalanguagedistinctfromHebrew). Therefore,theIsraeliteandAramaeannationsspokeveryclosely
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relatedSemiticlanguagesatthetimeAssyriawasdefeatedby Semiticarmiesinvadingfromthewest.[Indeed,theBible repeatedlyrecordsthatIsraelitesandAramaeanswereableto easilyconversewhenevertheycameintocontact.]Sincethe IsraelitesandAramaeansweresoraciallyandlinguistically similarduringthetenthcenturyB.C.,andsincetheAramaeans hadbecometheservantsofKingDavid,theAramaean armiesinvadingAssyriainthetenthcenturyB.C.weremost likelyIsraelitearmiesaccompaniedbythearmiesofDavids Aramaeanalliesandvassals. Thisconclusionissupportedbyotherfactsaswell.Secular recordsrevealthatAssyriaremainedweakaslongasthetwelve tribesofIsraelwereunitedinonekingdomunderKingsDavid andSolomon.ThefactthatAssyrianresurgencedidnotoccur untilafterIsraelstribesdividedintotwo,oftenwarringnations supportstheconclusionthatitwasIsraelspowerwhichhadkept themweak.AsIsraelsmilitarypowerwasdepletedbywarswith theJewishnationofJudah,Assyriawasfreetoreassertitself. Anotheroverlookedfactorinthisbalanceofpowerbetween IsraelandAssyriaistheroleofGodhimself.WhenDavidand Solomon(andtheunitedtribesofIsrael)servedGodfaithfully, theirpowerandempirewasgreatlyexpanded(seeIChronicles 18:6).OnefacetofIsraelscovenantwithGodwasthatGod wouldblessthemwithmilitaryvictorieswhentheywereobedient andwouldcausethemtosuffermilitaryreversesifthey disobeyedhim(Deuteronomy28:17and1525).KingSolomon, whostartedoutsowell,forsookGodslaws,andtheunityofthe twelvetribesdisintegratedsoonafterhedied. SinceGodspromiseswereconditionalonIsraelsobedience, theylostGodsfavoraftertheyforsookGodslaws.Forthis reason,theperiodofIsraelsdominationofAssyriawasrelatively brief.
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WhenKingDavidsarmywasintheprocessofconqueringthe Syrians,IISamuel8:4records(intheRSV)thattheIsraelites hamstrungallthechariothorses,butleftenoughforahundred chariots.WhenIsraeldefeatedtheAssyrians,itislogicalto assumethattheytookthesameactionagainstAssyrianhorses. ThisIsraelitepracticewouldlikelybecontinuedforaslongas theycontrolledsubjectnationstopreventsuccessfulrebellions. Earlier,itwasnotedtheAssyriankingAsshurdanIIledthe AssyrianresurgenceafterIsraelwassplitintotherivalkingdoms ofIsraelandJudah.Notewhathistoryhasrecordedwasoneof thefirstobstaclesforthisAssyriankingtoovercome. AsshurdanIIandhissonAdadnirariII (911891)werechieflyconcernedwiththe restorationofAssyrianstrengthbyprocuring cavalryhorses...Againandagaintheystruck backattheringofAramaeantribesandstates thathadbecomeestablishedaroundthe westernandsouthernbordersofAssyria proper.22 Assyriassevereshortageofhorsessuitableformilitaryservice supportstheconclusionthatIsraelhadsubduedAssyriabecause theBiblerecordsthatitwasanIsraelitecustomtomaiman enemyshorsestorenderthemuselessformilitaryapplications. NotealsothatasAssyriareasserteditself,itstruckagainstthe Aramaeantribesalongitswesternandsouthernborder. TheAramaeantribestothewestofAssyriahadbeenruledby KingsDavidandSolomonsotheAssyrianswerestrikingagainst territorythathadbeensubjecttoIsrael.Also,asIsraeland Judahweakenedeachother,theSyrians/Aramaeansalso reassertedtheirindependencefromIsrael,laterbecomingmajor enemiesofIsrael.WhatisclearisthatafterIsraelwasweakened byaseverecivilwar,theAssyrianswereabletoreassert
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themselvesagainstthewesternAramaeans.Thisarguesthat AramaeanvictoriesovertheAssyrianEmpirewerenevera resultofstrictlyAramaeanaction.Indeed,iftheAramaeanshad prevailedagainstAssyriawithoutanyhelpfromIsrael,Israels civilwaranddivisionshouldhavestrengthenedtheAramaeans againstAssyria(aweakenedIsraelontheirwesternflankwould meanthattheycoulddirectevenmorepoweragainstAssyria). However,historyrecordsthatonceIsraelspowercollapsed,the poweroftheAramaeanswhohadsubjugatedAssyriaalso collapsed.ThisarguesthattheAramaeanswhosubjugated AssyriawereIsraelites,notSyrians. InanIsraeliteCivilWarinapproximately913B.C.,theIsraelite armylost500,000soldiersinonebattleagainstthearmyof Judah(wearenotgiventhenumberofJewishbattledeaths). AssumingJudahslosseswererelativelysmall(becauseII Chronicles13:1718statesGodwasonJudahsside,not Israels),thisbattleeffectivelywipedoutthemodernequivalent ofabout25divisionsfromIsraelsreserves!Withsuchamajor lossofpower,Israelhaddramaticallyreducedpower,and Assyriareasserteditselfinthevoidthatwascreatedwhen Israelsforceswerenolongerathreat.NotethattheAssyrian kingsnamedaboveactedtorestoreAssyrianforcesinthe aftermathoftheIsraeliteJewishbattle.Assyriassudden freedomtorestoreitsstrengthindicatestheexistenceofamajor powervoidwhichwouldhaveoccurredafterIsraelssudden withdrawalfromconquerednations. ThatAssyriaattackedIsraelandJudahsofrequentlyinthetime framefrom900B.C.untilthefallofSamariain721B.C.argues thatAssyriawasseekingvengeanceupontheKingdomsofIsrael andJudahforwhattheIsraeliteshaddonetoAssyriaunderKing David.AssyriafinallyendedIsraelsindependence(when Samariafell),andwouldhavedonethesametoJudahifithad
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notbeenforGodsdivineactiontorescueJerusalemfromthe AssyriansduringHezekiahsreign(IIKings1820).TheAssyrian determinationtodestroyIsraelisconsistentwiththeconclusion presentedinthischapter:thatIsraelhadfirstconqueredand humbledAssyria! AfterAssyriabegantoreassertitself,itagainbegantowrite aboutitstriumphs.HistorianZenaideRagozinnotesthatwhen Assyriaslongspellofinactivityandobscurity23 ended,they recordeddetailedaccountsoftheirvictoriesinthetimeframeof 900666B.C.Speakingofthisperiodoftime,shealsonotes that: thehistoryofAssyriaandthatoftheJews areinconstantcollision.Almosteveryevent connectedwithAssyriamentionedintheBible isfaithfullyrecordedinthehistorical inscriptionsoftheAssyriankings.24 ConsideraninterestingcontrastintheAssyrianrecordsandthe IsraelitechroniclesintheBible.WhileAssyrianinscriptionsare accurateduringtheirtimeofmilitaryascendancyoverIsraeland Judah,theyaresilentaboutwhathappenedduringthetimeof Israelitedomination.However,theIsraeliteandJewish chroniclesarequiteaccurate(accordingtotheAssyrianaccounts ofthesameevents)inrecordingtheirnationsdefeatsand deterioration.SincetheBiblesaccountsarebrutallyaccurate aboutIsraelsperiodofnationaldefeatanddecline(whenthe naturaltendencyistoglossoverornotincludesuchaccounts),it islikelythatitsaccountsofIsraelsvictoriesandascendancy reflectthesameaccuracy.YetIsraelsandJudahskingsduring theirmutualnationaldeclinescouldbeprofoundlywickedand deceitfulmen.Wecannotcreditthemforsuchremarkable truthfulnessabouttheirwickednessanddefeats.Thefactthat thebiblicalaccountshavesuchaccuracy(evenaboutthetimes
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whenhumannaturewouldordinarilynotwanttobehonest) indicatesthatitwasGodsdivineinspirationwhichaccountsfor theaccuracyofthebiblicalaccounts. Asthereadercansee,secularhistorysupportsthebiblical accountsofDavidsdefeatofAssyriaandMesopotamia.TheBible hascontainedthisrecordinIChronicles19andPsalm83all along,butithasbeenoverlookedorignored.Thecloseracialand linguisticaffinitiesbetweenIsraelitesandAramaeansmay accountforthewidespreadlackofawarenessofIsraelsrolein destroyingAssyriaspowerduringthereignofKingDavid. However,humannaturehasanaturalenmityagainstGod (Romans8:7),andobscuringthetrueroleofIsraelinancient historymakesiteasierformankindtoignoreGodsrealityand theBiblesveracity.Also,thepermeationofmodernacademiaby theatheisticdogmaofevolutionhascreatedanenvironment whichisopenlyhostiletotheBible,andtheadherentsof evolutionaredisinclinedtofindanythingsubstantiatingthe Bible. IISamuel7:9(seealsoIChronicles17:8)quotesGodastelling DavidthefollowingthroughtheprophetNathan: Ihavebeenwithyouwhereveryouwent, andhavecutoffallyourenemiesfrombefore youandIwillmakeforyouagreatname, likethenameofthegreatonesoftheearth. (RSV) Godstatesthatall(notjustsome)ofDavidsenemieswere cutoff,andthatDavidwouldbecomeoneofthemost prominentandfamousmenonearth!WhileDavidsnameis rememberedprominentlytothisday,modernmankindhasnot realizedthefullextentofGodsfulfillmentofthispromise.Gods promisewasmadepriortoDavidswarsagainsttheAramaeans andAssyrians(bothofwhichhewon).AfterDavidmadethe
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Aramaeanshisvassalsand(probablyinconcertwiththose vassals)subjugatedAssyriaandMesopotamia,Davidwasnot justkingofIsraelandJudah,hewasanemperorovernations. Hewasthedominantruleroftheknownworld,andIsraelhad becomeanancientsuperpower. ItisworthnotingthatthecommandersofIsraelsarmyatthat timeweretwobrothers(JoabandAbishai)whoweretheancient worldsequivalentofamodernGeneralPatton.Asbloodyas Davidwas,hesaidhiscommandersweretoohardevenforhim (IISamuel3:3039).Theywereveryskilledinwarfare,and whilethiswasappropriateforamilitaryexpansionisttime,they weretobecomeanachronisticinSolomonsreignofpeace. David,infact,advisedhissonSolomontokillJoabwhen Solomonwasabouttobecomeking(IKings2:56).An observationcanbemadethatitwaseasytoseewhereJoaband Abishaireceivedtheircombativegenes:JoabandAbishaiwere Davidsownnephews(IChronicles2:1316). Davidalsohadcontingentsofforeigntroopswhofoughtinhis service.HehadaversionofRomesPraetorianGuardinthathis personalbodyguardsconsistedof600nonIsraeliteswhowere fiercelyloyaltohim.Theyfollowedhimthroughbothgoodand badtimesandwerecalledtheCherethitesandthePelethitesin theBible.IISamuel15:18addsthatDavidsbodyguards includedGittitesfromGath.ThesearmedbodyguardsofDavid didnotreporttoregulararmycommanders,buthadtheirown commanderwhowasresponsibletoKingDavidhimself.Harpers BibleDictionaryobservesthattheCherethitesandPelethites werelikelydescendedfromCretansandAnatolianswhohad 25 previouslysettledinthevicinityofthePhilistines. Giventhe historichostilitybetweentheIsraelitesandthePhilistines,itis quiteremarkablethatDavidsbodyguardsincludedGittitesfrom Gath.Goliath,thegiantwhomDavidslewasayouth,hadcome
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fromGath(ISamuel17:23).ItindicatesthatDavidwasaman whocommandedgreatrespectandloyaltyfromothermen,and italsoindicatesthatnonIsraelitesofthetimecouldalsobemen ofgreatcharacterandloyalty.Wedonotknowhowthesenon IsraelitescametobesofiercelyloyaltoDavid,butitwasa lifelongcommitmentontheirpart.Evenwhenthingslookedvery bleakforDavidduringtherevoltledbyDavidsownson, Absalom,andDavidgavethempermissiontoleavehisservice, thisforeignbodyguardremainedabsolutelyloyaltoDavid(II Samuel15:1322). KingDavidhadatleastoneprominentforeignercommanding partofhisarmy,thatbeingUriahtheHittite.Hehadtobeavery prominentHittiteinordernotonlytoholdhighrankinIsraels army,butalsotohavethehonorofaresidencelocatednextto KingDavidhimself(IISamuel11:24).TheHittiteshadbeena majorpoweroftheancientworldwhichhadalsofoughtthe Assyrians,andmayhavewelcomedIsraelsrisetopowerasa forceagainstAssyria. UriahwasalsothehusbandofBathsheba,withwhomDavid committedadultery.AfterBathshebabecamepregnantasa resultofthisaffair,DavidarrangedtohaveUriahkilledin combattocoverhisownsinfuldeed(IISamuel11:117).This eventshowsthatDavidshearthadstrayedfarfromGodandhis lawsatthistime.However,whenconfrontedaboutthissinbya prophetofGod,Daviddeeplyrepentedofhisdeed(IISamuel 12,Psalm51).TheBiblesinclusionofthisaccountisatypical exampleofitsevenhandednesstowarditsheroesasitrecords theirsinsandfailingsaswellastheirgreatdeedsand accomplishments. LetusreturntoIsraelsmilitarysituationafterthebattlewiththe Syrians,theMesopotamians,andtheirallies.Manyofthe PhoeniciansmusthavebeenwatchingthebattlebetweenIsrael
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andtheAssyrian/Syrianalliancewithgreattrepidationasan Israelitedefeatwouldhavemeantmilitarydominationoftheir citystatesaswell.SinceDavidsPsalmaboutthisbattle(Psalm 83)mentionsthatPhoenicianssuchasGebalandatleastsome oftheinhabitantsofTyrewerecooperatingwiththeAssyrian/ Syriangroup,itisclearthattherewereAssyriansympathizers evenamongthePhoenicians.Afterthedefeatoftherival alliance,however,theIsraelitePhoenicianalliancebecame theworldsdominantmilitarypowerofthattime.Israels militarymight,combinedwiththenavalandcommercialpower ofthePhoeniciancitystatescreatedanalliancewhichwasboth militarilyandeconomicallysuperiortotheremainderofthe world. SomereadersmayhavesomeskepticismabouttheBibles assertionthatIsraelhadanarmyofoveroneandonehalf millionmen,andthatIsraelwasinvolvedinthegreatpower strugglesoftheancientworld.Tocounterthatskepticism,avery commonmisconceptionmustbecorrected.Mostpeopleassume thatancientIsraelwascomprisedstrictlyofJews,and therefore,couldnothavebeensopopulous.Mostpeoplemake thecommonmistakeofassumingthetermsIsraeliteandJew aresynonymous,whentheyarenot!WhileKingDavidwasofthe tribeofJudah(aJew),onlyaminorityofhisnationandarmy wasJewish. ThetruthisthatthenationofIsraelwascomprisedoftwelve tribeswitheachtribebeingcomposedofthedescendantsofone ofthetwelvesonsofJacob.Judah(fromwhichthetermJewis derived)wasonlyoneoftwelvetribalunits.Infact,thechief tribeofIsraelwasJoseph,anditwassoblessedbyGodin numbersthatitwassubdividedintotwotribes:Ephraimand Manasseh(whowerethesonsofJoseph).Thisactuallyresulted inthirteentribalunits.Overthecenturies,thepopulationsof
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thesetribeshadgrownsolargethatbythetimeofKingDavid thattheyconstitutedanationofconsiderablesize. ThenationofIsraelunderDavidwascomposedofthirteen distinctdistricts,oneforeachtribe.ThetribeofLeviactedasa priestlytribe,andtheirgeographicalareaconsistedof48cities (Joshua21)spreadthroughoutthedistrictsoftheremaining tribes.Israelwasthereforeaconstitutionalmonarchy(Gods lawsbeingtheirconstitution)astheyrosetointernational prominence.However,theunityofthesethirteentribesunder Davidwasanexceptionintheirhistory,nottherule.Thebookof Judgescataloguesthemanytribalsquabblesandwarswhich theyfoughtamongthemselves.Theunityofthetribesbrought aboutbyKingDavidlastedonlyashorttime.Soonafterthe deathofDavidsson,KingSolomon,Israelsplitintotwonations characterizedbyfractiousrelationswithoneanother. AfterSolomonsdeath,thenortherntentribes,ledbyEphraim andManassehsecededfromtheunion,andformedanew nationwhichretainedthemajorityofthepopulationandthe nameofIsraelasitsnationalname(IKings11:2836,12:16 24).ThesoutherntwotribesofJudahandBenjamin,joinedby thepriestlytribeofLevi(IIChronicles11:1214),retainedthe oldcapitalcityofJerusalem,butadoptedthenewnationalname ofJudah.ThenationofJudah(theJews)wasneveragain knownbythenationalnameofIsrael.BothwereHebrew nations,butwhileJudahwasJewish,IsraelwasnonJewish. IsraelandJudahwerehenceforthseparatenationsandfought manywarswitheachother. IsraeladoptedidolatrousBaalism,whileJudahhadperiodic revivalsinwhichtheyworshippedthetrueGod.By721B.C.,the IsraeliteswerenolongerinthelandofPalestine,havingbeen drivenfromtheirlandbyAssyrianinvasions.Thekingdomof Judah(theJews)continuedinPalestineuntilapproximately576
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B.C.,whentheywerealsoremovedfromtheland.The descendantsofJudah,becausetheyretainedtheSabbathday andmanytraditionsofGodslaws,retainedtheiridentity,and havebeenknownthroughouthistoryasJews.Israelbecame knownasthelosttentribesofIsraelpartlybecausethey abandonedtheirtiestoPalestine.Theyalsolosttheir Hebrew/Israeliteidentitybecausemanyofthemabandoned customswhichwouldhaveidentifiedthemasHebrewsand Israelites.Asthereaderofthisbookwillseeinlaterchapters, theywereneverlostatall.Theiridentityinthepastwaswell knownattimes,particularlytosomeoftheJewishscholars. WhenthemodernnationofIsraelwasformedbytheJewish peoplein1948,itwassettledbythedescendantsofthenation ofJudah.ThenationalnameofIsraelwas,technically,a biblicalmisnomer.Ifbiblicalprecedenthadbeenfollowed,the JewishstateinPalestinewouldhavebeennamedJudah. However,theJewishstatenameditselfafterthelandofIsrael whichtheyhadreclaimed.Zephaniah2:7containsaprophecy thatdescendantsoftheancientnationofJudah(notIsrael) wouldsomedayreestablishanationinPalestineandthatwas fulfilledin1948.Zechariah14:914showsthatatthetimeof JesusChristsreturn,descendantsofthetribeofJudah(not Israel)willbephysicallylivingintheJerusalemarea. MostpeopledonotrealizethattheJewsarenottheonlymodern descendantsoftheancientnationruledbyKingDavid.Afterthe divisionoftheunited,twelvetribedkingdomunderDavidand Solomon,theJewsceasedtobeapartofthekingdom namedIsrael.Fromthatpointintime,theJewsofJudahand theIsraelitesofIsraelhadseparatenationalhistories.Tolocate allthemoderndescendantsoftheancientnationruledbyKing David,onewouldhavetolocateallthemoderndescendantsof thetentribesofIsrael!Whenthemoderndescendantsofthe
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ancienttentribesofIsraelareidentifiedlaterinthisbook,the readerwillseethatKingDavidruledovertheforefathersof manymodernnations! AllmoderndescendantsoftheancienttribesofIsraelare Israelitesinaracialsenseasallhavedescendedfromtheman Israel,whoseoriginalnamewasJacob(Genesis32:28). However,inanationalandpropheticsense,thetermIsrael doesnotapplytoJewsfromthetimeofthedividedkingdom forward.Afterthattime,theBiblereferstoJewswiththeterms JudahortheHouseofJudah.TheBibleusestheterms IsraelortheHouseofIsraeltorefertodescendantsofthe nonJewish,northerntentribesofIsrael. Theabovedigressionwaslengthy,butveryimportant.The biblicallycorrectdistinctionbetweenthetermsIsraeland Judah(Jew)isanessentialonetomakeearlyinthisbook,not onlytounderstandthesizeofIsraelinDavidstime,butalsoto understandtherestofthesubjectmaterialwhichwillbe presentedinthisbook.Nowbacktoournarrative. AttheconclusionofIsraelsmomentousvictoryoverthe combinedpowersofAmmon,Syria,Assyriaandotherallied nations,KingDavidwasinapositionofhegemonyoverthe ancientmideasternworld.Israelsmilitarysupremacyonland wasunitedwithPhoeniciasmaritimesupremacy.Davidwasat theheightofhisglory,andtherewasnonationleftwiththe powertochallengehim.Hisattentionnowturnedtohispersonal petproject:buildingagrandtempletohonortheGodofIsrael. WhileGoddidnotallowDavidtoactuallybuildtheTemple(II Samuel7:113),hewasallowedtomakepreparationsforits constructionduringthereignofhisson,Solomon.These preparationswereprodigious,indeed.Withvastwarbooty, tributepaymentspouringinfromvassalnations,andaccessto rawmaterialsthroughouttheworldviathemaritimeroutesof
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hisPhoenicianallies,Davidamassedeverythingimaginablefor theTempleofGod.JusthowwidespreadthesePhoenician contactswerewillnowbemadeapparent. Davidsprodigioustemplepreparationsandhisinstructionsto SolomontoimplementtheconstructionarerecordedinI Chronicles22:116.Davidaccumulatedgreatstoresofiron fornailsandclamps(RSV),showingthatwhatsecular historianshavecalledtheironagewaswellunderwaybythe beginningofthefirstmillenniumB.C.Healsoaccumulated bronzeinquantitiesbeyondweighing,(RSV)soDavidalso accumulatedmassivestockpilesofcopperoresandrefined copperproductsforSolomontoutilizeinhisreign.Healso amassedmuchcedarwoodthroughhisalliancewiththecity statesofTyreandSidon.Inthecourseofhiswars,Davidhad collectedlargeamountsofgoldandsilverfromtributarynations, andverse14quotesDavidassumminguphistemple preparationswiththesewords: WithgreatpainsIhaveprovidedforthe houseoftheLordahundredthousandtalents ofgoldandamilliontalentsofsilver,and bronzeandironbeyondweighing,forthereis somuchofittimberandstonetoohaveI provided.(RSV) Thetotalof100,000talentsofgoldand1,000,000talentsof silverwastheamountdedicatedjustfortempleuse!Onecan onlyimaginehowmuchgoldandsilverwereavailableinthe nationaltreasuryafterDavidsmanysuccessfulwars! Disagreementexistsconcerningtheexactweightofthetalentat Davidstime,butbyanydefinitionofatalent,theamountof goldandsilverdedicatedbyDavidfortempleusewasworth billionsofdollars(inmodernvaluations).IChronicles29:2also addsthatDavidaccumulatedwood...onyx...andallmannerof
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preciousstones,andmarblestonesinabundanceforuseinthe templeprojectaswell. Thereisoneobviousquestionthatneedstobeasked.Wheredid themassiveamountsofcopperoreoriginatefromwhichDavids artisansmadebrass(orbronze)productssonumerousthatthey werebeyondweighing?SinceDavidsworkmendidweighthe goldandsilverstockpiles(thelatterbeingonemilliontalents), thecopperandironstockpilesobviouslyhadtofarexceedthe preciousmetalsstockpilestobeconsideredbeyondweighing. Howmanymillionsoftalentsofironandcopperoreswere neededtoreachanamountbeyondweighing?Thevast amountsofgoldandsilverwereobviouslyimportedfrom elsewhereasaresultofwarbooty,tributepaymentsandforeign trade.Surely,avastamountofcopperandironorescouldnotall comefromsourcesindigenoustotheMideast.SinceDavidwas closelyalliedwiththePhoeniciancitystates,hecouldimport anythinghewantedfromanywherethePhoeniciantradingships sailed.ItiswellknownthatPhoenicianshipsdominatedthe commerceoftheMediterraneanSeaandthattheysailedintothe AtlanticOceantoreachportsinWesternAfricaandNorthwest Europe.JusthowfarintotheAtlanticdidtheysail? Nowletusexaminesomehistoricalevidenceofparticular interesttomodernAmericanreaders.Thebook,BronzeAge America,bythelateDr.BarryFell,ProfessorEmeritusof HarvardUniversity,documentsthatcoppertradingbetween NorthAmericaandtheOldWorldexistedpriortoandduringthe reignofKingDavid.Hisbookcitesevidencefromancient inscriptionsthatNorsekingscarriedonacoppertradewiththe NewWorldintheSt.LawrenceRiverareaasearlyas1700B.C., 26 sevencenturiespriortothereignofKingDavidoverIsrael! CitinginscriptionscutintheancientTifinagandogamconsaine alphabets,usinganearlyformoftheNorsetongue...27 which
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werefoundinOntario,Canada,Dr.Fellconfirmsthepresenceof OldWorldtradersintheSt.LawrenceRiver/GreatLakesRegion longbeforethenationofIsraeleverexisted!TifinagandOgam arebothOldWorldalphabets.IfancientOldWorldcivilizations tradedwiththeinhabitantsofNorthAmerica,couldthe mercantilePhoenicianshavebeenfarbehind? Dr.FelldocumentstheexistenceofancientPhoenician inscriptionsatasiteknownasMysteryHillinNewHampshire. Heobservesthatcarbonanalysespointtoperiodsofoccupation oftheMysteryHillsiteextendingbacktothesecondmillennium B.C.28 OneofthechambersatMysteryHillwasdedicatedto thePhoeniciangodBaal,29 andancientinscriptionsatthissite indicatethatitwasinhabitedand/orfrequentedbyancientCelts, IberiansandPhoeniciansfromtheOldWorldovermany 30 centuries. Thereisagreatdealmorematerialaboutboththis siteandthePhoenicianpresenceintheOldWorld,buttheywill bemoreappropriatelyaddressedinchapterstwoandthree.In thepresentcontextofDavidsmassiveaccumulationofcopper oresfortheJerusalemTempleproject,sufficeittosaythatitis clearlyevidentthattheOldWorldtradedwiththeNewWorldin theAmerican/CanadianGreatLakesregionduring(andlong before)thereignofKingDavid,andthatDavidsallies,the Phoenicians,wereincludedinthatregionsinternational commerce.ThereisevidencethatsomeofDavidscopperore stockpilescamefromthePhoeniciansNorthAmericantrading routes.ThefollowingiscitedfromDr.Fellsbook,BronzeAge America: Therearealsoquiteindependent...reasons forthinkingthatancientEuropeanvoyagers cametoAmerica.Theyconcerntheminingof metals.Forthepasttwentyyearsleading miningengineersanduniversitymetallurgists
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havebeenseekingfromarchaeologistsan explanationofamostbafflingmysteryinthe historyofminingtechnology.Sofarno answerhasbeenfound.Aroundthenorthern shoreofLakeSuperior,andontheadjacent IsleRoyale,thereareapproximately5,000 ancientcoppermineworkings.In1953and 1956ProfessorRoyDrierledtwoMichigan MiningandTechnologyexpeditionstothe sites.Charcoalfoundatthebasesofthe ancientminingpitsyieldedradiocarbondates indicatingthatthemineshadbeenoperated between2000B.C.and1000B.C....Themost conservativeestimatesbymining engineersshowthatatleast500million poundsofmetalliccopperwereremoved overthattimespan,andthereisno evidenceastowhatbecameofit.31 (Emphasisadded.) Thedateof1000B.C.ismostsignificant.TheEncyclopaedia Britannicastates,concerningKingDavidsreign,thatitusedto bereckonedfrom10551015B.C.,butitisnowgenerallyfixed atabout1010970B.C.32 HarpersBibleDictionarycitesDavids reignasbeingfromca.1010to970B.C.33 Sincethedate1000 B.C.coincideswithDavidsreignoverIsrael,itisverylikelythat partofthisLakeSuperiorcopperwasusedtosatisfyDavids voraciousappetiteforrawmaterialstobededicatedfortemple purposes.KingDavidandIsraelwerelikelythebiggest customersintheworldforcopperandmanyotherrawmaterials atthattime.Solomonsbuildingprojectseventuallywentfar beyondanythingDavidhimselfenvisioned,sothedemandupon availableworldsourcesofrawmaterialsintheirreignsmust
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havebeenimmenseindeed!Withthisinmind,itissignificant thattheseancientLakeSuperiorcoppermineswere apparentlyworkedtoexhaustionduringthereignofKing David,preciselythetimeframeinwhichDavidwasstock pilingcopperoresbeyondcalculationforthe constructionoftheTempleforGod!SincetheNorth AmericancoppermineshadbeenknowntotheOldWorldfor centuriesbeforeDavidlived,andsincethereisevidencethat PhoenicianshipscalledatancientNorthAmericanports,the meanstotransportLakeSuperiorcopperorestoKingDavidof Israeldidexist. Theobservationthatthereisnoevidenceastowhatbecameof it(meaningthereisnoevidencethatthisancientNorth AmericancopperwasusedinancientNorthAmerica)cannowbe answeredfromtheBible.TheBibledeclaresthatancientIsrael, underKingDavid,wasmassivelystockpilingcopperoresaround 1000B.C.SecularsourceshaveconfirmedtheNorthAmerican copperminesranoutoforearound1000B.C.Theconnection betweenthetwoisobvious:muchoftheancientNorthAmerican copperwasshippedtoancientIsraelandusedinthe constructionoftheTempleforGodinIsrael.Considerthe followingquotationabouttheseancientNorthAmericancopper mines,alsofromDr.Fellsbook,BronzeAgeAmerica: Archaeologistshavemaintainedthatthere wasnoBronzeAgeinNorthernAmericaand thatnocontactswiththeoutsideworld occurred.Ontheotherhandthemineralogists findthemselvesobligedtotakeadifferent view:itisimpossible,theyargue,forsolarge aquantityofmetaltohavevanishedthrough wearandtear.Andsincenolargenumbersof copperartifactshavebeenrecoveredfrom
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Americanarchaeologicalsites,theyconclude thatthemissingmetalmayhavebeen shippedoverseas.34 ItmustberememberedthatthePhoenicianshadtheprimary maritimeshippingfleetatthetime,andKingDavidwasclosely alliedtothePhoenicians.Giventhesefacts,KingDavidandthe Israeliteswouldhavereceivedpreferentialallocationofwhatever wasbeingshippedinPhoenicianships. CorroboratingevidenceisfoundinthefactthatancientIsrael wasamajoruserofcopperoresatthetime.Suchevidenceis foundintheremainsofthesmeltingfacilitiesatEzionGeber(in southernIsrael),termed: thebiggestsmeltinginstallationsinthe ancientEast...consistingofaregular ultramodernfurnacewithasystemofair channels,chimneyflues,andopeningsfor specificpurposes.35 Concerningtheexcavationofthesesamesmeltingfacilitiesin ancientIsrael,WernerKeller,inhisbookTheBibleasHistory, statesthefollowing: ...remainsofanextensivesettlementwere excavated.Themostinterestingthingswere castingmouldsandavastquantityofcopper slag...Inthemiddleofasquarewalled enclosureanextensivebuildingcameinto view.Thegreendiscolourationonthewalls leftnodoubtastothepurposeofthe building:itwasablastfurnace.Themud brickwallshadtworowsofopenings.They wereflues:askillfulsystemofairpassages wasincludedintheconstruction.Thewhole
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thingwasaproperuptodateblast furnace,builtinaccordancewitha principlethatcelebrateditsresurrection inmodernindustryacenturyagoasthe Bessemersystem.Fluesandchimneysboth layalonganorthtosouthaxis.Forthe incessantwindsandstormsfromtheWadiel Arabahhadtotakeovertheroleof bellows.36 (Emphasisadded.) WernerKelleralsonotesthefollowing: NowhereelseintheFertileCrescent,neither inBabyloniaorEgypt,wassuchagreat furnacetobefound...EzionGeberwasthe PittsburghofoldPalestine.37 WernerKellerdatesthisgreatancientblastfurnacetowithin theperiodofSolomonsreign,after1000B.C.38 WhileSolomon (whosebuildingprojectsdwarfedthoseofDavid)surelyutilized thisblastfurnacecomplextoagreaterextentthanDavid,the reignofDavidincludestheperiodof1000970B.C.Thisblast furnacewasprobablybeguninthereignofKingDavidtosmelt andprocesstheironandcopperoresintoinstrumentsfor SolomonsuseinbuildingtheTempleofGod. DuetoancientIsraelsmasteryoftheBessemersystem,itwas likelyoneofthemostindustriallyadvancedcivilizationsofthe ancientworld.SinceIsraelhadamassivesmeltingfacility (around1000B.C.)toprocessthecopperorewhichcouldeasily bebroughtbythePhoeniciansfromtheNewWorld,theevidence isstrongthatitwasIsraelsdemandforrawmaterialswhich exhaustedtheancientcoppermines(around1000B.C.)inthe LakeSuperiorregionofNorthAmerica.Indeed,thesymmetry betweenbiblicalrecordsandseculararcheologicaldiscoveriesis
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profound,conveyinggreatcredibilityontheBiblesoverall accuracy! MostpeoplehavemistakenlyassumedthatancientIsraelwasa weak,agrariankingdom.Whileitwasakeyagriculturalpower,it hasnotbeengenerallyrealizedthat,underKingsDavidand Solomon,itbecamethemostadvancedindustrialpowerofthat time.ArchaeologicalevidencethatancientIsraelhadthelargest oresmeltingfacilityintheFertileCrescentfurtherconfirmsthe conclusionofthisbookthatKingDavidskingdomofIsraelwas thedominantancientsuperpowerofthetime.Whenone considersthenationalstrengthsoftheIsraelites,itishardto imaginetheirbeinganythingelse! Tobeginwith,theywereselfsufficientinfood,andwereamajor foodexporter.Theyhadahugelandforcewhichhaddefeated theAssyrianEmpire,asindicatedintheBibleandattestedtoby historicalrecordsthattheAssyrianEmpirewas,indeed,defeated andweakduringthereignsofKingDavidandSolomon.Israel wasalliedtotheworldsmostpowerfulnavalandmaritime power,thePhoenicians.Israelwasalsoincontrolofthe importantsurfacecommerceroutesbetweenAfrica,Asiaand EuropewhichintersectedintheMideast.Theirpossessionofthe largestsmeltingfacilityofthetimealsoindicatestheir commercialandmilitarydominance.Withthelargestore smeltingcapacity,theycouldmakemoretradegoodsand weaponrythananyoneelse. NeartheendofDavidsreign,Davidssonsbegantoconspire andcompetefortherighttosucceedDavidasKingofIsrael,and thenationsleadershipandthearmedforcesweredividedonthe issue.Infact,Solomonwascrownedkingevenashishalf brotherAdonijahwasplottingtohavehimselfcrownedkingwith thecooperationofJoab,thearmycommander,andAbiatharthe priest.Nathantheprophet,Zadokthepriest,andBenaiah,the
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headofDavidspersonalbodyguards,remainedloyaltoSolomon (IKings1:546). SoonafterSolomoncametopower,hehadAdonijahandJoab executedandAbiatharthepriestbanishedfromhisoffice(I Kings2:1334).Inbothcases,theexecutionerwasBenaiah,the captainofDavidsbodyguards.KingDaviddiedsoonafter Solomonscoronation.AsignificantcommentaryismadeinI Kings1:35abouttheeventsthatgavethecrowntoSolomon.At theendofDavidsreign,hesaidofSolomon:Ihaveappointed himtoberuleroverIsraelandJudah.(Emphasisadded.) Thiscommentindicatesthateventhoughtheunitedtribesof IsraelrosetonationalgreatnessunderKingDavid,Israel(the northerntentribes)andJudah(JudahandthetribeofBenjamin) werestillregardedasseparateentitieswhohadconsentedto followoneking.ThiscommentrevealsthattheunionofIsrael andJudahremainedtenuous,heldtogetheronlyby(A)their loyaltytoKingsDavidandSolomonand(B)theirmutualfearof God.Theirunionlastedonlyaslongasthesekingsledthenation inobeyingGodandhislaws.ThecohesionofIsraelandJudah ceasedsoonafterSolomondied. Thereisaclearlessonforallnations,ancientandmodern,inthe historyofIsraelandJudah.Whilenationalgreatnessisadirect resultofobediencetoGodandhislaws,nationaldeclineisa directresultofdisobediencetoGod.Thedeclinemaybegradual, butitisalsoinexorable. LetusnowreturntothetransitionfromtheruleofKingDavidto theruleofKingSolomon.AsSolomonbecameking,other nationssawDavidssonkillinghisownhalfbrotherandhis fathersarmycommanderaspartofhisinitialacts.Seeingthis, theyhadreasontobelievethatSolomonwasgoingtobelikehis militaristicfather,eventhoughSolomonprovedtobeapeaceful ruler.
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WhileothernationslikelyanticipatedthatSolomonwouldtryto makeanameforhimselfthroughconquestashisfatherdid, Solomonemergedasabuilderandascientist.However,itdid nothurtthesecurityofhispositionthathecametopower cloakedinDavidsbloodymantleandfearedreputation. Thisbringstoanendthe40yearruleofKingDavid(IKings 2:11).DavidunitedIsraelintoacohesiveunit,and(withGods favor)transformeditintoanancientsuperpower.Thisinitial chaptersetsthestagefortheremainingchaptersofthisbook, andclearlyshowsthattheancientIsraeliteswerenotanobscure peopleintheancientworld,asmanyhaveassumed.Atthetime ofDavidsdeath,theywerethedominantpoweronearth,with hugemilitaryresources,lordshipovermanyvassalnations,an advancedindustrialtechnology,controlofbothoverlandand maritimetraderoutes,andaclosealliancewiththedominant maritimepowerofthattime.Thesefactshadtobeestablished earlyinthisbooksothereadercouldrealizethatthehistorical narrativesoftheBibledescribetheinteractionsofthegreat powersoftheancientworld,notinsignificanteventswhich impactedonlyafewpeopleinancientPalestine. LetusnowexaminethetrulyspectacularreignofKingSolomon.

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Endnotes:ChapterOne 1. GeorgeRawlinson,Phoenicia,pp.155164 2. Ibid,pp.95,154 3. Moscati,AnIntroductionToTheComparativeGrammarOf TheSemiticLanguages,pp.710 4. Rawlinson,Phoenicia,p.24(citingRenan,Histoiredes LanguagesSemitiques,pp.189190) 5. Ibid,pp.327328 6. Ibid,p.23 7. Ibid,pp.56,89 8. Ibid,p.91 9. Ibid,p.91 10.Hitti,ShortHistoryoftheNearEast,p.28 11.ColliersEncyclopedia,Vol.2,BabyloniaandAssyria,p.637 12.Halley,HalleysBibleHandbook,p.134 13.Ragozin,Assyria,pp.4656 14.Ibid,p.60 15.EncyclopediaAmericana,Vol.2Assyria,p.536 16.Ibid,p.537 17.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.2,BabyloniaandAssyria,p. 849 18.Ibid,Vol.2,Arameans,p.213 19.HarpersBibleDictionary,seeAram,p.43 20.Moscati,AnIntroductionToTheComparativeGrammarOf TheSemiticLanguages,pp.7,10 21.HarpersBibleDictionary,seeAramaic,p.43 22.EncyclopediaAmericana,Vol.2,Assyria,p.537 23.Ragozin,Assyria,p.147 24.Ibid,p.147 25.HarpersBibleDictionary,CherethitesandPelethites,pp. 161and768 26.Fell,BronzeAgeAmerica,pp.3649 27.Ibid,p.37
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28.Fell,AmericaB.C.,p.85 29.Ibid,p.90 30.Ibid,pp.8192 31.Fell,BronzeAgeAmerica,p.261 32.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.7,David,p.75 33.HarpersBibleDictionary,David,p.208 34.Fell,BronzeAgeAmerica,p.261 35.vonDaniken,ChariotsoftheGods,pp.6162 36.Keller,TheBibleAsHistory,pp.199202 37.Ibid,pp.202203 38.Ibid,p.203

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2.KingSolomonandtheGoldenAgeofIsrael AsSolomonbecameking,hecouldscarcelyhavecometothe throneundermorefavorablecircumstances.Themilitarysecurity ofthenationwasunchallenged,andthenationwaspeacefuland prosperous.IKings4:2026describesitasfollows: JudahandIsraelwereasmanyasthesandby theseatheyateanddrankandwerehappy. Solomonruledoverallthekingdomsfromthe EuphratestothelandofthePhilistinesandto theborderofEgypttheybroughttributeand servedSolomonallthedaysofhislife...Forhe haddominionoveralltheregionwestofthe EuphratesFromTiphsahtoGazaandhehad peaceonallsidesroundabouthim.And JudahandIsraeldweltinsafety,fromDan eventoBeersheba...Solomonalsohadforty thousandstallsofhorsesforhischariots,and twelvethousandhorsemen.(RSV) ThisaccountpicturesthetribesofIsraelasnumerous, prosperousandsecurefrommilitarythreats.However,itslisting ofJudahandIsraelasdistinctentitieswithinthekingdom confirmsthatthetribesofIsraelwerestilldividedintothesetwo groupings,eventhoughtheybothacknowledgedSolomonas theirking. TheareadirectlyruledbySolomonextendedfromtheEuphrates RivertoEgypt.HarpersBibleDictionarycommentsthat Tiphsah....isprobablymodernDibsehonthewestbankofthe Euphratesriver1 ThiswouldplaceSolomonsnorthernborder (onamodernmap)intheregionwhereNorthernSyriaborders SouthernTurkey.ThestatementthatSolomonruledallthe regionwestoftheEuphratesconfirmsthatthe Syrian/Aramaeankings(conqueredbyKingDavid)inthatregion
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remainedsubordinatevassalstoKingSolomon.SinceDavidhad alsoconqueredSyrian(Aramaeans)wholivedeastofthe Euphrates(IChronicles19:1619),itispossiblethatKing SolomonalsohadAramaeanvassalseastoftheEuphratesRiver aswell. Inchapterone,thelikelyIsraeliteroleinthesubjugationof AssyriaduringthereignsofKingsDavidandSolomonwasnoted. SecularhistoryrecordsthatAramaeansfromthewestinvaded Mesopotamiaatthattimehowever,theAramaeanswerevassals ofKingsDavidandSolomon.MuchofMesopotamiawouldhave beenunderIsraelitehegemonyunderSolomonsruleasAssyria waseclipsedbyIsraelitepowerduringthereignsofKingDavid andSolomon.Assyriaemergedfromobscurityonlyafterthe IsraeliteCivilWarwhichsplitIsraelandJudahintowarring nationsandsappedtheirpower.ThefactthatAssyriawasunable toreassertitselfuntilaftertheIsraeliteCivilWarfurtherattests thatitwasIsraelitepowerwhichkeptAssyriaweakduringthe reignofSolomon. TheBiblealsoadds,hehadpeaceonallsidesroundabout him.ThisfurtherconfirmsAssyriasweaknessduringSolomons reign,andthatitwasinnoconditiontochallengeSolomon militarily.Also,therewaslikelyaneconomicreasonwhyAssyria wasthenunderIsraelitedominance.KingSolomonsIsrael controlledthecriticaloverlandtraderoutesbetweenAfrica,Asia andEuropewhichmetintheMideast.Solomonwasalsoclosely alliedwiththePhoenicians,whohadavirtualmonopolyover manyofmaritimetraderoutes.IfAssyria(oranyothernation) becamehostiletoIsrael,theywouldhavequicklybeenfrozen outofmuchofthemercantiletrafficoftheancientworld. Therefore,Israelspeacefulprosperityduringthereignof Solomonresultedfromeconomicadvantagesaswellassheer militarystrength.
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TheabovepassagerecordedthatSolomonsmilitarystrength included40,000stallsofhorsesforhischariotsand12,000 horsemen.TheBibleindicatesneitherhowmanyhorseswere allocatedforeachchariotnorhowmanyhorseswere accommodatedineachstall.Therefore,itisimpossibleto calculatethenumberofSolomonschariots.However,itisclear thathischariotforcenumberedinthethousandsortensof thousands.The12,000horsemenishardlythenumberof soldiersavailabletoSolomonashisfatherKingDavidcould muster1,370,000warriors(IISamuel24:19)whenallreserves weremobilized.The12,000horsemenwereeitherastanding armyforceoradetachmentofcavalrywhichwasassignedtothe chariotforces. IKings3:514indicatesthatSolomonbeganhisreignwitha humbleheart,andachildlikedesiretoobeyandpleaseGod.God himselfappearedtohiminadreamandsaid,askwhatIshall giveyou.Mostpeoplewouldrequestwealthorpower.Since Solomonwasaking,hecouldconceivablyhaveaskedtorule theworldthroughgreatconquests.ItisindicativeofSolomons excellentattitudethatheaskedthefollowing: Thouhastshowngreatandsteadfastloveto thyservantDavidmyfather,becausehe walkedbeforetheeinfaithfulness,in righteousness,andinuprightnessofheart towardthee...Andnow,0LordmyGod,thou hastmadethyservantkinginplaceofDavid myfather,althoughIambutalittlechildI donotknowhowtogooutorcomein.And thyservantisinthemidstofthypeople whomthouhastchosen,agreatpeople,that cannotbenumberedorcountedformultitude. Givethyservantthereforeanunderstanding
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hearttogovernthypeople,thatImaydiscern betweengoodandevilforwhoisableto governthisthygreatpeople? Whatabeautifulattitude!Conquests,wealthandpersonal greatnesswerenotprioritiesforhim.Godwassopleasedthat Solomonhadputthewelfareofhissubjectsbeforepersonal aggrandizementthathepronouncedthefollowingblessingon Solomoninverses1113: AndGodsaidtohim,Becauseyouhave askedthis,andhavenotaskedforyourself longlifeorrichesorthelifeofyourenemies, buthaveaskedforyourselfunderstandingto discernwhatisright,beholdInowdo accordingtoyourword.Behold,Igiveyoua wiseanddiscerningmind,sothatnonelike youhasbeenbeforeyouandnonelike youshallariseafteryou.Igiveyoualso whatyouhavenotasked,bothrichesand honor,sothatnootherkingshallcompare withyou,allyourdays. Asweshallsee,GodkeptthesepromisestoKingSolomon,in waysourmodernworldhasnotappreciatedorgrasped!Itis important,attheoutsetofthischapter,topointoutthatGod essentiallypromisedtomakeSolomonthewisest,mostbrilliant humanbeingtoeverwalktheearthandtobethegreatestking ontheplanetduringhislifetime!Itisevenmoreimportantto understandthatSolomonreceivedthisawesomepromise becauseofhisexcellentattitudetowardGod.Solomons legendarywisdomwasadirectgiftfromGod,notaresultof favorablegenetics.GodsreactiontoSolomonsrequestwas consistentwithGodsNewTestamentinstructioninMatthew 6:33thatpeopleshouldseekfirstthekingdomofGodandhis
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righteousnessandallthesethings[materialblessings]shallbe addeduntoyou.Solomonmaderighteousnesshistoppriority, andGodaddedmaterialblessingsasadirectresult.This illustrationisanexampleofthecontinuityofGodsresponsesto mankindinboththeOldandNewTestaments. Withthisintroduction,letusexaminehowGodfulfilledthis promisetoSolomon,andwhathappenedtoSolomonafterhe receivedthesegifts. Facedwithnoseriousmilitarythreats,Solomoncouldturnthe boundlesswealthofthenationintofinancingpeacetimepursuits. HisprincipalprojectwastheconstructionoftheTempleforGod, forwhichDavidhadstockpiledimmensewealthandmaterial. Thiswassuchavastprojectthatittooksevenyearstocomplete (IKings6:3738). AssoonasKingHiramofTyreheardthatDavidwasdead,he hastenedtosendambassadorstoSolomontoensurethathe stayedinthegoodgracesofIsraelsnewmonarch(IKings5:1). Solomonwaseagertocontinuethecloserelationshipbetween IsraelandthecitystatesofPhoenicia.ThefactthatHiram initiatedthisactiontostayinfavorablerelationswithIsrael confirmsthatIsraelspowerwassuperiortothatofPhoenicia,as alesserpowerwilltypicallyseekfavorwithagreaterpowerto protectitsinterests. KingsSolomonandHirampooledtheirnationalresourcesonthe TempleconstructionprojectforwhichDavidhadstockpiledso manymaterials.Infact,theTempleconstructionprojectledto intimatecooperationbetweenIsraelandthePhoeniciancity statesasarmiesofworkmenfromeachcountryworkedinthe othersterritory.TheaccountoftheIsraelitePhoenicianlabors ontheprojectisfoundinIKings5:218. ThisprojectwassolargethatSolomoninstitutedapeacetime drafttogeneratesufficientmanpowertodothenecessarywork.
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Thisdraftresultedin30,000Israelites(dividedintothree monthlyshifts)workinginPhoeniciasterritoryonaregular basis.Solomonalsohad150,000conscriptswhoworkedfor 3,300Israeliteofficers.Thattheselaborersarenumbered separatelyfromthe30,000Israeliteworkersandthe3,600 Israeliteofficersindicatesthattheselaborerswerenon Israelites.IIChronicles8:79confirmsthisconclusionasitlists nonIsraelitenationswhichwererequiredtocontributelaborers forSolomonsprojects,andverse9addsthatSolomondidnot conscriptIsraelitesasinvoluntaryworkersforhisprojects.Itis apparentthatIsraelitesperformedworkinPhoenicia,butthat nonIsraeliteswereconscriptedtoserveinanevenlargerlabor force. TheabovearrangementindicatesthatthesmallPhoeniciancity stateshadnoreadyreservesofmanpowertodevotetosucha largeprojectasthebuildingoftheTempleofGod.Solomonhad toexportIsraeliteworkerstoPhoeniciainordertohave sufficientworkersinPhoeniciatocutthetimbersrequiredforthe Temple.ThesmallpopulationofthePhoeniciancitystatesand themuchlargerpopulationofIsraelwillbecomeanimportant factorwhenwelaterexaminethescopeandnatureofthe Phoenicianempire. SincetheTempleprojecttook7yearstocomplete,andthe periodofconscriptlaborlastedonlythreemonths,itseems apparentthatmanythousandsofIsraeliteshadachancetowork onthisprojectastheytookturnsrotatingthroughthethree monthsofrequirednationalserviceontheTempleproject.In institutingashortperiodofconscriptlaborforIsraelitecitizens, SolomonmadecertainthatallthetribesofIsraelequallyshared theburdensofthisgargantuanpublicworksproject. TheTempleprojectservedasaunifyingforcetocementthe alliancebetweenIsraelstribesandthePhoeniciancitystates.I
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Kings5:6and18recordthatIsraelitesroutinelyworkedin Phoenicianterritory,andthatPhoeniciansfromTyre(King Hiramsservants),SidonandGebal(seeRSV)workedsideby sidewiththeIsraelites.Massiveraftswerebuilttofloatthecedar timberstoIsraelviatheMediterraneanSea,andartisansof PhoeniciaworkedsidebysidewithIsraelitesattheTemplesite inJerusalem.Thisextraordinarilycloseworkingrelationshipwas greatlyfacilitatedbythetwonationssharingbothacommon racialandlinguisticheritage(aswasdocumentedinchapter one).Thisabilitytoquicklyintegratethelaborforcesofboth nationsconfirmsthattherewereminimallinguisticdifferences betweentheIsraelitesandthePhoenicians. WhiletheTempleitselfwasthefocalpointofthismutual constructioneffort,manyauxiliarybuildings(treasurebuildings, granariesfortheLevites,livestockholdingpensforsacrificial offerings,residentialareasforthepriests,etc.)were undoubtedlybuilttosupporttheTempleactivities.Afterthe Templecomplexwasfinished,thisjointIsraelitePhoenicianlabor forceworkedanotherthirteenyearstocompleteSolomons personalpalace(IKings7:1,IIChronicles8:1).IIChronicles8:2 recordsthatHiramcededanumberofPhoeniciancitiestoKing Solomon,andthatSolomonsettledIsraelitesinthem.The permanentsettlementofIsraelitesinPhoeniciancitiesfurther accomplishedtheinterminglingoftheIsraelitesandPhoenicians. Alsobuiltwerestoragecities,militarycities,fortificationsand otherprojectsthroughoutIsrael,Lebanonandtheotherlands ruledbyIsrael,andevenaseparatepalaceforSolomonsfirst wife,adaughterofEgyptsPharaoh(IKings7:112,II Chronicles8:16). SinceallthetribesofIsraelandthevariousPhoeniciancity statesworkedtogetherfordecadesonSolomonsimmense buildingprojects,theseprojectswouldhaveunitedtheIsraelites
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andPhoenicians,forallintentsandpurposes,intoasingleentity. Culturalandlinguisticdifferenceswouldbecomelessnoticeable astheylivedandworkedinsuchcloseassociationwithone anotherfortwentyyears.Whilecertaindifferencesincultureand dialectwouldremain,membersofothernationswouldhavehad increaseddifficultyindistinguishingbetweenthetwopeoples. Thiswillbecomeanimportantfactorwhenweexaminethe secularrecordsaboutthePhoenicians. Solomonhadotherconcurrentinterestsbesidesbuilding projects.IKings4:2933records: GodgaveSolomongreatwisdomand understanding,andamindwithbroad interests.Infact,hiswisdomexcelledthatof anyofthewisemenoftheEast,including thoseofEgypt.Hewaswiserthan...[other versionsaddallmen]...andhewasfamous amongallthesurroundingnations.Hewas theauthorof3000proverbsandwrote1,005 songs.Hewasagreatnaturalist,withinterest inanimals,birds,snakes,fish,andtrees fromthegreatcedarsofLebanontothetiny hyssopwhichgrowsincracksinthewall.And kingsfrommanylandssenttheir ambassadorstohimforhisadvice. [TheLivingBible] Solomon,asaresultofGodsdivinegiftofwisdom,excelledin manyfields!Hewasaruler,abuilder,anauthorandsongwriter, andanaturalistwhowantedtostudyallformsoffloraand fauna.TheartsflourishedunderSolomon,whobuiltgardens, hadallmannerofgoldandsilvertreasuresfrommanynations, andactedasapatronforthebestsingersandmusicianshe couldfind(Ecclesiastes2:410).Hewassorich,andhadso
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muchfreetime,thatheliterallycouldaffordtodoitall.His insatiablescientificcuriosityledhimtocollecttreasures,art works,singers,musicians,plants,animals,etc.Thezoos, museumsandculturalactivitiesofhisreignmusthavebeen incredible.ItwastrulythegoldenageoftheIsraelites. TheLivingBibleaccountcaptures,inmodernterms,thefactthat Solomonbecameascientificnaturalistwithaninterestin studying(examining,collecting,cataloguing)allformsofanimal andplantlife.However,ithastwoshortcomings.TheKingJames andRevisedStandardVersionsoftheBiblestatethatSolomon waswiserthanallmenandallothermen,respectively.They alsostatethatSolomonwasvisitedbyrepresentativesofall kingsoftheearth.TheLivingBibleislimitedinitsdescriptionof Solomonspreeminentwisdomandworldwidefame,perhapsa reflectionofamodernapologistapproachtowardtheBibles claims.Whenweexamineevidencefromsecularaccounts,we shallseethattheBibledidnotresorttoexaggeration,butwas writingtheliteralfactsaboutSolomonsreign. ProjectsasvastinscopeasSolomonscouldnotgounnoticedin eithertheMideastorthemoredistantnationsoftheearth.Small wonderhisfamespreadrapidly.Hewasinclosealliancewiththe Phoeniciancitystateswhosemaritimefleetscarriednewsof Solomonsprojectsandactivitieswherevertheysailed.Evenas theIsraeliteandPhoenicianpopulationsweremeldedonland duetothevastbuildingprojectsofSolomon,theyalsocoalesced intooneunitatsea.IKings9:2627states: KingSolomonbuiltafleetofshipsinEzion geber,whichisbesideElothontheshoreof theRedSea,inthelandofEdom.AndHiram sentwiththefleethisservants,seamenwho werefamiliarwiththesea,togetherwiththe servantsofSolomon.
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Solomonwasnotcontenttobealandpoweralonehewantedto makeIsraelamajormaritimeforceintheworldaswell.Note thatthisfleetwasbasedontheRedSeanearEziongeber,atthe preciselocationofthelargeoresmeltingfacilitydescribedin chapterone.Naturally,inordertoimporttheoresinsufficient quantitytokeeptheblastfurnacesoperating,itmadesenseto basealargefleetatthesiteoftheindustrialactivity.Itis possiblethatSolomonsfleetsailedaroundAfricasCapeofGood HopetoreachtheAtlanticOcean(andthecopperminesofNorth Americadescribedinchapterone)however,thereisamore likelyalternative. ModernmankindhailedtheconstructionoftheSuezCanalasa majorengineeringachievement,andsoitwas.However,ancient civilizationshadalsolinkedtheMediterraneanandRedSeasvia awaterrouteonseveraloccasions.SesostrisIII,ofancient Egypt,iscreditedwithconnectingtheNileRiverSea,creatinga 2 searoutebetweentheMediterraneanandRedSeas. ThePersian Emperor,DariustheGreat,intheyears521486B.C.,iscredited withbuildingaNileRedSeawaterwayanticipatingtheSuez Canal.3 RegardingtheancientEgyptianwaterway,ithasbeen 4 datedtoapproximately1380B.C. Indeed,theEncyclopaedia Britannicastatesthatthechannelofthiscanalisstilltraceable inpartsoftheWadiTumilat,anditsdirectionwasfrequently followedbytheengineersofthefreshwatercanal5 (i.e.the moderncanal).Indeed,effortstoreopenormaintainthisancient waterwayareattributedtothePtolemyDynastyofEgyptinthe thirdcenturyB.C.,theRomanEmperorTrajan(ca.100A.D.), 6 andtheMoslemrulersofEgyptintheseventhcenturyA.D. SincetheEgyptianshadestablishedawaterwaylinkfromthe RedSeatotheMediterraneanSeabeforetheruleofKing Solomon,itislikelythatSolomonsIsraelitefleetutilizedthe EgyptianwaterwaytolinkEziongeberwiththeMediterranean SeaandtheAtlanticOcean.
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SinceKingHiramsPhoenicianssailedwiththeIsraelitesand taughtthemmaritimenavigationalskills,theIsraelitenavy wouldquicklyhavegainedtheskillsofthePhoeniciannavy. SincetheBiblerecordsthePhoeniciansandIsraelitesjointly crewedtheIsraeliteships,itisalsolikelythatIsraelitesserved onthePhoenicianshipsaswell(IIChronicles9:21indicatesthe naviesofthenationshadcommingledcrews).SolomonsRed Seafleetcould,ofcourse,easilytradewithAfricaandAsiavia theIndianOcean.AstheIsraelitesandPhoenicianscontinuedto joinforcesonbothlandandsea,theybecame,forallintentsand purposes,avirtualconfederationunderSolomonsleadership. BeforeexaminingwherethejointPhoenician/Israelitenavy sailed,oneimportanteventofthattimemustbementioned.The PharaohofEgyptjoinedtheIsraelite/Phoenicianalliance,making thisallianceevenmoreofasuperpowerintheancientworld.I Kings3:1notesthatSolomonsfirstwifewasadaughterofthe EgyptianPharaoh.Marriageamongtheroyaltyofancientnations wasastandardmeansofcementinganalliance.IKings9:16 addsthatPharaohsenthisarmytoconqueracityandpresentit toSolomonasagift(probablyadowryforhisdaughters marriagetoSolomon).Solomon,thetirelessbuilder,rebuiltthe cityalloveragain(IKings9:17).WithSolomoninaclose alliancewithKingHiramofTyre,andwithEgyptsPharaohnow Solomonsfatherinlaw,Israel,PhoeniciaandEgyptbecamea tripartiteallianceunderSolomonsleadership. Thisallianceismadeallthemoreunderstandablebysecular historieswhichrecordthattheEgyptianswereregularrivalsof theMesopotamianpowerswhichIsraelhaddefeated.Egypts attitudewasbasically:anyenemyoftheAssyriansisafriendof ours.This,plusthefactthattheEgyptiansandthePhoenicians 7 werehistoricallyonfriendlyterms, madeforanaturalalliance amongthethreepowers.Egyptalsohadasignificantmaritime
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capacity,usingdescendantsofthelightskinned,ancientsea 8 peopleswhosettledinancientLibyaastheirnavyssailors. HavingestablishedthatIsrael,PhoeniciaandEgyptcompriseda jointallianceunderSolomonsdirection,wecannowexamine wherethefleetsofthesethreenationssailed,exploredand colonizedduringSolomonspeacefulreign.Asweshallsee, Solomonsrulelikelyconstitutedthegreatestgoldenageinthe ancientworld! WhileitiswellknownthatthePhoenicianstradedthroughoutthe MediterraneanaswellasintotheAtlanticOceantowestern 9 SpainandthetinminesoftheancientBritishIsles, ithasonly recentlybeenconfirmedthatPhoeniciancontactsand colonizationeffortsextendedtotheNewWorldaswell.The remarkablediscoveriesoftheextensivePhoeniciancontactsin theNewWorldaredetailedbythelateDr.BarryFellinhisbook AmericaB.C.Whilethisworkwillcitepertinentportionsofthat book,theentirebookisrecommendedtoreaderswithadditional interestinthissubjectmatter.Dr.Fellwasaprofessoremeritus ofHarvardUniversity,aninternationallyrenownedexperton ancientlanguages,andthefounderoftheNationalEpigraphic Society. Dr.FellcitedevidencethatthePhoenicianshadaregularport ofcalloffthecoastofMainewhereanancientinscriptionwas foundwhichwascoeval[contemporaneous]withPhoenician inscriptions.HetranslatedthisinscriptionasShipsof Phoenicia,CargoPlatform,10 andadded: itisobviousthattheflattoppedrockyislet wouldnothavebeensetasidefortheloading andunloadingofPhoenicianshipswerethey notregularvisitorstoAmericawitha predictabletimetableofportsofarrivaland departureatexpecteddates.11
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Hefurtheradded: theseinscriptions,therefore,suggestthat organizedinternationalmaritimecommerce waswellestablishedinthelateBronzeAge, thatNorthAmericanportswerelistedonthe sailingtimetablesoftheoverseasvesselsof theprincipalPhoenicianshippingcompanies, andthatthesameinformationwascirculated tocustomersinAmerica.12 AsubstantialcolonyofSemiticpeoplewasplantedinAmericaby thePhoeniciansasremainsoftheirpresencehavebeenfoundin NewEnglandandotherpartsofAmerica,withalargetemple observatorysitelocatedatwhathasbeenknownasMysteryHill 13 inNorthSalem,NewHampshire. Thissitecovered 14 approximatelytwentyacres, andincludedshrinesdedicatedto 15 thePhoenician/CanaanitegodBaal. Atemplesiteoftwenty acresgivesusaclearindicationthatthePhoenicianshadamajor presenceintheNewWorld.Dr.Felldatedinscriptionsatthis 16 templeofBaaltoapproximately800600B.C. ,although radiocarbondatingofcharcoalsamplesfromthissiteshowitto havebeeninhabitedbacktothesecondmillenniumB.C.17 Suchdatesareentirelyconsistentwithbiblicalaccountsofthe Israelite/Phoenicians.SinceKingsDavidandSolomonwere worshippersofGodwhentheydominatedthePhoeniciansduring thetenthcenturyB.C.,onewouldnotexpecttoseepagan templesdeveloponthesiteuntilwellaftertheirreign.Adating of800600B.C.includesthetimewhentheBiblestatesBaal worshipwaswidespreadinbothIsraelandthePhoeniciancity states.Itislogicalthatthesamepaganreligionwouldbe dominantintheircontemporarycolonies. Unfortunately,muchphysicaldamagewasdonetothisancient templesiteinNewEnglandbeforeitwasrealizedtobea
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pricelessarcheologicalsiteconfirmingthepresenceofOldWorld civilizationsintheNewWorld.Thisancientsitewascomposedof stoneslabchambersandassociatedhengestones18 for determiningthetimesofspringandwintersolstices.Thesestone structuresweresubstantiallydismantledduringthe1800s,and thestoneswerereusedtobuildwalls,damsandbridgesinNew England.Indeed,duringtheyears18231848alone,about40 ofthestonestructuresweredestroyedordamagedseverelyby buildingcontractors.19 Dr.Fellobserved,concerningwallsbuilt withstonesfromthisancientsite,thattheiroriginaluseasan ancienttemplesitewasabundantlyattestedbythenumberof templededicationswehavesincefoundin[these]stone walls.20 ThatancientOldWorldSemiticcivilizationsbuiltalarge templeobservatorycomplexinancientAmericaindicatesthat theywerecolonizing,notmerelyexploring,ancientAmerica. Radiocarbondatingtestsshowingthisfacilitywasinuseduring nd the2 millenniumB.C.confirmsthatthisSemiticcolonywas presentinNorthAmericaatthetimeKingDavidwasimporting prodigiousamountsofcopperoreforthebuildingofGods Temple.ThepresenceofalargeSemiticsettlementinNorth AmericaduringKingDavidsreignconfirmsthelikelihoodthat KingDavidsIsrael(withitshugecoppersmeltingfacilityat Eziongeber)wastheconsigneeforthemanymillionsofpounds ofcopperoreswhichvanishedfromtheancientLakeSuperior coppermines. TheshipsofTarshish(referredtoinEzekiel27:25andJonah 1:3)werealsoregularcallersintheNewWorld,andinscriptions andtabletsoftheirinvolvementincolonizingancientAmerica 21 waspreservedinRhodeIsland,Ohio,andWestVirginia. This identificationisdependentonTarshishbeingthesameas ancientTartessusontheIberianPeninsulaofancientEurope. FellnotesthattheTartessianinscriptionsinancientAmericaare adialectalvariantofPhoenician,22 confirmingthattheseearly
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AmericanvisitorswerealsoSemitesfromtheMediterranean area. Thereadermightjustifiablybewonderingatthispoint,giventhe extensiveevidenceofOldWorldcivilizationsinancientAmerica, whyAmericashistorybookshaventbeenupdatedwiththisnew information.Thereasonis,unfortunately,thatthemodern academicestablishmentisinastateofdenialregardingthese discoveriesbecausetheyareuncomfortablewiththesefacts. Dr.Fellnotedthatsomearchaeologistshavetriedtodismiss clearlyreadableancientAmericaninscriptionsasaccidental markingsmadebyplowsharesandrootsoftrees...(and)... colonialstonecuttingdrills.23 AncientAmericandolmens (megalithicmonumentsconsistingofalargeslabstone positionedatopsmallersupportingstones)whichparallelOld Worlddolmenshavebeenlabeledasglacialerratics24 toavoid facingtheobviousevidenceofOldWorldtiestoancientAmerica. Itismostunfortunatethatmembersofmodernacademiahave gonetosuchfancifulextremestomaintaintheirstateofdenial regardingtheevidenceofOldWorldcivilizationsinancient America.ThetrulyexcitingstoryofancientAmericashistoryhas beenwithheldfromtheAmericanpublic. Unfortunately,theconceptthatColumbusdiscoveredAmericain 1492hasbecomesuchacherisheddogmathatitappearsto demandanalmostsuperstitiousdevotionbymodernacademics. Columbuswasaverybravemariner,buthewasclearlypreceded byotherdiscoverersandcolonistsfromtheOldWorldwho arrivedandsettledthousandsofyearspriorhisarrival. Columbusvoyagewasacourageouseffortwhichreestablished linkstotheNewWorldaftertheDarkAges,butitisnowknown thatsuchlinkscommonlyexistedpriortohisvoyage. Sofar,wehavediscussedonlythePhoenicianinscriptionsand presenceintheNewWorld.Asnotedearlier,theancient
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EgyptianswerealsoalliesofKingSolomonduringhisreign.Their navieswerealsoskilledinoceanicnavigation,utilizingthe SemiticinhabitantsofancientLibyaastheirmariners.The ancientEgyptian/LibyanfleetssailedacrosstheIndianOcean andsentexplorationandminingexpeditionsintothePacific 25 Ocean.TheEgyptiansminedgoldinSumatra, andrecordsof theirPacificexplorationsarefoundasfarastheHawaiian 26 Islands. ItisalsonotedthattheEgyptiansroamedtheIndian andPacificOceansforgoldabout1000B.C.27 Thedateabout 1000B.C.issignificantasthatisthetimeframewhentheunited kingdomofIsrael,underKingsDavidandSolomon,movedto worldprominence,withthePhoeniciansandEgyptiansservingas Solomonsallies.ThattheEgyptianfleetwouldbesearchinga largeportionoftheworldforgoldduringatimewhichincluded thereignofKingSolomonwillbecomemostsignificantwhenwe examine(laterinthischapter)KingSolomonsvirtuallyinsatiable appetiteforgold! Sofar,wehaveonlyscratchedthesurfaceofthesubjectof ancientcivilizationsbeingpresentinNorthAmerica.Letus examineanotheraspectoftheirpresenceintheancientNew World. Considerthelanguagesofthetripartitealliancespokenofbythe historicalwritersoftheBible.Theirlanguagesincludedthe SemiticlanguagesharedbytheIsraelitesandPhoenicians(with dialectaldifferences),Egyptian,andthelanguageoftheNorth African/LibyansailorsoftheEgyptiannavy.Letusnowexamine evidencethatNorthAmericawasbothwidelyexploredand colonizedbypeoplespeakingPhoenician/Hebrew,Egyptian,and ancientLibyan. Dr.FellsbookAmericaB.C.includesmuchevidenceofthe explorationofAmericansoilbyancientpeoplewiththeabove languagegroups.Wehavealreadyexaminedevidencefromhis
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bookthatthePhoenicianshadasignificantpresenceinNorth America,andthatthePhoeniciangodBaalwasworshippedatan ancienttemplesiteinNewHampshire.Rawlinsoncitedthehabit ofthePhoeniciansinbringingtheirreligionwherevertheywent, 28 andbuildingtemplesintheircoloniestohonortheirdeities, so theexistenceofatemplededicatedtoBaalattheancientNew Englandtemplesiteisconsistentwiththeirhabits. Apparently,ancientexplorationsandsettlementswere concentratedonthemajorinlandwaterwaysofAmerica,as muchoftheevidenceoftheirpresencehasbeenfoundinsuch locales.Amajorarcheologicalfind,asteleinscribedwithancient OldWorldlanguages,wasfoundin1874nearDavenport,Iowa. Unfortunately,thisNewWorldequivalentoftheRosettaStone waslargelyignoredbecausenoonecouldreadit.Also,thefalse dogmathatnoOldWorldexplorerspriortoColumbuscouldhave beenonourcontinentaffectedpeoplesperceptions.Ifithad beendiscoveredinEurope,itwouldsurelyhavebeenrecognized forwhatitwas:atrilingualarcheologicalsteleofancient cultures.SinceitwasfoundinIowaoftheUnitedStates,ithad towaitapproximatelyacenturytobeunderstood.Interestingly, oneofthereasonsthestelewasinitiallyrejectedwasthatit containedsomesignsresemblingHebrewandothersresembling Phoenician.29 Thisancientstelecontainsjointinscriptionsinthreeancient Languages:IberianPunic(alanguagerelatedtoanddescended 30 fromPhoenicianandHebrew),Egyptian,andancientLibyan. Thesearethelanguagegroupsofthetripartitealliance whichtheBiblerevealsbeganinthereignofSolomon! Sincetheancientlowansteleshowsthesegroupswere travelingandworkingtogetherasfarfromtheMideastas theinteriorofNorthAmericaindicatesthatthisalliance clearlydidhavetheinternationalpowerandimpactthe
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Bibleattributestoit. Indeed,Dr.Felldescribedthissteleasoneofthemost importantsteleseverdiscovered.31 Whythen,isthispriceless evidenceofancientexplorationsinNorthAmericanotproclaimed intextbookseverywhere?Again,weareconfrontedbythefact thatmodernacademiahasanalmostsuperstitiousattachmentto thefalsedogmathatnobodycouldhavediscoveredAmerica beforeColumbus.Thisdogmahasbeenbelievedsolongthatall evidenceofOldWorldexplorationsandcolonizationspriorto Columbusisconvenientlylostinthedenialmechanismsofthe moderneducationalsystem. ThestelefoundinIowademonstratesthatthelanguagegroups ofKingSolomonsalliancewere,indeed,workingtogetherinthe NewWorld,andthattheirexplorationsreacheddeepintoancient Americanterritory.Unlessitwasawellestablishedpracticefor thenationswiththeselanguagegroupstobeworkingtogether, therewouldhavebeennoneedforparallelinscriptionsonthe samestonecarving.Dr.Felldatesthissteleasfollows: Thedateisunlikelytobeearlierthanabout 800B.C.,forwedonotknowofIberianor Libyaninscriptionsearlierthanthatdate.The Egyptiantext...maymerelybealocal Americancopyofsomeoriginal.Thatoriginal couldbeasoldasabout1400B.C.,tojudge bythewritingstyle...itseemsclearthat IberianandPunicspeakerswerelivinginIowa th inthe9 centuryB.C....32 Thisbroaddatingisconsistentwithbiblicalinformation,and confirmsbiblicalaccountsoftheperiod.Thattheselanguage groupswereactinginsuchcloseconcertwitheachotherthat theyleftatrilingualinscriptioninapproximately800900B.C. indicatesthattheyhadbeencooperatingtogetherfora
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considerableperiodoftime.AstheBiblereveals,anallianceof theselinguisticgroupswasestablishedunderKingSolomon duringthetenthcenturyB.C.ThetermsIberianandPunic indicatelanguageswhicharecloselyrelatedtoanddescended fromthePhoenician/HebrewlanguageofKingHiramsandKing Solomonsnavies.Indeed,thetermIberiancomesfromthe nameEber,theforefatheroftheHebrews.ThetermIberian proclaimsHebrewroots.Dr.Fellspecificallynotedthe 33 PhoeniciancharacteroftheIberianinscriptions. Ifthe EgyptiantextonthestelewasacopyfromanearlierEgyptian originaldatingasearlyas1400B.C.,wearewellwithinthe periodoftimewhentheBiblestatesthatEgyptjoineditselfto theIsraelite/Phoenicianalliance(thetenthcenturyB.C.). Itmustalsoberealizedthatin800B.C.,thekingdomsofIsrael andJudahwerebothstillinexistence.Aswewillnoteinthenext chapter,thePhoenician/Israeliteshadextensivesettlementsin theIberianPeninsula(modernSpainandPortugal),andthisNew Worldstelemayhavebeenmadebyexplorer/colonistswhoset forthfromtheseIberiansettlements.Indeed,adateof800B.C. forthissteleindicatestheancienttripartiteallianceofIsrael, PhoeniciaandEgyptlastedwellbeyondthelifetimeofKing Solomon.TheBiblerevealsthatIsraelforsookworshippingthe CreatorGodafterSolomonsdeathandadoptedthereligious customsofothernations,particularlythePhoeniciansand Egyptians.IKings16:2931showsIsraelandPhoeniciawere closelyalliedduringthereignofKingAhabofIsrael(circa850 B.C.),andthereisnoevidencethattheiralliancesuffereda breachuntilapproximately721B.C.whenIsraelceasedtobea nationintheMideast.Also,afterIsraelandJudahsplitintotwo separateHebrewkingdoms,Egyptdidfightperiodicwarswith Judah,butthereisnomentionthatEgyptandIsraelfoughtany warsduringthattime.Therefore,theIowastelethatthese ancientnationswerestillworkingtogetheraround800B.C.in
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theNewWorldisconsistentwithbiblicalaccounts. Thisancientlowansteledoesnotreflectanyworshipofthetrue Godbutratherdepictsanddescribesapagansunworship ceremonyinvolvinghumansacrifice.Thissupportsthe contentionthatthesteledoesnotdatefromthereignofKing Solomon(whenGodwashonored),butdatesfromamorerecent period(suchas850B.C.)whenthesenationswereallunitedin paganpractices.AstheBiblemakesclear,theIsraelitesof850 B.C.weresteepedintheworshipofBaalandpaganpractices. Dr.Fellalsowrotethatthisancientstele,alongwithother associatedartifacts,wasfoundinanlowanmoundburial34 ThatthismoundburialfromtheninthcenturyB.C.confirms thepresenceofSemitesinancientAmerica,begsthefollowing question:HowmanyotherburialmoundsinancientNorth AmericawereplacedtherebyOldWorldcultures? AnothersteleexhibitinganancientEgyptoLibyanscriptwas foundonLongIsland,NewYork.Thisinscription,accordingto Dr.Fell,probablydatesfromabouttheninthcenturyB.C.35 In hisdiscussionoftheinscriptionsfoundontheDavenportand LongIslandsteles,Dr.Fellnotesclearsimilaritiesbetweenthe writtenscriptoftheMicmac/AlgonquinIndiansandthatof ancientEgypt.36 Someofhisanalysisindicatesthatthe EgyptianscontinuedtradingwithancientAmericaninhabitants longafterthekingdomofIsraelfelltotheAssyrians. Additionally,anotherstelewasunearthedinOklahomawith referencetothePhoenicianandEgyptiangodsofBaalandRa, withaninscriptiondescribedasanextractfromtheHymntothe AtonbyPharaohAkhnaton[which]...datesfromthethirteenth 37 centuryB.C. ThissteleiswritteninIberianPunic(relatedto Hebrew/Phoenician),andisdatedbyFellasscarcelyolderthan 800B.C.38 ThisstelealsosupportstheBiblicalaccountof Israelite/Phoenician/Egyptiancooperation,andfurtherindicates
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thatthiscooperationsurvivedlongafterthedeathofSolomon. Furtherevidenceofancientinternationalcommercialcontactsis foundinthediscoveryofcopperingotsinancientburialmounds 39 inOhio,WestVirginia,IndianaandKentucky. Thesametypeof copperingots(shapedlikefourlimbedanimalhides)arealso foundinOldWorldarcheologicalsitesaswell,indicatingthat theyservedasaacceptableformofancientcurrencyonboth sidesoftheAtlanticOcean. Sofar,wehaveseenclearevidencethatBaalworshipping Hebrew/PhoenicianswereinancientAmerica,butwhatabout worshippersofthetrueGodofIsrael?Onemajorbarrierto findingrelicsofworshippersofGod(Yahweh)isthatsuch worshipperswereforbiddenbyGodtobuildelaboratealtars.In Exodus20:2426,GodcommandedtheIsraelitestomakeplain altarsofearthornaturalstoneswhichhadnotbeenshapedby anytools,andaddedthataltarsnotbeplacedattheheadof staircases.Theseinstructionseffectivelyeliminatedthekindof manmadereligiousstructureswhichthepagansbuilt(andwhich canbeunearthedbyarcheologiststoday).Therecouldhavebeen manyworshippersofYahwehinancientAmericaatthetimethat IsraelservedGodunderKingSolomon,andtherewouldbeno recordofthemiftheyfollowedGodsinstructionsonaltar building.Also,Exodus20:23recordsthatGodforbadethe makingofgodsofgoldandsilver,andthesecondoftheTen Commandmentsforbidsthemanufactureofanygravenimage aspartofreligiousworship.Thisfurthereliminatesthetypesof artifacts(idols)whichpaganworshipperscommonly manufactured.Godlikelygavetheseinstructionssopeople wouldkeeptheirmindsfocusedonGodandhislaws,andnoton physicalstructures. However,thereisevidencethatworshippersofYahweh,theGod ofIsrael,werepresentinancientAmerica.NearAlbuquerque,
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NewMexicothereareancientHebrewinscriptions(calledtheLos Lunasinscriptions)whichrecordonstonetheExodus20version oftheTenCommandments.Dr.Fellnotedthattheinscription, writteninancientHebrewlettersofthestyleoftheMoabStone, about1000B.C.,wasnottranslateduntil1949.40 Adatingof 1000B.C.wouldplacethisinscriptionduringthereignsofKings DavidandSolomonoftheunitedkingdomofIsrael,whenIsrael was,indeed,servingtheGodoftheBible.ThefamousMoabite Stone,referredtoabove,wasfoundintheMideastandrefersto warsbetweenIsraelandMoabintheninthcenturyB.C.,during thetimeoftheseparatekingdomsofIsraelandJudah. Additionally,GeorgeMorehouse,ageologistwhostudiedthis ancientHebrewDecalogueinscriptionestimatedtheinscriptionto be5002000yearsold,basedontheweatheredpatinaofthe 41 rock. However,accuratelydatingtheinscriptiononthebasisof weatherizationwasmadeverydifficultbythefactthatthe inscriptionswereapparentlyreceivingannualscrubbingsbya troopofwellmeaningBoyScouts,anditcouldbedetermined thatatoolsuchasawirebrushhadalsobeenusedinthe 42 scrubbingsoftheinscriptions. TocomplicatefurtherthedatingofthisancientHebrew inscriptionisthestatementthatthepunctuation[ofthe inscription]matchedthatofancientGreekmanuscripts,suchas 43 theCodexSinaiticusofthefourthcenturyA.D. Thereare severalobviousquestionswhichimpededatingthisancient Hebrewinscription:(A)Whiletheinscriptionhasreceivedrecent scrubbingswipingawayevidenceofaging,itisalsopossiblethat othersuchscrubbingsoccurredduringitsancienthistory(sinceit wasanimportantsitetoworshippersofGod,theywouldseekto maintaintheinscriptionsinacleansedconditionforaslongas theywereawareofit),and(B)theinscriptionhasthewriting styleofHebrewwhichdatesbacktothereignofSolomon,but haspunctuationwhichindicatesadateintheearlyChristianera.
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Dr.Fellsdiscussionofthepunctuationstatesthatseparation pointslikethoseinthisinscriptiondateasearlyas1200B.C., butthattheoldestknownrecordofsomepunctuationmarks (caretstodenoteaninsertiontocorrectanomission)datetothe 44 CodexSinaiticusofthefourthcenturyA.D. Thisdoesnotdate theHebrewinscriptiontothefourthcenturyA.D.,perse,butis ratheranexampleoftheoldestknownoccurrenceofasimilar punctuationmark.Howlongsuchpunctuationwasusedpriorto thefourthcenturyA.D.isnotknown. Inviewoftheabove,anexactdatingofthisancientAmerican stelecannotbestatedwithcertainty,butitpredatesthearrival ofColumbusbyatleastathousandyears,andmaywellbeas oldasthereignofSolomon.Onefactorsupportingadatingof thisHebrewinscriptiontotheapproximatetimeofSolomonisa considerationofeconomicandlogisticrealitiesintheancient world.Transoceanicexpeditionsandcolonizationeffortsinthe ancientworldrequiredaverylargecommitmentofmonetaryand humanresources.Thesourceofauthorizationforsuchan expenditureofmoneyandresourceswouldgenerallyhavetobe thekingofawealthynation.Amodelforthisfactisthe EuropeancolonizationeffortswhichbeganwhenColumbus rediscoveredAmericain1492.TheEuropeancolonization effortsrequiredthebackingandapprovalofnationalmonarchsin ordertooccuratall.Eventhoselargecompanieswhichhada presenceintheNewWorld(forexample,theHudsonsBay Company)conductedtheireffortsonlywiththesupportand approvalofareigningmonarch.Thosewhowouldarguefora morerecentdatefortheLosLunasinscriptionsareconfronted withthismajorproblem:WhatOldWorldnationinthefourth centuryA.D.wouldsupportandfundexplorationand/or colonizationeffortsintheNewWorldwhichwouldleavebehind classicalHebrewinscriptions?SincetherewerenoHebrew nationsintheOldWorldinthefourthcenturyA.D.,sucha
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proposallacksthesupportofanylogicalhistoricalcontextforits occurrence. ItseemsapparentthattheLosLunasHebrewinscriptioncould haveoccurredonlywiththebackingandsupportofawealthy HebrewspeakingnationsuchasancientIsraeloftheBible (datingtheinscriptionto1000720B.C.)However,sincetheLos LunasinscriptionindicatesthemakersweredevotedtotheGod oftheTenCommandments,wearelimitedtothosekingsof Israelwhocouldhavefundedinternationalexpeditionsduring thenationsperiodofloyaltytoGod.Thisrequirementlimitsthe prospectivedatingoftheLosLunasinscriptiontothereignsof KingsDavidandSolomon.ThekingsofIsraelwhichfollowed DavidandSolomonwere,almostwithoutexception,apostates whoservedBaalandotheridolatrousgods.Undersuchkings, anysailingfleetswouldhaveleftinscriptionsconfirmingtheir devotiontoidolatrousgods(asintheinscriptionsonthe trilingual,Davenportartifact).ThekingsofJudah(which surviveduntilabout576B.C.)hadseveralrighteouskingswhose followersservedGod,butJudahwasasmallnationwithfew resourcestofundandmountsuchexpeditions.Judahhadafew interludesofnationalpowerandgreatness,butthereisno recordthatJudahwaseveranavalpower.IKings22:4849and IIChronicles20:3637recordthatrighteousKingJehoshaphat triedtobuildafleetforJudah,butGodhimselfintervenedto stopJudahfrombecominganavalpower.Therefore,theonly logicalhistoricalcontextforthemakingoftheLosLunas inscriptionswouldseemtobeduringthereignsofeitherKings DavidorSolomon. SinceKingDavidwasawarriorwithlittletimefor(andno apparentinterestin)scientificendeavors,thereignofKing Solomonistheonlylogicalmilieuforanyexpeditionsor colonizationeffortswhichwouldhavehadsailorsorcolonists
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carvinginscriptionsproclaimingaloyaltytotheGodoftheBible. Also,KingSolomonsinsatiablescientificcuriosity,which includedthedesiretolearnaboutthefloraandfaunaofforeign lands(seeIKings4:2933,10:22),wouldhavecausedhimtobe willingandeagertofundsuchinternationalexpeditions.IKings 10:22recordsthatSolomonhadafleetwhichreturnedtoIsrael onlyaftervoyageslastingthreeyears.Avoyageofthreeyears virtuallymandatesthatthiswasafleetdevotedtoworld exploration.Thatitreturnedwithsamplesofwildlifesuchas apesandpeacocksarguesthatthisfleetmadestopsin(at least)thecontinentsofAfricaandAsiaduringitsextended voyages.AlthoughthetimeofKingSolomonisthemostlogical historicalcontextforthemakingoftheLosLunasinscriptions, thereisoneother(lesslikely)option.ItispossiblethattheLos LunasinscriptionsweremadebyIsraelite,Hebrewspeaking followersoftheGodofIsraelwhowererefugeesfromthe persecutionofthevariousBaalworshippingkingsofeitherIsrael orJudah.Whilethispossibilitywouldallowforamorerecent datingoftheNewMexicoinscriptions,thispossibilitywouldstill requireadatingnomorerecentthanthesixthcenturyB.C.The salientconclusionabouttheLosLunasinscriptionsisthat whatevertheirage,theyconfirmthepresenceinancientAmerica ofHebrewspeakingIsraeliteswhoworshippedthetrueGod approximatelytwomillenniapriortothevoyageofColumbus. Thisconclusionapparentlybotherssomepeoplesomuchthat theywillresorttounsavorymeasurestodiscreditthisscientific conclusion.Inwhatwasanapparentattempttodiscreditthe validityoftheancientHebrewtranslationoftheLosLunas inscriptions,aseriesofartifactswerediscoveredintheregion oftheLosLunasinscriptionsandcertainindividualsassertedthat thesenewartifactsindicatedthattheLosLunasinscriptions wereGreek(notHebrew)andmadebyaGreekexilewhowas presentintheNewWorldaround500B.C.Ina1986courttrial,
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itwasconclusivelydemonstratedbyexpertepigraphers/linguists thattheseotherartifactswerehoaxeswhichwereshownto haveactuallybeenmadesince1979.45 Itseemsevidentthatsomeonewassoalarmedaboutevidence thatIsraeliteswereinancientAmericathatahoaxwas concoctedtotrytodiscredittheevidence.Itissadthatsome peoplearesoafraidofthetruthabouttheancientworldthat theywillresorttosuchmeasurestoobscureit.Paradoxically, whilethehoaxersattemptedtodiscredittheevidencethat IsraeliteswerepresentinancientAmerica,theendresultofthe attemptedhoaxwasthatthecourttrialactuallyaffirmedthe evidencethatIsraeliteswerepresentinancientAmericaby demonstratingconclusivelythattheLosLunasinscriptionsarea recordoftheTenCommandmentsinancientHebrew. AdditionalevidenceofancientworshippersofthetrueGodin AmericahasbeennotedonaDecalogueTablet(astonetablet havinganancientHebrewinscriptionoftheTen Commandments)whichwasunearthedinOhioin1860.Besides havinganinscriptionoftheTenCommandmentsonit,thetablet includesthedepictionofanindividualmeanttorepresentMoses [which]hasbeencarvedinconsiderabledetailonthefrontof thetablet...[and]ahandleatthebottomofthetablet,which mayhavebeenconstructedtoaccommodateastrap.46 The presenceofahandleonthistabletindicatesthatitservedasa portableobjectwhichcouldaccompanyworshippersofGodas theyweretravelinginancientAmerica. ThisDecalogueTabletwasfoundasgravegoodsburiedwitha bodyinanearthenmound.ThataportabletabletwiththeTen CommandmentsinancientHebrewwasfoundinagrave indicatesthatthepersonburiedinthemoundmayhavebeenan ancientleviticalpriestwhowaspresentwithIsraeliteexplorers orcolonistsinancientAmerica.Ithasbeennotedthatthe
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Hebrewinscriptionalsohassomecharacteristicsoftheold Phoenicianalphabets.47 Whileoneanalystofthistabletnotes, thequestionofthetabletsactualageisimpossibleto accuratelyascertainatthistime,48 healsoaddsthatthe discoveryofthistablet(andmanyotherancientartifactsfound onAmericansoil)means:Thetimeframeofcontinental explorationissuddenlyretreatingto1000B.C.orearlier.49 (Emphasisadded.) Atimeframeof1000B.C.againcoincideswiththeageof IsraelitegreatnessunderKingsDavidandSolomon,andsince Solomonsreignwasaperiodofgeneralpeace,itismorelikely thatsuchexplorationstookplaceunderKingSolomon.Sincethe tabletsinscriptionsareoftheTenCommandments(indicatinga fealtytotheGodofIsraelbywhoevermadethemound),it arguesthatthisburiallikelytookplaceinKingSolomonsreign, astheIsraelitesquicklyforsooktheworshipofGodafter Solomonsdeath.Furthermore,theinscriptionsinclusionof characteristicsoftheoldPhoenicianalphabetsarguesforan earlierdateforitsinscriptionratherthanamorerecentdating whenfewIsraelitesservedtheGodofIsrael.However,the possibilityexiststhatsomeIsraelitesintheNewWorldretained theirloyaltytoGodlongaftertheIsraelitesintheOldWorld abandonedthelawsofGod.NewWorldIsraelitescouldhave retainedlinguistictraitsfromearlierperiodsforagreaterlength oftimesincetheywereremotefromtheirOldWorldmotherland andwouldhavebeenlessaffectedbylinguisticchanges occurringintheOldWorld. AdditionalevidenceofaHebrewpresenceinancientNew England(intheareaofthe20acretemplesitediscussed earlier)isseenintheresidualpresenceofhundredsof Semitic/HebrewrootwordsinthelanguagesoftheEastern 50 AlgonquinIndians.
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Whateverthedatingoftheaboveartifacts,suchdiscoveries providesolidarchaeologicalsupporttotheBiblesassertionthat theancientIsraelitessponsoredwiderangingfleetsandwere onethemajornationsoftheancientworld.SincetheTen CommandmentsinancientHebrewhavebeenfoundinbothOhio andNewMexico(locationsquitedistantfromoneanother),it indicatesthatancientIsraeliteexplorationsand/orcolonizations oftheNewWorldwerewidespread.Thisconclusionis disconcertingtoestablishmentspokespersonswhoclingto theirdogmathatColumbusdiscoveredAmericain1492no matterhowvoluminoustheevidencebecomesthatnotonlythe IsraelitesbutmanyotherOldWorldnationssentexplorersor coloniststotheNewWorld.Asthisbookprogresses,the evidenceofancientartifactsinNorthAmericawillbecomeboth morevoluminousandconvincing. HundredsofinscribedPhoenician,Celtiberian,andBasquestone gravemarkers,datedto800600B.C.,havebeenfoundinthe 51 SusquehannaValleyofPennsylvania. Theseartifactshadbeen 52 identifiedasPhoeniciandecadespriortoDr.Fellsresearch, but suchassertionsweregenerallydisregardedbyaskepticaland closemindedarchaeologicalandhistoricalcommunity.A Phoenicianfigurine,alsodatedto800600B.C.,wasunearthed 53 inoneoftheancientAmericanburialmounds. TheEgyptianpresenceintheNewWorldhasbeenfoundinthe writingsystemoftheWabanaki/MicmacIndians(anAlgonquin 54 tribe)ofMaine ,inanancienttabletfoundonLongIslandin 55 NewYork ,andontheIowastelementionedearlierinthis chapter.Also,thereaderisurgedtorecalltheinformation presentedearlierinthischapterthattheancientEgyptians exploredHawaiiandthePacificregionsoftheearthasthey roamedtheIndianandPacificOceansforgoldabout1000 B.C.56 (Emphasisadded.)Thedateofabout1000B.C.
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parallelsthegoldenageoftheIsraelitesEmpiredaysunder KingsDavidandSolomonwhentheBiblestatesthatEgyptwas alliedtoKingSolomonsIsraelites. AninscriptioninancientOgamandLibyan(thelanguageof Egyptiansailors)wasfoundalongtheRioGrandeRiverofTexas whichindicatesanEgyptian/LibyankingnamedShishonqvisited 57 NorthAmericainancienttimes. Theancientinscriptionis renderedasAcrewofShishonqtheKingtookshelterinthis placeofconcealment,andDr.Fellscommentaryonthe inscriptionstates: severalkingsofthisnameruledLibyaand Egyptbetween1000800B.C.,anerawhen NorthAfricanvoyagersbegantoexplorethe NewWorld.58 TheexplorationofNorthAmericain1000800B.C.byexplorers fromtheMediterraneancoastsofNorthAfricaisquitesignificant. ThatistheperiodofIsraelsdominanceintheMediterranean, whichbeganunderKingsDavidandKingSolomonaround1000 B.C.WhetherthisinscriptiondatestothereignofKingSolomon ornot,itfurtherconfirmsthatnauticaltravelbetweenthe MediterraneanSeaandNorthAmericadidtakeplaceinancient times.ThephraseCrewofShishonqtheKingmayindicatethat thekinghimselfwasonthevoyage.Obviously,monarchswould notlikelyhavecometotheNewWorldunlessitwasconsidered safetoleavetheirhomekingdom.Aperiodofpeacefulstability, asduringKingSolomonsreign,wouldhavebeenanidealtime forsuchjourneys.Also,theBiblerecordsthatmanymonarchs undertookinternationalvisitsduringthereignofSolomon(II Chronicles9:2324). Dr.Fellcitedtheworkofanotherepigrapher,GloriaFarley,who madenotablefindsofancientinscriptionsleftbyLibyans,Celts andPhoenicianswhoascendedtheMississippi,Arkansasand
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CimarronRivers.59 Theevidencealreadypresentedinthis chapterisconvincingthattheMediterraneancivilizations, beginninginthetimeofKingSolomon(andafterwards),were presentnotonlyinancientNorthAmericabutalsointhelandsof theIndianandPacificOceans. WhenSolomonbuiltafleetatEziongeberontheRedSea(I Kings9:2627),hewasabletosendhisfleetseastwardtoward theIndianOceanaswellaswestwardtowardtheAtlanticOcean andNorthAmericathroughEgyptscanaltotheMediterranean Sea.Indoingso,hewasbuildingonthepreviousnautical experiencenotonlyofhisPhoenicianallies,butalsothatofhis newallyEgypt.However,suchmutualexplorationsprobably reachedtheirzenithduringthereignofSolomonduetoone obviouscircumstance.UnderSolomon,alltheMediterranean powersofanyconsequencewerealliedtogetherandtheirnatural enemy(Assyria)hadbeentakenoutbyKingDavidinhis militaryconfrontationwithAssyriaandtheMesopotamian powers.Withgreatjointpowerandnoformidableenemiesto challengethem,Israel/PhoeniciaandEgyptcoulddevotetheir resourcestopeacefulpursuitssuchasworldwideexplorationand colonization.Aswehaveseen,thisispreciselywhatoccurred. ItisalsosignificantthatDr.Fellnotedthetimeperiodof1000 800B.C.asmarkingtheonsetofsignificantOldWorld explorationoftheNewWorld.Thistimeframeparallelsthe periodwhereintheBiblestatestherewasagreatdealof internationaltravelandcommercewithevenmonarchscoming fromaroundtheworldtovisitSolomoninJerusalem!Thistime frameexactlyparallelsthebeginningofthegoldenageofthe Israelites,andincludesmuchofthetimewhenthekingdomof Israelwasamajorpower.Theconclusionisinescapable:The recordofancienthistoryverifiesthebiblicalaccounts.TheBible isnotadetailedhistoryofallthathappenedintheancientworld,
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butitdoesparallelwhatarchaeologyandepigraphyhavenow shownabouttherealstateofactivitiesintheancientworld. Manyhistoricalaccountsconfirmthatthebeginningofthefirst millenniumB.C.markedagoldenageforPhoenicia.Onesource states: Phoeniciantradeonaninternationalscalein textiles,metalwork,pottery,glass,timber, wheatandwinegavethecountrythree centuries beginningaround1000B.C. ofprosperityunmatchedinitshistory.60 (Emphasisadded.) HistoricalevidencethatPhoeniciasgreatnessbeganaround 1000B.C.iscriticallyimportantsinceitcoincidespreciselywith theperiodduringwhichKingHiramofTyrealliedhispeopleto IsraelsrisingpowerunderKingDavid.SincetheIsraeliteswere ofacommonrace,languageandreligion(formuchofthetime) withthePhoenicians,theIsraeliteroleinPhoeniciasgolden agehasnotbeenrecognized!Infact,itwasIsraelsgolden agerubbingoffonthePhoeniciancitystates.Israelwas thedominantpartnerintheiralliance,andthe PhoeniciansservedasjuniorpartnersofIsrael!This conclusionissupportedbythefactsthatPhoeniciasgoldenage didnotstartuntilitallieditselftoIsrael,andthatPhoenicia revertedtominorpowerstatusassoonastheIsraelitenation wanedandfell.Israelwasthedrivingforcebehindthe Phoeniciangoldenage,notthesmallcitystatesofPhoenicia thatwereunableeithertocreateorsustainanygoldenageof internationalpowerapartfromtheiralliancetoIsrael. Atthisjuncture,severalobservationsmustbemadeaboutthe termPhoenicia.Thisbookhassofarreferredtotheinhabitants ofthecitystatesofTyre,Sidon,etc.asPhoenicians,andtothe inhabitantsofIsraelasIsraelites.However,theterm
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Phoenicia,whenappliedtotheancientworldinthetime frame1000700B.C.,designatesthecombinedallianceof theIsraelitesandthecitystatesledbyTyreandSidon.It mustalsoberealizedthatthepeopleknowntousas Phoeniciansdidnotgivethemselvesthatname.Theterm PhoeniciaisderivedfromaGreekwordwhichtheGreek historiansusedtodescribemanypeoplelivingontheEastern shoresoftheMediterraneanSea.GeorgeRawlinsonwrote: Atfirst,theterm[Phoenicia]wasused[by theGreeks]withagooddealofvagueness,of theSyriancoastgenerallybetweenAsia MinorandEgypt.61 (Emphasisadded.) TheEncyclopediaJudaicastatesthattheGreeknamePhoinike isfirstmentionedbyHomer,62 anditadds: thoughtheexactextentoftheregioncalled Phoeniciacannotbedetermined,thenameis clearlytheGreekequivalentofCanaan.63 TheGreekageofHomerisidentifiedbyHenryHalleyasbeing contemporarywithIsraelsgoldenageunderKingsDavidand 64 Solomon. TheEncyclopaediaBritannicalistsmanyestimated datesforHomersbirth,including1159B.C.,1102B.C.,1044 65 B.C.,and830B.C. TheEncyclopediaAmericanastates:
th Ancienttradition...plac[ed]Homerinthe9 centuryB.C....These[poeticsources]suggest adate,nowwidelyaccepted,inthelasthalf th ofthe8 centuryB.C.66

WhilenooneknowsthedatesofHomerslifetime,allofthe abovesuggesteddatesprecedeorcoincidewiththeperiodof IsraelslongalliancewithTyreandSidon.Thisisimportant becauseifHomeroriginatedthetermPhoenicia,hedidsoata


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timewhenthecitystatesofTyre,Sidon,etc.weresoclosely linkedtotheKingdomofIsraelthattheywerevirtuallyone entityinworldaffairs. ThewordPhoeniciais,therefore,derivedfromaninitialGreek descriptionoftheareaknowntousasthelandofCanaan,with AsiaMinorandEgyptmarkingthenorthernandsouthernlimits oftheareainreference.ThetermPhoeniciawasappliedtothis areaatatimewhenIsraelwasthedominantpowerinthe regiontherefore,theoriginalapplicationofthetermPhoenicia includedIsraelsterritoryaswell.TheEncyclopediaAmericana succinctlycommentsonthisissueasfollows: ThenamePhoenicianswasgivenbythe Greekstotheinhabitantsofthecoastalregion ofpresentdayLebanonandtheadjacent shoresofIsraelandSyriainthefirst millenniumB.C.Noevidenceexiststhat theycalledthemselvesbyanysuch name.67 (Emphasisadded.) ThatalsoexplainswhythetermPhoenicianisabsentfromthe Bible.UnlikemodernhistorytextswhichpreserveaGreek perspective,theBiblewaswrittenfromaHebrewperspective, anditrecordsthenamesbywhichthePhoeniciansreferredto themselves.SuchnamesincludedIsrael,Sidonians, inhabitantsofTyre,andeventhespecificnamesofIsraels largetribalunits. WhenIsraelfell,thetermPhoeniciawasappliedtoamore limitedareaaroundthecitystatesofTyre,Sidon,etc.,thenon IsraeliteremnantofthealliancebeguninthereignsofKings DavidandSolomon.ThetermPhoeniciaremainedonthem, andwasusedbytheGreeksandRomanstodesignatethepeople ofthosecitystatesformanycenturies.Themodernworldhas usedthetermPhoeniciatodescribetheoriginalIsraelite
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alliancewithTyre,Sidon,etc.becauseourhistoricalperspective isbasedonGrecoRomanperceptions. However,duringtheperiodof1000800B.C.,theterm PhoeniciawasappliedtotheallianceofIsraelwiththecity statesofTyre,Sidon,etc.Duringthattime,itisnottechnically correcttosaytheIsraelitesweremerelyalliedtothe PhoeniciansbecauseIsraelitselfwasthedominantmemberof theallianceofSemiticpeopleslivingontheeasternshoresofthe MediterraneanSeawhowerecalledPhoeniciansbytheGreeks. Thatexplainswhyinternationalpowerandinfluence characterizedthePhoeniciansfromapproximately1000700 B.C.(thetimeofitsalliancewiththekingdomofIsrael),and whythetermPhoeniciandescribesapeoplewithseverely reducednumbersandinfluenceafter700B.C.(thetimewhen theIsraeliteslefttheareaandthecitystateswereleftalone). Topreventconfusion,thisbookwillcontinuetorefertothe inhabitantsofthecitystatesasPhoenicians,andtothe inhabitantsofIsraelasIsraelites.Thereadershouldrealize, however,thatinitsoriginalGreekusage,thetermPhoenicia meantbothgroupsofpeople. Accordingtosecularhistory, around1100B.C.,Egyptianwisdomwriting reacheditshighestethicalpoint...[asit]... counselsagainstarrogance,snobbery,ill temper,andoppressingthepoor.[It]... stressescourtesy,deference,contentment, toleranceandkindness...itservedasasource forcertainHebrewProverbs.68 Theproverbsreferredtoare,ofcourse,thoseattributedto SolomonatthebeginningofthefirstmillenniumB.C.,andfound inthebookofProverbsintheBible.WhetherSolomonborrowed
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thesefromtheEgyptiansorwhetheritwasinfacttheotherway aroundisavalidquestion.Thetimedatingofaround1100B.C. issoclosetothereignofSolomonthatthecasecaneasilybe madethattheunusualwisdomoftheEgyptianswaslearned fromSolomon.Theabovevirtuesareallregularlyfoundinthe BibleaselementsofhowGodexpectsustodealwithother people.ItissignificantthatEgyptianwisdomreacheditshighest ethicalpointatthegeneraltimethatEgyptwasalliedtoKing Solomon,thewisestkingwhoeverlived!ThefactthatEgypts PharaohbecameSolomonsfatherinlaw(IKings9:16)also offeredaneasypathwayforSolomonswisdomtoflowtoEgypts elites. Fromtheaboveaccountswefindinternationalpowerattributed tothePhoeniciansandwisdomcharacterizingtheEgyptiansata timetheBiblestatesbothhadalliedthemselveswithKing SolomonofIsrael,whowasexceedinglypowerfulandwise. OtherremarkabledevelopmentsoccurredintheEastern Mediterraneanaround1000B.C.TheEncyclopediaAmericana notesthefollowing: about1000B.C....coastalLebanon [Phoenicia]suddenlydevelopednew typesofpotterybichrome,trichromeandred polishedwarethathadnoprototypesinthe LateBronzeAge.Clearly,aboutthebeginning ofthefirstmillennium,thecultureofthe areaunderwentachangeand acceleration... 69 (Emphasisadded.) Interesting!AttheapproximatetimeofKingSolomonsreign, thetechnicalskillsofthePhoenicianstookagreatleap forward.Whowasitthatcausedthissuddenadvancein technicalskills?TheBibletellsusthatGodgaveSolomonagift ofunprecedentedwisdomandunderstanding(IKings3:12)!I
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Kings10:24addsalltheearthconsultedSolomontohearhis wisdom,whichGodhadputinhisheart.Itisapparentthat Solomonswisdomwasnotlimitedtoethicalandsociological applications.RemembertheIsraeliteinventionoftheBessemer processinalargeblastfurnacecomplex(discussedearlier) whichalsosuddenlydevelopedduringthetimeofIsraels GoldenAge?Godapparentlymadehimageniusinallfields,and hisinventionsandinsightsnotonlycausedhimtobeheldinawe byothernations,butalsorevolutionizedthecultureand commerceoftheday!Thattheabovetechnologiessuddenly developedwithinIsraelandPhoeniciaaround1000B.C. indicatesthepresenceofageniuswhoacceleratedtheir culture.TheBibleopenlytellsusthegeniuswasSolomon. WearenotyetfinishedexaminingSolomonsimpactonthe ancientworld.Anotherlikelyachievementofhisisstillaffecting ustoday.Thatistheinvention,bythePhoenicians,ofthe alphabetusedbymostlanguagesofthewesternworldfromthen untilnow.ConsiderthefollowingobservationofGeorge Rawlinson: theenterpriseofthePhoeniciansintheearly agescarriedwiththemeverywherecivilizing influences.Lettersifnottheiractual invention,receivedattheirhands modificationsandimprovements...andare traceableinthealphabetsofallcivilized nationsatthepresentday.Theycarriedwith themovertheMediterranean,whereverthey wenttheirideaofalphabeticwriting,andtheir peculiaralphabeticforms.InCyprusandin Lyciatheyweremetbyconflictingsystems butthesesystemsgavewaytotheirs.Asia Minor,Greece,Italy,acceptedtheiranalysis
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ofhumanspeech,andthesignsbywhichthey expresseditsfinalelements.Anenormous advancemusteverywherehavefollowedthe introductionofwriting,andthisadvancewas duetothePhoenicians.70 Beforetheinventionofaphoneticalphabetbysomeoneinthe PhoenicianEmpire,mankindusedavarietyofsymbolsto expressconceptsinwrittenform.TheadoptionofthePhoenician symbolsbymuchoftheknownworldillustratestwopoints:(A) thatthenewphoneticalphabetwasmoreefficientandeasierto use,and(B)thatthePhoeniciandominanceoftheknownworld wassogreatthatithadthepowertoenforceitsinventionasthe linguafrancaoftheancientworld.Asthereadernowknows, therealpowerbehindthePhoeniciangoldenagewasIsraels strengthunderKingsDavidandSolomon.Consideralsothe followingcommentfromtheEncyclopaediaBritannica: Thehistoryofourownalphabet,whichhas survivedasanalphabetwith...surprisingly littlechangefornearly3000years demonstratesitssuitabilitytotheneedsof themanylanguagesithasserved....Two questionshavehithertoremained unanswered.HowdidtheGreeksobtainit fromtheSemites?Andwhatwasitspro Semitehistory?Themostimportantfact ignoredbyanytheorythatwouldderivethe GreekandPhoenicianalphabets independently...isthatthenamesofthe letters,asfarastheyhaveaknown etymologyormeaning,areSemitic.Hebrew aleph,both,gimel,daleth,etc. correspondunmistakablywithGreek
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alpha,beta,gamma,delta.71 (Emphasis added.) TheGreekalphabetisderivedfromthealphabetofthe Hebrew/Phoenicians,aSemiticlanguage.Thatitoriginated nearly3,000yearsagodatestheoriginofthisalphabetto around1000B.C.,thetimeofKingSolomonsreign.The EncyclopaediaBritannicaadds: thePhoeniciansrenderedonegreatservice toliteraturetheytookalargeshareinthe developmentanddiffusionofthealphabet whichformsthefoundationofGreek...andof allEuropeanwriting.ThePhoenicianlettersin theirearlierformsarepracticallyidentical withthoseusedbytheHebrews,the Moabites,andtheAramaeansofNorth Syria...72 Itismostsignificantthatintheirearlierforms,thePhoenician, Hebrew,Moabite,andNorthAramaean[Syrian]alphabetsare practicallyidentical.Whenthephoneticalphabetwasinvented inthisregionaround1000B.C.,KingSolomondirectlyruledthe Hebrews,MoabitesandNorthAramaeans,andKingHiramof Tyrewashisloyalvassal.Itwouldbelogicalthatatthetimeof itsimplementation,thealphabetwouldbevirtuallyidenticalin theterritoriesdirectlyruledbytheIsraelitekings.Thephonetic alphabetwasdevelopedanddiffusedbythePhoenicians(the IsraelitealliancewithTyre,Sidon,etc.)duetotheirdominant military,economicandpoliticalpositionintheworldatthattime. AftertheIsraelitesdividedanddissipatedtheirstrengthincivil warsandnationalsins,othernations(suchastheGreeks)were nolongerunderIsraelitedominance,andadaptedtheoriginal Semiticalphabetintotheirownnationalstyles.
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ColliersEncyclopediastates,concerningthealphabets invention: Whereas...othersystemsofwritingare supposedtohavesprungfromseveralcenters indifferentpartsoftheworld,thealphabet seemstohaveoriginatedinasingle regionandtohavespreadfromthere.It appearsinperfectformininscriptionsfrom Phoeniciaoftheendofthesecondorthe beginningofthefirstmillenniumB.C.,and therefore,thealphabetisusuallyregarded asaPhoenicianinvention.73 (Emphasis added.) Again,itisconfirmedthatthealphabetwasinventedby someoneinthePhoenicianempireaboutthetimeofKing Solomonsreign.Whowasthemostinventivepersonofthatera? Solomon!Hisinventionofaneasytouse,phoneticallybased alphabetwouldhavespreadtheuseofthisalphabetwherever thePhoenicianfleetssailedandtraded.TheBibledoesnot addresswhetherSolomoninventedthePhoneticalphabetwhich becamethelinguafrancaoftheancientworld.However,the BiblicalclaimthatSolomonwasinternationallyfamousforhis unprecedentedwisdom(IKings4:2931,)andthatallthe earthsoughttobenefitfromSolomonswisdom(IKings10:24), wouldseemtoeliminatethepossibilitythatanyoneelsebut Solomoncouldhavebeentheinventorofthisalphabet.Indeed, itcouldhavebeenhisinventionofautilitarianalphabetwhich causedmuchofhisinternationalfame. ColliersEncyclopediaalsoaddsthat: theoldestofthewellknowntextsinthe Phoenicianalphabet,datingprobablyfrom theearlytenthcentury,isthefunerary
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inscriptionofKingAhiram.74 (Emphasis added.) KingAhiramwasaPhoenicianKing:couldhebetheveryKing HiramwhoismentionedprominentlyintheBible?Adateof theearlytenthcentury,datesthisinscriptiontothetimeof KingsSolomonandHiram.Colliersaccountstatesthatthis inscriptionwasfoundinByblos(notTyre,whereHiramwas king)however,sincethebiblicalrecordsshowthatKingHiram couldbindtheactivitiesofothercitystates(suchasSidon,I Kings5:16),hewaslikelydominantoverthemallatthattime. Sincehewasadominantkingfromthemostprominent Phoeniciancitystateofthetime,hisdeathcouldhavebeen commemoratedinallthecitystates.TheEncyclopedia AmericanaalsorecordsthatPhoenicianalphabeticwritingdates toabout1000B.C.75 ColliersEncyclopediastatesthat: IntheWest,theGreeksreceivedthe alphabeticalsignsdirectlyfromthe Phoenicians,and,e.g.,Herodotusmention of...(Phoenicianletters)indicatesthatthey wereawareoftheirindebtedness.76 Thisfurtherconfirmsthatotheralphabetsowedtheiroriginto theIsraeliteledalliancewhichwascalledPhoeniciabythe Greeks. Onehistorian,StuartPiggott,notesthatwriting,intheformof theadaptationofthePhoenicianalphabetintoaGreekscript, th th 77 maygobacktothe9 oreven10 century(B.C.) Another historian,DonaldHarden,statesconcerningthePhoenicians: theirhighestandmostenduringmemorial, [was]thealphabet.Thisiswherethey impingemoststronglyonallsubsequent
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civilizationsofOldWorldorigin.AllIndo EuropeanandSemitictonguesindeedall subsequentalphabeticscriptshave employedthemediuminventedbythe Phoeniciansandrapidlyadaptedbymany othernations...includingtheGreeks.78 TheBiblerecordsGodspromisetoAbrahamthatintheeshall allthefamiliesoftheearthbeblessed(Genesis12:3).During thereignofSolomonallnationswere,literally,blessedthrough Abrahamsseed(SolomonandtheIsraelites)byreceivingatime ofworldpeace,thedevelopmentofscientificknowledge,the expansionofinternationalcommerce,andtheinventionofthe alphabet!Godkepthispromise.Manyracesandnationshave beenblessedthroughouthistorybythegreatlyfacilitated communicationsystemwhichwaslikelyinventedbySolomon, kingoverIsraelanditsvassalnationsatthebeginningofthe firstmillenniumB.C.TheabovecommentthatIndoEuropean alphabetshavedescendedfromthePhoenicianneeds elaboration.ThetermIndoEuropeanincludesLatinandsuch modernEuropeanlanguagesasEnglish,German,French,etc.All thosewhospeaktheselanguagesoweadebttoKingSolomon, whoinventedthealphabeticsystemonwhichtheirlanguagesare based.TheEncyclopaediaBritannicaincludesachartshowing thatthemodernEuropeanalphabetsaredescendedfromthe 79 earlyPhoenicianalphabet. Apparently,notallofSolomonsinventionswereintendedfor civilianuse.Itappearsatleastoneinventionwasformilitary purposes(whichpreservedthepeaceviagreaterdeterrence). MartlandA.Edey,inhisbook,TheSeaTraders,states: someauthoritiesgivecredittothe Phoeniciansfordevelopingtheram,which apparentlywasinventedaround1000
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B.C.,justaboutthetimetheeasternports[of theMediterranean]wereemergingastrading powersintheirownrightandbuildinguptheir warfleets.80 (Emphasisadded.) Forthosenotfamiliarwithmilitaryhistory,theramreferstoa batteringramwhichextendedfromtheprowofawarshipfor purposesofcausingdamagetoopposingshipswhenonesown shipwaspropelledintoanenemy.(Readerswhohaveseenthe movieBenHursawhowthisinventionwasstillbeingutilized byancientnaviesatthetimeofChrist.) ThisbookconcludesthattheinventorofthePhoenicianphonetic alphabetwasKingSolomon,whoruledthePhoenicianallianceof IsraelandthecitystatesofTyre,Sidon,etc.around1000B.C. Solomonsunprecedentedwisdomresultedinnotonlyanew alphabet,butalsonewadvancesinpottery,theBessemerblast furnacemethodofsmeltingores,thenavalramandmany proverbsconcerningwiseliving.Hewaswealthyandpowerful beyondimagination,possessingthemeanstoimplementhis ideasandinventions.Thetremendousconvergenceofnew inventionsinthePhoenicianalliancearoundthetimeofKing SolomonatteststhatitwasSolomonwhowasthesourceof theseinventions.Thepeacefuladoptionbyothernationsofthe alphabetinventedwithinthePhoenicianallianceisatestimonyto IsraelsstrengthandSolomonsforceofpersonality.Solomon waslikelysoskilledinsomanyfieldsthatthenationsstoodin aweofhimduringhislifetime.NowondertheBiblestatesthat allnationssoughthiscounsel. Havingestablishedthecredibilityofbiblicalaccountsofan IsraelitePhoenicianEgyptianallianceduringSolomonsreignand thatthefleetsofthatalliancewereactivelyinvolvedinexploring, miningandcolonizingtheworldduringandafterthereignof Solomon,letusexaminethebiblicalaccountsofSolomonsreign
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inlightoftheirgreatlyheightenedcredibility.Wewilldiscover thatKingSolomonruledoveranempirewhichwasinternational inscope! Itisclearthatworldwidemaritimecontactswerecommonduring hisreign.Sincethemajorinternationalfleetsofthetime belongedtothetripartiteallianceofIsrael,Phoenicia,andEgypt, itiseasytoseehowwordofSolomonsprojectsandIsraels opulencespreadaroundtheworld.Therewasprobablynosmall amountofbraggadocioonthepartofthePhoenician,Israelite, andEgyptiansailorsabouttheaccomplishments,wisdomand wealthofKingSolomon,whoheadedtheiralliance.Aswordof thescopeofSolomonsprojects,theunprecedentedeleganceof hisTempleofGodinJerusalem,andIsraelsgreatnessspread, theleadersoftheearthwantedtoseeforthemselveswhether theseincrediblereportswereactuallytrue.Somecameoutof skepticism,certainthereportscouldnotbetrue.TheQueenof Shebawasonesuchvisitor.HervisitisrecordedinIIChronicles 9:112. ShecametotestSolomonswisdomwithhardquestions,and broughtgiftsincluding120talentsofgold,spicesandprecious stones.Whilebiblicalcommentariesvaryontheestimated weightofabiblicaltalent,oneconservativeestimateisthata talentcouldequalabout75pounds.Suchanestimatewould meanthequeenofShebagaveSolomonagiftofabout9,000 pounds81 ofgold(worthabout57milliondollarsatamodern priceof$400perounceofgold)!SincethequeenofShebawas givingthisamountofgoldasagift,itisclearthegoldreserves ofShebawerequitelarge.WhenShebasqueenhadseen Solomonspalace,theTempleforGod,andthesuperlative qualityandopulenceofIsrael,shewasoverwhelmed!Shewent sofarastosaythatthereportsaboutIsraelsglory(whichshe hadthoughttooincredibletobelieve)wereactually
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understatementsoftherealgrandeurofIsraelatthetimeof Solomon(verses56).Whenshereturnedtohernativeland,she undoubtedlyspreadthenewsofSolomonsreigntoallthe nationswithwhomshehadcontacts. ThebiblicalaccountofthequeenofShebasvisitisofferedas onespecificexampleofavisitbyforeignroyaltytoKing Solomon.IIChronicles9:23statesthatsuchroyalvisitswere commonevents.AsSolomonsfamespreadthroughoutthe maritimeroutesofthealliancesfleets,andasforeignroyalty madetheirwaytoJerusalem,theybroughtasteadystreamof goldtoJerusalemforKingSolomon(eitherastributemoneyor gifts).SomuchgoldflowedintoJerusalemthatIIChronicles 9:13states666talentsofgoldwerebroughttoSolomonin oneyear!Thisdoesnotevenincludetheamountofgoldwhich tradersandmerchantsbrought(seeverse14).Onecanonly imaginethequantitiesofsilver,raregoods,preciousstonesand othercommoditieswhichwerebroughttoIsraeleitherasgiftsor aspartoftradingcontracts.IIChronicles9:20statesthatsilver wassocommonplaceandabundantthatitessentiallylostits valueduringSolomonsreign. IIChronicles9:2324statesthatallthekingsoftheearth soughtthepresenceofSolomon,andthateachofthembrought variedgiftsfromtheirrespectivenationsyearbyyear! Undoubtedly,biblicalskepticshavethoughtthatsuchstatements weresheerfantasiesonthepartofsomeancientHebrewwriter. However,nowthatwehaveevidencethattheentireancient worldwastiedtogetherinmaritimetraderoutes,andthat SolomonwascloselyalliedtothePhoenicianandEgyptianfleets whodevelopedthosetraderoutes,thisstatementnolonger soundsfarfetched.Indeed,theonlyreasonwhysuchbiblical statementseversoundedfarfetchedwasbecauseofmodern mansabysmalignoranceconcerningtheancientworldstrue
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stateofdevelopment! InlightoftheBiblesaccountsoftheprodigiousamountofgold thatwasflowingintoKingSolomonscoffers,itisnowonderthat theEgyptianfleetsweresearchingallovertheIndianandPacific Oceansforgoldabout1000B.C.(asnotedearlierinthe chapter).EvenascopperoresfromancientAmericawere importedduringthereignofKingDavidtostockpileitemsforthe Temple,goldfromallovertheworldwasflowingintoIsrael duringthereignofKingSolomon. AlanMillard,inanarticleforBiblicalArchaeologyReview,makes thecasethatthebiblicalamountsof/usesforSolomonsgoldare credibleinlightofotherancientrecordsabouthowancient royaltyaccumulatedanddisplayedgold.Hepointsoutthatthe giftof120talentsofgoldbythequeenofShebawasexceeded bythreeotherroyalgiftsofgoldrecordedintheancientworld: (A)atributeof150talentsofgoldreceivedfromTyrebyTiglath pileserIIIofAssyriain730B.C.(B)agiftof154talentsofgold byAssyrianKingSargonIItotheBabyloniangods,and(C)a massivegiftof13.5tonsofgoldbyThutmosisIIIofEgypttothe 82 templeofanEgyptiangod. Healsocitesancientrecordsof nonIsraelitekingsusinggoldtomakethrones,shrines,shields, 83 goblets,etc. TheinformationcontainedinMillardsarticle confirmsthatitwasthecustomofancientkingstodisplaytheir goldonobjectsasameansofdisplayingthewealthoftheir kingdoms.ThebiblicalaccountsofSolomonsuseofhisgoldare consistentwithwhatotherancientkingsdidwiththeirgold. EarlierwenotedthatSolomonhadanintensescientificinterest instudyingthefloraandfaunaoftheworld(IKings4:2933). Withtheworldinastateofrelativepeace,Solomonhadthe opportunitytodevotemuchattentiontothisinterest.Thekings ofothernationswereonlytoohappytoaccommodateSolomons peaceable,scientificinterests.Sincetheothernationsknewthat
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themassivemilitaryresourcesofIsrael,EgyptandPhoenicia wereallatthedisposalofSolomon,theywerelikelyvery relievedthatSolomonspassionwasnotconqueringtheworld, butratherlearningalltherewastoknow.WhileSolomonhad theopportunitytobeanAlexandertheGreat,hisheartwas moreinharmonywiththoseofDaVinci,MarcoPolo,and Audubon. TheBiblestatesthatallthekingsoftheearthbroughtannual presentstoKingSolomon.Whilegoldwastheprimarygift,these kingsalsobroughtsamplesoftheirnationalwildlifeasagiftfor Solomon.IKings10:22mentionsapesandpeacocksas samplesofexoticspeciesthatwereshippedtoKingSolomons capital,andverse25addsthathorsesandmuleswerealso broughttohim.IKings4:33tellsus,concerninghisinterestin flora,thatSolomonwasinterestedinstudyingeverythingfroma hugecedartreetothehyssopthatspringethoutofthewall. Itislogicalthathispassionforfaunawouldbeequally expansive.AsnationslearnedofSolomonsinterestsinalltypes offloraandfauna,samplesofeachnationsfloraandfaunawere shippedtoJerusalemtoaccommodateSolomonsscientific interests.Thatcommonanimals(horsesandmules)were includedalongwithexoticonessuchasapesandpeacocks indicatesthatSolomonwasinterestedinstudyingbothnew speciesandvariationswithinaspecies. Solomonsinsatiablescientificcuriositymusthaveresultedin extraordinaryzoologicalandbotanicalgardensbeingpresentin Jerusalem.Ecclesiastes2:45recordsthatSolomonconstructed greatworks,includingorchardsandgardenswithmanytrees, vineyardsandfruits.WhenSolomondidsomething,hediditon agrandscale!Hisresourcesweresuchthattherewasno meaningfulfinanciallimitationonhowexpansivehisgardens couldbecome.
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Solomonbecameagreatpatronoftheartsaswell.Hecollected alltypesofmusicalinstruments,andcombinedthemwiththe bestsingershecouldfind(Ecclesiastes2:8).Canyouimagine themajesticmusicwhichresultedfromcombiningtheworlds bestmusicianswiththeworldsbestsingers?Thesamepassage alsocitesSolomonassaying:Igathered...thepeculiartreasure ofkingsandoftheprovinces.Thesepeculiartreasuresmust haveincludedmanyexamplesofrareandbeautifulartworks.I Chronicles9:2324states: allthekingsoftheearthsoughtthepresence ofSolomon...andtheybroughteverymanhis present...arateyearbyyear. WithroyalgiftsaccumulatinginJerusalemonanannualbasis, Solomonhadtohaveplacestostoreorexhibitthesepeculiar treasures.Solomonmusthavehadthebestartandtreasure museumsthenpresentontheearth,andJerusalemmusthave becomethetouristattractionoftheancientworld!Nowonder manykingstraveledannuallytoJerusalem.Theynotonly wantedtoseekthepresenceofSolomon,butalsosample someofSolomonslifestyle. OnereasonwhysomuchwealthflowedintoIsraelwasthatthe kingsoftheearthlikelytriedtooutdoeachotherinimpressing Solomonwiththeirnationsgifts.SinceSolomonalreadyhad everything,thevariouskingsmusthavebeenquitecreativeto findsomethingnewtogivetoSolomon.Beforethereaderthinks thatalltheseancientkingswerebeingaltruisticintheirgifts, rememberthegeopoliticsofthetime.Solomonwastheleaderof atripartiteallianceofIsrael,EgyptandPhoenicia,which constitutedthegreatestmilitaryallianceatthattime.This alliancehadalockholdonmaritimetradingroutesand controlledmanycriticaloverlandtraderoutes.Everyonehada compellingselfinteresttogetalongwithSolomon.Many
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nationsundoubtedlygavetheirgiftstoSolomonoutofasenseof politicalselfinterestratherthanaltruism.However,manyofthe nationalleaders,suchasKingHiramofTyre(Phoenicia)andthe queenofShebagenuinelylikedSolomon,andwere enthusiasticallyalliedtohim.Also,Solomonwashardlygreedy healsogavehugereciprocalgiftstomonarchsthatcametovisit him(IKings10:13). Didalltheseotherkingscomeoccasionallythroughouttheyear, orwasthereafixedscheduleforcoordinatingthesevisits(after all,onecouldntsimplycalllongdistanceinthattime,such visitsneededconsiderablepreparation).Itisthisbooksopinion thatsuchvisitslikelyoccurredduringtheHolyDaysofGod, whichIsraelobservedasscheduledtimesofnationalrejoicing.I Kings8:6566statesoneofSolomonsgreatnationalfeasts (IsraelsHolyDayswerecalledfeastdays)lastedfourteen days,andthatSolomondismissedthehappycrowdsonthe eighthday.ThisfeasthadtobetheFeastofTabernacles, whichconsistedofsevendaysoffeastingclimaxedbyaneighth day(Leviticus23:3443).Thereferencetofourteendays indicatesthatSolomonaddedanextraweekofrejoicingpriorto thefirstsevendaysoftheFeastofTabernaclesfollowedbythe climacticeighthday.Whytheextraweekforrejoicing?Itwas becausethatparticularFeastofTabernacleswaslikenoneother inhistory. ThatparticularFeastofTabernacleswasunprecedentedasit includedthededicationoftheTempleofGod,whichhadtaken yearstobuild.IKings8describestheplacingoftheArkofthe Covenant(theveryarkdepictedinthepopularmovieRaiders oftheLostArk)intheTemplesHolyofHolies,andverses10 11state: Andwhenthepriestscameoutoftheholy place,acloudfilledthehouseoftheLord,so
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thatthepriestscouldnotstandtominister becauseofthecloudforthegloryoftheLord filledthehouseoftheLord. Thatahugeassemblywitnessedasupernatural(perhaps glowing)cloudfilltheTemplejustafterthepriestsplacedtheArk intheHolyPlacepowerfullyattestedtoGodsdivinearrivalin theTempleitself!Thiscloudwassointensethatnohuman beingcouldstayintheTemple!Canyouimaginethesenseof awethatmusthavebeenpresentintheviewers?Thisoneevent undoubtedlydidmuchtosecureSolomonspositioninthe ancientworldasallforeignambassadorswhowitnessedthis eventnodoubtspreadthenewsofitfarandwide!Italso illustratesthatothernationswerenotonlyinaweofSolomon, theywereinaweofSolomonsGod!TheGodofIsraelwasnot somedumbidolwhowascarvedandthenworshippedbythe peoplewhomadeittheGodofIsraelwasreal! IKings9:2261recordsthatSolomon,whiletheglowingcloudof GodwaspresentintheTemple,stoodbeforethealtarofthe LordinthepresenceofallthecongregationofIsrael,andspread forthhishandstowardheavenasheofferedhisprayerto dedicatetheTemple.Solomonshowedhishumble,worshipful attitudetowardGodinthesewords(verses2230): 0Lord,GodofIsrael,thereisnoGodlike thee,inheavenabove,oronearthbeneath, keepingcovenantandshowingsteadfastlove tothyservants...Whohastkeptwiththy servantDavidmyfatherwhatthoudidst declaretohim...ButwillGodindeeddwellon theearth?Behold,heavenandthehighest heavencannotcontaintheehowmuchless thishousewhichIhavebuilt!Yethaveregard totheprayerofthyservantandtohis
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supplication,0LordmyGod...Andhearken thoutothesupplicationofthyservantandof thypeopleIsrael,whentheypraytowardthis placeandwhenthouhearest,forgive.(RSV) AfteraskingGodtocutshortdroughts,wars,andpestilences whichmightoccurduetothenationsfuturedisobedience,he askedGodtolistenalsotononIsraeliteswhowouldcometo servehim.HisdedicationprovedpropheticasheevenaskedGod toforgivefuturegenerationsofIsraelitesiftheyrepentedafter theywerecarriedintocaptivityasaresultoftheirsins.Itisan indicationofSolomonsunimaginablewealththatheoffereda burntofferingof22,000oxenand120,000sheeptoclimaxthe Templededication. SinceSolomonwasfaithfultoGodformanyyears,itislikely thatSolomoninvitedthekingsoftheearthtovisitJerusalem, withtheirretainersandtributegifts,atthetimeofIsraelsFeast ofTabernacles,anappointedtimeforannualconvocations.I Kings10:2425statestheseroyalgiftshappenedyearbyyear, implyingtheseeventswereonanannual,predictableschedule. Basedontheassumptionthattheseroyalvisitscoincidedwith theFeastofTabernacles,letustrytovisualizewhatoccurred. Surely,theexcitementmountedastheFeastneared,andthe annualvisitsoftheworldskings(and/ortheirrepresentatives) toJerusalemwereabouttobegin.Asthedatearrived,many kingswouldarriveviacaravanroutes.Also,theworldwidefleets ofthetripartitealliance(Israel,PhoeniciaandEgypt)couldeasily bringroyaltyfromothercontinents.Giventheevidence presentedearlierthatthesefleetswerepresentinthePacific, AtlanticandIndianOceansandintheNewWorld,someof SolomonsroyalvisitorscouldhavecomefromtheNewWorld. Thesenationaldelegationswouldeachbebringinggiftsofgold, animalsandbotanicalspecimensforSolomonsgardens,
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treasuredartworks,etc.Visualizethespectacleasroyaltyfrom allovertheearthproceededwiththeirentouragesthroughthe streetsofJerusalem,withbaggagetrainsofpreciousmetals, unusualanimals,etc.! Insuchanevent,wecanseewaysinwhichthereignofSolomon typifiestheprophesiedreignofJesusChristonearth(Jewish readerscouldvisualizethereignofthepromisedMessiah). Solomonpresidedoveraperiodofgeneralpeace(IKings4:21 25),andreignedfromhiscapitalinJerusalem.LikeSolomon, Christwillpresideoveraneraofworldpeace(Isaiah2:24)as hereignsfromJerusalem(Zechariah14:1617).Solomonwasa defactokingofkings,dominatingallothercontemporary kings.JesusChristwillbealiteralKingofKings,servingasa worldrulerwithhissaintsservingassubordinatekingsoverthe nations(Daniel7:18,Revelation5:810,19:16,20:4).Evenas Solomonsreignofpeacewasprecededbyviolentwars,Jesus Christsreignwillbeprecededbyviolentwars(Zechariah14:1 14,Matthew24:36,Revelation19:1121).Evenastheworlds wealthflowedtoKingSolomonatJerusalem,thewealthofthe nationswillflowtoChristatJerusalem(Zechariah14:14).Even asthekingsoftheearthlikelyjourneyedtoJerusalematthe timeoftheFeastofTabernacles,allnationswillsenddelegations toJerusalemduringtheFeastofTabernacleswhenJesusChrist rules(Zechariah14:16).Infact,hewillrequireallnationsto observetheFeastofTabernaclesatthattime(Zechariah14:17 19).However,therewillbeonemajordifference.Unlike Solomonsreign,whichdegeneratedintocorruptions,thereign ofChristwillneverdegenerate. InSolomonsgoldenage,agreatdealofscientificknowledge wasbeingaccumulated.SolomonscommentsinEcclesiastes 1:67confirmthattheworldwidepatternofcirculartradewinds (knowledgegainedbythetransoceanicvoyagesofthe
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Phoenicians),andtheentirewatercycle(thatthewaterofrivers flowingtooceanswouldevaporate,condenseintowaterdroplets andfurnishraintoreplenishtheinlandrivers)wasknownatthat time. Itisclearthattheancientworldwasfarmoreadvancedand interconnectedthanhasgenerallybeenacknowledged.Infact, duringthetimeofKingSolomon,theancientsknewfarmore thandidmoremodernmankindduringTheDarkAges.During theDarkAgesoftheearlyMedievalperiod,turmoil,superstition andignorancedominatedsociety.IntheDarkAges,theOld WorldevenlostitsknowledgeoftheNewWorldwhichancient civilizationshadexplored,minedandcolonized.Aswewillseein alaterchapter,ancientcivilizationswerefarmoreadvancedthan werethemorerecentMedievalcivilizations. Itmustbepointedoutthatthereisnoevidencethatanyother nationonearthactuallyconvertedtotheworshipoftheTrue GodofIsraelduringSolomonsreign.Thenationsundoubtedly stoodinaweofIsraelsGod,butthereiseveryindicationthat theycontinuedtoservetheirpagangods.Indeed,thisgolden ageofpeacefulinternationalrelationsandworldwidescientific pursuitsbegantounravelduringSolomonsreign.TheBible showsthattheworshipofpagangodsbegantopermeateIsrael throughtheactsofSolomonhimself.Inadditiontocollecting preciousmetals,worldtreasures,artworks,floraandfauna, orchestrasandsingers,etc.,Solomonalsobeganalarge collectionofwomen. Hecollectedaharemof1000women,andIKings11:19makes thefollowingobservationaboutKingSolomon: WhenSolomonwasoldhiswivesturned awayhisheartafterothergods.For SolomonwentafterAshtoreththegoddessof theSidonians,andafterMilcomthe
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abominationoftheAmmonites...Then SolomonbuiltahighplaceforChemoshthe abominationofMoab,andforMolechthe abominationoftheAmmonites...Andsohedid forallhisforeignwives,whoburnedincense andsacrificedtotheirgods.(RSV) SinceSolomonreignedfortyyears(IKings11:42),hisgolden age(whichparalleledhisobediencetoGod)apparentlylastedfor mostofthattime,andhisperiodofdegeneracyoccurredinthe waningyearsofhislife.Itissignificantthatoneofthe PhoeniciandeitiesworshippedbySolomonwasAshtorethof Sidon,amothergoddessassociatedwithfertilityworship.This mothergoddesscult,whoseworshipincludedfertility celebrations,phallicmonuments,etc.,wasalsofoundtobe 84 pervasiveinthePhoeniciansettlementsofancientAmerica . Fromthatpointon,thenortherntentribes(knownasIsrael) becameinextricablylinkedwithpagangodssuchasBaaland Ashteroth.Themothergoddesswasworshippedinmany civilizationsandwasknownbyavarietyofnamesAshteroth beingherSidonianname. ItisincrediblethatSolomonwentfrompersonallyspeakingwith Godhimself(IKings11:9)toworshippingpagangodsassociated withhumansacrificeandsensualabandonment.Itishighly unlikelythatSolomonwokeuponemorninganddecidedhehad theworldsmostvoraciouslIbidoandneeded1000wivesand concubines.Morelikelyitstartedinnocentlyenough.Remember thatPharaohhadgivenSolomonaroyaldaughterasawife?As thenationsoftheworldbroughtSolomongiftsofgold,art treasures,animalsforhiszoos,etc.,itishighlylikelythatmany otherkingsalsogaveSolomonroyalbornwomenaswivesto cementthepoliticaltiesofthosenationswithSolomon.IKings 11:3indicatesthiswasthecaseasitlistsprincessesamonghis
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manywives. Sincesuchwomenwereroyalbom,theywouldhavetraveled withretainersandtheparaphernaliaoftheirnativeculture.As theseforeignprincessesbegantosettleinIsrael,theyandtheir servantswouldcontinuetoworshiptheirparticularpagangods. Verylikely,Jerusalemsembassyrowhadmanyidolspresent, andperhapsevenforeignpriestswerepresenttoattendthe idols.Asthistrendcontinued,itiseasytoseethateachforeign additiontoSolomonsharemresultedinamicrocosmofeach foreignnationspaganculturebeingpresentinIsrael. Solomonscharacterandpersonalitydeterioratedashisidolatries grew,andhischarismaandauraofleadershipalsodeteriorated. Nationsandsubjectsbegantolosetheirrespectforhim,and problemsbegantobesetthenation(atestimonythatwhen nationalleadersaresinful,theirnationswillsufferaswell).I Kings11:1440recordsthatanEdomiteprinceandanAramaean namedRezonbecameadversariesofSolomon,andnotesthata highIsraeliteofficialnamedJeroboam(whowasgovernorofthe chieftribesofEphraimandManasseh)wastoldbyGodthrougha prophetthathewouldbekingoverthenortherntentribesof IsraelafterSolomonsdeath.WhenSolomonlearnedthis,he triedtokillJeroboam(evenasthedegenerateKingSaulhad triedtokillyoungDavidwhenGodchoseDavidtoreplaceSaul). ThisaccountaffordsinsightsintohowfastSolomonsdomination oftheworldaroundhimwasfadingaway. ThePharaohofEgypt,whoformerlyhadgivenhisdaughterto SolomonasawifeandconqueredacitytopresenttoSolomon asagift,gavesanctuarytoJeroboam,thekinginwaitingover mostofSolomonskingdom.Asweshallseeinthenextchapter, thefactthatPharaohshelteredSolomonsdissidentswassoonto bearbitterfruitforSolomonssuccessoroverJudahand Benjamin,andJeroboamsperiodofexileinEgyptwastobear
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bitterfruitforIsrael(thenortherntentribes).Weseeinthis accountaharbingerofarearrangementofthetripartitealliance thatexistedunderKingSolomon.Undoubtedly,resentmentgrew betweenSolomonandPharaoh,andPharaohdrewcloserto Jeroboam,whowasdestinedtorulethenortherntentribesafter Solomonsdeath.ThiswouldsoonresultinJeroboamretaining closeallianceswithEgyptandthecitystatesofTyre,Sidon,etc., whileJudah(ruledbySolomonsson)wouldbecometheodd manout. Atthisjuncture,thischapteronSolomonsruledrawstoanend. Whatbegansoimpressivelyendedignominiously.Solomon actuallyexhibitedasuicidalattitudeinhisfinalyears (Ecclesiastes2:17,4:2).OnereasonthatIsraelsgoldenageis largelymissedbyhistoriansisthatitlastedforsoshortatime. WhileIsraelandJudahstillwouldhavemajorrolesintheancient world,theirgoldenagewasover.Theremaininghistory(which includessurprisinginformation)oftheseparatekingdomsof IsraelandJudahwillbepresentedinthenextchapter.

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Endnotes:ChapterTwo 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. HarpersBibleDictionary,Tiphsah,p.1076 Hitti,ShortHistoryoftheNearEast,p.20 Ibid,pp.3031 EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.21,SuezCanal,p.516 Ibid,p.516 Ibid,p.516 Rawhnson,Phoenicia,p.26and5657 Fell,AmericaB.C.,pp.176and179,andBronzeAge America,pp.278282 9. Rawhnson,Phoenicia,pp.5671and164Waddell, PhoenicianOriginoftheBritons,Scots,&AngloSaxons,pp. 159160 10.Fell,AmericaB.C.,p.58 11.Ibid,pp.100101 12.Ibid,p.101 13.Ibid,pp.8192 14.Ibid,p.83 15.Ibid,pp.9091 16.Ibid,p.92 17.Ibid,p.85 18.Ibid,p.83 19.Ibid,p.84 20.Ibid,p.84 21.Ibid,pp.9399,157,163 22.Ibid,p.93(seealsop.163) 23.Ibid,pp.50and61 24.Ibid,pp.130131 25.Ibid,p.176 26.Knudsen,EgyptianSignsintheHawaiianIslands, EpigraphicSocietyOccasionalPublications,Vol.13,1985,pp. 6795 27.Ibid,p.90
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28.Rawhnson,Phoenicia,p.29 29.Fell,AmericaB.C.,p.263 30.Ibid,p.261 31.Ibid,p.261 32.Ibid,p.268 33.Ibid,p.163 34.Ibid,pp.263and268 35.Ibid,p.270 36.Ibid,p.270275 37.Ibid,p.159 38.Ibid,p.159 39.Ibid,p.164165 40.Fell,AmericaB.C.(1989RevisedEdition),p.310 41.Ibid,p.310andMorehouse,TheLosLunasInscriptions:A GeologicalStudy,EpigrapahicSocietyOccasional Publications,Vol.13,1985,p.49 42.Morehouse,(citedabove),p.48 43.Fell,AmericaB.C.(1989RevisedEdition),p.310 44.Fell,AncientPunctuationandtheLosLunasText, EpigraphicSocietyOccasionalPublications,Vol.13,1985,p. 35 45.LeonardandMcGlone,AnEpigraphicHoaxonTrialinNew Mexico,EpigraphicSocietyOccasionalPublications,Vol.17, 1988,p.206(seealsowholearticle,pp.206219) 46.TranslationoftheDecalogueTabletfromOhio,Bloomand Polansky,EpigraphicSocietyOccasionalPublications,Vol.8, PartOne,1980,p.15 47.Savage,TheDecalogueTablet,Newark,Ohio,Epigraphic SocietyOccasionalPublications,Vol.7,Part2,1979,p.194 48.Ibid,p.196 49.Ibid,p.196 50.Fell,AmericaB.C.,pp.282283 51.Fell,Ibid,p.170
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52.Boland,TheyAllDiscoveredAmerica,pp.4047 andplates79followingp.126 53.Fell,AmericaB.C.,p.168 54.Fell,AmericaB.C.,pp.253260 55.Ibid,pp.270272 56.Knudsen,EgyptianSignsintheHawaiianIslands, EpigraphicSocietyOccasionalPublications,Vol.13,1985,p. 906 57.Fell,AmericaB.C.,p.185 58.Ibid,p.185 59.Ibid,p.186 60.Hitti,ShortHistoryoftheNearEast,p.47 61.Rawlinson,Phoenicia,p.1 62.EncyclopediaJudaica,Vol.13,p.473 63.Ibid,p.473 64.Halley,HalleysBibleHandbook,p.134 65.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.11,Homer,p.689 66.EncyclopediaAmericana,Vol.14,Homer,p.326 67.EncyclopediaAmericana,Vol.21,Phoenicians,p.947 68.Hitti,ShortHistoryoftheNearEast,p.40 69.EncyclopediaAmericana,Vol.21,Phoenicians,p.948 70.Rawlinson,Phoenicia,pp.8788 71.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.1,Alphabet,pp.679681 72.Ibid,Vol.17,Phoenicia,p.766 73.ColliersEncyclopedia,Vol.1,Alphabet,p.408 74.Ibid,pp.408409 75.EncyclopediaAmericana,Vol.21,Phoenicians,p.948 76.ColliersEncyclopedia,Vol.1,Alphabet,p.409 77.Piggott,AncientEurope,p.189 78.Harden,ThePhoenicians,p.20 79.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.1,Alphabet,p.684 80.Edey,TheSeaTraders,p.46 81.Millard,DoestheBibleExaggerateKingSolomonsGolden
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Wealth,BiblicalArchaeologyReview,May/June1989,p.31 82.Ibid,p.31 83.Ibid,p.2131 84.Fell,AmericaB.C.,pp.219245

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3.IsraelTheForgottenWorldEmpire MostreadershaveheardoftheGrecoMacedonianEmpireof AlexandertheGreat,theRomanEmpireoftheCaesars,and otherancientempireswhicharediscussedinhistorylessons. However,thereareveryfewwhorealizethatcenturiesbefore theempiresofGreeceandRome,thereexistedanempirewhose domain,coloniesandinfluenceincludedboththeOldandthe NewWorld.Itsgreatantiquityisonereasonforourignoranceof it.Thereareancienthistoricalreferencestoit,butitisonly recentlythatarchaeologicaldiscoverieshavemadeitpossibleto determinethescopeofthisempire.Theforgottenworldempire wasthatofIsrael,begununderKingsDavidandSolomonand whichlasteduntiltheeighthcenturyB.C.whenitbrokeinto separateremnants. Thereaderofthefirsttwochaptersalreadyhassomeknowledge ofthisempireandwhyitshistorywassoobscured.Inthelast chapter,wesawevidencefromsecularhistoriansthatthe Phoeniciansestablishedaninternationalempireinthe approximatetimeframeof1000700B.C.Wealsolearnedthat theGreeksgavethenamePhoeniciatothewholeregiononthe easternshoreoftheMediterraneanSeainthatsameera.In doingso,theyappliedthenamePhoeniciatotheallianceof peopleinthatregionwhichwasthenheadedbytheIsraelites. AnotherhistoriancommentsconcerningthePhoenicians: theverywordPhoenicianwasunknownto themthelabelwaspastedonthembythe Greeksandpreservedbytheaccidentthatthe Greeklanguageanditsliterature,andnotthe Phoenician,havebeenpasseddowntous.1 WhatthePhoenicianscalledthemselveswillbeexaminedlater inthischapter.Fornow,itisenoughtorealizethattheIsraelite alliancewithTyreandSidonwascalledPhoeniciabythe
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Greeks,andthatthetermPhoeniciainitiallydesignateda wholeregion,notmerelyafewcitystatesontheshoresof ancientLebanon.Chaptertwonotedthat,underKingsSolomon ofIsraelandHiramofTyre,theIsraelitesandthecitystates underKingHirambecamevirtuallyonepeople,withmingled workforceslaboringtogetheronhugebuildingprojectsandwith theirnaviescrewedbysailorsfrombothnations. ThecitystatesofTyre,Sidon,etc.,werejuniorpartnerstothe Israelitesinthattimeofworldwideinfluence.SincetheIsraelites andtheinhabitantsofthecitystatessharedacommon language,commoncustomsandacommonrace,thedifferences betweenthemamounttomerenuanceswhenviewedfroma perspectivealmostthreethousandyearsaftertheirexistence. TheIsraelitedominanceinthatempirewasforgottenbecause theIsraeliteslefttheregion.Sincetheinhabitantsofthenon Israelitecitystatesdidstayinthatareaoftheearth,thename PhoeniciarestedonnonIsraelitesafter700B.C.However, whenhistoriansrefertothePhoenicianEmpireandits internationalpowerandinfluencearound1000700B.C.,they areactuallyidentifyingtheempireofIsraeltowhichTyreand Sidonwereallied. HistoriansacknowledgethatthePhoenicians(i.e.Israelites) plantedmanycoloniesthroughouttheMediterraneanworldwhich weretiedtothemothercountryontheeasternMediterranean. Itislikelythatmanyofthesecoloniesstartedascoastaltrading postsfoundedbythecitystatesofTyreandSidonbeforetheir alliancewithIsrael.Theirtradingcontactswerespread throughouttheshoresoftheMediterranean,thewestcoastsof AfricaandEurope,andtheBritishIsles.WhenTyreandSidon alliedthemselvestotherapidlygrowingpowerofIsraelduring thereignsofDavidandSolomon,theIsraelites(withamuch largerpopulationbase)turnedmanyofthesetradingstations
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intofullfledgedcolonies,andfoundedcoloniesoftheirownas well.WeshallseetheevidenceofmanyHebrewandIsraelite namesincolonieswhichhavetraditionallybeencalled Phoenician. BeforeexaminingthecolonialempireoftheIsraelites,letusfirst reviewtheirareaofdirectphysicalruleintheMideast.TheBible tellsusthatKingDavidsubduedthePhilistines,theMoabites, theAmmonites,theEdomites,theAmalekitesandsufficient SyrianterritorytoreachtheEuphratesRiver(IChronicles18:1 17).Thisareawouldroughlycorrespondtothemodernnations ofIsraelandLebanontogetherwithmuchofJordan,asizable portionofSyriaandperhapspartofwesternIraq.Israelsarmy, atitspeakonlywhenfullymobilized,numbered1,500,000men (IChronicles21:56)!Asdescribedinthefirstchapter,I Chronicles19:119showsthattheMesopotamianpowers,ledby Assyria,engagedIsraelincombatbythesubterfugeofallowing theirnationalarmiestobehiredasmercenariesbythesmall nationofAmmon(whichwantedtorebelagainstDavidsrule). ThoseSyrianswhichwerenotyetunderDavidsrulewereallied totheMesopotamiansfightingagainstIsrael.Davidspeaksof thatwarinPsalm83:18whenhenamesthenationswhichhad cometoaidtheAmmonites(childrenofLot)intheirrebellion.He specificallynamestheAssyrians(verse8)asbeingpartofthe enemiesarrayedagainsthim.Thiswarresultedinthedefeatof allthenationswhichwerealliedagainstIsrael,andgreatly expandedDavidsrule(andtheempireofIsrael).Sincethekings ofthedefeatednationshadpersonallywitnessedtheirarmies beingcrushedbytheIsraeliteforces(IChronicles19:9),they hadneitherthestomachnorthemilitaryresourcestochallenge Israelfurther.ThismajorIsraelitevictoryoverAssyriaaccounts nd fortheeclipseofAssyrianpoweratthebeginningofthe2 2 millenniumB.C.
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Atthattime,thekingdomsofMesopotamiabecamesubordinate tothekingdomofIsrael.Itisinterestingthattheworlds historianshavenotlinkedAssyriasperiodofseveredeclinewith theascentofKingDavid,whosearmyroutedtheAssyriansina majorwar(IChronicles19:615andPsalm83:18).Unlikemany greatconquerorswhowishedonlytoexaltthemselves,itshould benotedthatDavid,inhiswarsandconquests,desiredtoexalt thenameoftheGodofIsraeloverallnations(Psalm83:918). Consequently,thewritingsofDavidinthePsalmsdwellon glorifyingtheGodofIsrael,andtheselfpraisesocharacteristic ofothertriumphantancientmonarchsislacking.IfDavidsego hadbeenparamount,hiswritingswouldhavedweltfarmoreon hisconquests,andhewouldhavebuiltgreatmonumentsto commemoratehisvictories.Indeed,thelackofselfglorifying monumentstoDavidsvictorieswaslikelyaresultofdivine decision.IChronicles21recordsthatGodwassoangryatDavid forevendoingamilitarycensusofthetribesofIsraelthathe slew70,000Israelitesinaplague!SinceDavidwasthus punishedfornumberingIsrael(hisownnation),hewouldnot haveriskedadditionaldivinewrathbydoingacensusofallthe conquerednationsaswell. GodwantedIsraelandherrulerstobehumbleandGod centered,notvainandselfcentered.Thelackofgreat monumentstotheirtriumphsmakesiteasierforhistoriansto misstheaccomplishmentsofIsrael,becausetheynaturally assumeIsraelwouldhaveconstructedgreatmonumentstoboast aboutmajortriumphsasdidtheotherancientempires.They takethispaucityofmonumentstomeansuchtriumphsdidnot occur,when,infact,itisevidenceofGodsinvolvementin Israelsaffairstokeepthekingsofhispeoplefromgetting inflatedegos. TheIsraelitesdidconstructgreatedifices,however.Indeed,
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underKingSolomon,theIsraelitesandtheirsubjectpeople laboredfordecadestofinishSolomonsimmensebuilding projects.Theirgreatestmonument,theTempleofGodin Jerusalem,wasconstructedtohonorGodandwasoneofthe wondersoftheancientworld(itwaslaterdestroyedinwarfare, asweretheothergreatprojectsofKingSolomon). UponconcludinghiswarwiththeAssyriansandtheirallies,King DavidsIsraelruled(eitherdirectlyorviaitsinfluenceover vassalkings)theentiremideasternworldfromEgyptandAsia MinortotheregionoftheTigrisandEuphratesRivers.I Chronicles19:1619recordsthatDavidsvassalkingsincluded Syrians(Aramaeans)wholivedeastoftheEuphratesRiver. SincesecularhistoriansnotethatAssyriawasinvadedand subjugatedbyAramaeansfromthewestduringthistime(see chapterone),eithertheIsraeliteroleinthisAramaeanforce wasmissedortheAramaeansturnedontheAssyriansand attackedthemasvassalsofKingDavid. SincetheArabianswerepartofthosedefeatedintheIsraelite Assyrianwar(Psalm83:6referstotheancientArabiansas Ishmaelites),Israelshegemonyalsoextendedanunknown distanceintotheArabianPeninsula.Thisdescriptiongenerally setstheboundsofIsraelsmideasternterritoryruledbyKing David(eitherdirectlyorthroughvassalkings).However,this wasonlythebeginningofIsraelsempire! ThecitystatesofTyreandSidonhadalliedthemselvestoIsrael duringDavidsreign,andingratiatedthemselvestoKingDavid bybuildingDavidspalaceasagift(IChronicles14:12).During KingSolomonsreign,thePhoenicianssharedwiththeIsraelites theskillsoflongrangeoceantravel(IIChronicles8:18),andthe Israelites,TyriansandSidoniansoperatedanalliedfleetwith internationaldestinations(IKings9:2628,10:11,22).Artifacts andinscriptionsleftaroundtheworldbythisalliancearecalled
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Phoenician,aftertheGreekcustom.TheKingJamesVersionof theBiblerecordsinIKings10:22thatKingSolomonhadatsea anavyofTharshish(otherversionssimplysayTarshish). WhatwasthisnavyofTharshish,andwheredidtheycome from?Letusexaminetwopossibleexplanationsfortheoriginof thisterm. OnepossibilityisthatSolomonhadafleetofshipsbasedin SpainbecauseTartessus(inancientSpain)isoftenidentifiedas Tarshish.ItwasnotedinchaptertwothatshipsofTarshish wererecordedashavingmadevoyagestotheNewWorld,and thatthesefleetsofTarshishwereSemitic/Phoenicianinnature. ItisalsosignificanttonotethatIKings10:22istheBiblesfirst mentionofshipsofTarshish.IKings10:22maybeareference toaPhoenician/IsraelitecolonyinSpainwhichbecamethe homeportofamajorPhoenician/IsraelitefleetduringSolomons reign.Ifso,Tartessus(orTarshish)wasajumpingoffpointfor voyagesthroughouttheAtlantic.Wemustrealizethatwhenthe authorofIKingswrotethesewords,hewasnotwritingfora readershipinthetwentiethcenturyA.D.Hewaswritingfora morecontemporaneousaudiencewhichwouldhaverealizedthat areferencetoshipsofTarshishidentifiedthefleetthatIsrael (togetherwithTyreandSidon)hadbasedinancientSpain. ThefactthattheprophetJonahsailedtoTarshishfromJoppa tosailawayfromthedirectionofNineveh(Jonah1:3)supports theconclusionthatTarshishlayinthewesternMediterranean,as 3 notedinHarpersBibleDictionary. Thesecondexplanationconsidersthepossibilitythattheextra hinthewordTharshishidentifiesthisnavywithoneofthe clansoftheIsraelitetribeofBenjamin,whichwasnamed Tharshish(IChronicles7:10).SinceTharshishisanIsraelite name,theBiblesreferencetoshipsofTharshishcouldmean thatthisnavywasprimarilycrewedbymembersofthisbranch
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ofthetribeofBenjamin.Itisalsopossiblethatthetermships ofTarshishlatercametodescribeaparticularclassofseagoing vesselsusedbythePhoenicians.Thispossibilityissupportedby thereferenceinIKings22:48thatoveracenturylaterJudahs KingJehoshaphattriedtomakeafleetcomposedofshipsof TarshishforbasingintheRedSeaportofEziongeber. Dr.BarryFellobservedthatthelanguageofTartessus/Tarshish inancientSpainwasnomorethanadialectalvariantof Phoenician.4 ThefactthatTarshishspokeadialectofthe PhoenicianlanguageclearlyshowsthatitwasaSemiticcolonyof thePhoenicianempire.ThelanguageofthisPhoeniciancolonyin ancientSpaineventuallycametobeknownasIberianPunic. TheIsraelitenatureoftheTartessus/Tarshishcolonyisapparent inthefactthatitmayhavebeennamedafteraclanofthe IsraelitetribeofBenjamin.SinceTyre,Sidonandthetribesof IsraelwereallcalledPhoeniciabytheGreeks,thenamingof thisPhoeniciancity/colonyinancientSpainafteranIsraelite tribalnameconfirmsthattheIsraeliteroleinPhoeniciasnavy (andcolonies)wasfarlargerthanhithertorealized.Weshallsee moreevidencetosupportthisconclusionlaterinthischapter. IKings10:22alsostatesonceinthreeyearscamethenavyof Tharshish,bringinggold,andsilver,ivory,andapesand peacocks.Thatitreturned,ladenwithtradegoodsandexotic animals,afteravoyageofthreeyearsindicatesthatitsmission wasthatofacommercialfleetonaveryprolongedvoyage.The threeyeartimeperiodissignificantasFerdinandMagellans historicvoyagewhichcircumnavigatedtheglobein15191522 5 alsotookthreeyears. Aspanofthreeyearsallowssufficient timeforsailingshipstocircumnavigatetheglobewhilemaking tradingstopsaswellasexploringnewplaces.Magellansvoyage involvedalargelossoflife(includingMagellans)duetoits natureasapathfindingexpeditioninhostilelands.However,
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Solomonsfleetcouldtakeadvantageofthealreadyestablished tradingroutesofthePhoeniciansandEgyptiansintheAtlantic, PacificandIndianOceans(seechaptertwo),andlikelyhada moretranquilvoyage.Theabovedoesnotprovethat Solomonsfleetsailedaroundtheworld,butthelengthofits voyagedoesparallelthelengthofMagellansvoyageinasailing ship,anditscargoofexoticanimalsfromothercontinentsalso supportssuchaconclusion. SomereadersmightwonderwhethertheshipsofTarshish belongedtotheJaphethictribeofTarshishmentionedinGenesis 10:4.Whilethatwouldseemtobeapossibilityatfirst,thefact thattheTartessianTarshishwaslocatedinthedirectionthat JonahsailedtoTarshish,andthefactthattheIberianTarshish spokeadialectofPhoenician(aSemiticlanguage)arguesfora SemiticoriginforSolomonsshipsofTharshishandtheIberian Tarshish.Furthermore,thereisnobiblicalevidenceofany closecooperationbetweenKingSolomonsIsraelitesandthe JaphethicnationofTarshish.SinceBarryFellsbook,America B.C.givesevidenceoftheshipsofTarshishbeinginvolvedin 6 ancientexplorationsofNorthAmerica, thisalsoarguesthatthe biblicalTarshishwaslocatedproximatetotheAtlanticOcean (suchasinancientSpain). ThePhoeniciansplantedmanycolonieswherevertheirnavies sailed.ManyPhoeniciancolonieswerelocatedinMediterranean Africa,Sicily,Sardinia,Corsica,Spain[and]thecoastof Morocco.7 GeorgeRawlinsonaddsthatinthespaceofabout threehundredyears,fromB.C.1100toB.C.800,Phoenician colonistsoccupiedallthemosteligibleofthemidAfricansites fromLeptusMagna...toHippoRegina...(400miles)further westward.8 ThisperiodofheavyPhoeniciancolonizationdirectly coincidedwiththeperiodofIsraelsdominantroleinthe Phoenicianalliance.Thisstronglyindicatesthatmostofthe
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PhoeniciancolonistswereIsraelites. TheplantingofmanyPhoeniciancoloniesthroughoutthe MediterraneanSeaandtheirdominanceoftheregionsmaritime commercemakesitclearthatduringPhoeniciasempireperiod (whichpreciselyparallelstheperiodofIsraelitedominanceinthe Phoenicianalliance),theMediterraneanSeawasaPhoenician SeamuchasitwasaRomanSeaduringthetimeofthe Caesars.Israelhadalargepopulationthatextendedinlandfora considerabledistancewhilethecitystatesofTyre,Sidon,etc. occupiedrelativelysmallcoastalareasaroundtheirrespective citystates.Therefore,thepopulationbasetosupportthe foundingofmanyPhoeniciancolonieshadtocomefromthe populationofIsrael,notthatofTyreorSidon. Also,GodhadpromisedAbrahamthathisprogeny(the Israelites)wouldhaveapopulationsolargethatitwouldbecome toolargetonumber(Genesis13:16,22:17).WhentheIsraelites occupiedthePromisedLandunderJoshua,itwasdescribedasa landofmilkandhoneywhichcouldeasilysupportagrowing population.ThattheIsraelitesnumberedinthemillionsis obviousfromthefactthatDavidsarmycouldmuster1,500,000 menwhenallreservesweremobilized,andthattotalwould excludeallfemales,allchildren,theelderlyandmaimedmales. However,thephysicalterritoryofthetwelvetribesinPalestine remainedrelativelystatic.Theobviousquestioniswheredid theirexpandingpopulationgo?Wenowknowtheanswertheir expandingpopulationfurnishedthesettlersforthePhoenician coloniesallovertheMediterraneanregion.Letusexaminethose coloniesforevidenceofspecificHebrew/Israeliteinvolvement. ThesettlementsofthePhoeniciansinSpainwereoriginally namedafterseveralHebrewnames.Oneprincipalsettlement wasnamedGades,GadirorGadeira,andtodaythiscityisknown asCadiz.LocatedontheAtlanticOcean,itsurelyservedasa
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majorportforPhoenicianexpeditionstoBritonandNorth America.Theprominenthistorian,GeorgeRawlinson,citesthe Phoenicianwordforenclosureorfortifiedplaceasthesource 9 forthenameofthisancientportcity .Hecouldjustaseasily havecreditedancientHebrewasthesourceofitsnameasthe Hebrewwordgadarmeansenclose,fenceupormake(a wall).10 SincetheHebrewwordgadarwouldhavebeen writtenwithoutvowelsatthatancienttime,itsconsonantsGD RservepreciselyastherootwordforthenamesGadiror Gadeira. Anotherhistorian,L.A.Waddell,statesGadescouldberendered HouseoftheGads.11 Gadwasthenameofoneofthetwelve tribesofIsrael,andcouldeasilyhavegivenitsnametothe colonyofGades.ThetribeofGadwasprophesiedbyMosesin Deuteronomy33:20tobeenlarged(i.e.havealarge population).Astheirpopulationexpandedoverthecenturies,it isconsistentwiththisbiblicalprophecythatGadwouldhave beenoneofthetribesmostneedingtoexportpartofits populationtosomeofIsraelscolonies. Anotherhistorian,PhilipHitti,citesthatGadeswasfoundedasa 12 colonyofthePhoeniciansaround1000B.C. ,whilethe EncyclopaediaBritannicastatesthatCadizwasfoundedasearly as1100B.C.13 ThistimeframeforCadizsfoundingisintheera ofIsraelsrisetoempirestatusunderKingsDavidandSolomon, whenwewouldexpecttoseeIsraelsdominanceinwhatis traditionallycalledthePhoenicianEmpire.ThatGadesbore thenameofoneofthetwelvetribesofIsrael(Gad)strongly indicatesthatitwasgiventhatnamebyIsraelitesratherthanby inhabitantsofTyreorSidon. GeorgeRawlinsoncitedtheHebrewwordmalakhastheroot wordfortheoriginalPhoeniciansettlementwhichisnowcalled 14 MalagainSpain. TheEncyclopediaAmericanastates:Malaga,
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theMalakkaofthePhoenicians,wasfoundedintheeleventh centuryB.C.15 BothGades/GadirandMalakkawerefounded around1000B.C.,oralittlepriortothatdate.Inchapteronewe learnedthatKingDavidwasimportingvastamountsofcopper oresforeventualuseintheTempletobebuiltbySolomon,and thattheancientcopperminesonLakeSuperiorsshoreswere workedtoexhaustionaround1000B.C.Inchaptertwo,we learnedthattheIsraelitesconstructedamassivesmeltingfacility inEziongeberaroundthissametime.ForKingDavidtoimport copperoresfromancientLakeSuperiorforuseintheTemple, theIsraelitesandtheiralliesfromTyreandSidonwouldhave neededseveralportsofcallbetweenNorthAmericaandIsraelto serviceandmaintainitsfleet.Allsuchshipmentswouldhaveto passthroughtheStraitofGibraltar,andCadizandMalaga(to usetheirmodernnames)wouldgivethemtwinportsonboththe AtlanticandMediterraneansidesofGibraltar.Itislikelythat theseportswerebuiltintheeleventhcenturyB.C.toserve Davidsimportneeds,andwereexpandedintofullfledged coloniesduringthetenthcenturyB.C.byskilledmarinersfrom TyreorSidon.LocatingaportoneithersideoftheStraitof Gibraltarwouldensurethechoiceofeitherawindwardor leewardportforallshipstransitingthestrait,whethertheywere headingtowardtheAtlanticOceanortheMediterraneanSea. ThePhoeniciansalsominedtinandotheroresinBritain,and exportedthemtoothernationsintheMideast.GeorgeRawlinson states: ThePhoenicianshadonemorecolony towardsthewest...Phoenicianshipsfrom Gadeira...crossedthemouthoftheEnglish Channel...totheScillyIslesandconveyed thitherabodyofcolonistswhoestablishedan emporium.Theattractionwhichdrewthem
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wasthemineralwealthoftheislandsandof theneighboringCornishcoast...Itis reasonabletosupposethatthePhoenicians bothworkedtheminesandsmeltedthe ores.16 HistoricalevidencepointstotheIsraelitetribeofAsherasbeing directlyinvolvedwiththeminingoftininearlyBriton.William Camden,aBritishhistorianwholivedfrom1551to1623,states inhishistoricalwork,Britannia,that: ThemerchantsofAsherworkedthetinmines ofCornwall,notasslaves,butasmastersand exporters.17 ABritishhistorianofthenineteenthcentury,SirEdmundCreasy, alsonotedthat: TheBritishminesmainlysuppliedthe gloriousadornmentofSolomonsTemple.18 TherehasbeenanawarenessofasubstantialIsraelitepresence inancientBritainforalongtime.Infact,itappearstohavebeen commonknowledgeamongearlierBritishhistorians. Unfortunately,modernhistories,steepedinevolutionarymyths, nowignoreevidencefromancienthistorywhichverifiesthe accuracyoftheBible.Romans1:28appropriatelycommentsthat somepeopledonotliketoretainGodintheirknowledge. Modernstudentsarenowtaughthistorycourseswhichdonot retaincriticalhistoricaltruthsverifyingtheBibleandGods reality. SincetheearlyBritishhistoriesspecificallymentiontheIsraelite tribeofAsherandtheroleofSolomonsTempleinearlyBritish miningefforts,itfurthersupportstheconclusionthatmanyearly PhoenicianexplorationsandcolonizationsweremainlyIsraelite
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efforts.TyreandSidonsimplydidnothavethemanpowerto conductworldwideexplorationsandfurnishthepopulationfor numerouscoloniesonseveralcontinents.Israelhadan expandingpopulationwhichreadilysuppliedthemanpowerfor theseefforts. Asthereadernowknows,Israelite/Phoenicianexplorationsand colonizationswerenotlimitedtotheeasternshoresofthe AtlanticOcean.TheirpresenceinNorthAmericaisclearfromthe evidencepresentedinthefirsttwochapters.Whileancient evidenceofworshippersoftheGodofIsraelhasbeendiscovered 19 inOhioandNewMexico, mostIsraelitesinNorthAmerica wouldhavebeenfollowersofBaalandthemothergoddessas Israelservedthesepagangodsalmostexclusivelyfromthe deathofSolomontothefallofSamaria(ca.930721B.C.). HowlargeandviablewastheearlyHebrew/Phoenician civilizationintheNewWorld?Evidencenowexiststhatitwas bothexpansiveandlonglived.Thefollowingpassageistaken fromTheAdenaTablets,writtenbyRobertLenhart,and publishedintheEpigraphicSocietyOccasionalPublications, Volume13,1985. Whenthefirstsettlersmovedwestwardfrom theAmericancoloniesontheAtlantic Seaboardtheydiscoveredthegreatburial moundsandearthworksoftheOhioValley. Themoundswereobviouslytheworkofman, butjustasobviously,notwithinthecapacity ortribalmemoriesofthetribeswhoinhabited thevalleyatthattime.PresidentsThomas JeffersonandWilliamHenryHarrison, scientists,manyeminentclergymenand othersspeculatedthatthemoundsand earthworkswerebuilteitherbyEgyptians,
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NorsemenorthelosttribesofIsrael.20 LenhartalsostatesconcerningthisearlyNorthAmerican civilizationthat: theyreachedaveryhighculturallevelover 1500yearsandthendisappearedabout500 A.D....[and]...theAdenaPeopledominated theOhioValleyfromabout1000B.C.21 TheAdenaPeoplearealsoknownasthefirstoftheNorth AmericanMoundBuildersastheyconstructedimpressiveburial moundswhichhavesurvivedtothepresent.TheEncyclopedia AmericanaalsotracestheearliestMoundBuildersinancient 22 Americato1000B.C. Italsodescribestheseearthwork moundsasfollows: TheAdenapeopleburiedtheirdeadinlarge conicalmoundsofearth,togetherwithrich gravegoodsofcopper,micaandstone.They leftmanyornamentsandpiecesofjewelry,as wellasstonetabletscoveredwithcurvilinear designs.23 Thetermcurvilineardesignsisactuallyaeuphemismfor inscriptionsinancientOldWorldlanguages.Anykindof alphabeticwritinginvolvescurvedlineswritteninalinear (straightline)manner.Therefore,stonetabletscoveredwith curvilineardesignscouldmoreaccuratelyhavebeenwritten stonetabletswithancientinscriptions.Dr.BarryFell,inhis bookSagaAmerica,stated: ThesocalledCurvilinearisinfactwriting ancientPunic,Greek,andLibyanArabicof NorthAfricausingalphabetsthatareproper tothosetongues.Similartexts,includingalso
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Celtic,IberianandHebrew,wereinscribedin otherpartsofAmerica...24 Dr.Fellhaspointedoutthatsomecurvilinearmarkingsfound inancientAmericawereactuallyancientArabicKufiinscriptions datingtoasrecentastheseventhcenturyA.D.,aconclusion supportedbybothAmericanandforeignexpertsinancient 25 languages. ThisindicatesthatOldWorldcivilizationscontinued tosendexpeditionstoNorthAmericaforcenturiesafterthebirth ofChrist. TheAdenaPeopleflourishedintheAmericanMidwest,generally theOhioRiverValley,beginningaround1000B.C.Theirarrival inancientAmericaparallelstheexpansionaryphaseofancient IsraelunderKingsDavidandSolomonaround1000B.C.asthe Phoenicianempiregrewmorepowerful.Letusexaminewhat languageshavebeenfoundonartifactsinancientAmerican burialmounds. In1838atablet(foundwithaskeletonandcopperarmrings) wasexcavatedinGraveCreek,WestVirginia,fromaburial 26 moundoftheancientNorthAmericanAdenaPeople. Concerningthistablet,BarryFellstates: ItwasatoncerecognizedbyProfessorRafn ofCopenhagenasbeingIberian,thoughthat scripthadnotatthattimebeendeciphered. Recentstudiesshowthelanguageofthe tabletisPunic(Phoenician),writteninthe formofalphabetusedinSpainduringthefirst millenniumB.C.Itmaybetranslatedas follows(thewritingreadingfromrighttoleft): ThemoundraisedonhighforTasachthistile (His)queencausedtobemade.The alphabetofthetabletwasdecipheredby Spanishscholars,andpublishedbythe
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EnglishepigrapherD.Diringerin1968.The languageisbasicSemitic,andallwordsoccur instandardliterarySemiticdictionaries.27 Anothertablet,fromaseparateAdenamoundwas: inscribedinIberianscriptandemployingthe Puniclanguage,sharessomeofitsvocabulary andallofitsbasicstylecharacterswiththe historictabletofTasachexcavatedin1838 [in]WestVirginia...Itsvocabularyisfoundin standardSemiticdictionaries,andyieldsthe followingtranslation:ThememorialofTeth thistile(His)brothercausedtobemade.28 ThepresenceofIberianPunicinscriptionsonthesetablets indicatesthattheyareofaWesternPhoenicianorigin. WesternPhoenician,Carthaginian,Punic,IberianPunic, andIberianarealltermsusedtodescribethelanguagesofthe coloniesoriginallyestablishedbythePhoeniciansofIsrael, TyreandSidonduringthebeginningcenturiesofthefirst millenniumB.C.TheseareSemiticlanguagesasallthepeople inthePhoenicianalliancewereSemites.ThattheAdenapeople buriedtheirdeadwithSemiticinscriptionsoftheWestern PhoenicianlanguagegroupsindicatesthattheAdenaPeople werealargecolonyofSemiticsettlersfromtheOldWorld.Given theproximityofthesefindstotheDecalogueTablet(foundin Ohio)inscribedwiththeTenCommandmentsinancientHebrew, itseemsevidentthatthisSemiticcivilizationbeganmostlyasan Israelitecolony.OnlyIsraeliteswhowerefollowersoftheGodof IsraelwouldinscribeandpreservetheTenCommandments(of IsraelsGod)onatablet.ThoughIsraelceasedtobeanationin theeighthB.C.,theirancientAmericancoloniesoutlivedtheir parentnationformanycenturies,linkedtotheirsister PhoeniciancoloniesinNorthAfricaandIberia.
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ItisnoteworthythattheAdenaCivilizationbeganaround1000 B.C.ChapteronediscussedthefactthattheLakeSuperior coppermineswereapparentlyworkedtoexhaustionaround 1000B.C.whenKingDavidwasimportingmassiveamountsof copperoresfortemplepurposes.ItislikelythattheIsraelites, togetherwiththeirTyrianandSidonianallies,foundedtheAdena coloniestofurtherexploitthenaturalresourcesofancientNorth America.


29 Theabovetabletsdatetoapproximately300200B.C., atime whentheNorthAmericanSemiteswerelinkedtothePunic civilizationofCarthage.SinceitisapparentthatthelateAdena civilizationwasaSemiticculturelikethoseinIberiaandNorth Africa(theysharedacommoncultureandlanguage),itislogical thatallthesegroupssharedacommonorigin.Thatcommon origincouldonlyhavebeenthePhoenicianallianceofIsrael, Tyre,andSidon.

ThefactthatoneoftheancientAdenaroyaltywasnamed Tasachisalsosignificant.InGenesis21:12,Godpromised AbrahamthatthroughIsaacshallyourdescendantsbe named.(RSV)GodwaspromisingthatthenameofIsaac wouldbeaperennial,identifyingmarkerforlocatingthe descendantsofAbraham.ThenameTasachfoundinancient America,isaderivativeofthenameIsaac.Vowelswere generallynotwritteninancientSemiticlanguages,sothe consonantsSCofIsaacarepreservedinthesecondsyllableof TasachaprominentmemberoftheAdenacultureinancient NorthAmerica.TasachmusthavebeenanIsraelitewhohad descendedfromtheoriginalcolonistsoftheHebrew/Phoenician alliance.ThepresenceofanIsraeliteleaderintheAdena civilizationfurtherindicatesthattheIsraeliteswereinaposition ofdominanceintheAdenacolonies. ThePhoenicianallianceofIsrael,TyreandSidonfounded
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numerouscoloniesintheEuropeanandNorthAfricanregionsof theMediterraneanSeaaswellastheBritishIslesandNorth AmericaduringthereignsofKingsDavidandSolomon, beginningaround1000B.C.UnderKingsDavidandSolomon, theIsraelite(Phoenician)Empirebecameamaritime superpower,andbegantoexportPhoenicianHebrewcultureand coloniesaroundtheworld.Theevidencethattheancient IsraelitesfoundedalargeempirehasbeenintheBibles historicalaccountsforthousandsofyears,butonlyrecentlyhas therebeenarcheologicalevidencewhichprovesthebiblical accountswerecorrectallalong.Atitszenith,theempireofIsrael ruledorheldprimaryinfluenceoverportionsoffourcontinents (Asia,Africa,EuropeandNorthAmerica)! WhilewehaveseenthattheGreeksusedthetermPhoeniciato describetheallianceofIsrael,TyreandSidon,itistimeto addressthequestion:WhatdidtheancientIsraeliteempire callitself? Whatissurprisingisthattheanswertothisquestionisnot difficulttoascertain.TheIsraeliteswerethedescendantsof Abraham,withwhomGodmadeasolemncovenant(Genesis 12:13,15:18,17:121,and22:1518)tomakemanynations andkingsoutofAbrahamsdescendants.Notethatinthe abovescripturesthewordcovenantappearsmanytimes.This covenant,withitsmanyblessings,waspassedonthrough AbrahamssonIsaac(Genesis26:2425)toIsaacssonJacob (Genesis35:912).JacobsnamewaschangedtoIsrael(Genesis 35:10),andthecovenantpromisesofGodwerenextgivento Israelstwelvesonswhoweretheprogenitorsofthetwelve tribesofIsrael.However,thenameIsraelwasspecifically placedontheindividualIsraelitetribesofEphraimandManasseh (Genesis48:816).NoteespeciallyIsraelsstatementinverses 1416:
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Israelstretchedouthisrighthand,andlaid ituponEphraimshead...andhislefthand uponManassehs,guidinghishands wittinglyAndheblessedJoseph,and said...blesstheladsandletmynamebe namedonthem...andletthemgrowintoa multitudeinthemidstoftheearth. (Emphasisadded.) Consequently,fromthatpointon,anyentitycalled IsraelintheBiblemustincludethetribesofEphraim andManassehbecausetheyinheritedtheAbrahamic covenant,andthenameofIsrael. EphraimandManassehreceivedthebirthrightblessingsofthe Abrahamiccovenantsuchasalargepopulation,many independentnations,abundantnaturalresources,etc.(Genesis 49:1620).Theothertribessharedinthesecovenantpromises, butthelionsshareofthebestblessingswasinheritedbythe tribesofEphraimandManasseh! However,thetribeofJudahinheritedonemajor blessing/promiseoftheAbrahamiccovenant.Abrahamwas promisedinGenesis17:6thathisdescendantswouldinclude kings.Beforehedied,Israel(Jacob)prophesiedinGenesis49:10 that: Thesceptre[kingsanddynasties]shallnot departfromJudah,noralawgiverfrom betweenhisfeet,untilShilohcomeandunto himshallthegatheringofthepeoplebe. ThewordShilohisdefinedbyYoungsAnalyticalConcordance totheBibleasadescriptionofMessiah,asthePrinceof Peace.30 Thewordgatheringliterallymeansobedience, expectation,hope.31 TheMessiahwas(andis)thehopeof
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IsraelandJudah,andhewillultimatelybeobeyedbyallnations (Zechariah14:916).Genesis49:10prophesiedthattheMessiah wouldhavetocomefromthetribeofJudah.ThefactthatJesus ChristwasamemberofthetribeofJudah,isoneofhis credentialsastheMessiah. AfterthekingdomofIsraeldividedintonorthernand southernkingdoms,EphraimandManassehbecamethe chieftribesofthenorthernkingdomofIsrael,andJudah becamethechieftribeofthesouthernkingdomofJudah. Thiswillbecomecriticallyimportantinlaterchaptersaswetrace theirdescendantsthroughhistoryupto(andincluding)the modernera.TheBibleconsistentlyreferstotheJewsandtheir relatedtribesbythenameJudah(bothinhistoryand prophecy),whileEphraimandManassehandtheirrelatedtribes arereferredtoasIsrael.Itiscriticallyimportanttorealize that,afterthedivisionofthetribeswhichfollowedsoonafterthe deathofKingSolomon,thetermsIsraelandJudaharenot synonymous. Theentirepurposeoftheabovediscussionwastoshowthe importanceofthewordcovenantaspartoftheheritageof Israel.Theywerewellawarethattheywerethepeopleofthe covenant,indeed,itwasthecentralthemeoftheirentire heritage.TheHebrewwordforcovenantisBerith.32 With vowelsbeingabsentinancientHebrew/Phoenician,thisword wouldberepresentedbytheconsonantsBRTorBRTH (generallywrittenasbrtorbrth,butthisbookwillpresent ancientrootwordswithcapitallettersandhyphensforthe purposeofemphasis).AmodernformofthisHebrewwordis containedinthenameofawellknownJewishorganization:Bnai Brith. Beforecontinuing,thereadershouldknowthatthefinalsymbol ofBRTorBRTH,althoughwrittenasTorTH,isbasedon
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thesameHebrewconsonant.Thatconsonantspronunciation couldvary(resultingintheabovedifferentrepresentations),but itisstillthesameconsonant.Iwishtoacknowledgethe assistanceofDr.CharlesV.Dorothy,agraduateofClaremont GraduateSchool,Claremont,CA,whocommentsasfollowson thedifferentformsofthisHebrewconsonant: Itisnostretchatalloflinguisticpatternsfor aspirant(especiallyhardtopronounceinthe caseofth)toelideintoastop:t. Also,IwishtothankDr.Dorothy(inhisdiscussionofthe languagepossibilitiesinvolvingBRT/BRTH)formentioning thatthoseconsonantscanalsodesignateaHebrewwordfor soap/alkali.Sincesomeindividuals,determinedtominimize theroleoftheIsraelitesandtheGodofIsraelinworldhistory, maygraspatthisstrawtoopposethisbooksconclusions,we willbrieflydiscussthispossibilityinordertogiveittheswift dismissalitdeserves.AccordingtoYoungsAnalytical ConcordancetotheBible,theOldTestamenttranslatestheword BRT/BRTHascovenantin260instances(andasrelated 33 wordslikeleagueorconfederacyanother19times). However,thoseconsonantsappearinaseparateHebrewword 34 (borith)translatedsoaponlytwice. AnyonefamiliarwiththeBibleorIsraelitehistoryknowsthatthe Israeliteswereknown,bothraciallyandnationally,asthe CovenantPeople,nottheSoapPeople.Intermsofrelative importancetotheIsraelitesasanationalsymbolormotto,the wordcovenantmeritsuniqueandspecialimportancetothem asanidentifyingterm.Inthis,Dr.Dorothyagrees,commenting: ...inyourfavor,andyoumaywanttomention[this]whenever possible,isthemuchgreaterimportanceofcovenantorbond [inIsraelitehistory]against...soap.Itisbeyondthescopeof thisbooktoanalyzeeverypossiblenuanceoftheHebrew
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language,butthereadermayrestassuredthateitherBRTor BRTH,whenappliedinanationalsense,representtheHebrew wordforcovenant. Abook,PhoenicianOriginofBritons,ScotsandAngloSaxons,by L.A.Waddell,documentstheprominentusageofthewordBR T(whichWaddellgenerallyrendersBarat)inthenationand coloniesoftheearlyPhoenicians,butacautionarycomment mustbemadeaboutthisbook.Whileitcontainsmuchevidence abouttheprominenceofthewordBRTinPhoeniciassphere ofinfluence,Waddellsbook(firstpublishedin1924)contains Aryanracialsupremacytheories.[Incontrast,thebookwhich youarenowreadingrejectsanddisavowsanyracialsupremacy theoriesandallformsofantiSemitism.] Waddellsbookalsomadeacriticalerrorinnotunderstanding thatthereweretwoveryseparateHebrewkingdomsinthe ancientMideast:JudahinthesouthandIsraelinthenorth.He alsomistakenlyreferstotheIsraelite/Phoenicianstothenorthof JudahastheHittoPhoenicians.Waddellslackofawareness thatthetermsIsraeliteandJewarenotsynonymousisclear fromhisnotationonachartthattheIsraelites[were]carried intocaptivitybyNebuchadnezzar,587B.C.35 Itwasactuallythe Jews(ofthekingdomofJudah)whoweretakenintocaptivity byNebuchadnezzarin587B.C.TheIsraelites(ofthekingdom ofIsrael)hadnotresidedinPalestinesincethefallofSamariain 721B.C.Duetothismistake,Waddellfailedtorecognizethe IsraelitecharacterofthePhoenicianEmpire.WhileWaddell documentstheprominenceofthewordBRTinthePhoenician sphereofinfluence,hefailedtorealizethattheprominent presenceoftheHebrewwordforcovenant(BRT)onthe PhoenicianEmpirearguespowerfullyforIsraelitedominancein thePhoenicianempire.WhileTyreandSidonhadnothingin theirheritagetoplacethewordcovenantonthemselves,the
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tentribesofIsrael(especiallythetribesofEphraimand Manasseh)werethecovenantpeople,andtheiruseofthe wordBRTproclaimedtheiridentitytotheworld!Besides callingthemselvesIsrael,Judah,ortheirindividualtribal names,theIsraelitescalledthemselvesthecovenantpeople. TheearlyBritishchroniclersrecordthataKingBrutuscamefrom theEasternMediterraneanwithhundredsofshipstocolonizethe largeislandonthenorthwestoftheEuropeanlandmass,and gaveitthenameBritonorBrittania.Theapproximatedate forthiseventis1103B.C.,atimejustpriortothebeginningof thefirstmillenniumB.C.AlthoughBrutusisattributedaTrojan ancestryintheancientaccounts,heboretheHebrewwordBR Tinhisname(Brutus),andappliedthesameHebrewword(B 36 RT)totheirnewhomeland(Briton). Inotherwords,King BrutusnameidentifiedhimasamemberoftheCovenant People,andinnaminghisnewlandBriton,hewasclaimingit asaterritoryfortheCovenantPeople.ThataTrojanleader boreanimportantHebrewrootwordinhisnamearguesthat IsraeliteswerepresentamongtheinhabitantsofancientTroy. WhileitcannotbedemonstratedthatBrutuscolonistsarrivingin BritonwereallIsraelites,thefactthattheHebrewwordBRT wasplacedontheleaderoftheexpeditionandtheirnew homelanddoesargueforadominantIsraeliteroleinthisearly colonizationofBriton.EventhoughtheformalallianceofIsrael andTyrewasnotcreateduntilthereignsofKingsDavidand Hiram(approximatelyacenturylater),Brutusvoyageindicates thatIsraeliteswereinvolvedincolonialexpeditionsandmaritime journeysevenbeforethereignofKingDavid.Indeed,theBible supportssuchaconclusion.Judges5:17attributesanautical presenceintheMediterraneanSeatotheIsraelitetribeofDan (circa1200B.C.),indicatingaseafaringtraditionamongthe IsraelitesacenturybeforeBrutustime.
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Israel,thecovenantnation,hadbeenpresentintheEastern MediterraneanforcenturiesbeforeKingDavidruled,sothe arrivalofKingBrutusandafleetofCovenantPeople(i.e. Israelites)fromtheEasternMediterraneaninBritonin1103B.C. washistoricallypossible.Indeed,whoelsebuttheIsraelites (whohadenteredintoacovenantrelationshipwithGodatMt. Sinai)wouldsoprominentlyaffixtheHebrewwordfor covenanttothemselvesandtheirterritories?Also,unless BrutusfleetofcolonistswerepredominatelyIsraelite,whywould theyallowhimtonametheirnewhomelandwithawordso closelylinkedwiththetribesofIsrael? AneedbyIsraeltoexportitsgrowingpopulationviacolonizing expeditionsisconsistentwiththebiblicalpromiseofGodto AbrahamtosoincreasethepopulationoftheIsraelitesthatthey wouldbelikeasthestarsofheaven,andasthesandwhichis upontheseashore(Gen.22:1517).Anypeoplesoblessed wouldregularlyneedtolocateadditionalterritoriesforan expandingpopulation.ThecolonizingexpeditionofBrutusand theHebrewwordBRTbeingplacedonancientBriton indicatesthatispreciselywhatwashappening. TheabovedoesnotdenythatthecitystatesofTyreandSidon alsohadmajorconcurrentseafaringcapacities.Sincethe Israelites,theTyriansandSidonianshadlongsharedacommon race,languageandtradingrelationships,itispossiblethatwhen KingsHiramandDavidsealedaformalalliancebetweentheir peoples,navies,etc.theysimplyformalizedthestatusquo ratherthanestablishedsomethingradicallynew.Thiscreatesthe possibility(indeed,thelikelihood)thatIsrael,TyreandSidon hadbeencooperatingforsometimeintheiroverseasendeavors. ThefactthattheGreeksdidnotlimitthetermPhoeniciatothe smallcitystateslikeTyreandSidon,butincludedthelandof IsraelintheregiontheycalledPhoeniciasupportsthis
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37 conclusion.

Atanyrate,thearrivalofIsraelitesettlersinBritonpavedthe wayforitsinclusionamongthelandsoftheIsraelite/Phoenician maritimeempirewhichfollowedshortlythereafter.Unique amongthelandsinhabitedbytheIsraelite/Phoenicians,the islandofBritonhasretainedanamebasedontheHebrewword forcovenantcontinuouslyintothemodernera. TheBRTrootwordwasalsofoundonPhoeniciancoins,further indicatingthattheyidentifiedthemselvesasthecovenant people.38 ThePhoeniciancolonyofCarthagealsoprintedthewordBRT 39 onitscoins. Alaterchapterwillpresentconsiderableevidence thattheIsraelitesweretheprimefoundersofthePhoenician colonyofCarthage.Therefore,itisnotsurprisingthatthis significantHebrewrootword(BRT)alsoappearson Carthaginiancoins(proclaimingtotheworldthattheywerepart oftheCovenantPeople).TheIsraeliteswereproudofbeing theCovenantPeople,asdemonstratedbythatwordbeingused asalegendontheircoins.Whetherthevowelsoundsoftheir dayresultedinawordlikeBarat,Berith,orBritisnot importantwhatiscriticalistheunderstandingthatPhoenician peoplechosetorefertothemselvesastheCovenant(BRT) People.WhenwefindtherootwordcontainingtheconsonantsB RT(oritsvariations)attachedtoagroupofpeopleinthe ancientPhoenicianworld,wecangenerallyassumewehave locatedsomeofthecovenanttribesofIsraelunlessthereis overridingevidencetothecontrary. ThewordHebrewcomesfromoneoftheancestorsofthe IsraeliteswhosenamewasEber(Genesis11:1426tracesthe ancestryofAbrahamtoEber).Severalvariationsoftheword HebrewalsoappearwithintheancientPhoenicianEmpire. WehavealreadyseenthattheancientnameofSpain(whichwas
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thesiteofthemajorPhoenician/Israelitecolonyof Gades/Gadeira),wasIberia.Also,anancientnameofIreland wasIbheriuorIberiu,andancientGaelichistoriesrecordthat theancestorsoftheGaelicsettlersofIrelandcamefromIberia 40 (PhoenicianSpain). AncientIrelandwasalsocalledHibernia, anamewhichalsopreservedtheHebrewrootwordEber.Note howcloselythewordsIbheriuandIberiucoincidephonetically withthepronunciationofthewordHebrew. Waddellalsonotessomeoftheabove,andincludesthe Hebridesasarelatedword,representativeoftheIberia... stock,whichfirstpeopledtheBritishIsles.41 Theplacementof thenameofaHebrewpatriarchonIreland,Spainandearly BritonfurtherconfirmsthattheirearlysettlerswereIsraelites, colonizingtheseareasduringthecenturiesofthePhoenician GoldenAge. OneotherpossibilityexistsfortheseearlynamesintheBritish Isles.ItwasnotedearlierthatearlyhistoriesofBritonrecord thatthetribeofAsheroperatedtheancientminesinCornwall. OneoftheclansofAsherwasnamedtheHeberites(Numbers 26:4445),andthisHebrewnamealsoservesasapreciseroot wordforsuchnamesasHiberniaandtheHebrides.Eitherway, theIsraelitedominanceintheoldPhoenicianEmpireisfurther shown.WouldthepagansoftheancientcitystatesofTyreand Sidonhavecalledtheircolonies,coinsandkingsbyIsraelite namesbasedontheHebrewwordcovenant,andthenamesof eitherAbrahamsancestororaclanofthetribeofAsher?Of coursenot!TheseIsraelitenamesclearlyindicatethatthe oldPhoenicianEmpireatthebeginningofthefirst millenniumB.C.wastheinternationalIsraeliteempire spokenofintheBible.ThecommonusageoftheHebrewword BRTindicatestheyreferredtothemselvesasthecovenant kingdom.
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LetusexaminestillmoreevidencethatthePhoenicianEmpire wasactuallytheempireofIsrael.Rememberthattheconsonants ofancientlanguageswerewrittenwhilethevowelswere frequentlyomitted.TheconsonantsofthewordPhoeniciaare P(h)NC.TheseconsonantswerepreservedbytheRomans whentheycalledtheCarthaginiansthePunicempire (Accordingtosecularaccounts,Carthagewasfoundedbythe PhoeniciansintheninthcenturyB.C.)Indoingso,theRomans simplypreservingtheGreekdesignationforthePhoenicians(the foundersofCarthage). TheRomanswerenottheonlyancientnationthatretainedthe PNCnamefortheancientIsraeliteempire.Theancient recordsofVedicIndiaalsorecordtheexistenceofan internationalempirewiththoseconsonantsintheirtitle.The ancientwritingsofVedicIndiaincludethefollowingstatement: TheablePanchsettingouttoinvadetheEarth,broughtthe wholeWorldundertheirsway.42 (Emphasisadded.) Also,aRigVedaHymnincludesthisstatement:ThePanch leadersoftheEarth.43 (Emphasisadded.) TheconsonantsforthesePanchworldleadersintheVedic recordsarePNC(h).Thiscouldconceivablybewrittenoffby skepticsasacoincidenceexceptforthefactthatthisPanch empireisalsolinkedwiththeBRTHebrewrootwordfor Covenant.ThefirstquoteaboutthePanchisfromtheMaha BarataIndianEpicoftheGreatBarats(Emphasisadded.),and thesecondquoteisfromaRigVedahymnstating: TheBrihatsingersbelaudIndra...Indrahath raisedtheSunonhighinheaven...Indra leadsuswithsingleswayThePanchleaders oftheEarth.44 ThereferencestoIndraandsunworshiparehardlysurprising.
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TheBiblerecordsthatIsraelbecamedevoteesofBaal,theSun godofTyreandSidon,duringtheirgoldenage.Thisidolatryhad permeatedIsraelevenbeforethedeathofSolomonashe himselfworshippedAshtoreth(orAstarte),aPhoenicianname forthemothergoddesswhowasworshippedinmanyother culturesbyothernames.Israelsdevotiontoforeigngodslasted fromSolomonuntilthefallofIsraelinabout721B.C.,sothe factthattheBRT(Covenant)PeopleofPanch(Phoenician) famewereassociatedwiththemothergoddessworshipis consistentwithbiblicalaccounts.Itisclear,nonetheless,that ancientIndianhistoriesreferredtotheIsraeliteempirebythe samerootwordsbywhichtheywereknowntothe Mediterraneanworld.TheGreeksknewtheIsraelitesbytheterm Phoenicia,andtheIsraelitesnamedthemselvestheBRT (Covenant)People.AncientIndiapreservedbothrootwordsin thetermsPanch,andtheBarats(orBrihats).Furtherlinking theserootwordstogetherisaphraseinanancientIndianepic (theVishnuPurana)whichstates:Theprincipalnationsofthe BaratsaretheKurusandtheablePanch.45 (Emphasisadded.) ThattheIsraelite/PhoenicianEmpiremadealastingimpression inAsiaaswellastheMediterraneanworldindicatesthatIsraels empireandinfluencewastrulyinternationalinscope.Therecord inancientIndianannalsthattheBarat/Panch(BR T/Phoenicians)broughtthewholeWorldundertheirswaygives addedweighttothestatementoftheBiblethatallthekings oftheearthsoughtthepresenceofSolomonandthey broughteverymanhispresentyearbyyear(IIChronicles 9:2324). ItisevidentthatthegreatempireknowntotheMediterranean/ AtlanticworldasthePhoenicians(andbytheHebrewwordBR T),andthegreatempireknowntotheAsiansasthePanch(and bytheHebrewwordBRT)wereoneandthesame.Thisempire
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wastheIsraeliteempireunderKingsDavidandSolomon:the covenantorBRTkingdom. TheBiblequotesGodgivingKingDavidthefollowingmessage throughtheprophetNathan: Ihavebeenwithyouwhereveryouwent, andhavecutoffallyourenemiesfrombefore youandIwillmakeforyouagreatname, likeuntothenameofthegreatonesofthe earth.(IISam.7:9) Thispassageisimportantfortworeasons:Itnotonlyclaimsthat thefameofKingDavid(thefounderoftheIsraeliteempire) wouldequalthefameofanyotherworldleadersknowntohimat thattime,butitalsoclaimsadivineroleinDavidsandIsraels ascendancy.GodwasremindingDavidthathiskingshipand Israelssuccessresultedfromdivineinterventionintheaffairsof nations.ThismessagewastokeepDavidhumblebyreminding himthathealsohadaking(theGodofIsrael)toobey. Oneadditionalpieceofevidenceofthesubstantialroleofthe Israelitetribesintheancientworldwillbeexamined.Ezekiel27 listsmanyancientnationswhichtradedinTyresmarketplace, andverses1719(KJV)listthetribeofDanashavingan identityseparateanddistinctfromIsraelandJudah.This factwashintedatearlierinthereferencetoJudges5:17that Danremain[ed]inships.Thispassageindicatesthatthetribe ofDan(whoseterritoryincludedastripoflandonthe Mediterraneanshore)hadanauticalidentity.Ifaportionofthe DaniteshadanidentityseparatefromIsraelandJudah,secular recordsshouldbearwitnesstothatfact...andtheydo! TheEncyclopaediaBritannicarecordsthattheGreekslistedthe Danaans,orDanuanaasadistinct,seafaringpeoplewho werepresentintheeasternMediterraneanSeaasearlyas1230
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46 1190B.C. ThisisthesametimeframethatJudges5:17 ascribesanauticalidentitytotheDanites.Bibleswhichaffix datestochapterheadingstypicallyshowadatearound1200 B.C.forJudges5:17.Therefore,thebiblicalandsecularaccounts agreeonthedatingofthetribeofDansseparate,maritime identity.

TheseDanaanswerepartofaseafaringallianceofpeoples knownastheSeaPeopleswhoraidedandsettledMediterranean coastlandsatthattime.TheconnectionbetweenthetribeofDan andtheSeaPeopleshasalsobeennotedinBiblicalArchaeology Review,inanarticlewhichcitestheworkofIsraeliarchaeologist, YigaelYadin,inthefollowingcomment: ...TheDaniteswereoriginallynotmembers oftheIsraeliteconfederation...Theyseem, rather,tohavebeenconnectedwithagroup oftheSeaPeoplescalledDanunaorDenyen inEgyptiansources,andknowntotheGreeks astheDanaoi.47 Dansapparentindependencefromtheothertribesoccurredata timewhentheIsraelitetribeswerelooselyruledbyaseriesof JudgeswhopredatedtheIsraelitemonarchicalperiod.During thattime,theIsraelitetribeshadnostrongcentralgovernment, andthetribeswerefreetopursuemoreindependentpaths.The factthattheDanaanswerelocatedintheeastern MediterraneanregionalsosupportstheirbeingthetribeofDan asthatispreciselywhereonewouldexpectthetribeofDanto bepresent.ItisalsorecordedthattheDanaansfurnished 48 someoftheearliestsettlersofancientIreland. Thisaccount notonlyfurthersupportsastrongnauticaltraditionforthe ancienttribeofDan,buttheirpresenceinancientIrelandalso indicatesthatseveraloftheIsraelitetribeshadrolesintheearly colonizationoftheBritishIsles.
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IfDan,oneofthelessertribesofIsrael,wasitselfsufficiently numerousthattheGreekspreserveditsprominent,independent identityapproximatelytwocenturiespriortothereignsofKings DavidandSolomon,itiseasiertounderstandhowgreatthe entireIsraelitenationcouldbecomewhenalltwelvetribeswere finallyunitedunderastrongruler. Inconclusion,wecannowseethattheIsraeliteempireunder KingsDavidandSolomonatthebeginningofthefirstmillennium B.C.wastrulyaninternationalempirethatspannedseveral continents.BesidesitsMideasthomeland,itextendedits influencetotheEuropeanandAfricanshoresofthe Mediterranean,theBritishIsles,andNorthAmerica.Foratime, itexerciseddominanceoverthenationswhichhadeitherbeen conqueredbyKingDavidorhadvoluntarilyofferedtribute paymentstoIsraelunderKingSolomon.Also,theirsphereof influenceextendedfarbeyondtheiractualareasofsettlement. WhenKingDavidroutedtheAssyrianarmyanditsallies,the fameofIsraelspreadfarandwide.Solomonswealth,wisdom andpowerwouldhavefurtherexpandedtheworldsawareness ofIsraelsgreatness.KingSolomonsalliancewithSidon,Tyre andEgyptwouldhavemadethisgroupingthemostpowerful landandmaritimeforceonearthatthattime.Thebiblical assertionsthattheIsraeliteempireunderKingSolomonhad worldwideinfluenceisneitherfantasticnorexaggerated. ThateventheVedichistoriesofIndiastatethatthePanch(same consonantsasPhoenicia),whowereknownastheBarats(same consonantsastheHebrewwordforcovenant),broughtthe wholeWorldundertheirswayconfirmstheirinternational dominance.ArcheologicalevidenceshowsthatthePhoenician (Israelite)Empirewasworldwideinitsinfluence,includinga substantialpresenceinancientNorthAmerica.Historyalso showsthatthePhoenicianEmpirewascharacterizedby
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IsraelitenamessuchasIberia(namedfortheHebrewancestor Eber),tribalnamesfromtheIsraelitetribesofAsher,Gadand Dan,andtheHebrewwordforcovenant(BRT)whichwould designatethetribesofEphraimandManasseh,theprimary inheritorsofAbrahamsCovenantblessings. IthasbeenclearlyshownthatthePhoenicianempirewas,in fact,theIsraeliteempire.Foraverylongtime,secular historianshavebeenunawareoftherealscopeofIsraels ancientempire.Onereasonforthisomissionisthegreat antiquityofIsraelsempire.WemustrealizethattheIsraelite EmpiresGoldenAgewasalreadyancienthistoryatthetimeof AlexandertheGreat,andoccurredalmostamillenniumpriorto thetimeoftheCaesarsofRome.Becauseitsexistencewaswell beforetheempirescommonlydiscussedinhistorytexts,and becauseitsGoldenAgeofworldpowerwasmostlylimitedtothe reignsofjusttwokings(DavidandSolomon),thestoryofthe IsraeliteEmpirehasnotbeenincludedinourknowledgeofworld history.However,someworldhistorieshaverecordedthe existenceofthePhoenicianEmpire,buteventhoseaccounts whichdiscussthePhoenicianEmpirehavenotnoticedits Israelitecharacter. However,eventhoughmodernmanhasbeenignorantofthe realstateofaffairsoftheancientIsraelites,theBiblerecorded boththeexistenceofIsraelsempireandthefactthat internationaltradeandcommercethrivedintheancientworld. Eventhoughthesebiblicalrecordshavebeenignoredand discountedforsometime,recentarcheologicalevidenceshows thattheBibleshistoricalaccountswere(andalwayshavebeen) accurate! Anotherreasonwhyhistoriansmayhaveoverlookedthe greatnessoftheIsraeliteempireisthelackofancient monuments,steles,etc.intheMideast.Wehavealready
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discussedonereasonforthelackofmonumentstoIsraelsglory: GodhimselfpunishedKingDavidandtheIsraelitesforevenso muchasconductingacensusoftheirmilitaryreserves.Godwas attemptingtokeepIsraelsmonarchshumble(forthegoodof thenation),andselfglorifyingmonumentsandsteles,etc.would havecounteredGodspolicyfarmorethanamilitarycensus.So, KingsDavidandSolomon,whowerefaithfultoGodatthetime ofIsraelsgreatestglory,wouldhavebeendisinclinedtoleave memorialsandmonumentstotheirconquestsand accomplishments.Sincetheydidnotbuildselfpraising monuments,modernarcheologistshavenothingtofind. Butwhataboutlatermonarchs,whentheyceasedfearingGod, somemightask?ItislikelythatlaterIsraelitemonarchsdid, indeed,makerecordsoftheiraccomplishmentsonstoneand papyrusinlateryears,butthereareseveralreasonswhythese artifactswouldnothavebeenpreserved.TheterritoryofIsrael wasthelocationformanysavageandbrutalwarsafterthe reignsofKingsDavidandSolomon.AsIsraelsenemies conqueredPalestine,destroyingwholecitiesintheprocess,vast numbersofmonumentsandrecordsweredestroyedaswell. Indeed,asAssyriaandBabylonconqueredtheIsraelite homelands,SolomonsTemple,theroyalpalacesofDavidand Solomon,etc.wereallrazed.ItislikelythatAssyriaandBabylon destroyedeveryvestigeofIsraelitecivilizationthattheycould findwhentheyburntIsraelsandJudahscities,andcarriedthe remainingIsraelitescaptiveoutofPalestine.Also,sinceother populationsweresubsequentlyplacedinthelandofPalestine, theseothergroupshadnouseforanythingIsraeliteandlikely scavengedwhateverphysicalmaterialswereleftforuseas buildingmaterialsforthemselves.Palestineisakeynexuswhere theroutestothreecontinents(Africa,AsiaandEurope) converge.Forthisreason,thesmallterritoryofPalestinehas beenfoughtoverandsuccessivelydestroyedmanytimes.Each
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ofthemanywarsinPalestinefurtherdestroyedanyphysical evidenceoftheveryancientIsraeliteEmpire. Thereisanotherreasonwhylittleornothingwouldhave remainedoftheIsraeliteempirebasedinPalestine:the weatheringforcesoftheelements.MartlandEdeywrites concerningtheweatheringforcesofthedamp,oceanclimateof theeasternMediterranean: Anythingwrittenonpapyrusquickly disappearswoodrotsclaytablets,unless safelyburiedintheground,crumble.Even stonemonumentsorinscriptions,ifexposed longenoughtotheweatheringofwind,rain andfrost,becomeblurredandeventually indecipherable.49 WhiletheancienttabletsandmonumentsofAssyria,Babylon andPersiawerepreservedindrydesertconditionsorburied underthesandsoftime(andsubsequentlyundisturbedfor centuries)indesertareaswhichwerecomparativelyundisturbed, Israelsmonumentsandrecordswouldhavedeterioratedinthe easternMediterraneanarea.Alsosincemanyconquerorsand civilizationscameandwentinPalestineaftertheIsraelites flourishedthere,virtuallynothingwasleftundisturbed.However, enoughartifactsandrecordsabouttheIsraeliteempire(called PhoeniciabytheGreeks)havesurvivedtodocumenttheirtrue worldwideinfluence. TheIsraeliteempirewasatitszenithduringthereignsofkings DavidandSolomon,butaftertheirdeaths,itwasrentbyagreat civilwarwhichpermanentlydividedthetribesofIsraelintothe separate,andoftenhostile,kingdomsofIsraelandJudah.Their formergloryandpowerwasneverrecaptured.Thestoryof IsraelsdeclineandtheirsubsequentmigrationsoutofPalestine willbeexaminedinthenextchapter.
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Endnotes:ChapterThree 1. Edey,TheSeaTraders,p.9 2. Hitti,ShortHistoryoftheNearEast,p.28Colliers Encyclopedia,Vol.2,BabyloniaandAssyria,p.637,and Halley,HalleysBibleHandbook,p.134 3. HarpersBibleDictionary,seeTarshish,p.1018 4. Fell,AmericaB.C.,p.93 5. EncyclopediaAmericana,Vol.18,Magellan,Ferdinand,pp. 8081 6. Fell,AmericaB.C.,pp.93101 7. Edey,p.14 8. Rawlinson,Phoenicia,p.63 9. Ibid,p.68 10.YoungsAnalyticalConcordancetotheBible,OldTestament HebrewLexicon,seeGadar,p.16 11.Waddell,PhoenicianOriginoftheBritons,ScotsandAnglo Saxons,p.74 12.Hitti,p.259 13.EncyclopediaBritannica,Vol.513,Cadiz,p.513 14.Rawlinson,Phoenicia,p.68 15.EncyclopediaAmericana,Vol.18,Malaga,p.152 16.Rawlinson,Phoenicia,pp.6970 17.Capt,TheTraditionsofGlastonbury,p.28(citingWilliam Camdens,Britannia) 18.Ibid,p.28(citingSirEdwardCreasys,HistoryofEngland) 19.Fell,SagaAmerica,p.167BloomandPolansky,Translation oftheDecalogueTabletfromOhio,EpigraphicSociety OccasionalPublications,Vol.8,PartOne,1980,pp.1520 andaseriesofarticlesontheLosLunasInscriptions, EpigraphicSocietyOccasionalPublications,Vol.13,1985,pp. 3250 20.Lenhart,TheAdenaTablets,EpigraphicSocietyOccasional Publications,Vol.13,1985,p.206
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21.Ibid,p.206 22.EncyclopediaAmericana,Vol.19,MoundBuilders,p.565 23.Ibid,Vol.19,Mound,p.565 24.Fell,SagaAmerica,p.248 25.EpigraphicSocietyOccasionalPublications,Vol.7,Part2, 1979,AnInterviewwithBarryFell,pp.160166 26.Fell,AmericaB.C.,p.21 27.Ibid,p.21 28.Ibid,p.158 29.Lenhart,p.208 30.YoungsAnalyticalConcordancetotheBible,seefirst HeadingentitledShiloh,p.879 31.Ibid,seeHeadingGathering,subheadone,p.385 32.Rawlinson,Phoenicia,pp.6970 33.YoungsAnalyticalConcordancetotheBible,HebrewLexicon Section,seewordberith,p.8 34.Ibid,HebrewLexiconSection,seewordborith,p.9 35.Waddell,ThePhoenicianOriginofBritons,ScotsandAnglo Saxons,Appendix1,p.387 36.Ibid,p.viiofPrefaceandpp.142167 37.Rawlinson,Phoenicia,p.1 38.Waddell,pp.5456 39.Ibid,p.9 40.Fell,AmericaB.C.,p.43 41.Waddell,p.137 42.Ibid,p.1 43.Ibid,p.1 44.Ibid,p.1 45.Ibid,p.18821 46.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.22,Troy,p.504 47.RabanandStieglitz,TheSeaPeoples,BiblicalArchaeology Review(BAR),NovemberDecember1991,p.41(citing Yadin,DanaansandDanites,BAR,June1976)
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48.Lawless,Ireland,pp.69 49.Edey,p.17

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4.IsraeliteandJewishMigrationsfromPalestine TheIsraeliteempire,whichoncedominatedthenationsofthe earth,wasprogressivelydebilitatedbyforeignandcivilwars, internalstrife,andevenbycalamitiesintheweather.TheBible revealsthattheirdeclinewasaresultoftheirrefusaltoabideby thelawsoftheCreatorGodwhohadmadeIsraelgreat.This eventuallyresultedinsuccessivewavesofmigrationexitingthe IsraelitehomelandinPalestineasthelandbecameincreasingly untenable. WhilemanyarefamiliarwiththefallofSamaria(Israelscapital) inapproximately721B.C.,mostdonotrealizethatbythetime ofSamariasfall,thevastmajorityofIsraeliteshadalready migratedoutoftheland,manyofthemvoluntarily.Additionally, manyJewshadbeentakenfromthenationofJudahby700B.C. asAssyriancaptives.Judah(anditscapitalcityofJerusalem) surviveduntilapproximately586B.C.,whentheBabylonians carriedtheremainderoftheJewsintoanAsiancaptivity. Thischapterwillnotattempttoprovideacomprehensivehistory ofthetwoHebrewkingdomsofIsraelandJudah,butwill examinesomeofthelesserknownaspectsoftheirhistoryand theirmigrationsfromPalestine.Athoroughhistoryofthetwo separateHebrewkingdomscanbeobtainedbyreadingthe biblicalbooksofI&IIKingsandI&IIChronicles. AfterthedeathofSolomon,theunitedHebrewkingdomwas dividedintotwonations:Judah,ruledbySolomonsson Rehoboam,andIsrael,ruledbyJeroboam,oneofSolomons formerappointeesoverthetribesofEphraimandManasseh(I Kings11:28).Theeventswhichledtothisseparationresemblea modernsoapopera. TheIsraeliteshadcometogreatlyresentthelaborsandtaxes whichSolomonhadforcedonthembecauseofhismassive buildingprojects,andtheywantedrelief!Inoneoftheworlds
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worstdecisionsever,thesonofSolomon(Rehoboam)alienated mostofthenationwhenhesaidhewouldbeeventougheron themthanSolomonhadbeen(IKings12:121).Thiswas profoundlyfoolishasallofIsraelstribes,ledbyhisrival Jeroboam,hadofferedtheirloyaltyifonlyhewouldlightenthe burdenswhichSolomonhadplaceduponthem.Havinghadtheir offerofconditionalsubmissionspurnedbyRehoboam,allthe tribesofIsraelexceptJudah(Rehoboamsowntribe)and BenjaminspurnedRehoboam,andmadeJeroboamtheirking. Thiseventleftbothfactionsfeelingrejectedbytheotherone. AfterRehoboammadehisterriblemistake,JeroboamofIsrael alsomadeaveryfoolishdecision.Havingbeenpromisedthe samefavorGodgaveDavidifonlyhewouldbeobedient(IKings 11:2938),JeroboamspurnedGodsoffer.Hequicklyforcedcalf worshiponIsrael,andabolishedGodsHolyDaysinfavorofnew celebrationshedevisedforthem(IKings12:2533).His adoptionofcalfworship(anEgyptianreligion)likelyresulted fromhisbeingshelteredinEgyptwhenPharaohgavehim politicalasylumfromSolomonswrath. ThisdefianceofSolomonbyEgyptspharaoh(i.e.sheltering Solomonsadversary)makesoneaskthequestion:whatwas becomingoftheIsraelitePhoenicianEgyptianalliancewhich beganunderSolomon?Itwasstillintact,butshowing considerable(andunderstandable)stress.WhenSolomon degeneratedinhislateryears,GodhandpickedJeroboam,the governorofEphraimandManasseh(thetribeofJoseph)to succeedSolomonoverthenortherntentribesofIsrael.Solomon learnedofthis,andsoughttoexecuteJeroboam.Jeroboamwas givenpoliticalasylumbyEgyptspharaohfromSolomonswrath, indicatingthatenmitiesmusthavebeengrowingbetweenKing SolomonandthepharaohevenbeforeSolomonsdeath.Itis possiblethattherewasapersonalreasonforPharaohs
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distancinghimselffromSolomon.Solomonsfirstwifewasan Egyptianprincess,daughterofpharaoh(IKings9:16).As Solomonbegancollectinganimmenseharem,heapparentlylost interestinhisfirstwife.Pharaoh,andallEgyptcouldeasilyhave feltslightedbySolomonsconduct,givingthemamotiveto retaliateagainstSolomonbyshelteringJeroboam.Duringthe timethatPharaohshelteredJeroboam,theymusthaveforgeda personalfriendshipandalliancethatmadethemimmediate nationalallieswhenJeroboambecamekingoverthelargest portionofSolomonsoldkingdom.Therefore,whileEgyptwas driftingawayfromSolomon,itwasgrowingclosertotheone whowouldsucceedSolomonovermostofIsrael.Thisprolonged EgyptiansojournledtoJeroboamsfamiliaritywithEgypts religion.Therefore,hisadoptionofEgyptianidolswasamoveto cementpoliticaltieswithEgypt. JeroboamalsodisenfranchisedGodsleviticalpriesthood(IKings 12:31),whichsoonresultedinthewholetribeofLevimigrating tothekingdomofJudah(IIChronicles11:1316).Sincethe worshipofGodwasbeingkickedoutofIsrael,thosewho wishedtoserveGodfromIsraelsnortherntentribeshadlittle choicebuttofollowtheleviticalpriestsintoJudah(sinceonlythe LevitescouldperformGodsservices).Thisresultedininfusions ofcontingentsfromothertribesintoJudahskingdomaswell (verse16).ThedivisionofIsraelstribeswasfullyaccomplished: thenortherntentribesfollowedJeroboamofIsrael,andthree tribes(Judah,BenjaminandLevi)followedRehoboamofJudah. However,thecontingentsoftheothertribeswholeftIsraelfor Judahinitiallyresultedinaroughlytwotoonesuperiorityof IsraeloverJudah(IIChronicles13:3.) RehoboamservedGodfaithfullyforthreeyears(IIChronicles 11:17).Thenhemadeanotherfoolishdecisionbyabandoning thelawsofGod(IIChronicles12:12).Hedidnothavetowait
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longforGodspunishment. JustfiveyearsafterSolomondied(andtwoyearsafter RehoboamforsookGod),EgyptattackedJudah.Sincetherewas nolovelostbetweenIsraelandSolomonsfamily,theEgyptians attackedJudahknowingtheiroldfriend,KingJeroboamofIsrael, wouldrendernoaidtoJudah(IIChronicles12:212).When EgyptdefeatedJudahandlootedJerusalemofitsgoldtreasures (verse9),Pharaohlikelyfelthewasonlytakingwhatshould havebeenhisanyway.Solomonsappetiteforbuildingprojects andgoldhadbeeninsatiable,andsecularhistoryrecordsthat EgyptsfleetwasscouringthePacificforevenmoregold(see previouschapter)duringthetimeofSolomonsrule.When relationswentsourbetweenSolomonandPharaoh,Pharaoh likelyresentedthefactthatSolomonhadaccumulatedsomuch gold,leavinglittleforanyoneelseinthealliance.So,assoonas itwasclearthatthebreachbetweenIsraelandJudahwouldnot bereversed,EgyptactedtotakeSolomonscacheofgoldfor itself.RehoboamsabandonmentofGodslawsresultedinJudah beingstrippedofthegoldenwealthwhichSolomonhadamassed inJerusalem.WhileIsraelwaslikelygladtoseeEgyptteach Judahalesson,Judahsurelyfeltstabbedinthebackby IsraelsrefusaltoaiditagainstEgyptsattack.Thoughtheywere brothernations,thekingdomsofIsraelandJudahbecamebitter enemies. TheBiblerecordsthattherewasconstantfightingbetweenIsrael andJudahduringthereignsofJeroboamandRehoboam(IKings 14:30).ThisinternalfightingamongthetribesofIsraelgreatly weakenedtheIsraeliteEmpirewhichhaddevelopedunderKings DavidandSolomon. WhenRehoboamdied,hewassucceededonthethroneofJudah byAbijah.ThehatredbetweenIsraelandJudahcontinuedasII Chronicles13:2states:AndtherewaswarbetweenAbijahand
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Jeroboam.IsraelandJudah,meredecadesaftertheywere unitedinrulingoveraworldempire,werenowsofullofhatred thattheyroutinelywarredagainsteachother.Judahhadbeen strippedofitsgoldandwealth,andhadnoempire.Israelwas soontobestrippedofmuchofitsremainingpoweraswell. IsraelandtheJewsfoughtamajorwaragainsteachotherthat engaged1.2millioncombatants(IIChronicles13:3).Notethe consistencyoftheBiblesaccountregardingthearmedforces availabletotheHebrewpeople.UnderKingDavid,Israel(withall reservesmobilized)couldmuster1,510,000soldiers(I Chronicles21:26).Severaldecadesandinternecinewarslater, 1,200,000soldiersweremusteredforawarpittingIsraelagainst Judah.Duetotheneedofbothwarringnationstomaintain garrisonsinvariouscitiesandconqueredlands,theircombined totalmilitaryreserveswouldhavebeenclosetothenumberof reservescitedunderKingDavid. AlthoughtheIsraelitesoutnumberedtheJewsapproximatelytwo tooneGodgavethevictorytotheJews.(IIChronicles13 showstheJewswereagainservingGodfaithfully.)Thedeaths inthissingleconflictnumberedalmostonehalfofthe1.2 millioncombatants!Israelalonesuffered500,000battle deaths(IIChronicles13:17),andwearenottoldtheamountof Jewishcasualties.ThehatredbetweenIsraelandJudahmust havebeenimmensetocausesuchunimaginablebloodletting! Consideringthatsuchancientbattleswereessentiallyhandto handcontests,thismeansthatheads,limbsandchunksofflesh andvisceramusthavebeenflyinginalldirectionsashundredsof thousandsofswordswerebeingflailedlikescythes. ThosewhowishthattheylivedinBibledaysmaychangetheir mindsafterconsideringtherealitiesofthosedays.Visualizewhat itmusthavebeenliketoidentifyandburythedeadaftersucha battle!Thispresentsagrislypicture,butitistherealityofhow
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ancientwarswerefought. Thisbrutalwar(occurringapproximately913B.C.)between IsraelandtheJewshadvastinternationalrepercussions.II Chronicles13:20terselystatesconcerningtheaftermathofthis horrendouslossoflife:neitherdidJeroboamrecoverstrength again... WithIsraelsmilitarybeinggreatlydepletedasaresultofthis battle,itcouldnolongercontrolordefenditsempire.Israels areaofdirectrulehadtoshrinktoasmallerterritorywhichthe weakenedarmycoulddefend.Manynationswhichhadbeen dominatedbyIsraelnowbecameindependentbydefault. ItwasinthistimeperiodthatsecularhistoryrecordsAssyria suddenlybegantorecoveritsmilitarystrengthvirtually unhinderedbyanyone(seechapterone).Assyriasfreedomto rearmitselfatteststothepowervacuumwhichwascreated whenIsraellostahalfmillionsoldiersinasinglebattle!Assyrian resurgence,madepossiblebyIsraelscrushingdefeatatthe handsofJudah,wouldeventuallyleadtotheendofIsraels nationhoodalmosttwocenturieslater. SoonafterJudahcrushedthearmyofIsraelonitsnorthern border,itwasattackedfromthesouth.Judahapparently mobilizeditsfullreservesasitmustered580,000soldierstoface anEthiopianarmyof1,000,000men.ThekingofJudah(Asa) humblyaskedforGodshelpinthebattle,andGodresponded. TheJewscrushedtheEthiopianarmy,andgainedaconsiderable amountofwarbooty(IIChronicles14:115). Withterriblewarsragingbetweenthefactionswhichoncehad formedagreatworldwidealliance,pitythesmallernationswhich hadbeenvassalsofeitherIsrael,JudahorEgypt.Theynowwere tornbetweenlargecombatantsjostlingforpower.Theylikely alliedthemselveswithwhoeverappearedtobethewinner,and sufferedretributioniftheyguessedwrong.IIChronicles15:56
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saysofthosetimes: Inthosetimestherewasnopeace...but greatvexationswereuponalltheinhabitants ofthecountries.Andnationwasdestroyedof nation,andcityofcity... Thisregionalchaoswascreatedwhentheoldestablishedorder intheregion(theempireledbytheunitedtribesofIsrael) suddenlydisintegrated.Itwasastarkcommentaryonwhat happenswhenGodslawsareignored.WhenGod,andhislaws, werepreeminentintheglorydaysofKingSolomon,therewas peace,internationalharmony,andtimeforscientificandartistic pursuits.SoonafterGodslawswereforgottenthroughoutIsrael andJudah,chaos,deathanddestructionfollowedonascalewe canscarcelyimagine.FollowingthevictoryofJudahoverEgypt, GodsentaprophettoAsaandhispeoplepromisingGodsfavor ifAsaandJudahwouldtrulyobeyGod(IIChronicles15:17). Thistimeakingheededthemessage. KingAsaofJudahrestoredtheworshipofGod,andremovedthe idolsofforeigngodsoutofalllandsunderhisjurisdiction.II Chronicles15:9recordsthat: ...hegatheredallJudahandBenjamin,and thosefromEphraim,Manasseh,andSimeon whoweresojourningwiththem,forgreat numbershaddesertedtohimfromIsrael whentheysawthattheLordhisGodwaswith him.(RSV) Theaboveaccountrecordsthatmanypeoplefromthenorthern tentribesofIsraeljoinedthemselvestothekingofJudahin ordertofollowakingwhowaswillingtoserveandobeyGod. AfterKingAsasdeath,hisson,Jehoshaphatbecamekingover Judah.HealsoservedGodenthusiastically,andhadtheLevites
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teachallhissubjectsthelawsofGod(IIChronicles17:19).God gavehimfavor,powerandtranquilityreminiscentoftheglory yearsofKingSolomon.Judahreceivedtributepaymentsfrom thePhilistinesandArabians,andKingJehoshaphatandhis nationbecameverywealthy(IIChronicles17:5,1113).Asin thedaysofKingSolomon,KingJehoshaphatlauncheda constructionprogram,buildingfortressesandstorecities throughoutthenation. Hewassofearedandrespectedbythesurroundingnationsthat noneofthemdaredfighthim.Indeed,hisarmynumbered 1,120,000men,dividedintofiveadministrativegroups.II Chronicles17:1418describeshisarmyasfollows: 300,000soldiersunderAdnah 280,000soldiersunderJehohanan 200,000soldiersunderAmasiah 200,000soldiersunderEliada 180,000soldiersunderJehozabad 1,160,000soldiersinfivearmies TheaboverosterofKingJehoshaphatsmilitaryisrevealing. Whilehismilitaryforcesnumbered1,160,000men,the combinedforcesofJudahandBenjaminhadneverpreviously exceededatotalof580,000men(IIChronicles14:8).Clearly, Jehoshaphatsarmywasbeingswelledbyhundredsofthousands ofmenfromthenortherntentribesofIsraelwhohadmigrated toJudahfromIsrael.WhydidsomanypeoplemovefromIsrael toJudahatthattime?Toanswerthatquestion,weneedto understandwhatwasoccurringinthenorthernHebrewkingdom ofIsrael. DuringmuchofKingJehoshaphatsreign,thekingofIsraelwas namedAhab,amandescribedbytheBibleswriterasonewho didevilinthesightoftheLordaboveallthatwerebeforehim (IKings16:30).Ahabhadbeenprecededbyaseriesofwicked
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kingswhocreatedterribleinstabilityinIsrael.IKings15:25 16:30recordsthatthisinstabilityincludedroyalassassinations, andinternalwarfaretodetermineaccessiontothethrone.With wickedrulers,civilinstabilityandnationalviolenceprevailingin Israel,isitanywonderthathundredsofthousandsofmembers ofthenortherntentribesmigratedtowardthepeace,stability andprosperityofJudah? AhabswifewasaPhoenicianprincessnamedJezebel,daughter ofthekingofSidon(IKings16:31).KingAhabandhiswicked wifecompletelyabandonedthewaysoftheGodofIsraelasthey ledthenationinworshippingthePhoeniciangod,Baal.Verse32 statesthatAhabbuiltanaltarforBaalinthehouseofBaal, whichhehadbuiltinSamaria.Hebuiltagrovewhichwas apparentlyaplaceforchurchsponsoredprostitution.An alternatetranslationforthewordgroveisapaganshrinefor pleasure.1 HarpersBibleDictionarydescribesgrovesas placesofworshipofthepagangodsBaalandAstarte.2 The Hebrewwordtranslatedasgroveisasherah,3 indicatingthe grovewasdedicatedtoAstarte(orAshteroth),thepagan mothergoddess.TheworshipofAstartewasbrutaland degenerate,withorgiasticsexrites,largephallicsymbols,and 4 humansacrifices(mostlyofchildren). ThereligionofBaalfeaturedsacrificinglittlechildrenaspartof 5 theworshipservices. Anothermalignantreligion,theworship ofMoloch,wasalsopresentinIsrael.MolochwasaCanaanite deityoftheinhabitantsofPalestinewhomtheIsraelites displacedunderJoshua.GodwarnedtheIsraelitesnottopractice thehumansacrificeritesofMolochworshipwhichtheCanaanites usedaspartoftheirreligion(Leviticus18:21,20:25).Some maythinkthattheGodofIsraelwasbeingcruelwhenhe orderedtheIsraelitestokillordriveoutalltheCanaanitesand removeeveryvestigeoftheirreligionwhentheyenteredthe
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landunderJoshua(Numbers33:5153).Whenoneunderstands thattheCanaaniteswerepeoplewhomurderedtheirown childrenaspartofreligiousservices,onecanseewhyGod orderedtheIsraelitestoutterlydestroyboththeadherentsand thesymbolsofthisdegeneratereligion.However,Molochwas againbeingworshippedinIsraelduringthelatteryearsof Solomon(IKings11:7),andtheritesofhumansacrificeblended withthecontagionofBaalworshipinhasteningIsraels degeneracy. Inthemodernworld,thereisamyththatallreligionsare equal,butrealityshowsthatsomereligionsareterribly destructivetotheiradherents,othersreducethefaithfulto povertyandstarvation,andsomedouplifttheirpractitionersto ahigherstandardofconductandmorals(benefitingthesocieties thatembracesuchreligions).Inancienttimes,theworshipof theGodofIsraelwasonewhichgreatlybenefiteditsadherents (witnessthepeace,wealthandprosperityofSolomonsreignin hisfaithfulyears),whileBaalismwasoneofthemostmalignant religionseverdevised. GodwarnedtheIsraelitesthatiftheydidnotdestroythis religionanditspractitionerswhentheycameintoCanaan,they wouldbecorruptedbyitspractices,andthenGodwoulddo untoyou[Israel]whatIthoughttodountothem[Canaanites] (Numbers33:5356).ThiscametopassinthereignofAhab. JustasGodwasdeterminedtodrivetheCanaanitesoutofthe landfortheirgrosssins,hebegantodriveouttheIsraelites also. WhereasthearmyofJudahunderJehoshaphatnumberedovera millionmenatthistime,kingAhabofIsraelcouldbarelymuster 7,000soldiers(IKings20:15).Itwasnotedabovethatmany IsraelitesfromthetentribesofIsraelhadmovedtoJudah,and thatasmanyas600,000IsraelitesservedinJehoshaphatsarmy
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ofJudahinsteadofcontinuinginIsraelsservice.Giventhe grievouscorruptioninIsraelstopechelons,virtuallyallthe decentpeopleforsookIsraeltoserveJudahskinginstead. Anyonewhowantedtoavoidraisingtheirchildreninan environmentwheretheyandtheirplaymatescouldbemurdered bythestatereligionmoved!Thefactthatsomanymovedto Judahisatestimonythatmanyofthecommonfolkamongthe tentribesofIsraelwerestilldecentpeopleeventhoughthe leadershipofIsraelhadbecomehopelesslyrotten. AbyproductofthismassmigrationfromIsraeltoJudahisthat JudahandIsraeltemporarilyenjoyedcordialrelations(II Chronicles18:1).Ahabwassoweakhehadnochoice,and Jehoshaphatlikelyfeltitwaswisetobeongoodtermswith IsraeltoensurethatthemanyIsraelitesinhisownarmy remainedloyaltohim.SinceIsraelwasstillalliedtothe PhoeniciancitystatesandlikelytoEgyptaswell(thecalf worshipofEgyptwasstillofficiallysanctionedinIsrael),theold tripartiteallianceofIsrael(nowjustthenorthernkingdom), EgyptandPhoeniciaapparentlysurvivedinaweakened condition.Wewillsoonexaminehistoricalevidenceofthisfact. AhabandhiswickedwifeJezebelbecameworseandworse.One episodeparticularlyindicatesthatAhabappearstobeaweak willedleaderwhowasdominatedbyastrongwilled,ruthless wife.Ahabwantedaparticularfieldwhichbelongedtoaprivate citizen,buttheprivatecitizendidntwanttosell.Ahabsulked aboutthesituation,butseemedwillingtorespecttherightsof thecitizennottosellhislandtotheking.However,when Jezebelheardofit,shesimplyhadthecitizenmurderedand gavethelandtoAhab(IKings21). ThesituationcriedoutforGodsaction,andhesentaprophet namedElijahwhobecamethenemesisofAhabandJezebel. ElijahdeclaredthatIsraelwouldbepunishedforitssinsbya
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nationaldrought,andIKings18:1andJames5:17recordthat thisdroughtlastedforthreeandonehalfyears! Beforeexaminingtheeffectsofthisdrought,letusconsiderthe evidencethatIsrael,thoughweakened,stillwasthetitularhead ofaconsiderableempire.Wesawinthepreviouschapterthat Israelsempireandinfluence(builtwiththecooperationofEgypt, TyreandSidon),hadexploredandcolonizedpartsofEurope, Africa,andNorthAmerica.Israelsadoptionofthepagangodsof Phoenicia(TyreandSidon)andEgyptcementedIsraelsalliance withthem.IsraelhadinheritedtheforeignHebrewdominions (whichwerecolonizedmostlywithpeoplefromthenorthernten tribes),whileJudahwasshutoutoftheiroldalliance. SinceIsraeladoptedboththeBaalworshipofthePhoenicians, andthecalfworshipoftheEgyptians,thereligiousbondswould haveactedtokeepthethreenationsunited.Thepresencein NorthAmerica(ancientIowa)ofatrilingualancientstele depictingapaganreligiousceremonyfromapproximately800 6 700B.C.supportsthiscontention. Dr.BarryFell,inhisbook, AmericaB.C.,commentedthatthelanguagesonthissteleare Egyptian,Libyan(thesailorsoftheEgyptians)andIberian Punic.IberianPunicisaHebrew/Phoenicianlanguage,andits presenceintheNewWorldindicatesexplorersfromthe Israelite/Tyrian/Sidonianalliance(and/orthePuniccoloniesof Israel)werestillcloselyalliedtotheEgyptiansduringthetimeof thedividedkingdomsofIsraelandJudah.TheHebrew PhoenicianoriginofthisIberianPuniclanguagewasnotedbyDr. Fell,ashestatesthatthestelehadsomesignsresembling HebrewandothersresemblingPhoenician.7 Onthesame subject,ColliersEncyclopediastates: TheIberianlanguageisextantinaboutone hundredinscriptionsinanationalalphabet generallybelievedtobeofPhoenician
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origin.8 Therewouldhavebeennoneedforsuchtrilingual inscriptionssofarfromthemideasternhomelandsof thesenationsunlessIsrael,Egypt,TyreandSidon(and theircolonies)werestillalliedtogetherthroughoutthe world!SincetheirsailorsventureddeepintotheAmerican MidwestduringtheperiodofthedividedHebrewkingdoms,it indicatestheworldwideimpactofthisalliancewasstillvery great.AlthoughIsraelhadsufferedmajorreversesonland,the alliednaviesofIsrael,Tyre,SidonandEgyptstillruledthe oceans. Dr.FellnotedthatthisancientIowansteledepictsapagan religiousceremonyhonoringtheEgyptiandeitiesOsirisandRa whichinvolvedhumansacrifices.Thefactthatoneofthestele languagesisassociatedwiththeIberianPunicvariantofthe Hebrew/PhoeniciantongueshowsthattheIsraelite/Phoenician coloniesinEuropeandNorthAfricamayhaveassumedgreater autonomyovertheirownactivitiesintheAtlanticregion.Thisis consistentwiththedeclineandfallofthekingdomofIsrael. Interestingly,Dr.Fellwrotethatthisancientstelewas mistakenlybrandedaforgerybyascientificestablishment whichatthetimeofitsdiscoverycouldneithercomprehendnor 9 translatetheancientlanguagescontainedonthestele. Acritical(butunappreciated)factneedstobereiteratedatthis pointtounderstandwhythetentribedkingdomofIsraelis generallyunrecognizedinancienthistoricalaccounts.Itcannot beoveremphasizedthatfromthetimethatIsraelandJudah becameseparate,Hebrewkingdoms,theybecameintensely estrangedfromoneanother.Althoughtheyexperienced interludesofcordialrelations,theygenerallyremainedenemies. Attheverytimetheyseparated,thefirstIsraeliteking (Jeroboam)soughttoseverculturalandreligioustiesbetween
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theIsraeliteandJewishkingdomsbyreplacingGodsHolyDays withpaganfestivals(whichwouldkeeptheIsraelitesofthe northernkingdomfromtravelingtoJerusalem,theJewish capital).Astimewentby,Israelbecameevermoreintertwined withthePhoeniciansofTyreandSidon,adoptingtheirworshipof BaalandAstarte.TheIsraeliteandPhoenicianroyalhouses intermarried,andtheireconomieshadlongbeencloselylinked withoneanother.Duringthistime,Judahhadseveralgoodkings whoperpetuatedtheworshipofGod,causingJudahtohaveless andlessincommonwithIsrael. Therefore,thekingdomsofIsraelandJudahnotonlybecame politicallyseparatefromoneanother,butalsodriftedapartfrom eachotherreligiously,economically,andculturally.Sincethe economic,religiousandculturallifeofIsraelwas,for centuries,linkedtoTyreandSidon(notJudah),theten tribesofIsraelinthenorthernkingdomwouldhavealso becomeprogressivelymorelikethePhoenicians linguisticallyaswell!Therefore,thelanguageofthetentribes ofIsraelwouldhavebecomeincreasinglymorelikethatofthe Phoenicians,withwhomtheyhadconstant,closeinteraction. Theirlanguagewouldhavebeenincreasinglylesslikethatof Judah,withwhomtheyhadgenerallyhostilerelations.Indeed, thelanguagesofthosetribesofIsraelwhosehomelandsdirectly borderedPhoenicianterritorywouldhavebecomelinguisticallyso likethePhoeniciansthattheywouldhavebecomevirtually indistinguishablefromthePhoenicians.Bythetimethe kingdomofIsraelfell,Judahslanguagewouldstillbe Hebrew,butthelanguageofthetentribesofIsrael wouldbemorelike(andinthecaseofsometribes, exactlylike)thePhoenician/Puniclanguage!Forthis reason,aftertheirseparationfromJudah,thedescendantsofthe tentribesofIsraelwouldincreasinglybefoundinthoseplaces wherethelanguagewaslabeledPhoenician,Punic,or
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IberianPunic.Forthisreason,theancientstelefoundinIowa whichincludedaninscriptioninIberianPunic...[with]some signsresemblingHebrewandothersresemblingPhoenicianisa testimonytothefactthattheIsraeliteshadsointermingledwith thepeopleofSidonandTyrethattheirlanguageexhibitedtraits ofbothtongues. ThetrilingualstelefoundinIowaoffersstrongevidencein supportoftheBiblesrecordsthatthetentribesofIsrael,after theirsplitwithJudah,remainedcloselylinkedtoPhoeniciaand Egyptinapowerfulancientalliance.ThePhoenicianEmpire lastedonlyduringthecenturiesthatthelittlecitystatesofTyre, Sidon,etc.werealliedtotheIsraelites(whoprovidedthe populationbasetobuildanempire).Assoonasthetentribesof IsraelleftPalestine,Phoeniciaceasedtobeanempirebecause mostofitspopulationbasewasgone. AnotherancientstelewasfoundinOklahoma(perhapsasoldas 800B.C.)whichincludedanIberianPunicinscription,and mentionedboththeIsraelite/PhoeniciangodBaalandthe 10 EgyptiangodRa. ThisfurtherindicatesthattheEgyptianswere cooperatingwiththeSemiticallianceofIsraelandPhoeniciain theNewWorldduringthecenturiesthatfollowedKingSolomons reign.Also,theIsraelite/Phoeniciansexworshipassociatedwith themothergoddesswaswellestablishedonancientAmerican soil.Phallicsymbols,relicsandinscriptionsofthemother goddessreligion(thereligionofKingAhabandQueenJezebelof Israel)havebeenfound,photographedanddetailedinthe formerPhoeniciancolonyintheNewEnglandregionofancient 11 America. Thefactthatoneoftherepresentationsoftheancient AmericanmothergoddessisTanith,theCarthaginianmother 12 goddesswhowasworshippedasthespouseofBaal, will becomesignificantinthenextchapter.Carthage,likeGades, wasaSemiticcolonyoftheIsraelite/Phoenicianalliance,butit
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wasnotfoundeduntilthecenturywhenKingAhabruledIsrael. OneofthefertilitysitesinancientAmericaisdescribedbyDr. Fellasanopenairfertilityprecinct.Inotherwords,itwas whattheBiblecalledagrove,anoutdoorpaganshrinefor pleasure.13 Fellalsoobservesconcerninganancientphallusstonefoundin Vermont: TheCelticfestivalofBeltane,heldonMay Day,originallyinpagantimesincludedrevels dancedaroundanerectphallus.InEurope, afterChristianitywasintroduced,thephallus wasreplacedbyamaypole.14 Thisisremarkablysimilartotheceremonywhichisdepictedon theartifactwiththeancienttrilingualinscriptionfoundinIowa. Thephotographofthissteledepictspeopledancingarounda centralerectcolumn(aphallicsymbol),withasundisc(asymbol ofBaal,thesungod)overhead,andthepronebodiesofhuman 15 sacrificesontheground(aprincipalfeatureofBaalworship). 16 TheCeltswereSemitic(Celtiberians,Britons,etc.) peoplefrom Israel/PhoeniciascolonialareasinEurope,andtheycooperated withtheirkinsmen,theCarthaginians(Punic,IberianPunic, etc.),infrequentingthepagantemplesintheNewWorldas IsraeldeclinedintooblivionintheeasternMediterranean.Inthe Celticname,Beltane,weseetherootwordoftheancient Phoenician/Israelitesungod:Baal.Inotherwords,weseein theseancientAmericanarcheologicalrecordsthatBaalworship, whichwasdeeplyrootedinIsrael/Phoenicia,hadalsopermeated theancientEuropeanandAmericancoloniesfoundedby Israel/Phoenicia.Theaboveevidenceconfirmstheidolatrous degeneracyoftheIsraelitesasrecordedintheBible.[Asan aside,modernreadersmaybejustifiablydisquietedbythe realizationthatthemaypoleofMayDayfestivitiespreserves
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theimageryofanerectphallusfromancientsexworshiprites.] WenowresumethenarrativeofIsraelsdeclineinthemiddleof theninthcenturyB.C.duringthereignofKingAhabofIsrael. Ahabwasaparticularlybadkinginanunbrokenprogressionof evilkingswhoruledIsrael,andhiswifeJezebel(aPhoenician princess)wasworseyet! GodintervenedbysendingElijahtoIsraelwhenthe degenerationofIsraelreachedintolerablelevels.Itwasby Elijahswordthatthethreeandonehalfyeardroughtoccurred inIsrael(IKings17:1,James5:17).Duringthisperiodoftime thewatersourcesdriedup,therewasscarcelyanyvegetation left,andseverestarvationgrippedbothIsraelandthePhoenician citystates(IKings17:712,18:5). SinceIsraelwasgenerallyafoodexporter(Ezekiel27:17),this droughtmusthavecausedunprecedentedhardshipupona nationusedtoanabundanceoffood.TyreandSidonhad 17 relativelysmallpopulations, andthereforehadfewerpeopleto feedthanthelargerkingdomofIsrael.Nevertheless,IKings 17:812showsthatevenTyreandSidonwereindesperate straitsasstarvationwasoccurringinthesuburbsofSidon.The situationwouldhavebeenabsolutelycatastrophicforIsraelwith itsmuchlargerpopulation.MuchofIsraelspopulationfaceda brutallysimplechoice:eitherstayinIsraelanddie,ormigrate elsewhereandlive.Peoplesdesireforselfpreservationbeing whatitis,muchofthepopulationsimplyhadtoleavetobegin lifeoversomewhereelse.Wehavealreadyseenthatthosewho fearedGodandwantednopartofBaalworshiphadmigrated toJudahwhereKingJehoshaphatruledaccordingtoGodslaws. ThefactthatlittleJudahcouldsupportapopulationthatincluded militaryreservesofoveronemillionmenprovidesample evidencethatthedroughtdidnotaffectJudah!Thiswasastark contrastbetweenthetwoHebrewnations,anddailyproofof
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Godsroleinthedrought.HegaveraintoJudah(whichobeyed God)whilehedeniedraintoIsrael(withitsBaalworship),even thoughIsraelandJudahdirectlyborderedeachother. Aswasdemonstratedinpreviouschapters,international commerceandtravelintheancientworldwasfarmore developedthanmodernmanhasgenerallyrealized.Wenow knowthattransoceanictravelbetweentheOldWorldandthe NewWorldwaswellestablishedbythetimeofElijahandAhab. Indeed,duringthistimeofdrought,KingAhabmadeanintense searchtolocatetheprophetElijahwhohadgoneintohiding.I Kings18:10statesthatwhenElijahcameoutofhiding,anaide toKingAhabtoldElijahthat: AstheLordyourGodlives,thereisnonation orkingdomwhithermylordhasnotsentto seekyouandwhentheysay,heisnothere, hewouldtakeanoathofthekingdomor nation,thattheyhadnotfoundyou.(RSV) ThatKingAhabwouldsendmessengerstoallnationstolook forElijahisreasonablewhenwerealizethatthemissingprophet couldhaveeasilybookedpassagetodistantlandsviathe commercialmaritimeroutesofthattime.Sinceitwouldbe logicaltoassumethatElijahhadjourneyedfarfromIsraelto hidefromKingAhab,theabovebiblicalstatementincludesthe possibilitythatAhabsentmessengerstotheIsraelite/Phoenician coloniesinEurope,AfricaandNorthAmericatolookforElijah.In fact,theelusiveElijahhadhiddeninaplacethatAhabwould leastexpecttofindhim:inasuburbofJezebelshometownof Sidon,theveryheartofthepaganreligionthatwasdestroying Israel(IKings17:9). Nevertheless,sincewehaveseenevidenceofancientHebrews, PhoeniciansandEgyptiansinwidespreadareasofNorthAmerica, anassumptionbyAhabthatElijahhadfledtoacompletely
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differentcontinentwouldhavebeenunderstandable.Sincethe naviesofIsrael,TyreandSidonsailedthroughoutthe MediterraneanSeaandAtlanticOcean,andsincetheancient EgyptianssailedintotheIndianandPacificOceans,astatement thatkingAhab(whowasoneofthecorulersofthealliancethat commandedthesenavies)searchedinallnationsoftheearth forElijahcannotbedismissedasanexaggeration. ThefactthatKingAhabofIsraelwasabletoexactanoathfrom thenationsoftheearthindicatesthatthekingofIsraelstillhad somecloutamongthenations.Ifhehadbeenanimpotent littlepotentate,hewouldhavebeenignored.WhileIsraels homelandcouldonlysupportaskeletoncrewduringthe drought,theremainderofitspopulation(muchofitstillloyalto AhabandBaalworship)couldeasilyhaverelocatedtoIsraels colonies.WhilethoseIsraeliteswhoservedGodsoughtrefugein theJewishkingdomofJudah,thoseIsraeliteswhoservedBaal likelysoughtrefugefromthedroughtinIsraelsfarflung PhoeniciancolonieswhereBaalwasworshipped. Undoubtedly,someofIsraelsrefugeesfoundnewhomesin IsraelscoloniesinSpain,Briton,Ireland,andevenNorth America.SincemostIsraeliteshadabandonedtheirdistinctly Hebrewreligiouspractices,theywouldhavebeen indistinguishablefromthePhoeniciancolonistsintheirnew lands.Withtheculture,religionandeventhedialectofTyreand Sidon,migratingIsraeliteswouldhavequicklylosttheirIsraelite identity,andwouldbeknowntoustodaysimplyas Phoenicians,Iberians,Celts,Celtiberians,etc.However, thesecoloniescouldonlyaccommodatesomanynewarrivals, andthemajorityofrefugees(theelderly,thosewithsmall children,etc.)surelydidnotwishtotravelanyfurtherthanwas necessary.Manywouldhavesoughtrefugeinthenumerous(and relativelyclose)NorthAfricancoloniesofthePhoenician
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Empire,whichhadbeenfoundedduringthetimeofIsraelite powerfromB.C.1100toB.C.800.18 However,somany Israelites(andTyriansandSidonians)neededtoemigratefrom theirparchedhomelandsthatalargenewcolonywasneeded. DuringthesamecenturyasthegreatdroughtofElijah,alarge exodusofIsraelites(accompaniedbypeoplefromthesmaller citystatesofTyreandSidon)sailedalongtheNorthAfrican coastandfoundedthenewHebrewcolonyofKirjath Hadeschath(theRomanslatercalleditCarthage).Carthages originasacolonyofIsraeliterefugeesfromthecatastrophic droughtinIsraelhasnotbeenappreciated.Whydidthe Phoeniciansestablishalarge,newcolonyintheninthcentury B.C.whentheyalreadyhadmanyestablishedcoloniesand tradingpostsintheMediterraneanregion?Clearly,theyhada compellingreasontoremovealargenumberofpeopleoutof theirhomelandandresettlethemelsewhere.Thedevastating droughtofElijahstimewouldmakesuchamassiveresettlement effortnecessary. WhileamythologicalaccountofCarthagesfounding(thelegend ofDidowhichattributesrolestodeitiesofthePaganpantheon) exists,thefactremainsthatCarthagewasfoundedwithHebrew names,HebrewcustomsandtheHebrewlanguage.Thesefacts (extensivelydocumentedinchapterfive)confirmtheprimarily HebrewnatureofCarthageatthetimeofitsfounding. WhileitisrecordedthattheoriginalHebrewnameofCarthage 19 wasKirjathHadeschath, iteventuallycametobeknowntothe GreeksasKarchedon,andtotheRomansasCarthago.20 Sinceancienthistoryistaughtinthemodern,westernworld fromaGrecoRomanviewpoint,wetodayknowIsraelscolony byitsRomannameinsteadofitsoriginalHebrewname. Therefore,scarcelyanyonerealizesthatCarthageoriginallyhad aHebrewname.
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SinceitisknownthatCarthagewasfoundedbypeoplewitha 21 HebrewcultureintheninthcenturyB.C., andsincetheBible statesthatthereweremanystarvingHebrewsinthekingdomof IsraelintheninthcenturyB.C.withadireneedforanew homelandduetothedroughtofElijah,thelikelyconnection betweenthetwoeventsbecomesclear. ItisimportanttorealizethattheHebrewswhofoundedCarthage wereIsraelitesfromthenorthernkingdomofIsraeltheywere notJewsfromthesouthernkingdomofJudah.Asdiscussed above,Judahspopulation(anditsIsraeliteimmigrants)hadno needtomigrateasJudahsKingJehoshaphatwasloyaltoGod, andGodwasnotpunishingJudahatthattime(IKings22:41 43).ThebiblicalaccountsspeakofthedroughtaffectingIsraels andSidonsterritory,butnottheterritoryofJudah. Finally,thedroughtendedafterElijahsfamousconfrontation withthepriestsofBaal.IKings18:2046recordstheepisodein whichElijahchallengedthepriestsofBaaltoseewhetherGodor Baalwasmorepowerful.Inthistest,BaalandGodwereboth askedtosendfiretoconsumeasacrificeofoxen.Thepriestsof BaalmadefrenziedappealstoBaal,andevencutthemselvestill theywerebloody.Thispracticeofcuttingthemselveswas 22 commonamongtheworshippersofBaalandAstarte. Afterthey failedtoaccomplishanything,ElijahcalledonGodtoconsume theofferingwithheavenlyfire,andhedidso.WhenGoddid consumetheofferingwithfire,thecrowdwasshockedintoan acknowledgmentthattheGodofIsraelwasgreaterthanBaal, andtheirloyaltytoBaalwasshaken.Inanatmospherewhere thepeoplewerelikelyafraidthatGodmightalsoconsumethem fortheirBaalworshippingpast,theycooperatedwithElijahin executing450priestsofBaal.Thisexecutionof450priestswas appropriategiventhefactthatthesepriestsofBaalhadprobably murderedthousandsofinnocentchildrenintheirritualsof
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humansacrifice. ItisdoubtfulthatthekingdomofIsraelevertrulyrecovered fromtheextremedroughtinElijahstime.Theexodusofso manyIsraelitesfromtheirnativelandgreatlyreducedthe populationandmilitaryresourcesofthekingdomofIsraelinits homeland.WhilesomeIsraelitessurelyreturnedtoIsraelwhen thedroughtwasover,manywouldhaveremainedinIsraels coloniestopursuetheirnewlives.Israelsnewweaknesswas quiteobvioustoIsraelsenemies.TheBibledetailsanumberof warsbetweenIsraelandtheSyrians.IKings20relatesthatan outnumberedIsraelitearmyof7,232mencrushedanallianceof thirtytwoAramaeankingsandkilled100,000enemysoldiersin asinglebattleduringthelatterportionofAhabsreign.Verse13 showsthatGodintervenedtohelptheIsraelitenationwinthis battleinspiteofAhabspersonalwickedness. Duringthistime,JudahwasperiodicallyalliedwithIsraelinwars againsttheSyrians(IKings22:14).WhydidrighteousKing JehoshaphatofJudahallyhimselftowickedKingAhabofIsrael? Toreiterate,theanswerwaslikelypolitical.Therewereabout 600,000armedIsraeliteslivinginJudah,andJehoshaphatmay havefearedarevoltifheaskedthemtowaragainsttheirnative Israel.Also,althoughJudahwasdominantontheland,Israel(a leadingmemberofthemaritimePhoenicianalliance)andits coloniesweredominantontheseas.Judah,therefore,needed goodwillwithKingAhabtoensureitsaccesstotheworlds maritimecommercialroutes.KingJehoshaphatevenallied himselftoAhabswickedsuccessor,AhaziahofIsrael,inan attempttoreconstructamajorfleetatEziongeber.Thiswas probablyaneffortbyJehoshaphattorebuildthegloryandpower thatJudahexperiencedunderKingSolomon,whoalsobaseda largefleetatEziongeber.IKings22:4849andIIChronicles 20:3537recordthatthisfleetwasdestroyedbyGodhimself,
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whowithheldhisblessingfromtheeffortbecauseJehoshaphat wastoowillingtoallyhimselftoIsraelswickedkings. TheAssyriansalsowagedwaruponIsraelanditssurrounding nationsduringthelatterportionofAhabsreign.Anallianceof KingAhabsIsraelites,variousAramaeankingsandAmmonites stoppedanAssyrianinvasionunderShalmaneserIIIatthebattle 23 ofKarkar(orQarqar)inabout854B.C. Thosewhodonot understandIsraelspreviouslydominantpositionintheancient worldmayassumethatAhabwasatKarkarmerelyasanallyof theSyrians.Actually,accordingtotheAssyrianaccountsofthe battle,Ahabcontributed2000chariots,thelargestforceof 24 chariotsintheantiAssyrianalliance. ThisshowsthatIsrael, Syria,andtheothernationsintheregionwereabletemporarily toputasidetheirrivalriestofaceAssyria,thegreaterthreat fromtheEast.Itisremarkablethatthisalliancewasstillableto fightAssyriatoadraw,despiteIsraelsdepletions. TheEncyclopaediaBritannicarecordsthattheAssyrianannalsof theperiodconfirmthatmanyofthepersonalitiesmentionedby theBible(KingsOmri,AhabandJehuofIsrael,andKingsBen 25 hadadandHazaelofSyria)were,indeed,realpeople. TheBiblehasmuchgoodtosayaboutJudahsKingJehoshaphat, oneofthenationsbestkings.IKings22:46andIIChronicles19 recordthatherestoredtheworshipofGod,rootedoutBaalism, appointedimpartialjudges,andextraditedsodomitesfromthe nation.Asadirectconsequenceoftakingsuchactions, JehoshaphatandJudahwereblessedwithwealth,peaceand Godsprotection.However,JehoshaphatsallianceswithIsraels wickedkingsbegantoweakenJudahafterJehoshaphatsdeath. TheroyalhousesofIsraelandJudahintermarriedunderKing JehoshaphatasJehoshaphatsson,Jehoram,thenextKingof Judah,marriedadaughterofkingAhabofIsrael(IIKings8:16 18).JehoramdepartedfromGodandembracedBaalism.Hedied
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eightyearslater,unmournedandingreatagonyashisbowels felloutbyreasonofhissicknesswhichGodhadsentuponhim (IIChronicles21:1920).ThemotherofAhaziah,thenext wickedkingofJudah,wasAthaliah,aprincessofthekingdomof Israel(IIKings8:2526). KingAhabandJezebeleventuallybothdiedviolentdeaths.Ahab diedincombat,andJezebeldiedafterbeingthrownouta windowbyherservants(IIKings9:3037).Jehu,whoinstigated Jezebelsdeath,becameKingofIsrael,andledabriefand bloodyreturntotheGodofIsrael.Besidesorderingthedeathof Jezebel,hekilledboththewickedkingofIsraelandAhaziah,the wickedkingofJudah.Hefurtherarrangedthebeheadingof70 sonsofAhabandtheexecutionofallofAhabsrelatives.Healso orderedtheexecutionofIsraelspriestsofBaal,turnedthe templeofBaalintoapublictoilethouse,andexpungedBaalism fromthekingdomofIsrael(IIKings910).Jehusrevivalwas halfhearted,however,ashepermittedthecalfworshipofEgypt tocontinue.ItwasnotlongbeforeIsraeldegeneratedfurther. Thereisasoberlessonfornationalrulershere.Goddoes periodicallydealpersonallywithnationalrulers:toblessthemfor goodactionsandpunishthemforevilactions.GodkilledKing Jehoramviaaghastlyillness,andprophesiedboththe destructionofKingAhabsdynasty(IIKings10:1011),and Jezebelsassassination(IIKings9:3036).Godispatient,buthis patienceeventuallydoesrunoutonevilrulersandevilnations. ThebriefallianceofIsraelandJudah,formedinthereignsof KingsAhabandJehoshaphat,fellapartasthetwoHebrew nationsagainbecameenemies.IIKings14:2329recordsthat Israeldidenjoyaresurgenceofpower,includingarestorationof IsraelsruleovertheAramaeancitiesofDamascusandHamath, duringthe41yearreignofKingJeroboamII. ThetwoHebrewkingdomsfoughtanothergruesomewarnear
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theendofIsraelsexistenceasanindependentnationinwhich theIsraelites,underKingPekah,killed120,000Jewsinoneday (IIChronicles28:56).ThiswaroccurredatatimewhenJudah wassinkingdeeplyintothedepravitiesofBaalworshipduring thereignofKingAhaz.TheIsraeliteswereintheprocessof carrying200,000JewscaptiveintoIsraelwhenGodintervened and,throughaprophet,causedtheIsraelitestoreleasethe Jewishcaptives(IIChronicles28:915).Whatisremarkableis thattheIsraelitesheededtheprophet,anddidwhatGod directedthemtodo.Afterthistime,Judahhadafewgoodkings andseveralverydegeneratekings.Israel,however,wasnearing itsend. AfterbeingweakenedbyaseriesofAssyrianinvasions,the kingdomofIsraelendedwhentheAssyrianscapturedSamaria (Israelscapital)inapproximately721B.C.Itisacommon misconceptionthatallIsraelwascarriedintocaptivitywhen Samariafellin721B.C.Aswewillsee,theBibleandAssyrian recordsagreethatonlyasmallnumberofIsraeliteswentinto captivitywhenSamariafell.Infact,mostoftheIsraelitesthat werecarriedcaptiveweretakenawayduringthereignofKing PekahwhenanAssyrianinvasionmadecaptivesofalarge portionofIsraelspopulation(datesonthiseventvary,butit wasapproximately735B.C.). IIKings15:29statesthatKingTiglathpileserofAssyriainvaded IsraelinanunspecifiedyearofKingPekahsreign,andtook captivetheentiretribeofNaphtali,andthoseIsraeliteswholived inGalilee,Gilead,etc.GileadwasthetermforIsraelite homelandseastoftheJordanRiver,anditwasinhabitedbythe tribesofReuben,GadandonehalfthetribeofManasseh (Numbers32:133).IChronicles5:26confirmsthatGad, ReubenandhalfofManassehwentcaptivetoKingTiglath pileser.
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Besidestheabovetribes,otherIsraelitesnearGalileewerealso carriedcaptiveatthistime.ThetribesofZebulonandIssachar livedinthatregion,andcontingentsofthesetribeswerelikely carriedintocaptivity.PerhapsathirdormoreofIsraels populationwascarriedcaptiveatthistime.IChronicles5:26 recordsthatthislargenumberofIsraeliteswereresettledin Halah,Habor,andHaraandtotheriverGozan.WhenSamaria fellin721B.C.,IIKings17:6statesthatitsdefenderswerealso carriedcaptivetothesamelocationsaswellastothecitiesof theMedes.SinceSamariawasbuiltintheareaofthetribeof Ephraim,thoseIsraelitesgoingintocaptivitywhenSamariafell weremostlikelyEphraimites. Halah,HaborandGozanwereintheMesopotamianregionofthe AssyrianEmpire,butthecitiesoftheMedeswerelocated southwestoftheCaspianSea(inmodernIran).Itislikelythat theAssyriansresettledtheIsraelitecaptivesinseveralareasof theirempireinordertopreventthemfromconsolidatingtheir strengthforpurposesofarebellion.AccordingtoHarpersBible Dictionary,archaeologicalfindsinancientGozanconfirmthe arrivalofcaptiveIsraelitesinthatcityastexts[werefound which]mentionsomeoftheexilesdescendants.26 ManyofIsraelsandJudahsrulersarespecificallynamedin Assyrianannalsasrealhistoricalkings.HalleysBibleHandbook notesthat: Inthese[Assyrian]annalsnamesoften Hebrewkingsoccur:Omri,Ahab,Jehu, Menahem,Pekah,Hoshea,Uzziah,Ahaz, HezekiahandManasseh...27 Oftheabovekings,thefirstsixwerekingsofthenorthernten tribedkingdomofIsrael,andthelastfourwerekingsofthe JewishkingdomofJudah.Assyriancuneiformrecordsalso confirmthestatementofIIKings15:29thattheentiretribeof
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NaphtaliwastakencaptiveintheAssyrianinvasionofTiglath 28 pileseroveradecadepriortoSamariasfall. Thefactthat AssyrianaccountsmentionbynametenofthekingsofIsrael andJudahandalsorecordthatthewholetribeofNapthaliwent intocaptivityenmassedemonstratethatthehistoricalaccounts oftheBibleare,indeed,accurate. WhileperhapsathirdormoreofIsraelspopulationhadbeen takencaptivebyTiglathpileserinapproximately734B.C., relativelyfewpeopleweretakencaptivewhenSamarialaterfell. IIKings17:5statesthekingofAssyria: wentthroughoutalltheland,andwentupto Samaria,andbesiegeditthreeyears.(KJV) AlthoughtheBibledeclarestheAssyrianswentthroughoutall theland,theonlymentionofanyresistancetothemwasatthe cityofSamaria.ThisindicatesthatwhiletheAssyrianswent throughoutthewholelandofIsrael,theyfoundIsraelitesonlyin thecapitalcityofSamaria.Thecuneiformrecordsofthe Assyriansclaimonly27,290captivesinthisfinalcampaign,allof 29 whomcamefromSamaria. TheAssyriansclaimednocaptives otherthantheresidentsofSamaria.SincetheAssyriankings werenotatallmodestintheirvictorystatements,wecanbe surethattheywouldnothavefailedtorecordadditionalIsraelite captivesiftherehadbeenany! WeknowthatathirdormoreoftheIsraelitesweretakencaptive byTiglathpileser,andthatanother29,290Israelitesweretaken captivewhenSamariafelloveradecadelater.Atotalofbarely 29,000captivesfromthefallofonecityisaratherpunyamount ofcaptives.Theobviousquestionis:Whathappenedtotherest oftheinhabitantsofthekingdomofIsrael?Wheredidtheygo? Onlyafewyearspreviously,theIsraeliteshadstillbeen numerousenoughtokill120,000Jewsinawar,andwouldhave
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brought200,000captiveJewstoIsraelhadnotGodintervened tostopit.TheAssyriancatchof27,290IsraelitesinSamaria wasapaltrysuminlightoftheabovenumbers.Obviously,the wholeremainingnationofIsraelcouldnotfitwithinthewallsof thecityofSamaria,sowhathappenedtotherestofIsraels inhabitants? TheBiblesaccountliststhetribesofNaphtali,Gad,Reuben,half ofManasseh,elementsofothertribes,andtheresidentsofthe capitalcityofSamariaashavinggoneintocaptivity.The AssyriansmentiontheNapthalitesandtheSamariansbyname ascaptivesintheirannals.ButneithertheBiblenorthe Assyrianrecordsmakeanyclaimsthattheremainderof theIsraelitenationwentintocaptivity!Infact,IIKings 17:5showsthattheAssyrianswentthroughoutalltheland, butfoundresistance(andcaptives)inonlythecityofSamaria.II Kings17:25statesthatlionshadbecomenumerousinthe formerterritoryofthekingdomofIsrael(indicatingthatthe numbersofwildpreyspecieshadtobeevenmorenumerous) whenAssyriasettledpeoplefromforeignlandstoinhabitIsraels abandonedcities.Alargeincreaseinwildanimalsistypicalofa landabandonedbyitshumanpopulation. Whatapparentlyhappenedwasthattheremainderofthewar wearyIsraelitesfinallyabandonedtheirlandandcitiesjustprior toAssyriaslastinvasion.Letusreviewthelistoftribes unaccountedforintheBiblesaccountsofwhowentinto captivity.ThemissingtribesincludeAsher,Zebulon,Issachar, Dan,Simeon,EphraimandhalfthetribeofManasseh.Onlya tinyfractionoftheseIsraelitescouldhavesoughtrefugeinthe walledcityofSamariatoopposetheAssyrians.Theobvious conclusionisthattheremainingtribesofIsraelfledtheland voluntarily,notascaptives. Putyourselfintheirplace.IfyouknewanotherlargeAssyrian
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invasionwascoming,andyouwerepainfullyawarethatyour homelandofIsraelwasbecominguntenable,whatwouldyou choosetodo?WouldyoustayandopposetheAssyriansina lastditcheffortknowingthatyouwouldbecomeeitheracorpse oracaptive?Orwouldyourathermigratewithyourfamiliesto newhomelandswhereyoucouldremainfreeandstartover again?Obviously,thelatteroptioniswhatmostofthemchose. Onlyafewthousanddiehardsstayedtowithstandasiegeinthe capitalcity.EithertheywerestubbornIsraeliteswhorefusedto abandontheirland,ortheywereaheroicrearguardwho engagedtheAssyrianarmyforthreeyears(allowingtheir countrymentimetofleewithoutpursuit). ThosewhochosetoleavethedoomedkingdomofIsraelhad manypotentialdestinationsasoptionsfornewhomelands.We havealreadyseenthatthePhoenicianallianceofIsrael,Tyre andSidonhadestablishedmanycoloniesinNorthAfrica,Spain, otherMediterraneanlocations,theBritishIslesandevenasfar asNorthAmerica.Anyofthesecouldhaveservedasnew homelands.IntheninthcenturyB.C.somanyIsraelites voluntarilyleftIsraelduringthedroughtofElijahtosettlein thesecoloniesthatitwasnecessarytofoundacompletelynew colony(Carthage)tohostalltherefugees.Manypeoplelikely hadrelativesinthesemostlyIsraelitecolonies,andcouldstart afreshwithverylittlecultureshockasthelanguage,customs, andreligionofthosecolonieswereessentiallythesameasthose ofIsrael.Carthage(nowapproximatelyacenturyold)probably receivedthemajorityofIsraelitesfleeingtoIsraelscoloniesdue toitsrelativecloseness.ThefactthatCarthagerosetogreat powerinthecenturiesafterthefallofIsraelalsoindicatesit receivedamajorinfusionofpeoplewhenIsraelfell. SomemightconcludethatmanyIsraeliteswouldfleetoJudah. Afterall,Judahhad620,000Israelitesinitsarmywhohadfled
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IsraelduringKingAhabswickedrule.However,atthatearlier timeJudahwasruledbygoodkingsandIsraelandJudahwere alliednations.AtthetimeofIsraelsdemiseJudahalsohad wickedkings,andIsraelandJudahwereagainenemies.Flightto Judahwasnotanoptionforanotherreason.Judahwas contiguoustotheveryareathatAssyriastroopsweregoingto invade,soitofferednorealsecurity.Whatwasneededwere placesofrefugesfarawayfromAssyrianarmies. Historicalevidencehaslongexistedconcerningthevoluntary migrationsoftherestoftheIsraelitesatthistime,butsuch evidencehaslargelybeenignoredorforgotten.Letusreexamine someofthathistoricalevidence. Judges5:17recordsthatthetribeofDanhadastrongseafaring heritage,andtheirmainhomelandwasontheMediterranean seacoast.Inthepreviouschapter,wesawevidencethatthe seafaringtribeofDanwasknowntotheGreeksastheDanaans oftheEasternMediterranean.Asamaritimetribe,itwouldbe especiallyeasyformanyDanitestosailawayfromIsraelintheir ships.MuchofthetribeofDanapparentlysailedasfaras Hibernia(modernIreland)intheirefforttoquitthearea.Their arrivalinconsiderableforceinHiberniaastheTuathaDe 30 DanaansisrecordedintheearlyhistoriesofIreland. ThebattlesoftheDanaanstoestablishanewhomelandin IrelandhaveevenbeenrecordedintheannalsofancientIrish history.Inherbook,Ireland,EmilyLawlesscitedtheseancient historicalrecordsthattheDanaansfoughtathreedaybattle againsttheFirboigswhichcenteredaroundahillcalledBenlevi, 31 afterwhichtheybuiltmanystoneforts. Benleviisofobvious HebreworiginasitincludesthenameoftheIsraelitetribeof Levi.J.H.Allens,JudahsSceptreandJosephsBirthright, recordsthatthegreatestinfluxoftheTuathadeDanaanto Irelandoccurredaround720B.C.,justafterthefallof
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32 Samaria.

TheIrishislandscalledtheAransstillhaveremainsofoldforts bearingthenameofthetribeofDan.TwofortsontheAransare calledDunAonghasaandDunChonchuir.AncientHebrewdid notwritevowelssothevowelsuinthesewordswasadded later.ItistheconsonantsDNwhichpreservethenameof Dan.ThesefortshaveanantiquitycertainlypredatingChrist, andhadbeencrumblingforlongcenturiesbeforetheArans enteredrecordedhistory.33 Theyhavebeenattributedtothe Firboigsatthetimeofthelegendaryearlyinvasionsof Ireland,34 althoughthenameDNattachedtothecastles indicatestheymayhavebeenconstructed(orconquered)bythe Danaans,thetribeofDan.SincethetribeofDanhadahabitof renamingexistinggeographicfeaturesaftertheirtribalname whentheycameintoanarea(Judges19:47),itispossiblethese fortswere,indeed,builtbytheFirboigs,andrenamedafterthe Danitesconqueredthem.HistoryhasnorecordthattheDanaans evermovedagainaftertheirarrivalinIreland. Asaninterestingdigression,itisclearthattheIrishhavenot forgottentheirDanaanrootsasa1980sIrishbandin MinneapolisnameditselfDeDanaan.35 Therewasalsoan intriguingaccountinU.S.NewsandWorldReportMagazine which,notingthepresenceofthenNewYorkMayorEdKoch(a prominentAmericanJew)inthe1987St.PatricksDayparade, addedthatMayorKoch: explainedhispresenceattheheadofthe grandparadethusly:Itspartofmyroots. The10losttribesofIsraelwebelieveended upinIreland.36 AncientrecordsindicatethatonlythetribeofDanarrivedin IrelandatthetimeofthefallofSamaria,however.Also,atthat sametime,alargeportionoftheIsraelitetribeofSimeonchose
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amaritimeescapefromtheAssyrians.Coincidingwiththearrival oftheTuathadeDanaaninIreland,theSimoniilandedinWales 37 andSouthernEnglandin720B.C. Thisdateisalsojustafter thefallofSamaria,anditislikelythatthesimultaneousarrival oftheDanaanandtheSimoniiindicatesthatthetribesofDan andSimeonsailedtogetherfortheBritishIsles.SinceBritonhad longbeenaPhoeniciancolonyandportofcall,andhadbeen settledbyandnamedfortheCovenant(BRT)people centuriesbeforethefallofIsrael,itislogicalthatsomeIsraelites wouldseekrefugethereinatimeofcrisis. J.H.Allenalsonotesthat: ...thepeopleofWaelscallthemselves,in ancientWelsh,BrythyBrithan,orBrithsof Briton,whichmeansTheCovenantersofthe landoftheCovenant.Thefirstformofthis phraseisalmostvernacularHebrew.38 ThefactthattheseBrythonicCeltswhomigratedtotheBritish IslesboretheHebrewBRTrootwordforcovenantconfirmed theirIsraeliteorigin.TheseIsraeliteimmigrantsfurnishedmuch oftheracialstockofearlyCelticBriton.TheDanaanandthe SimoniiwereonlypartofthewavesofCelticimmigrantswhich arrivedinBritonoverseveralcenturies.Celtictribeshadsettled throughoutEuropeforcenturies,andsomeofthesetribes continuedtomigratetoBriton. ConcerningtheCeltsinancientIberia(modernSpainand Portugal),theEncyclopediaAmericanastates: TheCelticmigrationsoccurredasearlyas 1000B.C.andaslateas600B.C.39 (Emphasisadded.) ThisperiodofCelticmigrationbeginspreciselywiththeIsraelite goldenageofKingsDavidandSolomon(whenIsraelbegan
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manycolonies),includesthetimeofthedividedkingdomsof IsraelandJudahandthefallofSamaria,andendsjustpriorto thefallofJerusalem.Thestrikingparallelsbetweenthetimingof CelticmigrationsandtheriseandfalloftheIsraelitekingdomsof IsraelandJudaharguesthattheseparallelsarenotcoincidental. ManyoftheseCelticwavesofimmigrationinvolvedIsraelites seekingnewhomelands(initiallyascolonistsoftheunited kingdomofIsraelandlaterasmassesofrefugeesfromAssyrian invasions).GerhardHermsbook,TheCelts,observes: ...thefirstCelticspeakingtribescameto IrelandasfarbackastheHallstattperiod. AfterthebeginningoftheLaTeneerathese werefollowed,viaBritain,byotherwandering hordes,whospokeaBrythonic,thatisaP Celtic,dialect.40 TheEncyclopediaAmericanadefinestheHallstattperiodof CentralEuropeasbeingabout1000to500B.C....[and adds]...ThepeopleoftheareawereearlyCelts...41 Again,the timingoftheCelticmigrationsbeginswiththegoldenageof IsraelunderkingsDavidandSolomonandendsafterthefallof Jerusalem.IfthewavesofCelticmigrationsintoEuropewere entirely(orpredominantly)Israelite,itfollowsthattheIsraelites fleeingAssyriancaptivityin720B.C.wouldbewellawareofthe locationofIsraelitecoloniesinEuropeorBritontowhichthey couldflee. TheseCelticmigrationstookplaceoverseveralcenturies.Some wereslow,overlandmigrationsinsteadoftheswiftmaritime migrationsoftheDanaanandSimonii.Itisnotthecontentionof thisbookthatallancientCeltsweredescendedfromIsraels tribes,buttheevidenceindicatesthatmanyofthemigrating Celtswere,indeed,Israelites.TheEncyclopaediaBritannica records:
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TheCeltsmovedwestwardsandtwo divisionsofthemreachedtheBritishIsles, namelytheBrythonsandtheGoidels.The Brythonscrossedthechannelandestablished themselvesinEnglandandWalesbutthe th Goidels,probablyinthe4 centuryB.C., passeddirectlyfromthemouthofthe Loire...toIreland.42 ItissignificantthatlargemassesofCelticpeoplestillborein theirnametheHebrewwordforCovenant(theBRTorBR THrootwordofBritonandBrythonic)evenafterthefallof Samaria.ItisalsosignificantthatBriton(thelandtowhichthey weremigrating)hadbornethesameHebrewnameforcenturies priortotheirarrival.Itwaslikelynocoincidencethatthe BrythonicCeltsmigratedtowardalandthatsharedtheirtribal heritage.Asrefugees,theywouldlogicallymigratetowardaland bearingtheirtribalnameinthehopesoffindingahospitable homeland. Tosumup,thisbookconcludesthatlargecontingentsofthe IsraelitetribesofDanandSimeon(theDanaanandthe Simonii)soughtrefugeinIrelandandBritonafterabandoning theiroldhomelandstotheAssyrians.Itfurtherconcludesthat manyofthesucceedingwavesofCelticimmigrantstoBriton (particularlythosenamedwiththeHebrewrootwordforthe covenantpeople)werealsoIsraelitesinsearchofapermanent homeland.ThisinfusionofIsraelitesintoearlyBritonensured thattheHebrewwordforcovenant(BRT)wouldremainthe namebywhichthatIslandwasknowntotherestoftheworld. WhilesizeablecontingentsofthetribesofDanandSimeonfled byseatotheBritishIsles,andotherIsraelitesbecameCeltic migrantsafterthefallofSamaria,thereishistoricalevidence thatthemainbodyofIsraelitesfleeingthekingdomofIsrael
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tookanoverlandroutetotheirnewhomeland.Theycouldnotgo eastbecauseoftheAssyrianmenace,therewerenotenough vesselstotakeeveryonetonewhomelandsviamaritimeroutes tothewest,andEgyptianforcesweredominanttothesouth. Thisleftthenorthastheonlyrealisticlandrouteoutof Palestine,andthatisexactlywherehistoricalevidencesaysthey went. ColonelJ.C.Gawler,aBritishgovernmentofficialduringQueen Victoriasreigninthenineteenthcentury(hewasKeeperofthe CrownJewels),researchedthefateofthenortherntentribesof IsraelafterthefallofIsrael,andhecitesbothJewishand Armenianhistoricalsourceswhorecordedthatamassof refugeesfromthetentribesofIsraelitesmigratedthrough ArmeniaintotheregionnorthoftheBlackSea(thenknownby 43 thegeneraltermTartary). Gawleralsocitedthefollowing observationaboutTartarybyAbrahamOrtellius,thefamous sixteenthcenturygeographer: InhisdescriptionofTartary,notesthe kingdomofArsareth,wherethetentribes retiringtookthenameofGauthei,because, hesays,theywereveryjealousofthegloryof God.44 (Emphasisadded.) Gawleralsocalledattentiontoapassageintheapocryphalbook ofIIEsdraswhichassertsthatrefugeesofthetentribesdid, indeed,migratetoanewplacecalledArzareth(notethe similaritytotheplacenameArsareth).Thispassage(II Esdras13:4045)states: ...thesearethetentribesthatinthe daysofKingHosheawerecarriedaway fromtheirownlandintocaptivity,whom Shalmaneser,kingofAssyria,made captives,andcarriedbeyondtheriver...But
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theyformedthisplanamongthemselves,to leavetheheathenpopulation,andgotoa moredistantregion...sothatthereperhaps theymightkeeptheirstatutes,which theyhadnotkeptintheirowncountry. Andtheywentinbythenarrowpassagesof theEuphratesRiver.FortheMostHighthen didwondersforthem,forheheldbackthe sourcesoftheriveruntiltheyhadpassed over.Butitwasalongjourneyofayearand ahalftothatcountry...calledArzareth.45 (Emphasisadded.)

ThisaccountoftheIsraelitemigrationparallelsthatofIIKings 17:16.TheaccountofIIEsdrasindicatestherewasamassof IsraeliteswhoescapedanimpendingAssyriancaptivityandfled


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toArzareth(aBlackSearegion).Alsonoteworthyisthe contentionofIIEsdrasthatthisgroupofIsraeliteshadrepented oftheirsins,andwasdeterminedtoobeyGodintheirnew homeland.Sucharepentantattitudeonthepartofthetentribes wasforeshadowedinIIChronicles28:515.Duringthereignof KingPekahofIsrael(afewyearspriortothefallofSamariaand theflightofallIsraelitesfromPalestine),thetentribesheededa warningfromaprophetofGodtorelease200,000Jewish captivestakeninawarwithJudah.Verses1213recordthatthe leadersofthetribeofEphraim(thechieftribeofIsrael)directed thatthepeopleobeyGodsdirectiveviatheprophet.After centuriesofdisregardinganydirectionfromGoditisremarkable thattheIsraelitepeoplewereagainrespondingtoGodsdirection justbeforeSamariafell. AlsonoteworthyisthefactthatthekingofIsrael,Pekah,hadno roleinthedecisionoftheIsraelitestoobeyGodsprophet.II Chronicles28:810recordstheprophet,Obed,persuadedthe IsraelitestoreleasetheirJewishcaptivesandreturnaprodigious amountofwarbootytotheJewsjustasthisarmywasarriving atSamaria,thehomeofKingPekah.KingPekah,anevilking(II Kings15:2728),waslikelyquitefuriousatthepeoples surrenderofallthiswarbooty(whichPekahthoughtwashis). ThewillingnessofIsraelstriballeadersandthepeopletoact withoutanyapparentinputfromthekingrevealsthatthepeople ofthekingdomofIsraelfeltlittleornoallegiancetotheircorrupt kingsjustpriortotheirexitfromPalestine.Thefactthatmany peopleofthetentribesexhibitedawholesaledisregardfortheir kingsauthorityjustpriortotheirflightfromPalestineoffersa possibleexplanationforthegeneraldisappearanceofthe IsraelitesduringthelastAssyrianinvasion.Perhapsthekingand hisreducedbandofloyalistsstayedinSamariatoresistthe AssyrianswhilemostofthewarwearyIsraelitesmadea
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completebreakwiththekingandfollowedtheirtriballeaders northwardtoseekanewhomeland. IIEsdrasattributestheirescapefromAssyriatodivinehelpin crossingtheEuphratesRiver,andaddsthattheirjourneytooka yearandahalf.Sincetheirescaperoutewasmountainous,and sincetheyhadwomen,childrenandelderlyalong,sucha journeywouldbebotharduousandtimeconsuming.The accountofIIEsdrasisconsistentwiththeaccountofOrtellius thatthisbodyofthetentribeswasveryjealousofGod,and thatofIIChronicles28showingtheIsraeliteswerethen responsivetoaprophetofGod.Indeed,ifGodmiraculously assistedtheirescape,itwouldexplainwhythesemigrating IsraeliteswereveryjealousofGodintheirnewhomeland.It wouldalsoexplainthecompletesilenceinAssyrianannals concerningtheunexplaineddisappearanceofmostIsraelites duringtheirfinalinvasionofIsrael.Assyriawouldhavebeen loathetorecordthattheGodofIsraelsupernaturallydelivered themigratingIsraelites,sotheylimitedtheirbraggingtothe smallbandofIsraelitescapturedinSamaria. TheroleattributedtoGodisalsoconsistentwithhispastactions inblessingIsraelitemigrations.WhenthetribesofIsraelfled EgyptiancaptivitytoembarkonajourneytoPalestine,God partedthewatersoftheRedSeasotheycouldescapetheir pursuers(Exodus14:2122).Whentheywereabouttoenter Palestine,GodpartedthewatersoftheRiverJordan(Joshua 3:1117).IfGodpartedtheEuphratesRivertorescuethe IsraelitesfrompursuingAssyriansandopenthewayfortheir northwardmigrationtoanewhomeland,itwouldbeconsistent withGodspastactionsinbehalfofIsraeliteswhoweremigrating inobediencetohiswill.BecauseIIChronicles28recordsthatthe lastgenerationofIsraelitesinPalestineobeyedGodsdirective throughaprophet,itbegsthefollowingquestion.Wasthis
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IsraelitemigrationoutofPalestinealsopromptedbyamessage fromaprophetafewyearslater?IftheIsraelitesweremigrating inobediencetoamessagefromGod,itwouldexplainGods willingnesstoperformamiracletoassistthembecausethey wereonceagainsubmittingtohisleadership. Asweshallseeinchaptersix,thisgroupofIsraelitescametobe knownasScythiansbytheGreeksandtheywerenot characterizedbythedegeneratepracticesofBaalworship.In fact,weshallseethattheywereknownfortheirwiselawsand theavoidanceofswinesflesh.Theaboveindicatesthatthis massofrefugeesfromthetentribesdidrepentoftheirBaal worship,andgenuinelyreturnedtoGod.Gawleralsocitedthe testimonyofamedievalJewishhistoriannamedEldad,aJewish writerwhosenttotheSpanishJewshismemoirsoftheten tribes.46 EldadstatedthattheseIsraeliteswhomigratedviaan overlandroutedidsoinconsiderableforce.Hewrote: thatmanyofthepeopledidnotgointo captivity,butevadedthecalamity,goingoff withtheirflocks,andturningnomads,and thatthechieforprincewhomtheyappointed couldmuster120,000horseand100,000 foot.47 Thisaccountfurtherdocumentstheescapeofalargebodyofthe tentribesofIsraelwhentheyabandonedPalestinetothe Assyrians.SincetheIsraelitesinthismigrationhad220,000 armedsoldiers,onecanconservativelyestimatethenumberof Israelitesinthisbodytobearoundamillionpeoplewhenthe numberofwomen,childrenandelderlyareincluded.Basedon thebiblicalandsecularhistoricalrecordsofwhathappenedto theothertribes,thisbodyofIsraeliteslikelyincludedthehalf tribeofManassehwhichlivedonthewestsideoftheJordan River,mostofthetribesofEphraim,Asher,Zebulon,and
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Issachar,andasmallportionofthetribeofDanwhichlivedin thenorthernpartofPalestine. AsthislargegroupofIsraelitesresettledintheBlackSearegion, theyassumednewidentities,butmanykeyfactorsmadethem readilyidentifiableasHebrews.Theregiontotheeastofthe 48 BlackSea(andnorthofArmenia)cametobeknownasIberia, confirmingthepresenceofHebrewsfromthetentribesinthat region.TheHebrewshadgiventheoldPhoenician/Israelite colonyinSpainthenameIberia(afterEber,thenamesakeof theHebrews),andithaslongbeencalledtheIberianPeninsula. ThenameofamodernSpanishriver(theEbro)stillpreserves thenameofEber,andisareminderoftheHebrew (Phoenician)presenceintheancientIberianPeninsula. TheappearanceofthesameHebrewname(Iberia)inthe regionnorthofArmeniaverifiesthatthisregionbecame anareaofIsraeliteresettlementforthosewhoescaped Assyriancaptivitybyvoluntaryflight.Whileinformation aboutthekingdomofIberiaintheAsianCaucasusregionrarely appearsinmodernhistories,itisshownonamaponArmenian 49 historyintheEncyclopediaAmericana. Thatmaprepresents thedimensionsofIberiassizeseveralcenturiesafterthearrival oftheIsraelites,andatatimewhenmostIsraeliteshad migratedoutofthatareaintoSouthRussia(chaptersixwill examinethoselatermigrations). Combiningtheabovehistoricalaccountswiththefactthat HebrewplacenamessubsequentlybecameattachedtoBlackSea areas,wehaveapositiveidentificationofwheretheescaped Israelitesrelocatedcirca724720B.C.Israelsnewhomeland waswellchosenasitwasinamountainousregionwherethe terraingreatlyfavoredthedefenders.Themigrationofthe Israelitestoadefensibleregionindicatesthattheypurposefully fledtoanareawhereAssyriawouldbereluctanttopursuethem.
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Asareminder,theHebrewswhoresettledintheBlackSea regionwereIsraelitesofthetentribesofIsraeltheywerenot Jews.TheBiblerecordsthattherewasconsiderablewarfareand hostilitybetweentheIsraelitesandtheJewsjustpriortothis Israelitemigration.Indeed,sincetheJewishkingdomatthat timewasalliedwithAssyriaagainsttheIsraelites(IIKings 16:7),theJewsatthattimehadnoneedtoflee.Also,theBible recordsthattheJews(Judah)didnotleavePalestineatthat time,butremainedinthelandaftertherestofthetribesof Israelweregone(IIKings17:18). WhileJudahremainedinthelandafterIsraeldeparted,their presenceinthelandwasfarfromsecure.Duringthereignofan honorablekingnamedHezekiah,theAssyriansinvadedJudah, intendingtodotoJudahwhattheyhaddonetoSamaria(II Kings18).TheirinitialeffortsweresuccessfulasIIKings18:13 recordsthattheAssyrianscameupagainstallthefencedcities ofJudahandtookthem.BasedonAssyriancustom,thislikely resultedinmuchofthetribeofJudahgoingintocaptivityatthis time.IIKings18:1317and19:8mentiononlythreefortified Jewishcities(Jerusalem,Lachish,andLibnah)resistedthe Assyrians. TheAssyriansmockedtheGodofHezekiah,assertingthathe wouldbeasimpotentasthegodsofHamath,Arpad, Sepharvaim,Hena,Ivah,andSamaria(IIKings18:3335).II Kings18:14recordsthatHezekiahgaveAssyriaskingtributeof 300talentsofsilverand30talentsofgoldinanefforttobuy offtheAssyrians.Significantly,theAssyrianrecordsagreewith thebiblicalaccountofHezekiahstribute,mentioninghis30gold 50 talents. Hezekiah,agoodking,thenappealedtoGodfordivine assistance.AnexaminationofthecuneiformAssyrianrecordsof thisinvasionshowswhyHezekiahandhispeopleweredesperate forhelp.
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AnAssyrianstonecarvingdepictingtheAssyriansiegeofLachish isondisplayintheBritishMuseum.Thereliefisdescribedby WernerKeller,inhisbook,TheBibleasHistory,asfollows: Ontheturretsandbreastworkofthe strongholdofLachish...theJudahite defenders...showeredahailofarrowsonthe attackers,hurledstonesdownuponthem, threwburningtorches...amongthe enemy...AtthefootofthewalltheAssyrians areattackingwiththeutmost violence...Sennacheribhaddeployedthe wholerangeofapprovedassaulttactics. EveryAssyrianisarmedtotheteeth...Their engineershavebuiltslopingrampsofearth, stonesandfelledtrees.Siegeengines,the firsttanksinhistory,pushforwardupthe rampsagainstthewalls.Theyareequipped withabatteringramwhichsticksoutlikethe barrelofacannon...tunnelsarebeingdriven intotherockbeneaththefoundationofthe walls...Thefirstcaptives,menandwomen, arebeingledoff.Lifelessbodiesarehanging onpointedsticksimpaled.51 OnecanimaginethehorrorofthesiegefacedbyJerusalems inhabitantsasthedefenderswereterrorizedbyAssyriantactics whichincludedimpalingtheircountrymenonstakes!Asextreme ashispositionwas,HezekiahsprayerdidnotsimplyaskGodto savetheirskins.HelaidoutbeforeGodanAssyrianletterwhich openlymockedtheabilityofGodtohelpthem.Hezekiahasked Godtointerveneforhisnamessake,portrayingthebattleas oneinwhichthehonorofGodwasatissue.Godrespondedby sendingadeathangeltokill185,000Assyriansoldiersinone
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night(IIKings19:1435)!Thoseskepticalofthisdivine interventionneedtoconsiderthatAssyrianrecordsofthissiege ofJerusalemclaimonlythetributemoneytheygainedfrom Hezekiah.AnAssyrianretreatandanabsenceofanyvictorious claimsaboutJerusalemindicatethatitwasanunexpected 52 Assyriandefeat. ThedivineinterventiononbehalfofJerusalemmusthaveso terrifiedtheremainingAssyriansthattheyquicklywithdrewfrom Judah.IfJerusalemhadbeensparedbyhumanefforts,itcould beexpectedthatAssyriawouldhavesimplycomebackwitha bigenougharmytofinishthejob.ThefactthatAssyriasuddenly abandonedtheirinvasion,inspiteoftheiroverwhelming superiorityanddesiretoconquerJerusalem,indicatesthatwhile theyfearednoman,theydidfearHezekiahsGod. ThoseJewswhohadbeencapturedintheearlystagesofthe invasion(IIKings18:13)werelikelyalreadyontheirwayto captivitytoAssyrianterritory,soalargeportionofthetribeof Judahwasalsotakenintocaptivityatthattime. AssyriasKingSennacherib,whohaddefiedGodatJerusalem, waskilledbyhisownsonsatalaterdate.Significantly,after murderingtheirfather,theseAssyrianprincesescapedintothe landofArmenia(IIKings19:37).WhiletheKingJamesVersion oftheBibleusesthetermArmeniafortheirplaceofrefuge, theRevisedStandardVersiontranslatesitasthelandof Ararat.Iberia,theregiontowhichalargeportionofthe Israeliteshadrecentlymigrated,wastothenorthofMt.Ararat andArmenia. AfterkillingthekingofAssyria,thesefugitiveswantedtobe absolutelysurethattheywerefleeingtoanationwhichwould grantthemasylum.Theirconfidencethatpeoplelivinginthe areaaroundAraratwouldgrantthemasylumsupportsthe conclusionthatasizeableportionofIsraelstentribeswasinthe
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area(Israelspopulation,recentlydisplacedbyAssyrian onslaughts,couldbecountedontowelcomeanyonewhokilled thekingofAssyria).IIKings19:37thereforeoffersindirect confirmationthatIsraeliteshadmigratedtotheareaofArmenia (orArarat). AfterHezekiahsdeath,hissonManassehbecamethekingofthe depletedkingdomofJudah.Hewasavilekingwhocausedthe JewstoworshipBaal.UnderManasseh,theJewspracticed astrology,infantsacrifice,contacteddemonsviathosewhohad familiarspirits(i.e.channelers,inmodernterms),etc.Judah becamesodegeneratethatIIKings21:116andIIChronicles 33:310recordthattheybecameworsethanthedepraved CanaaniteswhomtheIsraeliteshaddisplacedinthetimeof Joshua.Jeremiah3:611confirmsthatJudahssinsexceeded thoseofIsrael. BecauseofManassehsdegeneratesins,Godallowedhimto becomeanAssyriancaptiveinBabylon.Surprisingly,Manasseh repented!InatestimonytohowmercifulGodcanbewhenone repents,IIChronicles33:1120showsthatGodcausedhimto bereinstatedasKingofJudahwherehesubsequently commandedJudahtoservetheGodofIsrael(verse16). AsanexampleofhowfarJudahdriftedfromGod,IIChronicles 34recordsthatlaterinthereignofJosiah(agoodking),the scrollscontainingGodsLawswerefoundaspartofaprojectto repairGodsTemple.Imagine!Judahhadabandonedtheworship ofGodforsolongthatbythetimeJosiahwasking(circa639 608B.C.)nooneevenknewwhatthelawsofGodwere!When thiscopyofGodslawswasdustedoffandread,itwasthefirst timethatKingJosiahandhispeoplehadeverheardtheLawof God.DuringJosiahsreign,averyimportantprophecyby Jeremiahwasgivenwhichoffersbiblicalconfirmationthatmuch ofthetentribesofIsraelwasthenlocatednorthofArmeniain
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thelandofIberia. Jeremiah3:612containsadivinewarningtoJudahthroughthe prophetJeremiah.AfterreviewingthesinsofIsraelwhichcaused themtoberemovedfromPalestine,GodwarnedJudahthatits sinsweregreaterthanthosewhichcausedthetentribestobe removedfromtheirland.Verses1112thenstate: AndtheLordsaiduntome.Thebacksliding Israelhathjustifiedherselfmorethan treacherousJudah.Goandproclaimthese wordstowardthenorth,andsay.Return, thoubackslidingIsrael,saiththeLordandI willnotcausemineangertofalluponyou:for Iammerciful...andIwillnotkeepangerfor ever. NotethatwhenGodinspiredaprophettodirectamessageto thetentribesofIsrael,hewastoldtoproclaimittowardthe north.ThismessagewasgiveninJerusalemaboutacentury afterSamariafell.IfalltheIsraeliteshadbeentakencaptiveinto Assyria,Godwouldhavesaidtoproclaimthemessagetothe east.However,theBlackSeaisdirectlynorthofJerusalem,and wehaveexaminedseveralsourceswhichtracedalargebodyof thetentribesofIsraeltoIberia,alongtheBlackSea.TheBibles statement(circa620B.C.)thatthetentribeswerelivingtoward thenorthofJerusalemconfirmsthosehistoricalaccounts.Also, Godswords...Israelhathjustifiedherself...givescredenceto thehistoricalaccountsofOrtelliusandIIEsdrasthatthe resettledIsraelitesweretryingtoservetheGodofIsrael. Approximately45yearslater,theBabyloniansconquered JerusalemandcarriedtherestoftheJewscaptiveintwo separateinvasions.Inthefirstinvasion(circa600B.C.), NebuchadnezzartookKingJehoiachin,mostofhisroyalfamily, andmuchoftheleadershipofJudahintocaptivity.Thisfirst
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invasionnettedover10,000captives(IIKings24:816). Nebuchadnezzarmadeonememberoftheroyalfamily (Zedekiah)apuppetkingoverJudah,butelevenyearslater, ZedekiahsrevolttriggeredthefinalBabylonianinvasionwhich endedtheexistenceofthekingdomofJudah.KingZedekiahs sonswerekilled(IIKings25:67),butthisdidnotterminatethe Davidicdynasty.Afterspending37yearsincaptivity,theformer kingofJudah,Jehoiachin,wasgivengreatfavorbyasubsequent Babylonianking(IIKings25:2730).IChronicles3:1724shows thatJehoiachin(JeconiahtheprisonerorJeconiahthecaptive insometranslationsoftheBible)hadsevensons,andthatthese sonsproducedmanydescendantswhopreservedtheroyalblood ofKingDavid.ThattheroyalDavidiclineflourishedeventhrough thecaptivityofJudahwillbecomeanimportantaspectofalater chapter. ThereisonefootnotetothefallofthekingdomofJudahwhich bearsourattention.ThebookofJeremiahcontainsmanyofthe warningswhichGoddirectedhimtogivetoJudah.WhenJudah fell,theBabyloniansallowedJeremiahtogofree(Jeremiah 39:1112).AsmallJewishremnantfledwestwardintoEgypt, takingJeremiah,hisscribeBaruch,andthekingsdaughters fromtheroyalhouseofDavidwiththem(Jeremiah43:17).II Kings25:7recordsthatthesonsofthepuppetkingZedekiah wereslain,butnoharmwasapparentlydonetohisdaughters. ThekingsdaughterstravelingwithJeremiahwouldhavebeen thedaughtersofKingZedekiah. WhiletheBibledoesnotsaywhatbecameofJeremiah,Baruch, andtheroyalprincesses,secularhistorydoesgiveusan indicationoftheirfinalplaceofrefuge.J.H.Allen,inhisbook, JudahsSceptreandJosephsBirthright,citesancientIrish historiesinareconstructionofwhathappenedtoJeremiahand hisbandofJewishrefugees.Hestates:About585B.C.a
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notableman...apatriarch...cametoUlster,thenorthernmost provinceofIreland,accompaniedbyaprincess,thedaughterof aneasternking,and...SimonBrach(alsospelledBarechand Berach).53 Allensnarrativealsostatesthattheprincess,Tea Tephi,marriedanativeIrishkingwhoforsookhisoldreligion andchangedthenameofhiscapitaltoTara(aHebrew/Semitic name). Numbers33:2728statesTarahwasthenameofoneofthe encampmentsoftheHebrewpeopleduringtheirwanderingin thewildernessaftertheexodusfromEgypt(Numbers33:2728), andTerahwasalsothenameofAbrahamsfather(Genesis 11:31).J.H.Allensnarrativecontendsthatthepatriarch, SimonBrach,andtheeasternprincesswereJeremiah,his scribeBaruch,andoneofthedaughtersofKingZedekiahof Judah.TheHebrewnameTaraandthetimeoftheirarrivalin Ireland,585B.C.(nearthefallofJerusalem)supportthat conclusion. J.H.AllenfurthercommentsthattheroyalarmsofIrelandhave longbeenrepresentedbytheharpofDavid(whichwassaidto haveaccompaniedJeremiah,BaruchandPrincessTeaTephito Ireland),supportingtheideathattheroyaldaughterfromthe 54 eastwasadescendantofDavidfromJudahsroyalfamily. TheconsonantsofJeremiahsscribewereBRCH,aswerethe consonantsofthemanwhoaccompaniedtheancienteastern patriarchtoIreland.Thisfurthersupportsthecontentionthatthe ancientarrivalsinIrelandwereabandofJewishrefugees escortedbyJeremiah.JeremiahhadbeentoldbyGodthatit wouldnotbesafetostayinEgypt(Jeremiah42:1322),sowe canbesurehedidnotremainthere.SinceJeremiahlikelywas awareofwherethetentribesofIsraelhadfledduringthefallof Samaria,heandhissmallpartyofJewsapparentlysetsailfor Hibernia(Ireland),oneoftheoldcoloniesofIsrael,andstarted
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lifeanew. Thisconcludesthenarrativeaboutthemanywaysinwhichthe HebrewsofthekingdomsofIsraelandJudahleftthelandof ancientPalestine.Whilethesubsequentmovementsofthetribe ofJudah(theJews)arewellknowntohistorians,whathappened tothedescendantsofthemuchmorenumeroustentribesof Israel?Theydidnotdisappearfromthefaceofearth.Indeed, Hosea1:610prophesiedthatafterthetentribesofIsraelwere removedfromPalestine,theywouldsomultiplytheirpopulation thattheirdescendantswouldbetoonumeroustocount.Inthe followingchaptersweshalltracethehistoryofthedescendants ofthetentribesofIsraelaftertheyleftPalestine.Weshallsee thatGodabundantlyfulfilledhispromisetomultiplytheir numbers. Thefinalfactworthnotingisthattherewasamajorculturaland religiousseparationbetweentheIsraeliteswholeftPalestine.We haveseenevidencethattheIsraeliteswhomigratednorthward totheBlackSearegiontriedtoagainserveYahweh,theGodof Israel.TheyforsooktheidolatryandevilcustomsofBaal worship.ThoseIsraeliteswhomigratedbyseatothePhoenician coloniesofIsrael,TyreandSidonremainedintheBaaland mothergoddessworshipwhichpermeatedCarthageandthe otherPhoeniciancolonies. ThoseIsraeliteswhomigratedtotheBlackSearegionhadplenty ofavailableroomforexpansiononthesteppesofsouthern Russia.WhenthesedescendantsofthetentribesofIsrael reappearinhistory,theyburstforthasaconqueringhorde! However,thatstorymustwaitforchaptersix.Chapterfivewill firstexaminethehistoryofthelargestMediterraneanrefugeof thetentribesofIsrael...Carthage!

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Endnotes:ChapterFour 1. TheOpenBible,KingJamesVersion,IKings16:33,marginal note,p.350 2. HarpersBibleDictionary,Grove,p.361 3. YoungsAnalyticalConcordancetotheBible,Grove, subheadtwo,p.439 4. Rawlinson,George,Phoenicia,p.107117 5. Ibid,pp.112114 6. Fell,AmericaB.C.,pp.261268 7. Ibid,p.263 8. ColliersEncyclopedia,Vol.10,Iberian,pp.323324 9. Fell,AmericaB.C.,pp.262263 10.Ibid,p.159 11.Ibid,pp.219245 12.Ibid,pp.236243 13.Ibid,p.240 14.Ibid,p.226 15.Ibid,pp.261267 16.Ibid,pp.236243 17.Rawlinson,George,Phoenicia,p.3 18.Ibid,p.63 19.Church,Carthage,p.11 20.Ibid,p.11 21.Ibid,pp.1112 22.Rawlinson,George,Phoenicia,p.116 23.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.20,Shalmaneser,p.454 24.Keller,TheBibleAsHistory,p.212 25.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.13,Jews,subheadThe dynastyofOmri,pp.4546 26.HarpersBibleDictionary,Gozan,p.357 27.HalleysBibleHandbook,p.151 28.Keller,TheBibleAsHistory,p.244
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29.Ibid,p.246 30.Allen,JudahsSceptreandJosephsBirthright,pp.266268 31.Lawless,Ireland,pp.89 32.Allen,p.275 33.OFaolain,SkimtheHighWater:ASongForTheArans, BritishHeritage,August/September,1985Issue,pp.1415 34.Ibid,p.14 35.Coleman,DeDanaanblendsnewandoldforgreatIrish sound,MinneapolisStar&Tribune,March3,1986,page2C 36.U.S.NewsandWorldReport,March30,1987,p.7 37.Allen,p.275 38.Ibid,p.275 39.EncyclopediaAmericana,Vol.6,Celtiberia,p.143 40.Herm,TheCelts,pp.251252 41.EncyclopediaAmericana,Vol.13,HallstattCulture,p.726 42.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.5,Celt,pp.102103 43.Gawler,OurScythianAncestorsIdentifiedWithIsrael,p.9 44.Ibid,p.9,quotingM.Sailmans1818book,Researchesin theEast:animportantaccountoftheTenTribes 45.Goodspeed,TheApocrypha,(IIEsdras),p.93 46.Gawler,p.9 47.Ibid,p.9 48.Rawlinson,TheSixthGreatOrientalMonarchy,mapbetween pages78and79 49.EncyclopediaAmericana,Vol.2,Armenia,p.331 50.Keller,p.260 51.Ibid,p.259 52.Ibid,pp.260262 53.Allen,p.228 54.Ibid,pp.228229,249251

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5.CarthageTheColonythatBecameanEmpire ThepreviouschapterassertedthatCarthagewasacolonyofthe tentribedkingdomofIsrael,foundedintheninthcenturyB.C. asaresultoftheextremedroughtcausedbytheprayerof Elijah.Inthischapter,muchevidencewillbepresentedto supportthatassertion.Thischapterwillalsoexaminesomeof thehistoryofCarthage:itsrisetoempirestatus,itspresencein ancientAmerica,anditseventualdecayanddissolution.Its maritimeempirecametoincludeportionsofthreecontinents: Africa,EuropeandNorthAmerica.Additionally,italmost destroyedRome,itsarchrival. IntheninthcenturyB.C.,thekingdomofIsraelwasdevastated byaprolongeddroughtwhichhaditspeopleliterallystarvingto death.Thedrought,aresultofElijahsprayer,cameuponthem becauseoftheirdegenerationintothelibertineandbrutal practicesofBaalworship.Thedroughtwasapunishmentfrom GodforIsraelsdisobedienceandidolatry,butitalsoaffectedthe BaalworshippingcitystatesofTyreandSidon,whichhadbeen alliedtoIsraelsincethereignofKingDavidovertheunited kingdomofIsrael.Theiralliancewasparticularlycloseduringthis droughtasIsraelsKingAhabwasmarriedtoaroyaldaughterof Sidonsking.TheSidonianprincesswhobecamethequeenof IsraelwasnamedJezebel,andhernamestillservesassynonym forevil.TheBibledescribesthisperiodofIsraelshistoryinI Kings16:29to22:40. GoddidnotbringthisdroughtuponIsraelinafitofdivinepique. Godintervenespersonallytopunishnationsattimesinaneffort towakethemupspiritually,andtomotivatethemtoforsake theirselfdestructiveactivities.InIsraelscasetheyweresinking deeperintoBaalism,areligionwhicheventuallydestroysits adherentsbyitsownexcesses.InadoptingBaalismssexual hedonism,Israelwasdestroyingitsownfamilyunitsonwhich
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thestrengthofanynationisbuilt.Baalismalsoincludedthe grislyritesofhumansacrifices(particularlyofinfants).Byusing thedroughttofocusIsraelsattentiononthenationalcancerof Baalworship,GodwasdoingIsraelafavor. ItisindicativeofthestubbornnessofKingAhab(andIsrael)that theyenduredtheravagesofthedroughtforyearsratherthan forsaketheirhideousreligiouspractices.Asnotedintheprevious chapter,manyIsraelitesdidforsaketheirsinsandrelocatedto thekingdomofJudahwhereKingJehoshaphatledtheJewish nationinobeyingGod.Inordertoavoidstarvationformuchof itsremainingpopulationduringthedrought,Israelhadtoexport sizeablecontingentsofitspopulationelsewhere.WhileIsrael couldrelocateitscitizensanywhereinitsempire(whichincluded coloniesinSpain,theBritishIsles,andNorthAmerica),itwould havebeenagreatphysicalhardshiptorelocatewholefamilies andcommunitiestosuchdistantlocations.Forthisreasonitwas logicaltofindareasonablyclosepieceofrealestatethatwas unaffectedbythedroughttoresettlealargeportionofIsraels refugees.IsraelanditsTyrianandSidonianallieshadcolonies andtradingpostsalongtheNorthAfricancoast,butnone apparentlyhadthepotentialtoaccommodatesolargeaninflux ofpeople. Israelneededtobuildanewandclosercolony,suitablefor accommodatingalargeportionofitshungrypopulation.It neededtobedistantenoughtobeunaffectedbythedrought, yetcloseenoughtoavoidthehardshipsandrisksoflong voyages.Sincethecolonywouldreceivemanyseaborne immigrants,ithadtoincludeextensiveharborfacilitieswhich wouldaccommodatemanyshipssimultaneously.Thisnewcolony wasplantedonthenorthcoastofAfrica,andgiventheHebrew nameKirjathHadeschath,whichonehistorianofCarthage translatesasNewTown.1 ThenameKirjathisaHebrewword
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forcity,2 anditappearsfrequentlyintheBible.Israelitecities intheBibleincludedKirjathaim,Kirjatharba,Kirjathjearim, KirjathsepherandKirjathsannah(Numbers32:37,Joshua 15:15,15:49,20:7andISamuel7:1).ThatthisnewIsraelite colonywouldbenamedtheNewCityorNewTownwasvery appropriate.SincethecitystatesofTyre,Sidon,etc.were closelyalliedtoIsraelandwerealsoaffectedbythedrought(I Kings17:816),therewereundoubtedlynonIsraeliterefugees amongtheinitialcolonizersofKirjathHadeschathaswell. TheIsraeliteswhosettledKirjath(Carthage)camefromthe kingdomofIsrael,thetentribedIsraelitenationtothenorthof theJewishkingdomofJudah.Asdiscussedintheprevious chapter,JudahwasruledatthattimebyKingJehoshaphatwho outlawedBaalisminJudah.SincethedroughtwasonBaal worshippers,andJudahsupportedahugeinfluxofIsraelites duringthedrought,itisclearthatJudahwasnotaffectedbythe droughtwhichplaguedIsraelandthecitystatestoitsnorth. SinceJudahwasnotafflictedbythedrought,ithadnoneedto joinIsraelinfoundingthisnewcolony.Therefore,Kirjath HadeschathwasprimarilyanIsraelitesettlement.Sinceboth IsraelandJudahspokeHebrew,itiseasyforamodernreaderto misunderstandtheoriginsofKirjathunlessitisrealizedthatits founderswereHebrewsfromthenorthernkingdomofIsrael,not thesouthernkingdomofJudah. WhiletheHebrewwordKirjathwasthenamegiventothisnew citybyitsinhabitants,theGreekscalleditKarchedon,andthe RomanscalleditCarthago.3 BothGreeceandRomewere perennialenemiesofCarthage.Sinceourhistoryoftheancient worldcomesmostlyfromGrecoRomansources,wetodayrefer tothisancientHebrewcityasCarthage,thenamegivenitby itsenemies. Manyhistorians(AlfredChurch,GilbertandColetteCharles
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Picard,andB.H.Warmington)whohavewrittenbooksabout Carthaginianhistoryhavecommentedthatthechiefmagistrates ofCarthagewerecalledtheshophetim,aHebrewwordfor Judges.4 GilbertandColetteCharlesPicardmakethis observation: ...theexecutivepowerwassharedbytwo shofetim.Thistitle,whichtheRomans translatedassuffetes,meansjudges.Itwas thetitlebornebytheeldersofthepeople ofIsraelbeforeinstitutionofthe monarchy.5 (Emphasisadded.) [TheabovewordShophetimisalsospelledshofetim, dependingonthepreferenceofindividualwriters.]R.Bosworth Smith,addsthefollowing: ...twosuprememagistratescalledbythe RomansSuffetes.Theirnameisthesame astheHebrewShofetim...TheHamilcars andHannosofCarthagewere,liketheir prototypes,theGideonsandtheSamsonsof theBookofJudges,notsomuchtheirjudges, astheprotectorsandtherulersoftheir respectivestates.6 (Emphasisadded.) WhywouldCarthaginianleadershaveIsraelitetitlesunlessthey wererelocatedIsraelites?Itisalsointerestingthatthe Carthaginianleadersassumedthetitleofjudgesinsteadofthe moreregaltitleofkings.Thisisunderstandablewhenone realizesthatCarthagebeganasacrowncolonyofIsrael,hence itstruekingforatleastthefirstcenturyofitsexistencewasthe reigningkingofIsrael.WhileCarthaginianleaderswerecalled kingsafterIsraelfell,itsleaderscontinuedtousetheHebrew titleofjudges.
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AfewCarthaginianrulersdidcallthemselveskingsintheyears afterthefallofIsrael.OneCarthaginianleaderwiththetitle 7 kingwasnamedMalchus. MalchusisanotherHebrew name,andwasstillbeingusedbytheHebrewsatthetimeof Christ(John18:10).AprominentmemberoftheHamilcars,a rulingfamilyofCarthage,boreafamousHebrewname.The historianAlfredChurchnoted: OneoftheHamilcars...borethesurnameof Barca,andBarcaisthesameastheHebrew Barak...8 OneobservationbyChurchillustrateshowdeepisthe misconceptionthatallHebrewspeakingpeopleofthat timewereJews.Henotes: theseresemblancesofCarthaginianand Hebrewnamesareveryinteresting,andshow ushowclosewasthekindredbetweenthe Jewsandthe...Phoeniciantribes,enemiesto eachotherthoughtheymostlywere.9 WhenitisrealizedthatthePhoeniciantribeswhosettled Carthage(butusedHebrewnamesandtitles)wereprimarily IsraelitesofthenortherntentribedkingdomofIsrael,onecan seewhythereisacommonHebrewheritageforboththeJews andtheCarthaginians.SincetheBibleconfirmsthatIsraeland Judah(theJews)wereenemiesduringmuchoftheirseparate histories,itiseasytounderstandwhytherewasenmitybetween theJewsandthePhoeniciantribes.However,asdocumented inpreviouschapters,thenorthernkingdomofIsraelwasa perennialallyofTyreandSidoninaPhoenicianconfederation. Therefore,theclosekindrednotedabovebetween CarthaginiansandHebrewswasactuallybetweenthe CarthaginiansandIsraelitesofthetentribes.
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AnotherevidenceoftheIsraeliteoriginsofCarthageisinthe nameofCarthagespriests.Carthagespriestswerecalledthe Kohanim,andtheHighPriestwascalledtheRabKohanim (thetermsarerenderedcohenandrabcohenimby 10 Warmington). WecanclearlyseetheHebrewrootwordsforthe termRabbiandsuchmodernJewishnamesasKahn,Cohen, andKahane.TheHebrewCarthaginianwordKohanimsimply meanspriests,andthewordRabmeansgreat,mightyor elder.11 GilbertandColetteCharlesPicardnotethatthesacredpriestly lawoftheCarthaginianKohanimwithitsinstructionsonanimal sacrifices,libations,andotherpriestlyritesbearavery significantresemblancetotheBookofLeviticus.12 They furthernotethattheGreatGodElwasinvokedexclusively underthenameofBaalHammon,whichmeanstheLordofthe altarswhereincenseburns...[andtherewerecategoriesof offeringsandsacrificeswhich]...correspondexactlytothose 13 oftheHebrews ThedivinenameElisoneoftheHebrew 14 namesoftheGodofIsrael, furtherdocumentingtheHebrew originsofCarthage.B.H.Warmingtonincludedphotographsof CarthaginianartifactsinhisbookCarthagewhichshowBaal Hammon(El)sittingastrideacherub,andsittingbetweentwo 15 cherubim. ItisEl,theGodofIsrael,whoisdescribedasthe onewhodwellsbetweenthecherubim(ISamuel4:4and Psalm80:1),demonstratingfurtherthattheGodofIsraelwas importanttotheCarthaginians.Warmingtonalsoincludesa photographofastatuetakenfromaCarthaginiansanctuaryat MonteSirai,16 whichpreservesforustheHebrewnameSarai orSarah,thewifeofAbrahamandmotherofIsaac.The CarthaginianswerekeenlyawareoftheirIsraeliteheritage,and preservedIsraelitecustomsandnamesaswellastheirnative Hebrewlanguage.
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ThattheCarthaginiansincludedtheGodofIsraelintheir pantheonissignificant.SincetheearlysettlersofCarthagewere keenlyawareofthedivineoriginofthedroughtupontheir homelandofIsrael,theylikelywouldhavetriedtoappeasea Godwhohadsuchpower.Eleventuallybecamejustanother nameintheirpantheonofgods,butitdoesappear,however, thatforatime,theearlyinhabitantsofCarthagepaidatleast somehomagetotheGodofIsrael.Unfortunately,theirrootsin BaalismweresodeepthatthelawsofGodwereeventually subordinatedtothecustomsofBaalism.Additionally,their sacrificialofferingscametoincludehuman,aswellasanimal, sacrificesduetothecontagionofBaalism. Thehistorian,GeorgeRawlinson,madethefollowing observationsontheunityoftheHebrewandPunic (Carthaginian)languages: Itisnowgenerallyallowedthatthe PhoeniciansspokeaSemitictongue,very closelyalliedtotheHebrew.Amongthe ancients,Jerome,Augustine,andPriscian, statethefactintheclearestterms.The inscriptionswhichexistconfirmit.The... inscriptionsare,forthemostpart,readily explicable,ifHebrewbeassumedasthekey tothem,butnototherwise.Thesamemay besaidofthelongPunicpassagein Plautus.AgoodHebrewscholarhasno difficultyinunderstandinganylegible Phoenicianinscription...Theinscriptionof Marseilles,andthepassageinthePoenulusof Plautus,commonlycalledPhoenician, belongrathertotheliteratureof Carthage.17 (Emphasisadded.)
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Attimes,theCarthaginian(Punic)civilizationisreferredtoas WesternPhoenician,becausetheywerePhoenicianswho settledinthewesternpartoftheMediterraneanSea.Forthis reason,Carthaginianinscriptionsareattimescalled Phoenician,asRawlinsonnotedabove.Clearly,therewasso littledifferencebetweenHebrewandCarthaginian/Punicthat theybeganas,essentially,thesamelanguage,withthelatter beingaderivativeoftheformer. IthasbeennotedthatthefirsttwocenturiesofCarthageare veiledinobscurity.18 Whiletwocenturiesisnotalotoftimein anhistoricalperspective,thatisonlyalittlelessthanthelifeof theUnitedStatesofAmericaasanindependentnation.Formuch ofthattime,Carthage(orKirjath)livedintheshadowofits mothercountry,Israel.WhileCarthagewasacolonyofIsrael,it didnotenjoyasovereigntyofitsown.Theobservationthat Carthagesinitialhistorywasobscuresupportstheconclusion thatitexistedunderthedominanceofIsrael.Itisonlyafterthe endofthekingdomofIsraelinPalestinethatCarthagebeganto developitsownsovereignidentityinworldaffairs. TheaboveevidenceclearlyestablishestheHebrew/Israelite originoftheancientpeoplewetodaycalltheCarthaginians.This isnottosaythattheywererighteouspeopleastheuglysinof BaalworshipeventuallybecamejustasdominantinCarthageas ithadbeeninIsrael.ThereisareferenceintheEncyclopedia 19 JudaicatoaHebrewroleinthefoundingofCarthage, although thisreferencemakesnodifferentiationbetweenthetwoseparate Hebrewkingdomsthatexistedatthattime.TheEncyclopedia JudaicaconfirmsthisinstatingthatthereisnoevidenceofJews inCarthageduringthePunicperiod(before146B.C.E.)20 Given thefactthatCarthagesearlyhistoryispermeatedwithHebrew namesandterms,theavowedabsenceofanyJewishroleatthat timecanonlymeanthattheHebrewnatureofCarthageresulted
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fromtheactionsofthetentribedkingdomofIsrael(whichwas Hebrew,butnotJewish). WhenthenorthernkingdomofIsraelfell,itissignificantthata disputearosebetweenJudahandCarthageoverrightstoIsraels formerterritory.Ofthattime,theEncyclopediaJudaicarecords thatAfricans(Carthaginians)arealsodescribedasdisputing withIsraelitesthetitletotheownershipofErez[thelandof] Israel.21 Inthisquote,theEncyclopediaJudaicaapparently referstotheJewishresidentsofJudahastheIsraeliteswho disputedwithCarthageoverrightstothelandofIsrael.TheJews wereIsraelitesinaracialsenseastheywereoneofthemany tribeswhodescendedfromIsrael(whoseoriginalnamewas Jacob),butinanationalsense,theJewsofJudahhadnotbeen knownbythetermIsraeliteforcenturies(thattermwas appliedtothenortherntentribesofIsrael). JudahsclaimtothelandofIsraelwasunderstandableafter Israelleftthearea,theyclaimedownershipduetothefacttheir DavidicdynastyruledoverthatterritorybeforeIsraelandJudah becameseparatenations.CarthagesclaimtoIsraelsold territorywasalsounderstandablesincetheyweretheblood descendantsoftheIsraeliteswhohadabandonedthelandto Assyriasarmy.Undoubtedly,manyCarthaginianswererelated totheownersofIsraelsestatesatthetimetheywere abandoned.Judahsclaimwasbasedonhistoricalprecedent whileCarthagesclaimswerebasedontherightsaffordedto kinsmen.Bothclaimsweremoot,however.NeitherCarthagenor JudahhadthepowertochallengeAssyriainthematter,and AssyriadecidedtopopulateIsraelsabandonedlandastheysaw fit(IIKings17:2431). Afterthefalloftheirmothercountry,Israel,theCarthaginians hadtofendforthemselvesintheworld.AsthelargestIsraelite (Phoenician)colonyintheMediterraneanarea,Carthage
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logicallyassumedaleadershippositionamongthevarious PhoeniciansettlementsintheMediterranean.Infact,with IsraelspowerabsentfromtheMediterranean,many Israelite/Phoeniciansettlementssoonbecameuntenableand wereabsorbedbyanewpower. Thenewforcewhichsteppedintothepowervacuuminthe EasternMediterraneanwasGreece.Onehistorianstates: TheGreekstookadvantageofthiseclipse[in Phoenicianpower]andfrom750to500B.C., againstlittleopposition,theydroveoutthe Phoeniciansandpouredthousandsoftheir ownemigrantsintoEasternSicily,intothe SouthofItaly,intoSouthernProvenceand evenintoAndalusiaandCyrenaica,thus completelyencirclingtheCarthaginian territory.22 TheeclipseofPhoenicianpowerafter750B.C.coincides perfectlywiththedeclineandfallofthekingdomofIsrael,which wasinitsdeaththroesfrom750721B.C.Furtherattestingto CarthagesIsraeliteoriginsisonehistoriansstatementthatat thebeginningoftheseventhcentury[B.C.]...Carthagereceived afreshcontingentofcolonistsfleeingfromtheAssyrian tyranny.23 ThistimeperiodwasjustaftertheFallofSamaria. ManyofthePhoenicianswhowerepushedoutof MediterraneanlocationswereIsraelitecolonistsandtraders.The areascitedaboveasbeingvacatedbyPhoeniciansalsogives usanindicationofhowwidespreadwastheIsraelitedominance oftheMediterraneanpriortoIsraelsdemise.Carthagegrewin strengthasitbecametheredoubttowhichdisplaced Phoeniciansfled.ThisinfusionofrefugeesintoCarthageis describedasfollows:
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TheCarthaginians...hadalreadybeen reinforced,onseveraloccasionsbyrefugees fromthebesiegedmetropolisofTyreandnow ralliedallthecolonistsdrivenfromLixusand Gades,beyondthePillarsofHercules,to Malta,bywayofSardiniaandWesternSicily, inorganizedresistancetothecommon enemy.24 SinceCarthagereceivedrefugeesfromTyreonseveral occasions,itislogicalthatCarthagealsoreceivedwavesof IsraeliterefugeesfromthekingdomofIsrael(Tyresally)during theinvasionsbyAssyria.ThisstrengthenedtheHebrew/Israelite natureofKirjathHadeschath(Carthage). Duetotheinfluxofnumerousrefugees,Carthagebecame independentlystrongsoonafterthefallofIsrael.Herodotus,a GreekhistorianofthefifthcenturyB.C.,confirmedthatCarthage hadattainedby650B.C.arichandpowerful....adultstatus.25 Inotherwords.Carthagebecameanindependentpowerwithin onelifetimeofthefallofSamaria.Smartingfromtheir expulsionsfromformerhomelands,theMediterraneanIsraelites (withalliedrefugeesfromTyreandSidon)foughtback. CarthaginiancounterattacksagainsttheGreeksreasserted CarthaginianruleoverCorsica,NorthAfricaandotherWestern 26 Mediterraneanareas. Carthagebecamesodominantinthe WesternMediterraneanthattheyeffectivelybarredanyGreek passagethroughthePillarsofHercules(Gibraltar),making CarthagetheQueenoftheWesternSeas.27 Weshalllatersee thatCarthagesabilitytodenyGreeceanyaccesstotheAtlantic Oceanwillprovetobeaverysignificantdevelopment,which eventodayhasamajoreffectoneducationalcurriculuminthe westernworld. TheoldIsraelitecolonyatGadesinIberia(Spain)becameallied
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toCarthagewhenthelattercametotherescueofGadesina localwar.Onehistoricalaccountstates:Gades...feltobligedto appealtoCarthageandtoplacethemselveshenceforthunder Punicprotection.28 Whywouldthethreatenedinhabitantsof GadesappealtoCarthageunlesstheysharedacommonheritage (ascoloniesofIsrael)?Itisalsorecordedthatanewwaveof refugeesmigratedtoCarthagefromTyrewhenthatcityfellto 29 KingNebuchadnezzarin574B.C. Again,weseeCarthage servingasaprimaryrefugeforSemiticpeoplewhenfleeing PalestinetoavoidAssyrianorBabyloniancaptivity.Since PhoeniciawasanallianceofIsrael,TyreandSidon,andsince Israelhadthelargestpopulationandterritoryofanyofthe alliancepartners,itseemsapparentthatmostofthoserefugees wereIsraelites.ThatCarthageexhibitedmanyHebrewcustoms, names,andtermsconfirmsit. TheGrecoCarthaginianconflictsdividedtheMediterraneanSea intoseparatespheresofinfluence,withCarthagedominantin theWestandGreecedominantintheEast.Asthecenturies passed,theRomanswaxedmorepowerfulthantheGreeks,and theybecamethenewarchenemyoftheCarthaginians.Inthe earlycenturiesoftheirrivalry,Carthagehadtheupperhand. EarlytreatiesbetweenthetwoshowthestrongerCarthaginians arrogantlydictatingtermstotheweakerRomans.Inatreaty dated348B.C.,CarthageforbadetheRomanseventotradewith certainWesternMediterraneanareas,andorderedtheRomans nottolandinSardinia,EasternTunisia,andTripolitaniaunlessit 30 wastotakeonprovisionsorrepairtheirships. Carthagecould behaughtyanddictatorialevenwithitsalliesandmercantile partners.ThisCarthaginianpropensityforarrogancewouldprove tobeonefactorintheirundoing.Romehadalongmemory,and herturnwouldcomelater. CarthagecontinuedtoblockadethePillarsofHerculeswithits
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powerfulnavy,permittingneithertheGreeksnortheRomansto sailintotheAtlanticOcean.Infact,whenoneGreekmariner namedPytheasfinallydidsailintotheAtlanticaround300B.C., itwasanextraordinaryevent!Ithasbeensuggestedthatthe CarthaginianspermittedPytheastomakehisvoyageoutof 31 respectforAlexandertheGreatsMacedonians, whileanother explanationisthattheCarthaginianfleethadbeendivertedfrom 32 Gibraltarduetoimpendingmilitaryactionelsewhere. Atany rate,Pytheasvisitedthecoastlandsofwesternandnorthern EuropewhichwerepreviouslyunexploredbytheGreeks.Pytheas marveledthatthereferencepointsoftheconstellationschanged intheskyashetravelednorth,givingevidencetotheGreeks thattheworldwasasphere.AsDr.BarryFellnoted:Never beforehadany[Greek]navigatorbeenabletosailsofarnorth Carthaginiancommercialinterestswouldnotpermitit.33 Atthispointsomevitalobservationsneedtobemade.Inthe ancientworld,theCarthaginiannavywassopowerfulthatwhen aGreekmarineractuallygainedaccesstotheAtlantic,itwasa trulyhistoricevent!Whatwasremarkablenewknowledgetothe Greeks(thattheearthwasspherical)hadbeencommon knowledgetotheCarthaginians(andtheirforebears,the Phoenicians)formanycenturies!AfterthevoyageofPytheas, theGreekswereapparentlynotallowedintotheAtlanticfor anothertwocenturies,andlaterGreekcartographerscameto 34 regardtheobservationsofPytheasasfictional. BecauseCarthagesmilitarymightlongdeniedtheGreeksany experienceinsailingontheworldsoceans,theGreekshada verylimited,ethnocentricviewoftheworld.SinceRomewas alsodeniedaccesstotheAtlanticOceanuntilCarthagewanedin power,theperspectivesofbothGreeceandRomewere essentiallylimitedtotheMediterraneanSea,andthosepartsof AsiaandEuropewithinmarchingdistance.Thishasimmense
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implicationsforthoseofuswholearnourhistoryinthetwentieth century. Ourmodernversionsofancienthistoryaretaughtalmost exclusivelyfromaGrecoRomanperspective.Therefore, wearetaughttoassumethatnooneintheancientworld couldknowanythinguntilsomeoneintheGrecoRoman worldlearneditforthefirsttime.Thisassumptionhasgiven themodernworldwoefulmisunderstandingsabouttheancient world.SinceGreeceandRomeweremostlylandempiresrather thanmaritimeempireslikeIsraelandCarthage,theGreeksand Romanswereprofoundlyignorantofsomescientificknowledge thatmaritimepowershadpossessedformanycenturies.Since GreeceandRomewerelongunawareoftheexistenceofNorth America,SouthAmerica,thenorthernEuropeanregionandother placesreachableonlybylongrangeoceantravel,wetendto thinknobodyintheancientworldknewabouttheseplacesuntil theGreeksorRomansfinallylearnedaboutthem!Infact, Carthage(andIsrael/Phoenicia)knewvastlymoreabout thegeographyofthesphericalearththantheancient GreeksandRomanseverknew!Israel/Phoeniciaand Carthagediscovered,explored,colonizedandexploited theNewWorldlongbeforeGreekorRomaneyeseversaw territorybeyondtheMediterraneanSea! Modernacademics,becausetheyaretaughthistoryfromthe ethnocentricGrecoRomanviewpoint,arelimitedintheir understandingoftheancientworld.Theyhavemistakenly believedtheancientGrecoRomanpropagandathatGreeceand Romewerethemostadvancedculturesoftheancientworld. GreeceandRomewereadvancedinmanyaspectsofcivilization, buttheywereignoramusescomparedtotheCarthaginiansinthe fieldofoceanicnavigationandtheawarenessofworldgeography thatresultsfromtransoceanicvoyages.TheCarthaginiansdid
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notwanttheGreeksorRomanstolearnaboutthewealthof NorthAmericaandotherplacesaccessibleonlytoamaritime power.ThatiswhytheywenttogreatpainstokeeptheGreeks andRomansshutoutoftheAtlanticOcean.Theywantedto keepthewealthoftherestoftheearthsterritoriesto themselves,andretaintheobviouscommercialadvantagethata monopolyovertheAtlanticcoastlandsgavethem.Iftheancient Carthaginianscouldhaveknownthatovertwomillenniaintothe future,nationswouldbeteachingtheirschoolchildrenthatno oneintheancientOldWorldcouldhaveknownabouttheNew WorldbecausetheGreeksandRomansdidntknowaboutit,the Carthaginianswouldhaveroaredwithlaughter!Indeed,if CarthagehaddefeatedRome(insteadofviceversa),later Europeancivilizationswouldneverhaveinheritedtheideathat theworldwasflat! ThisdoesnotimplythattheGreeksandRomanswereignorant orunskilledpeople.Theysimplylackedtheaccesstosuch knowledge!Modernacademiamistakenlythinksthatthewhole ancientworldwasincapableoflearninganythinguntiltheGreeks orRomanslearneditfirsttherefore,modernassumptionsabout theancientworldarebasedontheancientpropagandaofGreece andRomeratherthanontheactualphysicalevidenceofthe ancientworld.Letusnowexaminetherealextentofthe Carthaginianempire. WealreadyknowthatCarthagewasdominantintheWestern MediterraneanareasofSpainandNorthAfrica.Sardinia,Western Sicily,andothercoastalareasoftheWesternMediterranean werefrequentlyundertheircontrol.However,themaritime commercialempireofCarthageextendedfarbeyondGibraltar. Carthagehadlongbeeninvolvedwiththetinandcoppertradeof 35 Briton,andtheambertradeoftheBalticSeaarea. Thiswould placetheCarthaginiantradersasfarnorthasPolandandthe
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Balticstates.Whilethiswasnotadirectpartoftheirempire,it showsCarthaginianmaritimepowerandinfluenceextendedto thenorthernandwesterncoastlandsofEurope.Carthagedid havedirectdominioninanareawhichfewmodernreaderswould everhaveguessed:ancientAmerica!Ancienthistoricalrecords supportthisassertion.Inhisbook,AtlanticCrossingsBefore Columbus,FrederickPohlcitestwoancientGreekaccountsofa landbeyondGibraltarwhichcanonlybeancientAmerica.The firstaccountisfromthewritingsofAristotle,andreadsas follows: IntheseaoutsidethePillarsofHerculesthey saythatanislandwasfoundbythe Carthaginians,awildernesshavingwoodofall kindsandnavigablerivers,remarkablefor variouskindsoffruits,andmanydays sailingdistanceaway.Whenthe Carthaginians,whoweremastersofthe WesternOcean,observedthatmanytraders andothermen,attractedbythefertilityof thesoilandthepleasantclimate, frequenteditbecauseofitsrichness,and someresidedthere,theyfearedthat knowledgeofthelandwouldreachother nations,andagreatconcoursetoitofmen fromvariouslandsoftheearthwouldfollow. Therefore,lesttheCarthaginianEmpireitself shouldsufferinjury,andthedominionofthe seabewrestedfromtheirhands,theSenate ofCarthageissuedadecreethatnoone, underpenaltyofdeath,shouldthereaftersail thither,andtheymassacredallwhoresided there.36 (Emphasisadded.)
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AristotlesreferencetoawealthyCarthaginianlandmanydays sailingdistanceacrossthewesternoceancouldonlyindicate ancientNorthAmerica!AristotlelivedinthefourthcenturyB.C., atimewhenGreekknowledgeoftheworldbeyondGibraltarwas limitedtowhatevertheCarthaginianswantedthemtoknowor whateverGreekspiescouldascertainfromCarthaginiansources (perhapsdrunkenCarthaginiansailorsonshoreleave).Theonly landmanydayssailingtimewestofGibraltar(thePillarsof Hercules)largeenoughtohavenavigablerivers,fertilesoil, forests,andapleasantclimatewasancientAmerica.To safeguardtheirmonopolyonsucharichterritory,Carthageused everymeansatitsdisposaltokeepothersfromsharingits resources.ThismakesitalltheclearerwhyCarthagewas determinedtokeeptheGreeksandRomansoutoftheAtlantic theydidnotwantthosenationstotaptherichesofNorth America.ThesecondaccountisfromDiodorus,aGreekhistorian ofthefirstcenturyB.C.Itisasfollows: OveragainstAfricaliesaverygreatislandin thevastocean,manydayssailfromLybia westward.Thesoilthereisveryfruitful,a greatpartwhereofismountainous,butmuch likewiseisaplain,whichisthemostsweet andpleasantpart,foritiswateredwith severalnavigablerivers...themountainous partofthecountryisclothedwithverylarge woods,andallmanneroffruittreesand springsoffreshwater...thereyoumayhave gameenoughinhuntingallsortsofwild beasts...37 Obviously,theverygreatislandwestwardinthesamelatitude asLybiawasancientNorthAmerica,withitsforests,mountains andvastinnerfertileplainwateredbynavigablerivers.When
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onefollowsthelatitudeofthesailingportsofancientLibya westward,onecomestotheareaofthesouthernportionofthe modernUnitedStatesofAmerica.Noticethespecificityofthe aboveaccountitwaswrittenafterCarthagehadfallentothe Romans,atimewhenGrecoRomannavigatorsfinallygained accesstotheAtlanticOcean.ARomanwriterofthesecond centuryA.D,ClaudiusAeliannus,alsocommentedthatthe existenceofamarvelouslandtothewestwasadefinite traditionoftheCarthaginiansorPhoeniciansofGades.38 ThepresenceofCarthaginiancoinsandartifactsinNorth AmericaverifiesthattherichCarthaginianterritoryacrossthe Atlanticwas,indeed,ancientNorthAmerica.Dr.BarryFells book,SagaAmerica,documentsthefindingofCarthaginian coins,artifactsandinscriptionsintheAmericanstatesof Alabama,Connecticut,NewYork,Colorado,Kansas,Oklahoma 39 andNevada. Dr.Fell,thefounderofTheEpigraphicSociety, notesthatCarthaginiancoinsfoundinAmericadateprimarilyto 40 theperiodofthefourthandthirdcenturiesB.C. Hepostulates that(duringtheaboveperiod)Carthagesgoldandmuchofthe timberfortheconstructionofitsnavalvesselscamefrom 41 ancientNorthandSouthAmerica. DuringthePunicWars,ancientAmericalikelybecametherefuge foranunknownnumberofCarthaginiansfleeingfromRoman conquerors.ThediscoveryinGeorgiaofanatlatlstone(aspear hurlingdevice)withaPunic(Carthaginian)inscriptionfromthe secondcenturyB.C.supportssuchaconclusion.Dr.Fellconfirms thecontinuedHebraiccontentoftheCarthaginianlanguageby statingthathededucedthe[meaning]fromcorresponding wordsinBiblicalHebrew.42 ThetranslationofthisPunic inscriptionbyDr.FellissupportedbytheanalysisofaSemitic 43 languagesscholar,MichaelSkupin. Dr.Fellfurtherobservedin SagaAmericathat:
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ThePuniclanguagecanbereadwithout difficulty,asitissimilartoancientHebrew.44 Carthagewasfamousintheancientworldforitswealth!One sourcestatesthatCarthagewas,beyonddoubt,therichestcity ofantiquity.45 Nowonder!Theyexploitedtheresourcesofthe NewWorldwhileshuttingoutallrivals.Foratime,Carthagehad amonopolyonthewealthoftheNewWorld! Asaninterestingdigression,theancientlegendsthattheoceans werefullofterrifyingcreaturesandmysticalthreatsmayhave resultedfromCarthaginiandisinformationcampaignstomake potentialrivalsafraidofsailingtheworldsoceans(foistingsuch beliefsonrivalswouldstrengthenCarthagesmonopolyonthe Atlantictraderoutes).Thesemaritimemythscouldhavebeen perpetratedontheGreeksandRomans,and,throughthem, passedontolaterEuropeancivilizations.Atanyrate,itisclear thatthePhoeniciansandCarthaginiansharborednomythological fearsaboutsailingontheworldsoceans. WecannotknowtheexactextentoftheCarthaginianpresence onAmericanterritory.Itwascertainlywideranging,giventhe locationsofCarthaginianartifactsfoundonAmericansoil.They thoroughlyexploredancientAmericaastheGreekaccountsof NorthAmerica(whichaccuratelylistssuchfeaturesasmountain ranges,plains,forests,andnavigablerivers)werebasedon Carthaginianaccounts.Infact,anotherGreeksourceprovidesan insightintothesizeofCarthagespresenceinancientNorth America.

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NigelDavies,inhisbook,VoyagerstotheNewWorld,citesan accountbytheancientGreekhistorian/geographerHerodotus thattheCarthaginiansmountedanexpeditionof30,000men andwomenin60shipsin500480B.C.,andsentthem westwardintotheAtlantictowardanunknowndestination.Mr. Daviesobservesaptlythatthisresemblesamigrationmore thanamereexpedition.46 AssumingtheGreekaccounttobe accurate,theCarthaginianexpeditionaveraged500personsper ship!ThepresenceofCarthaginiancoins,artifactsand inscriptionsinancientNorthAmericarevealwhereancient Carthaginiancolonialexpeditionssuchasthisoneheaded!Mr. Daviesfurthernotes: InRomantimesthecapabilitiesof Carthaginianshipsweregreatlyincreased someexceeded1000tonsandwere,
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therefore,muchlargerthantheEnglish boatsthatcrossedtheAtlanticinthe seventeenthcenturytheMayflower weighed180tons.47 (Emphasisadded.) Paradoxically,afterconfirmingthattheCarthaginianshipswere farlargerthanseventeenthcenturyshipswhichcrossedthe AtlanticOcean,Mr.DaviesthenassertsthatthePhoeniciansand CarthaginianscouldnothavecrossedtheAtlanticwiththeirhuge ships.HespecificallyattacksDr.BarryFellfordaringtoconclude (inhisbook,AmericaB.C.)thatthepresenceofPhoenicianand Carthaginianinscriptions,artifactsandcoinsinNorthAmerica resultedfromPhoenicianandCarthaginianshipscrossingthe 48 Atlanticinancienttimes. Yetinthesamebook,Mr.Davieshas noproblemproposingthatancientPolynesianssailedacrossthe PacificOceanandreachedNorthAmericainoutriggerordouble 49 canoesholdingonlyfortytoonehundredmen. Thisbegsthefollowingquestion.Ifonecanacceptthat PolynesianscouldhavecrossedthePacifictoNorthAmericain largecanoes,whyisitsohardtoacceptthattheCarthaginians (withmuchlargervesselsholding500people)crossedthe AtlanticOceantoNorthAmerica?SinceancientCarthaginian coins,artifactsandinscriptionshavebeenfoundinNorth America,theirarrivalinCarthaginianvesselsseemsobvious. Unfortunately,modernacademiagenerallychoosestoignoreall preColumbianOldWorldartifactsandinscriptionsinthe Americas.Ratherthanapplyingthescientificmethodtothese discoveries(whichwouldcausethemtodiscardolddogmas abouttheancientworld),muchofacademiaisinaregrettable stateofdenialconcerningthevoluminousevidenceofwhatreally occurredintheancientworld. Clearly,ifPolynesianscouldcrossthePacificinlargecanoes,the CarthaginianscouldeasilycrosstheAtlanticinvesselssohuge
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thatthePolynesiancanoeswouldhaveseemedlikemere lifeboatsincomparison.Commonsensealsodictatesthatifthe EnglishontheMayflowercouldmaketransoceanicvoyageswith ashipof180tons,theCarthaginians(whoseskillswerebased oncenturiesofPhoenicianmaritimeexperience)couldeasily havedonesowithshipssixtimeslargerthantheMayflower! Mr.Daviesconclusionstypifythedogmaofmodernacademia thatmaybeparaphrasedas:Wecannotadmitthatanyone couldhavecrossedtheAtlanticbeforeColumbusnomatterwhat evidenceexiststothecontrary.Giventheimmenseweightof evidencethatpreColombiancrossingsoftheAtlanticweredone overmillenniabymanydifferentnationsandcultures,one wonderswheresuchaprejudiciallyunscientificapproach originated?AlikelyanswerisprovidedbyRobertaSmithinan articlepublishedintheEpigraphicSocietyOccasional Publications: WhentheearlysettlersofPlymouthColony andthefirstFrenchmissionariesarrivedin thiscountrytheyfoundcuriousstone structuresandthenativeAmericansusing scripts.Thesefactsweredulyreportedto theirsuperiors,but...thereportsremainedin themothercountriesandtheburgeoningnew nationquicklyforgotaboutthem.Inthelate 1800stheSmithsonianissueda pronouncementthatColumbushadbeen thefirsttodiscoverAmerica,and archaeologistsandhistorianswho disagreedwiththatviewwerepolitely askedtoresigntheirpositionsinthe universities.Thus,forseveralgenerations Americanarchaeologists...havebeenso
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thoroughlyconditionedtotheideathatno preColombiancontactwaspossiblethatnow theyfinditexceedinglydifficulttorecognize significantdatawhenitisencountered.50 (Emphasisadded.) Modernacademicsandscholarshavebeentrainedinan atmospherewhichperpetuatestheunscientificdogmathatno onediscoveredAmericabeforeColumbus.Itisinsightfulthatthis conclusionwasimposedontheAmericaneducationalcommunity notbyscientificargument,butratherbyintellectualintimidation. Tothisday,academicargumentsopposingtheoverwhelming evidenceofpreColombianvoyagersandsettlersinAmericaare basedoncondescension,intimidationandpersonalinsultsrather thanonevidenceandlogic.ItisunfortunatethatDr.BarryFell andthosewhohavescientificallydocumentedsubstantialpre ColombianpresencesinancientAmericahavebeengiventhe sametreatmentthatMedievalEuropesestablishmentgaveto CopernicusandGalileowhentheyconfrontedtheunscientific dogmasoftheirday. SincetheCarthaginiansinheritedthemaritimeroutesandskills oftheoldIsraelite/Phoenicianalliance,thisalsogivesusan indicationofthesizeofshipsusedbytheirforerunnersaswell. TheabovecitedaccountofHerodotusmayhavepreserveda recordofoneofCarthagescolonizingexpeditionstoAmerica.It isnoteworthythattheCarthaginians,inthefirstmillenniumB.C., couldlaunchexpeditionstotheNewWorldwhichwerefarlarger thanthecolonialeffortsoftheEuropeanpowersafterColumbus rediscoveredAmericasometwothousandyearslater. IntheseventhandsixthcenturiesB.C.,thePhoenicianssailed largeoceangoingvesselscalledhipposwhichcouldremainat 51 seaforayear. Thesehipposmaygiveusanindicationofthe sizeoftheIsraelite/PhoenicianshipsinthedaysofKingsHiram
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andSolomonwhosefleetsinthetenthcenturyB.C.undertook threeyearvoyages(IKings10:22). GiventheconsiderableevidencethattheCarthaginianswerea colonyoftheoldHebrewkingdomofIsrael,itcanbeconcluded thatIsraeliteswerepresentinancientAmericathroughmost,if notall,ofthefirstmillenniumB.C.(initiallyundertheauspicesof IsraelsPhoenicianEmpire,andsubsequentlythatof Carthage).Indeed,onereasonwhyCarthagedominatedthe AtlanticOceanforcenturiesisthattheyinheritedPhoeniciansea chartsandnavigationalknowledge. Earlier,itwasseenthatthepeopleofIsraelreferredtothem selvesasthecovenantpeople,andusedtheHebrewword berithorbarat(theconsonantsBRT)tonamethemselves. TheCarthaginianswerealsoknowntoplacethesameHebrew 52 word(BRT)ontheircoins. Thisindicatesanawarenesson thepartoftheCarthaginiansthattheyweredescendantsofthe covenantpeopleofoldIsrael. WhileCarthageeventuallydiddegenerate,theirculturewas previouslyatahigherlevel.Wehavealreadyseentheevidence ofLeviticalpriestlycustomsinthecustomsofCarthage,andalso thatCarthageatfirsthonoredEl,acommonnameforIsraels God.TheCarthaginiansinitiallycontinuedtheHebrewcustomof forbiddinggravenimages,andmadesmallmonumentswhich wereatfirstjustplainstones.53 Insodoing,theCarthaginians initiallyadheredtothesecondoftheTenCommandmentsgiven toMoses,andtheGodordainedmethodofbuildinganaltar (Exodus20:4,25).ItisalsoapparentthattheCarthaginians werenotalwaysdegenerate.GilbertandColetteCharlesPicard notethefollowingaboutthem: ...littleindulgencewasshowntothe weaknessesoftheflesh.Thereligiousreform ofthefifthcentury...hadpurifiedreligionof
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mostofitssexualpractices,whichhadtheir originsinfertilityrites...thestructureofthe familyandthestatusofwomendidlittleto encouragemasculinelicence.Monogamywas generally,ifnotuniversally,practiced,and manytombscontaintheskeletonsofmarried couples.Thereisnoevidenceofaharemor eunuchs.Thewomenofthearistocracy... receivedanextensiveeducation[and]were abletoexerciseconsiderablepolitical influence...Thereappearstohavebeenlittle homosexualityinCarthage.54 ThisaccountportraysaverydifferentCarthagethanthe CarthageofthelaterPunicWarswhichpracticedhuman sacrifice.ItseemsclearthattheearliercenturiesofCarthage hadstrongfamilyvaluesandgoodmoralstandards.Itisnot coincidentalthattheearliercenturiesofCarthage,whenitssocial fabricwasstrong,werecharacterizedbygrowingstrengthand power.However,whenCarthagelatersankintodepraved conduct(i.e.disobeyedGodslaws),itwanedanddied. TheCarthaginiansusedthesameHebrewwordforaplacewhere 55 deadbodiesofhuman(usuallyinfant)sacrificeswereplaced. Thiswordwastophetortopheth,56 anditisfoundfive timesinJeremiah19inadiscourseagainsthumansacrificesin thekingdomofJudah.Jeremiah7:3132alsodecriesJudahs customofinfantsacrificeduringthelifetimeoftheprophet Jeremiah.KingJosiahofJudahdidstophumansacrificefora time(IIKings23:10),butthegrislycustomofBaalworship accompaniedthedeclinesofJudahandIsraelaswellas Carthage.ThereisanaccountthattheCarthaginiansonce sacrificed500childreninanefforttoappeasethegodsduring 57 amilitarycrisis.
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AfterthefallofCarthage,Puniccities(andthePuniclanguage) survivedinNorthAfricaforanotherhalfmillennium.Their inscriptionswerewritteninalanguageverylikeHebrew,58 and theHebrewnatureoftheirlanguagewasstillclearlyevidentas lateasthefourthcenturyA.D.whenitwasnoticedbySt. 59 AugustineandSt.Jerome. Oneofthegroupsofpeopleidentifiedaslivingintheregionof CarthageweretheMassaesyli.60 Mighttheiroriginal CarthaginiannamehavebeenManasseh,oneofthe birthrighttribesofIsraelwhichledthekingdomofIsraelwhich foundedKirjath(Carthage)? AfterthefallofJudah,itappearsthatatleastonelargegroupof JewssettledinthedomainoftheirCarthaginian/Israelite relatives.AbandofpeopleknownasthePharusianslivedin 61 NorthAfrica. SincetheCarthaginianswerefellowSemites whoselanguagewascloselyrelatedtoHebrew,itisnot surprisingthatJewishrefugeeswouldseekrefugein Carthaginiandomains.ThePharusiansborethenameofthat branchofthetribeofJudahwhichdescendedfromPhares(or Pharez),thesamebloodlinewhichproducedKingDavid,the kingsofJudah,andJesusChrist. WewillnowexaminesomeaspectsoftheCarthaginian civilizationwhichwillgiveusagreaterunderstandingoftheir nationalcharacteristics.Carthage,liketheirparentnationof Israel,wasafoodexporter.Carthagewasoneofthewheatkings oftheancientworld,controlling9millionbushelsofwheatper 62 year. Interestingly,alargeportionofCarthaginianwheat exportswenttoGreeceandRome.Carthagewaswillingtofeed herenemiesiftherewasmoneytobemadeintheprocess.Since modernreadersknowthatNorthAfricaisnowmostlydesert,itis asoberingcommentaryonwhatcanhappentofertilelandwhen itismisusedandoverworkedforaprolongedperiodoftime.
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SincethewheatregionsofNorthAfricawerestillveryproductive whenCarthagefell,theCarthaginiansmusthavebeengood custodiansofthesoil.NorthAfricasuppliedtheRomanEmpire 63 withmuchofitswheatlongafterCarthagefell, sothe responsibilityforturningNorthAfricanwheatregionsintodeserts lieseitherwiththeRomansorlaterpeople. TheCarthaginianswereinventivepeopleastheyharvestedtheir wheatfieldswithafairlyadvancedthreshingmachineakindof sledgefittedwithsmalltoothedwheelswhichtheRomanscalled thePuniccart.64 Carthaginianagriculturalinterestswere variedastheywerealsobeekeepersandmethodicalcattle 65 breeders. LivestockbreedingisaclassicIsraelitetraitwhich waspresentintheirancestorJacob,whosenamewaschangedto Israel(Genesis30:3743).Itisnosurprisethathisdescendants alsopossessedthatskill. ConcerningthesizeofCarthage,theRomanhistorianStrabo maintainedthatthetownalonehadapopulationof700,000.66 DuringCarthaginianrule,ithasbeenestimatedthatonly 100,000couldlivewithinthecitywallsofCarthageandthat 67 another100,000livedinitssuburbs. Sincetheareawithinthe citywallsconstitutedadefensiveredoubt,itisnotcertainhow manylivedoutsidethecitywallsduringtimesofpeace.One ancientaccountrecordsthatthecircumferenceofCarthageand 68 itsrelatedsuburbswas23miles! SinceCarthagesagricultural landwasveryproductive,itcouldeasilyhavesupportedalarge numberofpeople.ItwasdiscussedearlierthatHerodotus recordedthattheCarthaginianssentcolonizingexpeditionsof 30,000menandwomenwestwardintotheAtlantic.IfCarthage waslargeenoughtomountcolonizingexpeditionsofthatsize,it isreasonabletoassumethatCarthageitselfhadhundredsof thousandsinitspopulation,andthattheentirePunicculture numberedinthemillions.
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Givenallthesenaturalstrengths,whatcausedCarthageto becomeonemoreinalonglineoffallenworldempires?There areseveralreasons.Oneobviousfactoristheseriesof debilitatingwarswhichCarthagefoughtwithRome.Anotheris thefactthatCarthagecametoincreasinglyrelyonforeign mercenariestofightitsbattles,andtheinfluxofforeigners surelycontributedtomixedloyaltiesandinternaltensions.There isalsoadeepercause.SinceCarthagewasinfectedwiththe plagueofBaalismanditssociallydestructivepractices,Carthage alsorottedfromwithin.HerruleovertheotherPuniccities becamesoarrogantandunbearablethatwhenRomefinally destroyedthecityofCarthage,manyofCarthagesfellowPunic citiesalliedthemselveswithRometoassistinCarthages 69 destruction. OnemajorcampaignofthePunicWarswillberecountedas significantforpurposesofthisbook.IntheSecondPunicWar, thefamousCarthaginiangeneral,Hannibal,almostsucceededin destroyingRome.Hannibal(whosenameincludedaderivativeof thegodBaal:Hannibaal)ledafamousmarchovertheAlps,and warredagainsttheRomansontheirhomesoilofItalyfor approximately12years.HedestroyedentireRomanarmies,and pillagedItalyalmostatwill.Hannibalshighpointcamein216 B.C.whenhisarmyslew70,000Romansinasinglebattleat 70 Cannae. Inexplicably,Hannibaldidnotpresshomehis advantageandattackRomeatthattime.Ifhehaddoneso,the courseofhistorymighthavebeenalteredwithRomebecominga conqueredprovinceoftheCarthaginianEmpire.However,that opportunityslippedaway,andRomerecoveredtowinthe SecondPunicWar. WhenHanniballaterhadtofleeforhisownlife,hesoughtrefuge 71 foratimeinArmenia. ItisinterestingthatHannibalfelt Armeniawouldofferhimarefuge.SinceHannibalhaddescended
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fromtheHebrew/IsraelitestockwhichfoundedCarthage,and sincetheenvironsoftheBlackSeaandArmeniahadbeen inhabitedbyalargeportionofIsraelitessincetheeighthcentury B.C.,wasHannibalawarethatmanyinthatregionsharedthe HebrewrootsoftheCarthaginians,andwouldbelikelytooffer himsanctuary? Asmentionedabove,thePuniccultureandlanguagesurvived until400A.D.,whenitsHebrewrootswerestillrecognizableby earlyChristianwriters.Thisissignificantasitmeansthatthere werestillmanyPunicIsraelitesinNorthAfricaatthetimeof Christ.ThestatementinActs2:10thatpeoplefromNorthAfrica (Libya)werepresentamongthedevoutwhowereattendingthe FeastofWeeks(whichChristianslatercalledPentecost)takeson newmeaning.TheseNorthAfricansmayhavebeenscattered Jews,buttheycouldalsohavebeenPunicIsraeliteswhostill worshippedtheGodofIsrael.DuringthelifeofJesusChrist, SimonofCyrene(anareaofLibya),wasmadetocarrythecross ofChristonhiswaytoGolgotha(Mark15:21).Simonwas apparentlymakingapilgrimagefromCyrenaica(aPunicregion) toJerusalemtoattendthePassoverthatcoincidedwithJesus crucifixion.Acts11:20and13:1alsoindicatethatsomeearly ChristianswerefromPunicregions. WheredidmostoftheCarthaginiansgowhenCarthagefellto theRomans?ItishighlyunlikelythatalltheCarthaginians stayedinCarthageforthelastfutilebattleagainsttheRomans. SinceCarthagehadanetworkofcoloniesandtradingposts, manylikelyfledfromtheRomansinthesamewaytheIsraelites earlierfledfromAssyria.ManyCarthaginianswiththemeansto dosoundoubtedlychosetoevadetheRomanconquerorsby relocatingelsewhere.SomemayhavesailedCarthagesold maritimeroutestoAmerica.Historicalfactssupportthis conclusion.
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WehavealreadyseenthatCarthaginiancoins,artifactsand inscriptionshavebeenfoundinawideareaofNorthAmerica. EvidencehasalsobeenfoundthatTanith,thePunic/Carthaginian mothergoddess,wasworshippedinColorado,Oklahoma,and 72 NorthCarolina. Dr.Fellwasearliercitedasnotingthatthe CarthaginiancoinsinancientAmericadatetothefourthand thirdcenturiesB.C.,73 atimepriortotheFirstandSecondPunic WarsbetweenRomeandCarthage. ThereisanancientAmericanstoneinscriptioninMassachusetts whichclaimstheareainthenameofHanno,aPunicruler.Dr. FelltranslatesthePunicinscriptionas: APROCLAMATIONofannexation.Donot deface.BythisHannotakespossession.74 HannowasacommonCarthaginianname,buttherewasa famousCarthaginianexplorer(circa520B.C.)namedHannowho ledlargeexpeditionfleetsintotheAtlanticthroughthePillarsof Hercules.Nineteenthcenturyhistorian,AlfredChurchwroteof thisexpedition(whichwaspreservedintheGreeklanguage): ItwasdecreedbytheCarthaginiansthat HannoshouldsailbeyondthePillarsof Herculesandfoundcities...Accordinglyhe sailedwithsixtyshipsoffiftyoarseach,anda multitudeofmenandwomentothenumber ofthirtythousand,andprovisionsandother equipment.75 Avoyageof60shipsand30,000menandwomensoundsvery muchlikethevoyagecitedabovebyNigelDavies.Daviesdates thevoyageto500480B.C.whileChurchassignsitto520B.C. Churchsuggeststhatthesixtyshipsweremilitaryvesselsand thatthe30,000colonistswereembarkedonanunknownnumber oftransportvessels.WhatisknownisthattheCarthaginiansdid
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sendhugefleetsofcolonistswestwardintotheAtlanticOcean. PerhapstheHannowhoannexedAmericawasthevery HannowholedthisancientCarthaginianfleetintotheAtlantic Ocean,butitcannotbeknownforcertain.Atanyrate,a CarthaginiannamedHannoclaimedNorthAmericaforCarthage inthemiddleofthefirstmillenniumB.C.Itisalsologicalthatthe CarthaginianswouldnotsendwholefamiliesintotheAtlantic towardanewlocationunlesstheyhadalreadyexploredand securedthesitewhichwastobetheirdestination. InchapterthreeitwasshownthattheIsraelite/Phoenicianshad establishedtheAdenacultureintheOhioRiverregionofthe AmericanMidwest.CarthageandtheAdenacolonywereboth descendedfromIsrael/Phoenicia,soitlogicalthatthelatter couldserveasarefugefortheformersrefugees.Thereis evidencethattheAdenacolonyinNorthAmericareceiveda majorinfusionofnewimmigrantsknownastheHopewellPeople 76 in300200B.C. ThisinfusionofnewpeopleintotheAdena colonycoincideswiththeFirstandSecondPunicWars(264241 B.C.and218201B.C.)betweenCarthageandRome,and followstheperiodoftimeinwhichCarthaginiancoinswere infusedintoNorthAmerica(ascitedbyDr.Fell).Itisquite possiblethattheinfusionofpeopleintotheAdenaColonyin NorthAmericaduringtheFirstandSecondPunicWarswere CarthaginiansseekingrefugefromtheirwarswithRome. Fittingly,evenasCarthage(Kirjath)wasfoundedbyIsraelites seekingrefugefromsuccessiveAssyrianwars,Carthagewas depletedbyrefugeesfleeingtodistantsites(includingAmerica) toavoidtheRomanwars.Asseeninchapterthree,the Adena/Hopewellpeopleweremoundbuilders,andatabletfound inoneofthem(theGraveCreekMoundofWestVirginia)was inscribedin: Punicwrittenintheformofanalphabet
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usedinIberiainthefirstmillenniumB.C. TheGraveCreekMoundisbelievedtobethe largestoftheAdena[mounds]andaccording toDonW.DragooinMoundsfortheDead, wasofthelateAdenaperiodcoincident withthearrivaloftheHopewellPeople, 300to200B.C.77 (Emphasisadded.) ThatalargeburialmoundinWestVirginia,datingtotheperiod oftheFirstandSecondPunicWars,includedaPunic (i.e.Carthaginian)tabletsupportstheviewthattheHopewell infusionintotheAdenaCultureofNorthAmericawascomprised ofPunicrefugees. Also,numerousgravestoneshavebeenfoundinPennsylvania withCarthaginianinscriptions.Onegravemarkerwrittenin CarthaginianscriptofaboutthefirstorsecondcenturyA.D. [whichreferstotheritesofthechurch]makesitclearthathe wasalsoanearlyChristian.78 ThisindicatesthatPunicsettlers continuedtodwellintheNorthAmericanHopewellcivilization, 79 whichlastedfromapproximately200B.C.until400A.D. Thata PunicgravestonefromthefirstorsecondcenturyA.D.wasfound inPennsylvaniabearingaChristianinscriptionisquite remarkable.ChristianityoriginatedasanOldWorldreligionin thefirstcenturyA.D.,sothisancientgravemarkerindicatesthat ChristianityspreadtoNorthAmericasoonafteritoriginated!This confirmsthatthesailingroutesbetweentheOldandNewWorlds werestillactiveinthefirstfewcenturiesafterthetimeofChrist. EvidencethatCarthaginianshadsoughtrefugeintheNewWorld alsoexistsintheMayanruinsofMexico.NeilSteede,President oftheMexicanEpigraphicSociety,notesthatmanyinscribed bricksfoundattheMayansiteofComalcaicoindicatethat speakersofOldWorldlanguageswerepresentattheancient site.Hewrites:
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Thetrulyinscribedbricks...fallintoseveral classes.Inscriptionsmakeupsome77ofthe inscribedbrickswhiledrawingsareonly20. Some58oftheinscribedbricksareinMaya hieroglyphswhile...18areinwhatappearto beOldWorldlanguages.80 Someveryinterestinginformationhasbeendecipheredfromthe inscribedbricksofComalcaico.Onebrick,excavatedin197778 undertheauspicesoftheElInstituteNacionaldeAntropologiae HistoriadeMexicohasonitaninscribedSemiticcalendar!Dr. BarryFelldescribesitasfollows: ...they[theletters]canberecognizedas belongingtotheextremelydegenerate Neopunic...inuseatCarthageafterthefirst centuryA.D.Studyofthelettersshowsthat theyforminsequence,fromrighttoleft,the initiallettersofthenamesofthePhoenician andHebrewmonths,takenintheorderofthe CivicYear...ThemannerinwhichtheCalendar issetout,showingtheastronomicalbasisof thesuccessionofmonths,suggeststhatit wasmadeforthepurposeofexplaininga conceptofayearof50weeks(aSemitic notion)toapersonunfamiliarwiththenotion, suchasaMayan...Boththedegenerate Neopunicscript,therefore,andtheuseof weeks,withanevidentneedforanintercalary 13th[month]every3or4years,indicatethat thiscalendarbelongstothefirsttothird centuriesA.D.81 AnotherinscribedbrickexcavatedfromComalcaicocontains evidencethattheChristianreligionhadalsoreachedtheMayan
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regionoftheNewWorld.Dr.Fellwrites: Some[oftheinscriptionsontheinscribed bricks]...aredecidedlyforeign,andtheir presence,incorporatedintothestructureof Mayantemplesandmoundsimpliescontact betweentheMayanbuildersandforeign nations...TabletAP480isofNorthAfrican originor,atleast,istheworkofaNorth African...[anditcontains]lettersofthe Libyan(Numidian)alphabet...thelettersare understoodasspellingthenameYSWthatis tosay,Yoswa=HebrewJoshua...thatisJesus. Thenextletters...evidentlyspelltheBerber ArabicwordHMN,Hamin,meaning Protector.Thecrudefigureofarobedman... apparentlyrepresentsJesustheProtector, andthetabletwasmadefor,orby,aNorth AfricanoftheChristianfaith.82 TheaboveinscribedbricksdatetotheearlyChristianera, severalcenturiesafterthefallofCarthagein146B.C.The presenceofinscriptionsshowingPunicandNorthAfrican speakerswerepresentwhenstructuresinComalcaicowerebuilt offersstrongevidencethatCarthaginianrefugeeswerepresent intheNewWorldandwereinteractingwiththeMayan civilization.ThepresenceofaChristianinscriptionagainconfirms thattransatlanticvoyageswerestilloccurringintheearly centuriesoftheChristianera.SinceChristianinscriptionsdating tothefirsttothirdcenturiesA.D.havebeenfoundinboth PennsylvaniaandtheMayancityofComalcaico,itisclearthat ChristianitywaswidelydiffusedintheNewWorldatthattime. ThereisadditionalevidencethatcolonistsfromtheCarthaginian EmpiresettledintheNewWorld.IberianPunicgravestoneswere
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83 foundinMichigan, andIberianPunicinscriptionsalsoappearin 84 Massachusetts. Furthermore,strikingparallelsbetweenthe currency(copperingots),potteryandadornmentsofthemound buildersofancientAmericaandtheIberianPuniccivilizationof 85 theOldWorldhavebeenfound.

Also,aCreationChantofthePimaIndianswasfirst transliteratedintoRomanlettersbyanethnologistfromtheU.S. 86 BureauofEthnologyin190102. Attemptedtranslations resultedingibberishuntilDr.BarryFellpublishedacoherent, 86 andevenpoetictranslationinhisbook,AmericaB.C. The ancientPimachantwasproperlytranslatedafteritsSemitic originwasrecognized.Dr.Fellwrites: ...otherinvestigatorsfailedtorecognizethe CreationChantasanancientSemitichymn. ThelanguageisPunicandmostofthewords initarenolongerusedbythePima...Itis evidentthatinthecourseoftimethePima languagedivergedsomuchfromtheoriginal Punicthatthelattercouldnolongerbe understoodbymodernspeakersinthesame waythatamodernEnglishspeakercan scarcelycomprehendawordoftheoldAnglo Saxongospelsunlesshehastraininginthe archaicformsoftheOldEnglishlanguage.87 Basedontheabove,itseemsapparentthatimmigrants(many werepaganandsomewereChristian)fromCarthagesPunic culturelikelyexertedconsiderableinfluenceonthedevelopment ofearlycivilizationsintheNewWorld.TheMayanCivilization lastedforoveramillennia,fromapproximately400B.C.untilits demiseatthehandsoftheSpaniardsinthesixteenthcentury 88 A.D. MayanbeginningscoincidedwithCarthagespresencein theNewWorld,andcontinuedthroughtheperiodofCarthaginian
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flightsfromthePunicWars.Itispossible,giventhecultural contactbetweenthetwocivilizationsovercenturies,thatthe Mayanslearnedthepracticeofhumansacrificefromthe Carthaginians.Also,itisimpossibletoescapethesimilarity betweenthepyramidsoftheMayansandthoseofEgypt.That similarityaloneimpliesthatregularcontactexistedbetween NorthAfricaandtheMayanregion.Duringtheearlycenturiesof Mayandevelopment,theNorthAfricanCarthaginianscontrolled themaritimeroutestotheNewWorld,andtheycouldeasily havebroughttheknowledgeoftheEgyptianpyramidsofNorth AfricatotheMayans. CarthagesdemisecameattheendoftheThirdPunicWar,which concludedin146B.C.withthedestructionofCarthage.Itis recordedthatthefortifiedwallsofCarthagewereeighteenmiles incircumference...fortysixfeethigh,andthirtyfourfeet thick,89 yettheywerenotenoughtosaveCarthage.Asan indicationofCarthaginianwealth,thepillagingRomansweresaid tohavestripped1000talentsofgoldfromCarthagestempleof 90 91 Apolloalone. Rometook50,000Carthaginianscaptive, a paltrytotalcomparedtoearlieraccountsofCarthages population.ThelargereductioninCarthagespopulationfromher glorydaystothetimeofitsfallcoincideswiththearrivaloflarge numbersofnewcolonistsinNorthAmericasHopewell/Adena civilization.ItishardlysurprisingthatmanyCarthaginianswould choosetherigorsofamigrationtoanewlandratherthandeath orcaptivityatthehandsoftheRomans. AfterthefallofCarthage,RomanaccesstotheNewWorldwas nolongerblocked.Romancoinsandartifacts(fromtheperiod afterthefallofCarthage)andLatininscriptionshavebeenwidely foundintheNewWorld.CoinsmintedunderfourRoman emperorswerefoundinMassachusetts,alargecacheofRoman coinsfromthereignsofalltheemperorsofthefirstthree
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centuriesafterChristwasfoundinVenezuela,andindividual RomancoinshavebeenunearthedinTennessee,Georgia,Texas, 92 andNorthCarolina Romanoillampshavebeenfoundin 93 AlabamaandConnecticut, andDr.Fellmakesthecasethatthe RomanshadafurtradingpostinWyoming,wherepetroglyphs 94 depictRomancoindesignsfrom50B.C.toabout20A.D. HowdidtheRomanslearntheroutestotheNewWorld?Thereis asimpleanswer.SomePuniccitieswereRomesallieswhen Carthagefell,andtheRomanslearnedaboutthemaritimeroutes totheNewWorldfromthem.Aswewouldexpect,Romancoins foundinNorthAmericadatetothetimesofRomanemperors whoruledafterthefallofCarthage.Thisraisesthequestionof whetherRomecametoNorthAmericaforeconomicgain,to pursuefleeingCarthaginians,orforbothpurposes. Earlier,itwasmentionedthatPunicinscriptionscanbe decipheredbyconsultingtheHebrewlanguage.Toillustratethis point,wewillexamineDr.FellstranslationofaCarthaginian inscriptionfromMassacreLake,Nevada,asreadingmaythe cloudsspewforthrain.95 Theinscriptionreadsfromrighttoleft andDr.FellstatedtheinscriptionconsistedofthelettersQ, MTR,IB.Anyreadercanreadilyconfirmthatthese CarthaginianwordsareHebrewrootwordsbyconsultinga Hebrewlexicon.TheHebrewwordsinvolvedareQO(orQI), MATAR,andAB(consonantshavebeenunderlined).The HebrewwordsQIorQOmeanspew,orvomitout MATARmeansrain,andABmeanscloud.96 Clearly, Carthaginianvocabularyisbaseddirectlyonthewordsofthe Hebrewlanguage. WhentheRomanssackedCarthage,whateverpriceless knowledgeexistedinCarthageslibrarieswasdestroyed. Apparently,onlyoneliteraryworksurvived:a28volumetreatise byaCarthaginianruleronthebreedingandmanagementof
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cattle,thecareofpoultryandbees,theplantingofforesttrees andthetreatmentofthevineandolive.97 IftheRomanshad heededtheagriculturalknowledgeinthesevolumes,NorthAfrica mightstillhavewheatfieldswherethereisnowonlydesert. Thereisoneotherunusual,butfascinating,pieceofevidence supportingaconclusionthatCarthaginianswerepresentin ancientAmerica.Thisevidenceinvolvesthelikelihoodthat elephantswereintroducedintotheAmericasduringthe Carthaginianperiod,andthattheywerepresentintheNew Worlduntilcolonialtimes.GeorgeCarter,ProfessorEmeritusof TexasA&MUniversity,haswrittenintheEpigraphicSociety OccasionalPublicationsthatanumberofAmericanIndiantribes preservedlegendsofelephantslivinginNorthAmerica.He wrote:Themoststrikingones[elephantlegends]weretoldto CottonMatherinNewEnglandandtoThomasJeffersonin Washington...theIndianstoldJeffersonthatelephantscouldstill beseenintheGreatLakesregion.98 Carteralsonotesthat thereisampleevidenceofelephantmotifsinancientAmerica. Hewrites: ...America,isliberallysprinkledwithpictures ofelephants.PaintedonacaveinWashington State,intherockartoftheWest,inMayan glyphswhereelephantheadsappearas affixesatleast14times,inaMexicancodex [it]...wasnotedthatapriestsacrificingaman woreanelephantheaddress.99 Dr.BarryFellsbook,AmericaB.C.,alsonoteselephantmotifsin bothNorthandSouthAmerica.HisbookshowsanEcuadorian artifactdepictinganelephantwithanaccompanyingNorth African(Libyan)scriptfromthelatterhalfofthethirdcentury beforeChrist,andalsodepictsanimageofanAfricanelephant 100 onanancientartifactunearthednearDavenport,Iowa.
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Ancientrockcarvingsdepictingelephantshavealsobeen documentedinNewMexicoandOklahoma,confirmingthat inhabitantsofancientAmericawereobviouslyfamiliarwith 101 elephants. Additionally,thebonesofelephantsthatlivedinancientAmerica havebeenfoundanddated.Carterrecordsthat: InFloridaonesetofextinctanimalsthat includedtheelephanttribe,carbondatedto 2000years...[and]amammothskeletonin theMississippiRivervalleywasoncedatedat about2000years.102 Thesedates(2000yearsago)placeelephantsinancientNorth AmericaattheapproximatetimeofChrist.Thearticlescited abovediscussthequestionofwhethertheelephantsinancient NorthAmericawereAfricanorAsianelephantsorsurviving mammothsfromiceagetimes.TheartifactsshowninFellsbook indicateAfricanelephantswerepresentastheyareassociated withNorthAfricanscriptsandartifacts.However,Carternotes evidencethatanAsianelephantheadedgodwasworshippedin theancientAmericas,andDr.Felladdedthat:California tablets...employtheancientSanskritwordGaja,usedinIndia 103 eventodayfortheAsiaticelephant. Thisindicatesthatancient AmericanswereawareofbothAfricanandAsianelephants. ThereisevenoneeyewitnessreportfromtheAmericancolonial period.AnEnglishsailornamedDavidIngramwasmaroonedin MexicoafteranavalbattlewiththeSpanishbutwalkedthrough muchofNorthAmericabeforereturningtoEuropefromNew EnglandwiththehelpofFrenchfishermen.ThelateAmerican novelist,LouisLamour,wasfamiliarwiththisepisodeandwrote concerningIngramsfindingsonhiswalkthroughNorthAmerica: HesaidhesawelephantsandIhavehisaccountrightbefore me.104
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Theaboveaccountsindicatethattherewereelephantsinancient (andnotsoancient)America.TheNorthAmericanelephant bonescarbondatedtothetimeofChristareparticularly persuasive.Wheredidtheseelephantsoriginate?Werethey survivingmammothsormodernelephantsimportedfromtheOld World?Tothisauthor,thelatteroptionseemsthemostlikely. WeknowthattheCarthaginiansspecializedintheuseofbattle elephants,anditisknownthatelephantsaccompanied Carthaginiantroopsevenunderthemostchallenging circumstances.HannibalsarmybroughtAfricanelephantsinto EuropeandacrossthefrigidAlpsintoItalyduringthePunic Wars.SincetheCarthaginianscouldtransportelephantsacross thehostileAlps,theycouldalsohavetransportedthemtothe NewWorldacrosstheAtlanticaboardtheirlargetransportships. TheancientAmericanelephantmotifsreproducedinFellsbook depictmodernelephants,arguingthatAmericasancient elephantswerenotsurvivingmammoths.Thepresenceof elephantsinNorthAmericacanbetracedtothethirdcentury B.C.,duringthetimeofCarthage.Descendantsoftheoriginal CarthaginianelephantssurvivedintheNewWorldthroughthe timeofChrist,andapparentlyuntiltheearlycolonialperiodin America.ThepresenceofAfricanelephantsinancientAmericais consistentwiththeevidencethattheCarthaginianswerepresent inancientAmerica.WhobuttheCarthaginians,withtheirlarge maritimefleets,couldhavetransportedAfricanelephantsto America? ThisconcludesthenarrativeonCarthage(Kirjath),Israels colonywhichbecameanempire.Therecordofhistoryindicates thatwhenCarthagepossessedatleastsomerespectfortheGod ofIsraelinherearlyyears,itwasblessedwithexpandingpower andinfluence.WhenCarthagegrewgreat,itbecamearrogant anddeeplyinfectedwiththeselfdestructivepracticesofBaal
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worship.ThesameevilsthatdestroyedancientIsraelandJudah alsobroughtdownCarthage. GodpromisedthatAbrahamsandIsraelsdescendantswould (whenobedienttoGodslaws)inhabitthefatness(orbest places)oftheearth,possessthegatesoftheirenemies,have agriculturalabundanceandbemilitarilyvictorious(Genesis 22:17,27:2829,Leviticus26:48).LikeIsrael,Carthage receivedtheseblessingsinitsearlycenturies.Theypossessed thewheatlandsofAfrica,thewealthofNorthAmerica,thecritical seagateofGibraltar,agriculturalabundance,andmilitary power.Carthagespossessionofmanyofcovenantblessingsof AbrahamuponIsraelconfirmstheirIsraeliteheritage. FleeingCarthaginianswhomigratedtoNorthAmericaapparently foundedacivilization(theHopewellCivilization)which disappearedabout500A.D.105 Wedonotknowwhatcaused theirdemise.Itispossiblethatwarfaredepletedtheirnumbers. EpigrapherGloriaFarleydocumentedaninscriptioninNorth Africanletterswhichpreservestherecordofanancientbattlein Oklahoma.Whilethedatingofthebattleisuncertain,thenature oftheinscriptionsuggeststhatthebattle...mayhaveoccurred afterthetimeofChrist.106 TheAncientAmericanPuniccivilizationmayevenhavebeen destroyedasaresultofvenerealdisease.TheBaalworshipthat CarthagebroughttoAmericaincludedpromiscuoussexrites whichprovidedanidealenvironmentforspreadingfatalvenereal diseases.Ourmodernworldisexperiencingavenerealdisease (AIDS)whichhaskilled(andwillkill)millionsofpeopleinmany nations.Sincemodernmanhasbeenunabletostopthespread ofAIDSdespiteallourmoderntechnology,itcaneasilybeseen howamoreprimitiveculturecouldbewipedoutbyasimilar venerealdisease.Dr.Fellbroachedoneotherpossibility.He notedthatoneartifactfoundinaburialmoundinOhiodepictsa
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Nubianhead,indicatingthattheHopewellculturewas multiracial.Thiswouldbeconsistentwiththeknownfactthat Carthagesarmyincludedmanymercenariesofotherraces.Dr. FellpostulatedthattheliteratearistocracyoftheHopewell civilizationmayhavebeeneliminatedbyaslaverevolt(ofnon 107 Punicpeople). ItisalsopossiblethatthePuniccolonists graduallylostanydistinctiveidentityviaintermarriagewith nativeinhabitants.Mostlikely,severaloftheabovefactors graduallydestroyedthelastremnantsofCarthaginiancivilization inNorthAmerica. IfCarthage,amerecolonyofancientIsrael,grewtobecomean empirewhichcameveryclosetocrushingRome,whatbecameof thelargermassofIsraeliteswhomigratedintoAsia(either voluntarilyorascaptives)in740720B.C.?Asthereaderwill seeinchapterssixthrougheight,theyalsogrewtobepowerful nationsandevenbuiltanancientsuperpowerempirewhich alsorivaledtheempireofRome.

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Endnotes:ChapterFive 1.Church,Carthage,p.11 2.YoungsAnalyticalConcordancetotheBible,seeKirjath,p. 574 3.Church,p.11 4.Warmington,Carthage,p.140CharlesPicard,DailyLifein Carthage,p.98,andChurch,Carthage,pp.11,103 5.CharlesPicard,DailyLifeinCarthage,p.98 6.Smith,RomeandCarthage:ThePunicWars,pp.1112 7.CharlesPicard,p.71andChurch,p.12 8.Church,p.11 9.Ibid,p.11 10.CharlesPicard,p.71andChurch,p.12 11.YoungsAnalyticalConcordancetotheBible,seePriest,p. 772,andRabbi,p.791 12.CharlesPicard,p.7677 13.Ibid,p.77 14.YoungsAnalyticalConcordancetotheBible,seeGod, subhead2,p.411 15.Warmington,platesfollowingp.88 16.Ibid,platesfollowingpp.88and96. 17.Rawlinson,George,Phoenicia,pp.327and332 18.CharlesPicard,p.18 19.EncyclopediaJudaica,Vol.5,Carthage,p.214 20.Ibid,p.214 21.Ibid,p.215 22.CharlesPicard,p.18 23.Ibid,p.173 24.Ibid,p.18 25.Ibid,p.19 26.Ibid,p.1920 27.Ibid,p.19
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28.Ibid,p.173 29.Ibid,p.173 30.Ibid,p.178 31.Ibid,p.179 32.Fell,SagaAmerica,p.53 33.Ibid,p.60 34.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.18,Pytheas,p.804 35.Church,p.122 36.Pohl,AtlanticCrossingsbeforeColumbus,p.20 37.Ibid,p.21 38.Ibid,p.22 39.Fell,SagaAmerica,pp.5559,6567,84 40.Ibid,p.56 41.Ibid,pp.77,8587 42.Fell,APunicInscriptiononanAtlatlWeightfromGeorgia, EpigraphicSocietyOccasionalPublications,Vol.18,1989,pp. 321325 43.Ibid,pp.324325 44.Fell,SagaAmerica,p.237 45.Smith,R.Bosworth,CarthageandtheCarthaginians,p.28 46.Davies,VoyagerstotheNewWorld,p.151 47.Ibid,p.151 48.Ibid,pp.152156 49.Ibid,p.208 50.Smith,Roberta,AncientCeltiberianandMediterranean PeoplesintheNewWorld,EpigraphicSocietyOccasional Publications,Vol.7,Part2,1979,p.190 51.Capt,TheTraditionsofGlastonbury,p.23 52.Waddell,ThePhoenicianOriginofBritons,Scots&Anglo Saxons,p.9,andChurch,Carthage,p.116 53.CharlesPicard,p.67 54.Ibid,p.153 55.Warmington,p.147
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56.YoungsAnalyticalConcordancetotheBible,seeTophet andTopheth,p.995 57.CharlesPicard,p.67 58.Ibid,p.64 59.Warmington,p.239andCharlesPicard,p.64 60.Smith,R.Bosworth,CarthageandtheCarthaginians,see mapfollowingp.14 61.CharlesPicard,maponp.16 62.Ibid,p.183 63.Ibid,p.183 64.Ibid,p.89 65.Ibid,pp.9193 66.Ibid,p.61 67.Ibid,p.61 68.Smith,R.Bosworth,CarthageandtheCarthaginians,p.10 69.CharlesPicard,p.125 70.Church,pp.218224 71.Smith,R.Bosworth,p.374,andChurch,p.269 72.Fell,SagaAmerica,pp.58and67andarticleTanithin NorthCarolina,EpigraphicSocietyOccasionalPublications, Vol.18,1989,p.259 73.Fell,SagaAmerica,p.56 74.Fell,AmericaB.C.,pp.95and160 75.Church,pp.9596 76.Lenhart,TheAdenaTablets,EpigraphicSocietyOccasional Publications,Vol.13,1985,pp.206208 77.Ibid,p.208 78.InterviewwithBarryFell,EpigraphicSocietyOccasional Publications,Vol.7,Part2,1979,pp.162163 79.EncyclopediaAmericana,Vol.14,HopewellCulture,p.370 80.Steede,InscribedBricksfromComalcaico,Epigraphic SocietyOccasionalPublications,Vol.17,1988,p.278 81.Fell,APunicCalendarfromComalcaico,EpigraphicSociety
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OccasionalPublications,Vol.,17,1988,pp.284286 82.Fell,AChristianNorthAfricanInscriptionfromComalcaico, EpigraphicSocietyOccasionalPublications,Vol.17,1988,pp. 283284 83.Moore,E.R.,InscribedStonesfromKentCounty,Michigan, EpigraphicSocietyOccasionalPublications,Vol.7,Part2, 1979,pp.182185 84.Fell,AmericaB.C.,pp.81and89 85.Ibid,pp.164167 86.Fell,AmericaB.C.,pp.169173 87.Ibid,pp.169171 88.EncyclopediaAmericana,Vol.18,Maya,p.539 89.Church,p.280 90.Ibid,pp.296 91.Ibid,pp.297 92.Fell,SagaAmerica,pp.3132,54,124132,153 93.Ibid,pp.124128,132 94.Ibid,pp.35and148152 95.Fell,SagaAmerica,p.65 96.YoungsAnalyticalConcordancetotheBible,HebrewLexicon Section,seeAb,Matar,Qi,andQo,pp.1,25,and37 97.Smith,pp.3335 98.Carter,ANoteontheElephantinAmerica,Epigraphic SocietyOccasionalPublications,Vol.18,1989,p.90 99.Carter,TheMammothinAmericanEpigraphy,Epigraphic SocietyOccasionalPublications,Vol.18,1989,p.213 100. Fell,AmericaB.C.,pp.184,188 101. EpigraphicSocietyOccasionalPublications,AnElephant Petroglyph,Vol.17,1988,p.195 102. Carter,ANoteontheElephantinAmerica,andThe MammothinAmericanEpigraphy,EpigraphicSociety OccasionalPublications,Vol.18,1989,pp.90,213 103. Carter,ANoteontheElephantinAmerica,Epigraphic
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104. 105. 106. 107.

SocietyOccasionalPublications,Vol.18,1989,pp.90and Fell,AmericaB.C.,p.184 Carter,TheMammothinAmericanEpigraphy,Epigraphic SocietyOccasionalPublications,Vol.18,1989,p.214 Lenhart,p.206 Fell,AmericaB.C.,p.181 Ibid,p.189

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6.TheScythianSacaeTheAsianSonsOfIsaac Thereisacommonmisconceptionthatwhenthetentribesof IsraelmigratedintoAsia,theysimplydisappearedandnothing morewasheardfromthem.Nothingcouldbefurtherfromthe truth!Infact,forasignificantperiodoftime,ancienthistorians knewbothwhotheIsraeliteswere,andwheretheywent.They werenotlostatall. Weshallopenthischapterwithonesuchexample.Flavius JosephuswasaJewishmilitarycommander,aPharisee,andan historianofthefirstcenturyA.D.Concerningthetentribesof IsraelinAsiaduringhisday,hewrote: whereforetherearebuttwotribesinAsia andEuropesubjecttotheRomans,whilethe tentribesarebeyondEuphratestillnow,and areanimmensemultitude,andnottobe estimatedbynumbers.1 (Emphasisadded.) EightcenturiesaftertheIsraeliteswentintoAsia,Josephus recordsthattheywerestillknowntotheirJewishkinsmen,their populationhadbecometoonumeroustoestimate,andthe EuphratesRiverservedasawesternbordertotheirareaof habitation. Josephusaccountthatonlythetribesoftheoldkingdomof JudahformedthepopulationofJudea,theRomanprovinceof thefirstcenturyA.D.,isquiteimportantbecauseitrefutesthe falsenotionthatthetentribesmigratedbacktoPalestineand wereincludedwiththeJewsatthetimeofChrist.TheBible supportsJosephusrecordthatonlytwotribesofIsraellivedin Judeaduringhislifetime.Ezra4:1statesthatonlyportionsof thetribesofJudahandBenjaminreturnedtoPalestinefromtheir Asiancaptivity.Ezra1:5addsthatportionsofthepriestlytribe ofLeviaccompaniedthemtoPalestineaswell.
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JosephusclearlyassertsthatthetentribesofIsraelwere stillinAsia,andthattheywerenotlivinginJudeainthe firstcenturyA.D.Also,hiscommentthattheyconstitutedan exceedinglynumerouspopulationinAsiashowsthatweshould expecttofindlargemassesofIsraelitesinAsiainthefirst centuryA.D.insteadofisolatedlittleremnants.Aninevitable resultofnationshavingverylargepopulationsintheancient worldwastheachievementofpoliticalandmilitarypower,and wewillseethattheIsraeliteshadattainedsuchpowerlong beforethetimeofChrist.ThecommentthattheIsraeliteswere beyondEuphratesisalsosignificantsinceitshowsthatthe AsianIsraeliteswerethenlocatednorthandeastofthe EuphratesRiver. WeoweadebtofgratitudetotheJewishhistorianJosephus,as hiswritingsdebunktheassumptionthatthetentribesofIsrael simplydisappeared.Asthereaderwillsee,itisnotdifficultto determinetheidentitiesoftheIsraelitesinAsia. TheBiblecontainspromisesconcerningtheIsraeliteswhichmust bereviewedasbackgroundinformationbeforethehistorical evidenceisexamined.AprophecyinHosea1:610,statesthat althoughGodwouldutterlytakeawayIsrael[fromPalestine], hewould(aftertheirremovalfromPalestine)maketheir populationasthesandofthesea,whichcannotbemeasuredor numbered.Thispromiseofanexplodingpopulationforthe IsraeliteshadbeenfulfilledbythetimeofChrist,asJosephus observedtheyweretoonumeroustonumberinhisgeneration. Thereisanimportantlessonhere:Godalwayskeepshis promisesandfulfillhisprophecies. Also,theBiblepromisedthatthedescendantsofAbraham,Isaac andJacob(Israel)wouldbearaparticularname.Genesis21:12 recordsakeypromiseofGodtoAbrahamthat:throughIsaac shallyourdescendantsbenamed.(RSV)
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GodscovenantblessingsuponAbrahamwereinheritedby IsaacandJacob(whosenamewaslaterchangedtoIsrael). Genesis48:1420showsthatJacob/Israelpassedonthis patriarchalblessingtothetribesofEphraimandManasseh. Therefore,whilethenameofIsaacmightgenerallybefoundon anyoftheIsraelitetribeswhichsprangfromJacob/Israel,the termwouldmostspecificallyidentifythedescendantsofthe tribesofEphraimandManasseh.IfGodspromisewasfulfilled, weshouldlookfortheIsraelitesinAsiatobeknownbyvarious formsofthewordIsaac.Asweshallsee,secularhistory recordsthatmanylargepopulationgroupsinAsia,indeed,did cometobeknownbyvariationsofthenameIsaac. ManyoftheinhabitantsofIsraelscapitalcity,Samaria,were takentothecitiesoftheMedes(IIKings17:6),andwewill beginoursearchbylookingforagroupofpeoplewhowerenot physicallypresentinMediabeforethefallofSamaria.An historicalaccountoftheMedesrecordsthattheAssyrianKing Esarhaddonin674B.C.wasconfrontedbyanallianceof Mannaean,Median,andnewlyarrivedCimmerianforces.2 (Emphasisadded.)ThesenewlyarrivedCimmerianswerelikely theIsraeliteSamarianswhohadbeenrelocatedamongthe Medesonlyafewdecadesearlier.Noticethestrikingphonetic similaritybetweenSamarianandCimmerian(dictionaries confirmthecshouldbepronouncedlikeans).Thatthese CimmerianswererecentarrivalsinMediaaddsweighttotheir identificationasIsraelitecaptivesfromthecityofSamaria.The transplantedSamariansofIsraelwouldbeantiAssyrian,and wouldlogicallyjoinanantiAssyrianalliance. ThoseIsraeliteswhomigratedtotheBlackSeaareabecame knownasScythians.TheEncyclopaediaBritannicarecordsthe ScythiansasbeingpresentinEurasianlocationsfromthe seventhcenturyB.C.,asthisistheearliestdatetowhichtheir
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3 tombscanbeassigned. TheEncyclopediaAmericanaadds:

TheScythians...arethosetribesthat occupiedthisterritory[theregionnorthofthe BlackSea]fromabout700B.C.andformed th asinglecohesivepoliticalentityuntilthe4 centuryB.C.,whenthenationwassplintered intoseveralgroups.4 (Emphasisadded.) AthirdaccountoftheScythianarrivalintheBlackSearegionis foundinTheScythians,byTamaraTalbotRice,whichstates: TheScythiansdidnotbecomearecognizable nationalentitymuchbeforetheeighth centuryB.C....BytheseventhcenturyB.C. theyhadestablishedthemselvesfirmlyin southernRussia...andanalogoustribes, possiblyevenrelatedclans,thoughpolitically entirelydistinctandindependent,werealso centeredontheAltai...[and]...Assyrian documentsplacetheirappearance[there]in thetimeofKingSargon(722705B.C.)a datewhichcloselycorrespondswiththatof theestablishmentofthefirstgroupof ScythiansinsouthernRussia.5 (Emphasis added.) Theseaccountsareconsistentwiththehistoricalrecordscitedin chapterfourthattheIsraelitesmigratedtotheBlackSeaareain thefinaldecadesoftheeighthcenturyB.C.Itisalsoconsistent withthebiblicalandAssyrianrecordsthatthekingdomofIsrael ceasedtoexistinthelatterportionoftheeightcenturyB.C. whenitspopulationleftPalestine.ThattheScythianshad relatedclanslivingfartotheeastoftheBlackSeaScythiansis consistentwiththefactthatIsraelwascomposedofmany
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relatedtribes.TamaraRicesbookincludesamapshowingthat 6 relatedclansoftheScythianslivedeastwardfarintoAsia. TheirburialsiteshavebeenfoundasfareastasthePazirik/Altai regionofRussiawheretheRussianbordermeetsthewestern edgesofChinaandMongolia.Theappearanceofthe ScythiansinAsiaoccursinthereignofKingSargonof Assyria(722705B.C.).Thisispreciselythetimeperiodof thefallofthekingdomofIsraelandtheflightofIsraelites outofPalestineintoAsia. Theopeningofaburialmoundintheterritoryoftheeastern ScythianswasthesubjectofanarticleintheOctober,1994 issueofNationalGeographicmagazine.Itstated: ThePazyryksthrivedinthesesteppes...in thesixththroughthesecondcenturiesB.C. Theywerehorsemen...and shepherds...Dozensofsuchtribesroseonthe steppesofEurasiainthisera,creatinga deceptivelyuniformculturelabeledScytho SiberianTheGreekhistorianHerodotus faithfullydetailedmuchofthelifeofthe Scythians,apowerful,seminomadicpeople wholivednorthoftheBlackSeabetween800 B.C.and100B.C.7 Afemalefoundmummifiedintheburialvaultmusthavebeena prominentpersonasshewasburiedwithseveralhorsesand gravegoodswithgoldornamentation.Anearlierexcavationin theareahadyieldedtwoskeletonswithEuropeanfeatures8 buriedwithweaponsandtenhorses.Asthisarticleconfirms, theseeasternScythianswereoneofmanyclansonthesteppes relatedtotheScythiansoftheBlackSearegion.Thefactthat someoftheirburialmoundsyieldskeletonswithEuropean featureswillbecomeincreasinglyimportantlaterinthischapter
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(andinthisbook). TheScythianswerealsofrequentlycalledtheSaka,or Sacae.TheEncyclopaediaBritannicastatesthattheterms Saka(Sacae)...andScythswereregardedassynonymous.Itis difficultalwaystojudgewhethergiveninformationappliestothe Sacae(Saka)ortheScyths.9 Itisalsosignificantthat Cimmeriiwererecordedasbeingoneofthefirstsettlersinthe 10 BlackSearegionofScythia. ThatCimmerianswerepresentin bothMediaandneartheBlackSeasoonafterthefallofSamaria indicatesthatthesetwogroupsofpeoplewererelatedIsraelites whowereinseparatelocationsafterthedemiseofIsrael. ItisverysignificantthattheScythianswerealsoknownas SacaeorSaka.Genesis21:12containsthepromisethat Abrahamsdescendantswould,inthefuture,beknownbythe nameofIsaac.TheancientHebrewlanguagedidnotlistvowel soundstherefore,thenameIsaacwouldthenberepresentedby theconsonantsSCorSK(reflectingthefactthatthecin Isaacispronouncedlikeak).ThewordSacaerepresentsthe wordIsaacwiththeLatinpluralaeattached.Thatthese SacaearerecordedasbeingneartheBlackSeasoonafterthe IsraelitesmigratedtoAsiasupportsthecontentionthatthey wererelocatedIsraelites.Historiansunfamiliarwith(orhostile toward)theBiblespeculatethattheScythianscamefromthe Asianinterior.However,theirname(aformoftheHebrewname, Isaac)andtheirarrivalinAsiasoonaftertheIsraelitesrelocated fromPalestineintoAsiaindicatesthattheywereIsraelites. ThespeculationthattheScythiansoriginatedfromdeepinthe interiorofAsiaisfurtherrefutedbytheimagesfoundon Scythianartifacts.TheScythianfacesdepictedontheirgoldart 11 formshaveSemiticfeatures,notMongoloidfeatures. Thisis nottosaythatallancientpeoplebearingthenameScythian wholivedontheRussiansteppesweredescendedfromtheten
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tribesofIsrael.ThetermScythianbecameageneralterm describinganytribeintheregionwithanomadicorsemi nomadiclifestyle.SomeScythianswerecalledTuranianinstead ofSacae.TheTuranianScythsmaywellhavebeenofthe Mongoloid(yellow)raceofthesteppeswiththetermTuranian perhapsbasedonTiras,oneofthesonsofJapheth(Genesis 10:2).Thereisagreatdealofconfusioninhistoricalaccounts betweenSacaeScythiansandTuranianScythians.George Rawlinsonnotesthefollowing: ThetermScythicisnot,strictlyspeaking, ethnical.Itdesignatesaliferatherthana descent,habitsratherthanblood.Itisapplied bytheGreeksandRomanstoIndoEuropean andTuranianracesindifferently,provided theyarenomads,dwellingintents...livingon theproduceoftheirflocksandherds...12 ThereweretworacescalledScythians:theIndoEuropeans(the Sacae)andtheTuranian(whowerenotSacae).So,theterm Sacae(orSaka)doesrepresentanIsraeliteethnicity,butthe termScythiancansometimesincludenonIsraelitesaswell. In653B.C.,theMedesandCimmeriansjoinedinanalliancewith theScythians(underaleadernamedPhraortes)againstthe Assyrians.ThisalliancelostitsbattleagainsttheAssyrians(and 13 Phraortesdied), butitissignificantthattheScythianswere antiAssyrian.OnceitisunderstoodthattheseScythianswere Israelites,themotiveforScythianantipathytowardAssyriais apparent.TheScythiansandCimmerianswerekinsmen,as theEncyclopaediaBritannicacallstheCimmeriansaScythian tribe.14 HereweseeIsraelitetribesjoiningtogether(alongwith theMedes)toagainfighttheAssyriansjustdecadesafterthey leftPalestine. Theirleadersname,Phraortes,isalsosignificantasitisa
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HellenizedformoftheJewishclanwhichdescendedfrom Phares.Godpromisedthatkings(rulers)wouldcomefrom Judah(thesceptrepromiseofGenesis49:10),andthat descendantsofKingDavid(alsoofthePharesline)would becomenumerousandwouldperpetuallyruleoverdescendants ofthehouseofIsrael(Jeremiah33:1722).Jeremiahs prophecywasmadelongaftertheHouseofIsrael(thenorthern tentribes)relocatedtoAsia.Theaboveindicationthat descendantsofKingDavid(thelineofPhares)wereleading AsianIsraelitesacenturyafterthefallofSamariashowsthat GodhadnotforgottenhispromiseconcerningDavidsprogeny. ThispromiseaboutDavidsprogenywasfirstmadeinDavids lifetimearound1000B.C.(IISamuel7:817). WhathappenedtotheIsraelites(atleastthreeandonehalf tribes)whowerecarriedcaptivebytheAssyriansabouttwenty yearsbeforeSamariafell?ItisrecordedthatScythianswere notonlylocatedintheBlackSearegionandwestwardintothe Russiansteppes,butwerealsolocatedfurthersouth,justeastof Assyria.TheEncyclopaediaBritannicastatesthat:AScythian powerhadgrownupintheoldkingdomofEllip,totheeastof Assyria.15 So,historyrecordsthatIsraeliteScythianpowers developedbothtothenorthofAssyriaintheCaucasus,andto theeastofAssyriaaswell. ThisbodyofScythiansjusteastofAssyria(inmodernIran)were descendedfromtheIsraelitestakencaptiveinabout740B.C., andtheSacaeScythianslocatedintheRussiansteppeswere descendedfromtheIsraeliteswhofledtowardtheBlackSeato avoidAssyriancaptivity.ThatAssyriawouldhavemovedcaptive Israelitestotheeasternedgeoftheirempireislogical.By locatingthemfarfromtheiroldhomeland,Assyriawastryingto preventtheIsraelitesfromreunitingagainstAssyria. SinceGodhadpromisedtogreatlyincreasethepopulationofthe
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Israelitesintheirlandsofdispersal,thislargebodyofIsraelites soondisplacedthenationofEllipinwhichtheyhadbeenplaced. Thisbegsafurtherquestion:Whatnationhadbeendisplacedby theIsraeliteswhomigratedtotheBlackSea?Historyshowsthat Urartuhadformerlybeenthere,butthatitwasenfeebledby Scythianincursions.16 Itisalsorecordedthat: thekingdomofUrartuhadcrumbled.The Scythians...firmlyestablishedthemselvesin northernPersia,occupyingUrartuitself, wheretheysetuptheircapitalatSakiz...17 (Emphasisadded.) Significantly,acapitalofScythianswasnamedSakiz,again preservingthenameoftheHebrewpatriarch,Isaac.Whoelse butthemigratingtentribesofIsraelwouldnameacapitalcityin honorofIsaac?Also,itindicatesthattheScythianshadentered theregionwithaverylargepopulationbaseastheysoon controlledterritoryfromtheCaucasusregionintonorthern Persia.AnothertermfornorthernPersiawouldbethecities oftheMedes,wheretheBiblesaysmanyIsraelitesweretaken bytheAssyrians.ThismayindicatethatthefreeIsraelites fromtheBlackSeahadliberatedandlinkedupwiththecaptive IsraeliteswhowereinthecitiesoftheMedes.Historianstellus theScythianswereagriculturalistswhobothplantedcropsand followedtheirherds(hencethewordnomads).TheoldIsraelite lifestylefromthedaysofAbrahamrevolvedaroundagriculture, andtheybothplantedcropsandwereherdsmen.Ezekiel27:17 recordstheIsraeliteshadbeenfoodexportersinthekingdomsof IsraelandJudah.TheJewishsourcecitedbyCol.Gawlerin chapterfourstatedthattheIsraelitesfledthroughArmeniafrom theAssyrians,andwentwiththeirflocks,andturned nomads.18 TheScythianscarriedontheoldIsraelitetraditions ofbeingagriculturalists,foodexportersandnomadswho
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dwelledinportabledwellingsastheyfollowedtheirflocksand herds.ZenaideRagozin,inherbookMedia,records: Someseventyyearsafterthetimeof Herodotuswefindfromcontemporary evidencethat600,000bushelsofScythian cornwenttoAthensaloneeachyear.19 If600,000bushelsofgrainwenttooneGreekcityinasingle year,onecanonlywonderhowmuchtheScythiansexportedto theworldasawhole.HerodotusalsorecordedthattheScythians 20 werefoodexporters. However,theScythianagriculturalistswerenotuncivilized. WilliamCulican,inTheMedesandthePersians,states: ItwastotheScythiansthatAchaemenid objectshadgreatestappeal.Thedinner services,upholsteredbedsandthrones designedforthemesstentsofPersianofficers onfielddutyadmirablysuitedthetaskof the...nomadicScythianleaders.Scythian tombswereelaboratelyfurnishedand...the Scythiansnotonlyhadacloserelationship withtheMedesandPersiansbutsupplied fromtheirUralterritoriesmuchofthegoldon whichPersiadepended.21 TamaraRicealsowroteconcerningtheScythians: ...theirwealthandloveoffinerywonthem thegoodwillofthegreatHellenicmerchants establishedalongtheshoresoftheBlack Sea...theScythians...displayedan extraordinaryabilitytoappreciateand assimilatethebestintheartoftheirday.22
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Thereismuchthatissignificantabouttheaboveaccounts.A nationthatenjoysfinedinnertablewareandeatingutensilsas wellasupholsteredbedsandartworksisonewhichprizesthe materialcomfortsofacivilizedsociety.Also,thefactthatthey maintainedagoldminingindustryindicatesthatnotallthe Scythianswereagriculturalists.Theirgoldminesindicatethat someScythianswereinvolvedinindustrialpursuits,andtheir successinthegoldtradeconfirmsthattheypossessedthe technologicalexpertisetomineandrefinegoldoresintoa finishedproduct.Indeed,theScythiansmanufacturedsomeof 23 theancientworldsmostbeautifulworksofgoldart. Their involvementincommercialtradingrelationshipswiththeMedes, PersiansandGreeksalsodemonstratesthattheScythianswere skilledinthewaysofinternationalcommerce(bothin manufacturedproductsandagriculturalcommodities). Isthereaconflictbetweentheaboveaccountsandotherswhich paintsomenomadsintheRussiansteppesasbeingignorantand uncivilized?No.ItwasmentionedearlierthattheScythians includednomadswhowerecalledSacaeandotherswhowere calledTuranian.InadditiontothecivilizedScythians,therewere ignorantanduncouthnationsonthesteppes.Herodotus,a GreekhistorianofthefifthcenturyB.C.,notesthattheScythians wereinterspersedwithlesscivilizedpeople.Hedescribesthe noncivilizednationsofthesteppesthusly: theManEaters,atribethatisentirely peculiarandnotScythianatall...[and]the BlackCloaks,anothertribewhichisnot Scythianatall.24 HerodotusconfirmsthecivilizedqualitiesoftheScythiansand thebackwardnessofthenonScythiantribesinthefollowing words. TheEuxinePontus[theBlackSea]...contains
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exceptfortheScythiansthestupidest nationsintheworld.25 (Emphasisadded.) Col.GawlercitesEpiphaniusasstatingthelaws,customs,and manneroftheScythianswerereceivedbyothernationsasthe standardsofpolicy,civility,andpolitelearning.26 Healsocites thefollowingfrombookviii,iii,7ofStrabosGeography: ...buttheScythiansgovernedbygood laws...Andthisisstilltheopinionentertained ofthembytheGreeksforweesteemthem themostsincere,theleastdeceitfulofany people,andmuchmorefrugalandselfrelying thanourselves.27 StrabowasaGreekwriterofthefirstcenturyB.C.Modern studentsareeducatedtothinktheGreekswerethemost civilizedpeopleoftheancientworld,yetStrabosaccountoffers anopinionthatthelaws,frugalityandselfrelianceofthe ScythiansexcelledthatoftheGreeks!Straboevendeclaresthat theScythiansexcelledallnationsintheirsincerityandhonesty. Whiletherewerebackward,uncouthnationsinthesteppes abovetheBlackSea,theScythianswereacivilizednationwith refinedtastes.ThismakesnosenseiftheScythianswerea hordeofwildhorsemenwhorodeoutofSiberiafromsomewhere sofarawayfromthecivilizedworldthatnoonehadheardof thempriortotheirarrival.However,itisentirelyconsistentwith theScythiansbeingthedescendantsofthetentribesofIsrael, whohadlonginteractedwiththeothercivilizednationsofthe worldasthemaincomponentofthePhoenicianalliance. ThereisanadditionalrecordthattheScythiansofSouthRussia hadtheiroriginsamongtheSemiticnationsoftheMideast. ZenaideRagozins,Media,states: ...Scythianswasnotaracenameatall,but
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onepromiscuouslyused,forallremote,little known,especiallynomadicpeoplesofthe northandnortheast,denotingtribes...of TuranianasofIndoEuropeanstock:tothe lattertheScythiansofRussiaarenow universallyadmittedtohavebelonged.28 ThetermScythiancametorepresentalifestylemorethana racialgroup.However,thecivilizedScythiansofSouthRussia wereknowntobeIndoEuropeaninorigin,notTuranian.This confirmstheiroriginwasamongtheIndoEuropeannationsto thesouthoftheBlackSea,notamongtheuncivilizednomadsin theinteriorofAsia. IftheScythianstrulywerearrivalsfromtheinteriorofAsia,they wouldhavesharedtheuncultured,uncivilizedwaysofthewild nomadsofthesteppes.However,theywereverycivilizedpeople withmuchmoreincommonwiththeGreeksandPersiansthan thecoarsenomadsofthenorth.ScythiantastesforfinePersian dinnerservicesandupholsteredbeds,theirappreciationofGreek art,theirownartisticexcellenceingoldworkmanship,andtheir stabletraderelationshipswiththeGreeksandthePersiansall confirmthattheScythiansoriginatednotinthewildsteppesof Asia,butinthecivilizedregionsoftheMideastandMesopotamia. TheSacaeScythianshadnothingincommonwiththewild, uncouthnomadsofthenorthernsteppes,but,hadverymuchin commonwiththecivilizedculturestotheirsouth.Theanswerin simple:theseScythiansmovedintoSouthRussiafromthesouth, notfromthenorth!Theentirespectrumoftheircultureargues forthisconclusion.Allculturalfactorssupporttheancient historicalsourcescitedbyCol.Gawlerthataverylargebodyof IsraelitesmovedfromPalestinetosouthRussiaatthe approximatetimeofSamariasfall.EvenastheIsraeliteswere herdsmenandexportersofgrain,soweretheScythians.Evenas
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theIsraeliteshadbeenskilledinmetallurgy(fromthetimeof Solomon),soweretheScythians.EvenastheIsraeliteshad civilizedtastes,sodidtheScythians.TheIsraelitesfledintothe BlackSearegionsinabout724B.C.,andtheScythianswerefirst notedintheBlackSearegionsjustafterthisdate.TheIsraelites weredescendantsofIsaac,andtheScythianswereknownas SacaeorSaka.Therecanbelittledoubtontheoriginofthe Scythians:TheyweredisplacedIsraelitesbuildinganew homelandintheBlackSearegionandinpartsoftheRussian steppe. ThefactthatotherbodiesofScythiansarenotedgrowingupin theregionofEllipineasternAssyria,andintheregionofthe Medes(theCimmerians)withoutanyinvasionfromthenorth placingthemtherealsoindicatesthattheScythiansinthose areasweredescendantsofcaptivesettlers(theIsraeliteswho weresettledinAssyriasempireandinthecitiesoftheMedes). AstheIsraeliteScythiansbecamemorenumerous,Herodotus recordsthatthePersiansgenerallyreferredtoalltheScythian 29 tribesasSacae, andthereisanaccountthatPtolemyreferred totheScythian/SacaeastheSaxones.30 Substantiatingthe conclusionthattheSacae/SakaScythianswereIsraelitesis evidencethattheIsraeliteswereknownbythosenameseven beforetheirdeparturefromPalestine! Assyrianrecordsrecalltherebellionofapeopleknownasthe Esakska,whocalledthemselvesBethIsaacorHouseofIsaac 31 intheirowncountry. HerewehaveanAssyrianconfirmation thattheIsraeliteswereknownasthedescendantsofIsaac (withtheirnamerepresentedbytherootwordSak)priorto theirmigrationsintoAsia.ThewordbethisaHebrewword meaninghouseandisalsorenderedasbayith.32 The IsraelitescontinuedtobeartheHebrewracialnamesSakaor SacaeaftertheirmigrationintoAsia.TheBibleitselfpreserves
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thefactthattheprecaptivityIsraeliteswereknownasBeth Isaac(orHouseofIsaac).Amos7:16recordsthattheprophet AmosusedthetermHouseofIsaactodescribethetentribed northernkingdomofIsraelafewdecadespriortothefallof Samaria. ThebookofJeremiahsupportstheconclusionthatthetentribes ofIsraelmigratedtotheBlackSearegion.Jeremiahsprophecy inJeremiah3:6addressesboththeJews(Judah)andtheten tribesofIsrael(Israel).Thisprophecywasgivenahundredyears afterthefallofSamariaandthemigrationofthetentribesof IsraeloutofPalestine.Inverses610,hewarnsJudahthatshe isrepeatingthesinswhichcausedthetentribedkingdomof Israeltofall.Inverse11,Jeremiah,speakinginapproximately 620B.C.,states:BackslidingIsraelhathjustifiedherselfmore thantreacherousJudah.JeremiahhereconfirmsthattheJews andthenortherntentribeswerestillreckonedasseparate entities,andthatthetentribeswereinabetterstandingwith GodthanweretheJewsatthetimeofhisprophecy!Thatis consistentwithaccountspresentedinchapterfourthatthe membersofthetentribeswhichmigratedtotheareaaroundthe BlackSeawerejealousofthegloryofGod.Inverse12, JeremiahdirectedthisstatementtothetentribesofIsrael: Goandproclaimthesewordstowardthe north,andsay,Return,thoubacksliding Israel,saiththeLordandIwillnotcause mineangertofalluponyou:forIam merciful...(Emphasisadded.) IfalltentribesofIsraelweretakencaptivetoAssyria,Jeremiah shouldhaveaddressedhisprophecyabouttheIsraelitestothe eastsinceAssyriawaslocatedeastofJerusalem.However, JeremiahacknowledgesthatmostofthetentribesofIsraelwere thenlocatednottotheeastbuttothenorthofJerusalem.The
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BlackSearegion,whereearlieraccountsplacemostoftheten tribes,islocatedduenorthofJerusalem. ManypeoplehavethemistakenimpressionthatGodutterly forsookthetentribesofIsraelwhentheyweredisplacedfrom Palestine.Notatall!HereweseeJeremiahdirectingafavorable messagefromGodtothemapproximatelyacenturyafter Samariafell.InanotherprophecyofJeremiah(Jeremiah51:5),it isstated: ForIsraelhathnotbeenforsakenofhis God,oftheLordofhosts...(Emphasis added.) GodinspiredmessagesthroughJeremiahtothetentribesa centuryafterSamariafell!Also,thequotefromJosephuswhich openedthischapterconfirmedthatbythefirstcenturyA.D.,God hadfulfilledthepropheticpromiseinHosea1tomakethe descendantsofthetentribestoonumeroustocount.Indoing so,GodconfirmedthatthetribesofEphraimandManassehwere stilltheprimaryinheritorsoftheAbrahamiccovenantblessings whichincludedhavingtoomanydescendantstonumber (Genesis13:16and48:1416)! LetusreviewtheAbrahamicCovenantblessings.Abrahamwas promisedthathisseedwouldhavehugepopulations,would comprisemanynations,wouldfoundroyaldynastiesandwould possessthegatesoftheirenemies(Genesis13:16,17:27, 22:1517).ThesepromiseswerepassedontoIsaac(Genesis 17:21)andtoJacob(Genesis27:1933).Jacob(whosename waschangedtoIsrael,Genesis35:10)nextpassedonthese blessingstoEphraimandManasseh(thesonsofJoseph)and theirdescendants(Genesis48:1420).Inverse16,Jacob (Israel)said: ...letmynamebenamedonthem,andthe
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nameofmyfathersAbrahamandIsaac... ThisprophecypromisedthatthenameofIsaacwouldremainon thetribesofEphraimandManassehasGodfulfilledthese birthrightpromisesthroughouthistory.Therefore,thefactthat theScythiansborethenameofIsaac(SacaeorSaka)confirms thatmanyoftheScythianswerefromthetribesofEphraimor Manasseh. ThegreatbirthrightblessingsoftheAbrahamiccovenantwere notgiventothetribeofJudah(theJews),asmanypeopleseem toassume.Thebirthrightblessingshaveremainedwiththe tribesofEphraimandManasseheversinceJacob/Israelassigned themtothosetribesinGenesis48.Jacobfurtherpromisedthat thedescendantsofManassehwouldsomedaybecomeasingle greatnation,andthatthedescendantsofEphraimwouldbecome acompany(ormultitude)ofnations.TheoneAbrahamicblessing receivedbythetribeofJudahwasthepromisethatkingsand dynastieswouldemergefromthem(Genesis49:10).Thiswas fulfilledwhenthedescendantsofKingDavidfoundedseveral dynastiesofkings,aswewillexaminemoreextensivelyinthe nextchapter.WhileallofthetribesofIsraelwerethechosen people,thebestblessingsweregiven(byGodswill)tothe tribesofEphraimandManasseh. Asthisbookprogresses,wewillseethatGodrememberedto givethegreatAbrahamicblessingstothedescendantsof EphraimandManasseh,thedominanttribesofthetentribesof Israel.NowwewillreturntotheSakaintheancientworld. Thereareveryancientrecordsofcorrespondencefrom CanaaniterulerstotheEgyptianPharaohsdesperatelycallingfor helpagainstthepowerfulinvasionsofapeoplecalledthe Haberi,Khaberi,AberiorSaga.Theseancientletterswere preservedonthefamousAmarnaTablets,andtheyapparently recordtheinvasionofCanaanbytheIsraelitesunderJoshua!
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TheHaberi,Khaberi,orAberiaretheHebrews,andthe SagaaretheSaka(thepeopleofIsaac),albeitexpressedin Canaaniteterms.Mrs.SydneyBristowe,inOldestLettersinthe World,wrotein1923concerningtheAmarnaTablets: ThegreatimportanceoftheAmarnaTablets hasnotbeenrecognizedbecauseapparently, thetranslationshavebeenunwillingtoadmit thattheIsraelitesarementioneduponthem andthattheytelloftheconquestofPalestine byJoshua!Thetranslationsshownwiththe tabletsnowintheBritishMuseum,givelittle ideaoftheinterestoftheletters,thename Haberi,KhaberiorAberiishardlyseenin thesetranslations,yetthatname,appears frequentlyinthetabletsandleading philologistscertifythatitstandsforthe Hebrews(Israelites).SeeEnc.Brit.,Ed.11, Vol.10.,p.78.Anothernamementioned uponthetabletsisSagawhichissaidtobe identicalwithHaberi(Knudtzon,DieEl AmarnaTafeln,p.51),andisprovedtobeso bythefactthatitoccursupontheBehistan RockinPersiawhere,accordingtoSirHenry Rawlinson,itrepresentstheIsraelites(the SakaiorHouseofIsaac).Dr.Hall(ofthe BritishMuseum)admitsthefactthatthe tabletstelloftheIsraelitesconquestof Palestine,forhewrites:Wemaydefinitely,if weaccepttheidentificationoftheKhabiruas theHebrews,saythatintheTelelAmarna letters,wehaveJoshuasconquestseenfrom theEgyptianandCanaanitepointofview (AncientHistoryoftheNearEast,p.409).33
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Mrs.BristowesbookcitesanearlyeditionoftheEncyclopaedia Britannica,aGermanbook,andthefamoushistorian,SirHenry Rawlinson,asallsupportingtheconclusionthattheAmarna TabletsidentifytheIsraelites.Dr.H.R.Hall,whosebook,The AncientHistoryoftheNearEastwascitedabove,wasformerly theKeeperoftheDepartmentofEgyptianandAssyrian AntiquitiesattheBritishMuseum.Dr.Hallfurtherstatesinhis bookthat: ItseemsveryprobablethattheSAGAZ... and...theKhabiruwhodevastatedCanaanin Akhenatonstimearenootherthanthe invadingHebrewsandotherdeserttribes alliedwiththem...[andafterpresentinga philologicalanalysissupportingthis conclusion,headds]...Inmyown,view,the probabilitiesareallinfavourofthe identification.34 ItisnoteworthythattheselettersshowboththattheCanaanites pleadedforhelpfromEgyptandthattheEgyptiansrefusedto assistthemagainsttheKhabiru/Hebrews.Giventhatthe EncyclopaediaBritannicastatesthatthetimeframeofthe AmarnatabletsisapproximatelythatofMoses,35 itisobvious whytheEgyptiansdidnotopposetheSagaandKhabiru.Egypt hadbeendevastatedbytheGodofIsraelviatheplagues administeredthroughMosesjustdecadesbeforethistime(the Israeliteswanderedfor40yearsbetweenleavingEgyptand conqueringCanaan),anditwastooweaktointervene.Whatever wasleftofEgyptclearlyhadnowilltofighttheHabiru,whose Godtheyfeared! Mrs.BristowesaccountreferencestheBehistanRock.Thisis alsonoteworthybecauseitfurtherlinkstheScythianstothe Israelite/PhoenicianEmpire.ThePersianruler,Darius,celebrated
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avictory(circa516B.C.)viaahugeinscriptiononamountain nearBehistun(orBehistan).ItdepictsDariusreceivingvarious captivenationswhoseleadersarebeingledbeforehimtiedwith 36 aropearoundtheirnecks. ThelastoneinlineisaScythian 37 wearingatall,pointedcap. Herodotusiscitedaboveas statingthatthePersianscalledallScythiansSacae(orSaka), whichistheequivalentoftheHebrew/IsraeliteSagainthe mucholderAmarnaTablets.ItappearsthattheCanaanitesknew theIsraeliteinvadersweretheseedofIsaac,butrenderedthis nameasSagainsteadofSaka,asdidthePersians.[The lettersgandkarecloselyrelatedgutturalphoneticsounds.] TheaboveevidencethatCanaaniteandAssyriansourcesindicate thattheIsraeliteswereknownbythenameofIsaacpriorto theirdeparturefromPalestineconfirmsthatitistheir descendantswhoborethenameofIsaacinScythiaaftertheir arrivalinAsia. ThesourcesidentifyingtheIsraelitesastheinvadersofCanaan ontheAmarnatablets,andlinkingtheHebrewIsraeliteSaga withtheScythianSakapredatethepermeationofmodern academiabyevolutionarytheory.Eventhoughevolutioncannot beconfirmedbythescientificmethodandisrefutedbythelaws oftheuniverse,ithasneverthelessbecomethepolitically correctfoundationofmodernacademicthought.Becausethe Biblescreationaccountcontradictsevolutionaryfables,theBible isimpugnedbymanymodernacademics.Informationsupporting biblicalhistoricalaccountsis,therefore,oftenignoredor suppressed.Sincemodernacademicscouldjeopardizetheir careersbycontradictingevolutionarydogma,oneisnotlikelyto findmodernsourceswhowilldifferwiththepoliticallycorrect, antibiblicalbiasofthemodernscholasticworld.Forthisreason, manymodernsourcesarenotlikelytoacknowledgeinformation whichwasopenlyadmittedbyearliersources.
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ThattheScythiansaredepictedaswearingatall,pointedcap bythePersiansisalsosignificant.Oneculturaltraitofthe Israelite/Phoenicianswastheiruseofatall,pointedcap. EvidenceofthisPhoeniciantraithasbeenfoundinboththeOld WorldandinancientAmerica.IntheOldWorld,anexampleof PhoenicianswearingsuchcapsfromareliefinPersepolisis 38 shownintheEncyclopediaAmericana. Dr.BarryFellsAmerica B.C.depictsasimilartallPhoeniciancap(foundinaNorth Americanburialmound)asacharacteristichighcrownedhat, thehennin,wornonformaloccasions.39 SincethePhoenician EmpirewasprimarilytheIsraeliteempire,wecanexpectthis wearingofatallhatonformaloccasionstobeanIsraelitetrait aswell.Israelitehighpriestsworemiters(tallhats)aspartof theirofficialdress(Exodus28:3729:6).Descriptionsofthis mitershowthatithadaforefront(Exodus28:37),andablue decorationhighuponthemiter(Exodus39:31),verifyingthat themiterwasatallhat.Apparently,thistypeofheadgearlater wasadoptedbyIsraeliteleadersasatall,pointedhatisshownin HarpersBibleDictionaryasbeinganexampleofHebrewroyal attire.40 TheBehistanrockdepictsaScythianleaderbeingbroughtbefore Dariuswearingatall,pointedhat:atraditionalheadgearof Israeliteleaders.ThatthishatwaswornonlybytheScythian identifiesitasauniquelyScythiantrait.Herodotusconfirmed thisheadgearwasuniquelyScythian: TheSacae,whoareScythians,havehigh capstaperingtoapointandstifflyupright, whichtheywearontheirheads.41 Itwas,specifically,theSacaeScythianswhoworeheadgear whichwastraditionalamongtheIsraelite/Phoenicianpeople.This offersfurtherculturalevidencethattheScythiansdescended fromtheIsraelitesoftheoldPhoenicianEmpireintheMideast,
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notfromwildtribesintheAsianinterior. FurtherevidenceoftheIsraeliteoriginsoftheScythiansisfound inthiscommentofHerodotusabouttheScythians: Theymakenoofferingsofpigs,norwillthey keepthematallintheircountry.42 Suchaprohibitionisveryconsistentwiththelongstanding Hebrewcustomofforbiddingtheuseofswineforeither consumptionorsacrificebecauseitwasanuncleananimal (Deuteronomy14:78).Anotherinterestingpointisthat HerodotusrecordsthatoneoftheScythiankingswasnamed Saulius.43 GiventheHebrew/Israelitebackgroundofthe Scythians,itwouldappearthatthenamesakeofthisScythian kingwasSaul,thefirstHebrewking(ISamuel9). HerodotusalsorecordsthatTheScythiansthemselvessaythat theirnationistheyoungestofallthenations...[and]...fromtheir firstking...tothecrossingofDariusintoScythiawas,inall,one thousandyearsnomore,butjustsomany.44 Col.Gawler analyzesHerodotusrecordasfollows: NowDariusexpeditionagainsttheScythians wasabout500B.C.,and1000yearsbefore thatbringsustothetimeofMoses.45 Significantly,theScythianstracedtheiroriginasanationtothe approximatetimeofMoses.ItwasaftertheExodus,under MosesthattheHebrewstrulybecameanationwiththeirown distinctcultureandlaws. AnadditionalevidencethatScythiawasthenewIsraelite homelandisthefrequentuseofthenameoftheIsraelitetribeof DanintheBlackSeaarea.ThetribeofDanwasknownforgiving itstribalnametogeographiclocations(Joshua19:47).Therivers emptyingintotheBlackSeawereformerlyknownbysuchnames
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astheIster,Tyras,Borysthenes,andTanais,but,afterthe Scythiansmigratedintotheregion,theirnameswerechangedto theDanube,Dniester,Dnieper,andDonRivers.Colliers Encyclopediastates: Thenamesofthe...riversDanube,Dnestr, DneprandDonareScythian...46 ThetribeofDanwassplitintotwohomelandsinPalestine:one ontheseacoast,andoneinalandlockedareainthenorthof Israel.Inchapterfour,wesawevidencethatmanyDanites migratedtoIrelandwhenIsraelfell,buttheprominenceofthe nameDaninScythianareasindicatesotherDanitesjoinedthe migrationintotheBlackSearegions.AmajorScythiantribewas namedtheDahaiorDahae,whichmayalsoindicatethetribeof Dan. Wewillnowreconstructthemostlyignoredhistoryofthe Scythians.WehaveseenthattheCimmeriansandScythians werealliedagainsttheAssyriansin653B.C.,butweredefeated. ThereisevidencethattheAssyrianstriedtoplacatethe Scythians,goingsofarastomarrythedaughterofanAssyrian 47 kingtoaScythianprince, butitdidnotlongstemthetideof growingScythianpower. Inapproximately624B.C.,theScythianslaunchedamassive invasiontothesouth,andoccupiedAsiaMinor,Syria,Media, PalestineandmuchofAssyria.Theyconqueredasfarsouthas Egypt,butsparedthatnationwhentheEgyptiansofferedthem 48 tributemoney. InthewordsofWernerKeller,theScythians inundatedtheAssyrianEmpire.49 TheEncyclopaediaBritannica states: TheScythianspenetratedintoAssyriaand madetheirwayasfarasthebordersof Egypt.Calahwasburned,thoughthestrong
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wallsofNinevehprotectedtherelicsofthe Assyrianarmywhichhadtakenrefugebehind them...50 TheScythianattackupontheAssyriancityofCalah(Kalakh)was noteworthy.TheEncyclopaediaBritannicanotesthatCalahwas theheadquartersofthearmyinAssyria.51 Bydirectlyattacking theheadquarterscityoftheAssyrianarmy,theScythianswere clearlygoingforthejugularofAssyria.ThoughAssyria struggledonforafewyears,theScythianinvasiondealtAssyria amortalblow.BabyloniarevoltedagainstAssyria,andthe easternScythiansjoinedthisrevolt.Asthereaderwillrecall, therewerenorthernScythiansfromtheBlackSearegionand easternScythianswhohaddisplacedthekingdomofEllip (locatedeastofAssyria).ItwasthenorthernScythianswho conqueredmostoftheAssyrianEmpireandburntCalah,butit was(apparently)theeasternScythianswhojoinedBabylonto administeracoupdegracetoAssyria.TheEncyclopaedia BritannicanotesthattheScythiankingofEcbatana(acityeast ofAssyria)intervenedtoassisttheBabylonians,andaddsthat NinevehwascapturedanddestroyedbytheScythianarmy.52 SomehistoricalaccountscredittheMedesandBabylonians withthedestructionofNineveh,buttheEncyclopaediaBritannica statesthatitwastheBabyloniansandScythianswhoconquered Nineveh.ItexplainsthattheBabyloniansreferredtoScythians asManda,andmaintainsthattheGreekwritersmissedthe ScythianrolethroughaconfusionofMadaorMedeswith Manda.53 TheBabyloniantermMandamayhavebeenderived fromManasseh,oneofIsraelslargesttribes. ThenorthernScythiansfromtheBlackSeaheldWesternAsia andtheMideastundertheirdominionforonlyashorttime, 54 twentyeightyearsaccordingtoHerodotus, andjusttenyears 55 accordingtoWernerKeller. WhydidScythiaattackthewhole
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territoryoftheAssyrianEmpire,andthenleaveaftersoshorta time?Bothanswerscomeclearlyintofocuswhenone understandsthattheScythianswerethedescendantsoftheten tribesofIsrael. ThemotivefortheScythianinvasionwaslikelytwofold.The primarymotivewasthedesireforrevengeagainsttheAssyrians whohadforcedthemofftheirlandanddestroyedtheold kingdomofIsrael.ItwaspoeticjusticethatafterAssyriainvaded anddestroyedthekingdomofIsraelAssyriawasinvadedand givenitsdeathblowbyScythia(theoffspringoftheIsraelites thathadoriginallyfledfromAssyria).Indeed,thedesireto liberatethoseIsraeliteswhowerestillcaptivesoftheAssyrians mayhaveservedasafurtherstrongmotivefortheScythian invasion. AsecondreasonforScythiasinvasionwasapparentlythe reoccupationoftheoldIsraelitehomelandofPalestine.Thefact thatsomeScythianschargedstraightsouththroughAsiaMinor andSyriaintoPalestinegivesweighttothisconclusion.Inthe centurythathadpassedsincethetentribeswereforcedoutof Palestine,ithadprobablybeenreferredtoasthelandofmilk andhoneybyoldtimerswhoreminiscedabouttheirhomeland. TheScythianIsraelitesmayhaveoriginallyintendedtoreoccupy Palestinepermanentlywhentheyreconqueredit. ScythianvictoriesweresowidespreadthatHerodotusobserved: TheScythianstookcontrolofallAsia.56 WhiletheScythianswagedatotalwaragainsttheAssyriansin Mesopotamia,Herodotusrecordsthatontheirmarchthrough PalestineandSyria: ...themajorityoftheScythiansmarchedby, doingnoharmtoanyone.57

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ItissignificantthatwhilemarchingthroughPalestine,the ScythianstooknoactiontoattackorharmtheJewishcapitalof Jerusalem.IftheScythianmotivewassimpleconquest,whydid theysparetheJewishcapital?SincetheentireAssyrianarmy couldnotstandbeforetheScythianonslaught,Jerusalemhadno mighttoresistthem.Theobviousconclusionisthatthe ScythianschosetospareJerusalem.Thismakessenseonlyif theScythianswerethedescendantsofthetentribesofIsrael, whoknewtheJewswereoneoftheirrelatedtribes.This indicatesthatwhiletheScythianswereintentondestroying Assyria,theirpurposewastoliberatePalestine.Onecityin Palestine(BethShan)wasrenamedScythopolisinhonorofthe Scythians,andthelocalpopulationretainedthatnameeven aftertheScythiansleftthearea.WernerKellernotesthatthere isnoevidencethattheScythianseveroccupiedorgarrisoned 58 BethShan, sothereasonforchangingthenameofBethShan toScythopolisisamystery.Thereisalogicalanswerforthis mystery.Whenacityisrenamedafterapersonoranation,it isdonesotohonorthememoryofthatpersonornation.Since theScythianpresenceamongtheJewswasagentleone,and liberatedthemfromtheAssyrianEmpire,BethShanwaslikely renamedScythopolistohonortheScythianliberationofthe region. ThattheScythianscompletelyravagedAssyrianterritorywhile sparingJewishcitiesclearlyindicatesthattheScythianslooked upontheJewsmorefavorablythantheothernationsinvaded. ThiswouldmakenosensewhatsoeveriftheScythians werewildnomadsfromnorthernAsiawhowerein Palestineforthefirsttime.However,itiscompletely logicalwhenonerealizesthat,asdescendantsoftheten tribesofIsrael,theScythianswerebloodrelativesofthe Jews!ItwasnotedearlierthattheScythiansartworkdepicted Scythiansashavingbearded,Semiticfaces,clearlyindicating
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thattheyoriginatedintheFertileCrescent(thetraditional Semitichomeland),notintheAsianinterior.Toassertthatthese ScythianshadaMongoloidoriginfromnorthernoreasternAsia, onemustignorethefacts. HerodotusalsorecordsthattheScythianswereveryzealousin forbiddingidolatryandtheworshipofforeigngods.Inone instance,KingSauliusofScythiaexecutedhisownbrotherfor participatingintheritesofaGreekmothergoddessfestival 59 andwearingimagesassociatedwiththemothergoddess. In anotherinstance,aScythianking(Scyles)participatedin forbidden,paganritualoftheGreeksinwhichdevoteesallowed Bacchustopossesstheminfrenziedrites.Astestimonytothe strictScythianlawsagainstsuchrites,KingScylestriedto preventanyScythianfromlearningabouthissecretlife.His actionswerediscoveredhowever,andtheScythiansrejected himasking,selectinghisbrother,Octamasades,asthenew king.Withanarmy,Octamasadespursuedhispaganized brother,andbeheadedhiminThrace(themodernBalkanregion 60 ofEurope),whereScyleshadsoughtrefuge. ThefactthattheScythiansexecuted,withoutmercy,eventheir ownrulersandroyaltywhoworshippedthemothergoddessor otherpagangods(orwhokeptimagesofsuchgodsand goddesses)showstherewasaverystrictlawamongthe Scythiansagainstidolatry.Combiningthefactthatidolatrywasa capitaloffensewiththeScythiancustomofavoidingswineflesh, itisclearthattheScythianswerefaithfullypracticingtwokey featuresofthelawsofGodgiventotheIsraelitesunderMoses. ThisfurtherconfirmsthatmanyoftheIsraelitesofthetentribes hadexperiencedarevivalintheirnewhomelandneartheBlack Sea. ThefallofNinevehhasbeendatedasfollows: ...theAssyriancapital[Nineveh]fellaftera
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longwarconductedbytheMedes, BabyloniansandScythiansin612B.C....61 ThepresenceofalongwarbetweenScythiaandAssyriaprior toAssyriasdefeatin612B.C.supportsHerodotusrecordthat theScythiansruledAsia(Mesopotamia,AsiaMinorand Palestine)foralmostthreedecades.Specifically,Herodotus wrote: Fortwentyeightyears,then,theScythians weremastersofAsia...62 ThisScythianoccupation,whichincludedPalestine,occurred duringthereignofKingJosiah(circa639608B.C.).TheBible doesnotmentionScythiansinPalestineatthattimebecause ScythianwasaGreekterm.However,theBiblereferstothem asIsraelites.Thereisaninterestingaccountinthereignof JosiahthatcanonlyinvolvetheScythians.IIKings22:3states thatJosiahissuedadecreetorestoretheTempleofGodinthe eighteenthyearofhisreign(circa621B.C.). Duringthereignsofpreviousevilkings,theJewshadlostthe knowledgeofGod.WhenacopyofGodslawswasfoundinthis Templerestorationproject,thenationagainlearnedaboutGods laws(IIChronicles34:833).WhenhelearnedwhatGodslaws were,Josiahwasaghastathisnationsdegeneratecondition.II Kings23:420recordsthatKingJosiahsreformsincludedthe destructionofsungodandmothergoddessimages,forbidding humansacrifices,tearingdownbrothelsofhomosexual prostitutes(housesofSodomites),slayingpaganpriestsand evendestroyingthealtarsforpagangodswhichKingSolomon hadbuiltforhisforeignwives.Josiahalsoreestablishedthe PassoverandtheDaysofUnleavenedBread(IIChronicles 35:1718).However,noticethecuriousrecordofwhokeptthese festivalsalongwithJosiahandhisnation.Verses1718add:
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AndthechildrenofIsraelthatwere presentkeptthePassover...andtheDaysof UnleavenedBreadtherewasnoPassoverlike tothatkeptinIsraelfromthedaysof Samuel...asJosiahkept...andallJudahand Israelthatwerepresent...(Emphasis added.) ThisrecordsthatallJudahandtheIsraelitesthatwere presentkepttheseHolyDaysofGod.Itisclearthatthis accountmeansthatdescendantsofthetentribesofIsraelkept thesefestivalsasitmakesadistinctionbetweenJudahand Israel.ThisseemstobeanimpossibilityasIIKings17:18 statesthatwhentheIsraelitesweredeportedfromPalestinethat Godhadremovedthemandthatnonewasleftbutthetribeof Judahonly.SinceallthetribesofIsraelwereearlierremoved fromPalestine,howwasitpossiblethatnotonlywereportionsof thetentribesagaininPalestineatthetimeofJosiah,butthat theywerealsodevoutenoughtoparticipateinGodsHolyDays? Theanswerissimple.TheIsraelitesfromthetentribes whowerepresentinPalestineatthetimeofking JosiahsrevivalweretheScythianswhowerethen occupyingeverythingfromPalestinetoMesopotamia!We haveseenthatHerodotusrecordedthattheScythianswere knownforgoodlaws,avoidedidolsandpaganreligiousritesand evenavoidedswineflesh.Thattheywerealreadypracticingkey aspectsofthebiblicallawsofGodmakesiteasiertounderstand howtheScythianIsraelitescouldjoinJosiahandJudahin celebratingGodsHolyDays.Indeed,iftheGreekshadwrittenII Chronicles35:1718,itprobablywouldhavereadalltheJews andScythiansthatwerepresent... NowconsiderIIChronicles34:39forevenmoreevidence.Verse 3recordsthatJosiahbegantoserveGodintheeighthyearof
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hisreignandbegansomereligiousreforms.Verse67adds: AndsodidheinthecitiesofManasseh, andEphraimandSimeon,evenunto Naphtali...Andwhenhehad...cutdownall theidolsthroughoutthelandofIsrael,he returnedtoJerusalem. Tenyearslater,Josiahtookupacollectionfortherestorationof theTemple,andverse9states: ...theydeliveredthemoneythatwasbrought intothehouseofGod,whichtheLevites...had gatheredofthehandofManassehand Ephraim,andalltheremnantofIsrael, andofallJudahandBenjaminandthey returnedtoJerusalem.(Emphasisadded.) Foratleasttenyears,contingentsofthetentribeswerepresent inPalestineandlivingintheirformertribalhomelands.This accountmakesclearthatthesemembersofthetentribes ofIsraelwereseparateanddistinctfromthetribesof JudahandBenjamin(whoconstitutedthenationofJudah). Whatisprofoundisthatthesemembersofthetentribesof Israelwerebothwillingandabletodonatemoneytorestore GodsTemple!Infact,theIsraeliteswereprobablyableto donatefarmorefortheTemplethantheJews.They(the IsraeliteScythians)hadconqueredallAsiaandwereflushwith warbootyoutofwhichtomakedonations. Now,remembertheprophecyofJeremiah3:812thatstated thatthetentribesofIsraelweremorejustifiedthantheJews atthattime,andthattheirnewhomelandwaslocatedtothe northofJudah.SomeversionsoftheBibleincludedatesfor chaptersintheOldTestament.TheKingJamesVersionstates thatJeremiah3occurredin620B.C.Josiahkeptthisgreat
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Passoverintheeighteenthyearofhisreign(IIKings2123), whichwoulddatethisPassoverto621B.C.WhiletheBibledoes notexpresslysayso,theproximityofthesedatesindicatesthat theProphetJeremiahwaspresentatthisjointPassoverbetween JudahandportionsofthetentribesofIsraelwhowere present.Thisalsomakesclearthatanhistoricalcontextwas, indeed,presentforGodtoaddressamessageviaJeremiahto thetentribesofIsrael.Afterall,portionsofthetentribes (probablysoldiersandsettlers)werepresentinPalestineand keepingthePassoverandDaysofUnleavenedBreadwith Jeremiahpresentamongthem. ThereisnoconflictbetweenIKings17:18(whichstatesGod removedallthetentribesfromPalestineinaround721B.C.)and IIChronicles34whichrecordssignificantnumbersof Ephraimites,Manassehites,SimeonitesandNaphtaliteslivingin theiroldtribalhomelandsofPalestine.TheseIsraelitetribesmen wereinPalestineduringJosiahsreignbecausetheywerethe Scythians(orSacae)whowerepresentinPalestineatthat time.SecularhistorycallsthemScythians,buttheBible insteadreferstothembytheirtraditionalIsraelitenames. Indeed,thisbringsupthequestion:whatpromptedkingJosiah torestoretheTempleofGodinthefirstplace?Perhapsitwas thepresenceoftheScythianswhichpromptedsuchanaction. TheScythianswereknowntokilltheirownroyaltyforindulging inpaganpractices,andJudahspeoplewere(priortoJosiahs reforms)heavilyengagedinpaganpractices.Didthe comparativerighteousnessoftheScythiansandtheirliberation ofJudahfromAssyrianruleinspireKingJosiahofJudahto restoreGodsTemple? IIKings23:25recordsthatwhileJosiahimplementedhisreforms withagenuineheart,Jeremiah3:10commentsthatmostof Judahfeignedagreementwiththereforms,andtheBible
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recordsthatJudahquicklyforsookthelawsofGodafterthe deathofJosiah. WhydidtheseeminglyinvincibleScythians,thenorthernsonsof Isaac(i.e.Sacae),abandontheMideastsosoonafterthoroughly subduingit?Therearetwopossibleanswers.Whenthekingdom ofIsraelfell,theAssyriansbroughtinforeignerswhohadno affinityfortheland(IIKings17:2434).WhentheScythian IsraelitesreturnedtoPalestine,theywerelikelydisappointedin whattheyfound.Thelandofmilkandhoneyaboutwhichtheir grandparentshadreminiscedwasnowalandofweedsand foreigners,notsuitablefortheIsraelite/Scythianlifestyleof growingcropsandtendingherds. Afteranumberofyears,theylikelydecidedthatPalestinewas simplynotworththeeffort,andwithdrewintoScythiawherethe terrainprovidedthefertileexpansivenesssuitablefortheir chosenlifestyle.Also,thepopulationoftheScythianswasnow fartoolargetoseriouslyconsidercrampedlittlePalestineas anythingbutaremotecolony.Besides,theotherpurposefor theirinvasion(crushingAssyria)hadbeencompleted,sothere wasnopressingreasontostayinMesopotamia.TheScythians apparentlypreferredlivingcontentlywiththeirflocksandherds inthewideopenspacesofSouthRussiatogoverningafractious empireofcompeting,conquerednations.Thevoluntary Scythianwithdrawalfromconqueredterritoryisevidence thatthemotivesfortheirinitialinvasiondidnotinclude imperialexpansionism.Indeed,Herodotusrecordsthatthe Scythianshadanisolationistattitudetowardothernations.He recordedthattheScythians: ...dreadfullyavoidtheuseofforeign customs,andespeciallythoseofthe Greeks...SocarefularetheScythianstoguard theirowncustoms,andsucharethepenalties
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[Herodotusreferstothedeathpenaltyfor paganreligiousactivity]thattheyimposeon thosewhotaketoforeigncustomsoverand abovetheirown.63 ThevoluntarywithdrawaloftheScythiansfromalarge conqueredterritoryisconsistentwiththeisolationismofthe Scythians.Theywantedtoliveintheirownwideopenspaces, anddidnotwanttheburdenofrulingovernationsofforeigners withunwantedcustomsandlifestyles. WhentheScythiansreturnedtothesteppes,theBabylonians becamethemastersofMesopotamia,anditisduringthistime thatJerusalemfellandtheremainderofJudahwentinto captivity.TheMedoPersianEmpirethenreplacedthe Babylonians,anditwasintheirrulethatKingCyrusalloweda contingentofJewstoreturntoPalestineunderEzraand Nehemiah.TheJewsflourishedunderPersianrule,andoccupied highpositionsofgovernmentalauthority.Danielservedasthe kingsPrimeMinisterunderDarius(Daniel6:13),Estherwasa queenofPersia(Esther2:1518),Nehemiahwascupbearertoa Persianking(Nehemiah2:1),andMordechaiwashighin authorityunderaPersianking(Esther9:34). However,inthepowervacuumcreatedafterthenorthern ScythiansdevastatedAssyria,theeasternScythians (descendantsofIsraelitestakencaptivebyAssyria)weregiven anopportunitytomigrateoutoftheregion.Apparently,many didso,andmigratednorthwardandeastwardoutof Mesopotamia.TamaraRicecommentsontheincredible expansionofScythianterritoryaftertheywithdrewfromAssyria andPalestine: TheScythianshadruledalargeportionof westernAsiafortwentyeightyears.They werenowbackinUrartuatthisdate...some
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turnedeastwardagain,tooccupythetractof steppelyingbetweentheCaspianandtheSea ofAral,blendingtherewithDahaikinsmento formanethnicgroupfromwhichthe Parthiansweretospringsomethreehundred yearslater.Othersmayhavepushedonasfar asIndia...whilstothersremainedin Armenia.64 ThePersianslaunchedamassivemilitaryexpeditionagainstthe ScythiansintheBlackSeaareainanattempttomakethem subjectsofthePersianEmpire.Herodotusclaimsthatonemotive fortheMedoPersianinvasionofScythiawastoseekvengeance fortheScythianoccupationofMediaatthetimetheScythians 65 invadedAssyria. Needlesstosay,theScythianshadnodesiretobeconquered, andputupaneffectivedefense.Theirdefensewassosuccessful, infact,thatthePersianscameclosetolosingtheirwholearmy. Withanarmyof700,000men,KingDariuspassedthrough modernTurkey,crossedtheBosporusonabridgeofships,and attackedtheScythian/IsraelitehomelandnorthoftheBlackSea 66 bymarchingthroughmodernBulgariaandRomania. Theyear wasapproximately512B.C.TheScythiansdrewthePersian armyeverdeeperintotheirhomelandwhileharassingthe Persians,butdecliningapitchedbattle.AsthePersianspursued theelusiveScythians,theirsupplylinesbecamestretchedand vulnerable.TheScythiancustomoflivinginportabledwellings becameinvaluabletothemastheyremainedaheadofthe Persians.AstheydrewthePersiansafterthem,theyadopteda 67 scorchedearthpolicy,ruiningandburningthevegetation. Aftermuchskirmishing,HerodotusrecordsthattheScythians sentaheraldtoDariuswithamysteriousgiftofabird,amouse, afrog,andfivearrows.ThePersiansweretoldtoascertainthe
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meaningofthemessagethemselves,andtheyeventually determinedittobe:Ifyoudonotbecomebirdsandflyaway intotheskyorbecomemiceandburrowintotheearthor becomefrogsandleapintothelakes,therewillbeno homecomingforyou,forwewillshootyoudownwithour arrows.68 ThePersiansdidnotknowthattheScythianshad attemptedtocutoffthePersianlineofretreatbypersuadingthe GreekstodestroyabridgeofshipsacrosstheIster(Danube) Riverwhichwasintheircare.Itnearlyworked,buttheGreeks refusedtodestroythebridge.ThePersiansthenfledfrom Scythiainhaste,abandoningtheweakandthewoundedasthey fled.TheBlackSeaScythiansretainedtheirindependence, withouthavingtofightafullscalebattle. BesidestheaboveinvasionofthewesternScythiansbyDarius, thePersianshadalsolaunchedanothermajorinvasionagainst theeasternScythiansunderCyrustheGreat.Inapproximately 530B.C.,KingCyrusofPersiahadinvadedtheeasternScythians 69 whowerethenlocatedeastoftheCaspianSea. TheScythian tribeswhichwereattackedweretheMassagetaeandthe Dahae,withtheEncyclopaediaBritannicanotingthatsome 70 accountscalledtheDahaetheDanaorDahans. Thenamesof theseScythiantribesindicatethattheyweredescendantsofthe IsraelitetribesofManassehandeitherDanorEphraimites fromtheclanofTahanites(Numbers26:35).TheMassagetae werethenruledbyaqueennamedTomyris.Althoughthe EnglishformofhernamehascometousviaaGreektranslation ofhername,theHebrewnameTamarappearstobetheroot wordofthenameTomyris.ThenameTamarwastwiceused intheBibleforfemalesintheroyalfamilyofKingDavid(II Samuel13:1and14:27).HerodotusnotedthatTheMassagetae wearthesamekindofclothesastheScythiansandlivemuch thesame.71
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ThiswasamuchbloodierwarthantheonewhichDariusfought againsttheBlackSeaScyths,anditresultedinthedeathofKing 72 Cyrusinapproximately528B.C. Herodotusrecordsthatthis PersianScythianwarresultedfromPersianaggression,writing thatCyrussethisheartonsubduingtheMassagetae.73 The Massagetaewerelivinginpeaceatthetime,andCyruslaunched awarofaggressiononthemtoforcethemtobehissubjects. WhenPersiasinvasionwasimminent,QueenTomyrissentthe followingmessagetoCyrus:KingoftheMedes,ceasetobeso eagertodowhatyouaredoing...ruleoveryourownpeople,and enduretolookuponusgoverningours.74 Itisnoteworthythat theScythianswerewillingtoliveandletlive,butPersia persistedinitsaggression.Aftersomeinitialfighting,Queen TomyrisoftheMassagetaeofferedCyrusasecondchanceto ceasehostilitiesandgobacktohisownland,butwarnedthatIf youdonotso,Iswearbythesun,thelordoftheMassagetae, that,forallyourinsatiabilityofblood,Iwillgiveyouyourfillof it.75 Asadigression,theabovecommentshowsthattheeastern Scythsweresunworshippers.ThoseIsraeliteswhohadgone eastwardintoAssyriancaptivityleftPalestinewhiletheIsraelites wereworshippersofBaal(thesungod).WhenAssyriafell,they migratedintotheregioneastoftheCaspianSea,butretained theirsunworshipcustoms.ThisgroupofScythianslikely descendedfromthethreeandonehalftribesofIsraelwhowent intocaptivitypriortothefinalAssyrianinvasionofPalestine. ThatgroupincludedonehalfofthetribeofManasseh,andit wouldbefittingfortheManassehites(theMassagetae)tobe theirleadingtribe. HistorytendstolookuponthePersiansascivilizedandthe Scythiansasfiercebarbarians.Yet,hereweseethePersians launchingawarofunprovokedaggression,andtheScythians
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livinginpeace,mindingtheirownbusiness,andtwiceurginga peacefulsolutionuponthePersiansastheyfoughtinself defense.Whoweretherealbarbarians? Cyruspersistedinhisaggression,andHerodotusdescribedthe ensuingbattle. Tomyris,sinceCyruswouldnotlistentoher, gatheredallherhosttogetherandfoughthim. Ofallthebattlesthatwerefoughtamongthe barbarians,Ijudgethistohavebeenthe severest,andindeedmyinformationisthatit isso.Longtheyremainedfightinginclose combat,andneithersidewouldflee.But finallytheMassagetaegottheupperhand. ThemostofthePersianarmydiedonthespot and,amongthem,Cyrushimself...Tomyris soughtouthiscorpseamongthePersian dead,and...shefilledaskinwithhumanblood andfixedhisheadintheskin,and,insulting overthedead,shesaid:Iamaliveand conqueror,butyouhave...rob[bed]meofmy son[Tomyrissondiedinthewar]...Now...I willgiveyouyourfillofblood,evenasI threatened.Therearemanystoriesofthe deathofCyrus,butthis...seemstomethe mostconvincing.76 TheinvadingPersianarmywasvirtuallywipedoutasthe Scythiansdefendedtheirhomeland.Persiasemperor,Cyrus, wasnotonlykilled,buthadhiscorpsehumiliated.Wedonot knowthetotalcasualtiesinthiswar,buttheymusthavebeen immense.Persiaruledavastareaandcouldassemblearmiesof overamillionmen.ThearmywhichXerxesassembledagainst theGreekswas1,700,000men,andthearmyofDariusagainst
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77 theBlackSeaScythianswas700,000men. Sincethe expeditionagainsttheMassagetaewasledbyKingCyrus himself,onewouldexpecthisarmytohavenumberedinthe hundredsofthousands.YettheMassagetaeutterlycrushedthe Persianarmy.Itisstrangethatmodernhistorystressesthe historiesoftheAssyrianandPersianEmpires,butinthethree greatwarsfoughtbetweentheirempiresandtheScythians,the Scythiansdecisivelywonallthree.Historyteachesmuchabout thelosersofthesewars,butrarelymentionsthevictorious Scythians.

ThereisfurtherevidencethattheMassagetaeweredescended fromthetentribesofIsrael.LiketheScythiansintheBlackSea region,theMassagetaewerealsocalledSacaeorSaccae,78 indicatingthattheyalsoborethenameofIsaac. TamaraRicewritesinTheScythians,that: allthemountednomadsoftheScythianage spokethesameIraniantongue,whether theycamefromtheDniesterorthebanksof theOxus,thereseemsreasontothinkthat.... themajoritywerelinkedbysomesortof racialtie.Adefiniteaffinityisindeed suggestedbythenatureoftheirart,which showswellnighidenticalfeaturesoverso wideanarea.79 (Emphasisadded.) ThereferencetotheScythsoftheDniesterandtheOxus RiversdenotesboththeBlackSeaScythswhodefeatedDarius, andtheScyths(Massagetae)wholivedeastoftheCaspianSea andslaughteredthearmyofCyrus.Scythiannumbersand influencebecamesowidespreadthatevidenceoftheirculture 80 hasbeenfoundfromcentralandeasternEuropetoManchuria. TheScythians,therefore,wereagroupofraciallyrelatedtribes
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withacommonlanguage,acommonattire,andacommon lifestyle.Clearly,theysharedacommonheritage.Aswehave seeninthischapter,thoseScythiantribeswhoborethecommon nameSacaeorSaka(i.e.thosenamedafterIsaac)hadtheir commonheritageintheoldtentribedkingdomofIsrael. VirtuallyallhistoricalaccountsspeculatethattheScythians originatedinnorthernAsiaandmigratedsouthwardtoSouth Russia.However,theevidencestronglypointstoanopposite conclusion.Theirlinguistictraits(theyallspokethesame Iraniantongue)indicatethattheyoriginatedinthe Mesopotamian/FertileCrescentregion,andthattheyhad migratednorthwardintoSouthRussia.Iftheyhadoriginatedin thedimrecessesofnorthernAsia,theircommonlanguagewould beintheMongolianfamilyoflanguages,nottheIranianfamily ofancientlanguages.Also,theirownartworkdepictsthe Sacae/Scythiansasabearded,Semiticrace,furtherconfirming theiroriginwasintheMiddleEast.TheonlySemiticnationwhich disappearedfromtheFertileCrescentjustpriortothearrivalof theScythiansintheBlackSearegionwerethetentribesof Israel.AssoonasthetentribesofIsraeldisappearedfrom theiroldterritory,theScythians(bearingthenameofIsaac) appearedneartheBlackSeaandspreadthroughoutthe Russiansteppes.TheconnectionbetweentheIsraelitesand Sacae/Scythiansisnothardtounderstand. Additionally,GreekhistoriansnotedthattheSacae/Scythians wereacivilized,cultured,justpeople.Theykilledtheirown royaltyforpossessingidolsofthemothergoddessandrefused toeatorsacrificeswine.(Bothofthesetraitsindicateaheritage whichwasbasedontheHebrewOldTestamentLaw.)Their metallurgicalskills,exquisitecraftsmanshipingoldartwork,and tastesforcivilizedpossessionsalsoargueforanoriginincivilized Mesopotamia,nottheilliterateandunculturedareasbeyondthe
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steppes.ThefactthattheScythianswerecomposedoftribal groupingsofraciallyrelatedpeoplealsosupportstheir identificationasIsraelites.TheIsraeliteswereallraciallyrelated, butpreserveddistincttribalidentitiesthroughouttheirhistory. Thesetribalidentitiesweresostrongthateventheirenemies notedthetribaldifferences.Forexample,theAssyrianannals specificallyidentifiesNaphtaliasoneoftheIsraelitetribes 81 takenintocaptivitybytheAssyrians. AlthoughtheScythiantribeswereraciallyrelated,theywereby nomeansaunitedempire.Triballoyaltieswereparamount, andScythiantribesevenfoughtamongthemselvesattimesas theyjostledeachotherforlivingspace.Intertribalwarfarewas typicaloftheIsraelitetribes.FromtheBiblesaccounts,weknow thatJudah(thetribesofJudahandBenjamin)andIsrael(theten tribes)frequentlyfoughtverybloodywars.ThetribeofBenjamin wasalmostwipedoutinacivilwaritfoughtwiththeothertribes inthepredynasticperiod(Judges2021).ThetribeofEphraim alsofoughtalosingwaragainstthetribesofManasseh,Gadand Reuben(Judges12:16).EphraimandManassehwerebrother tribes,yeteventheycouldcometoblows.Thefactthatthe Scythiansputtriballoyaltiesabovetheircommonracial relationshipwasconsistentwiththeirIsraelitehistory. WhilethetwelveIsraelitetribeswereallfatheredbyJacob,they originatedfromfourdifferentmothers.Asthetwelvesonsof Jacobtookwives,thetribesbecameevenmorediverse.For example,JosephmarriedanEgyptian(Genesis41:5052), makingEphraimandManassehhalfEgyptian.Ontheotherhand, JudahmarriedaCanaanitewoman(Genesis38).Wedonot knowtheethnicbackgroundofallthewivesofJacobssons,but astheymarriedwivesofdifferentbackgrounds,theirbloodlines andprogenybecameevenmoredivergent.Asaresult,thetribes didnotalllookandactalike.Indeed,sometribesdidnotget
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alongwellwithcertainothertribes.Theirnaturalstatewasto subdivideintotribalunitsbeingunitedwastheexception,not theruleintheirhistory.Theirtimesofunitywereonlymade possiblebydivineactionworkingthroughstrongpersonalities (Moses,Joshua,orKingsDavidandSolomon). ThischapterbeganwithaquotefromtheJewishhistorian, Josephus,whorecordedthatthedescendantsofthetentribesof IsraelwereexceedinglynumerousandlivinginAsiaduringhis lifetime.ThisfactwaslikelyknowntomanyeducatedJewsofhis time.OnecontemporaryofJosephuswastheApostlePaul,who wasahighlyeducatedJew.PaulwasamemberofthePharisees, aJewishsect(Acts26:5),andastudentofGamaliel,a veneratedJewishteacher(Acts22:3).DidPaulknowthe ScythiansweremembersofthetentribesofIsrael?Acareful readingofColossians3:11indicatestheanswerisyes.Paul wrote: WherethereisneitherGreeknorJew, circumcisionnoruncircumcision,Barbarian [nor]Scythian,bondnorfree:butChristisall andinall. Paulheredrawsfoursetsofdichotomiestoillustratethatallare freetobecomeChristians,regardlessofoneslineageorpersonal condition.GreeknorJewiseasytounderstand,butconsider thedichotomybetweenBarbarianandScythian.TheGreek wordtranslatedbarbarianmeansforeigneroralien.82 Paul grewupinTarsusinAsiaMinorandwaslikelymorefamiliarwith theBlackSeaScythiansthantheJewsfromJudea.Paulhadto battlethexenophobiaoftheJudeanChristianJewswhodidnot wanttohavepersonaldealingswithgentiles(i.e.foreignersor aliens).InActs10,ittookdivineactiontoinducetheApostle PeterandotherJewstoeveninteractwithgentiles.InGalatians 2:1113,PaulhadtoopposePeterstendencytobackslideinto
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avoidinggentiles.Therefore,inColossians3:11,Paulwas drawingadichotomybetweenforeignersandScythians.How didtheScythiansdifferfromforeignersinPaulsmind?The obviousansweristhattheScythianswerenotracialforeigners totheJewsbecausetheywerefellowIsraelitesfromtheten tribesofIsrael. TheGreekwordusedbyPaulforScythiansissignificant.A concordancewillconfirmthattheGreekwordtranslated ScythianbeginswiththeGreekcharacterforSwiththenext consonantbeingak.83 Inotherwords,Paulreferencedthe ScythianswithawordbeginningwithSk,theconsonantsof therootwordforSaka,whichdesignatedtheseedofIsaac. PaulwasabrilliantHebrewscholar,andsurelyknewaboutthe promiseofGenesis21:12thatIsraelsseedwouldbeknownby thenameofIsaac.ItisdoubtfulthatPaulwouldhavereferred totheScythiansbysuchanameunlessheknewtheywere, indeed,theseedofIsaac. PaulalsowroteinIITimothy1:11thathisprimarymissionwas tobeateacherofthegentiles[nonIsraelites].GivenPauls avowedmissiontoevangelizegentiles,itissignificantthathe neverwenttoScythianterritory.Apparently,Pauldidnotgoto ScythiabecauseheknewthattheScythianswerenotgentiles! ThevariousScythiantribeslivedforcenturiesintheRussian steppes.However,theeasternScythianswereeventuallypushed into(andabsorbedby)theParthianEmpire.TheParthianswere alsoSacaeScythians,andtheirempirewillbediscussedinthe nexttwochapters.TheBlackSeaScythiansremainedintheir areaforalongerperiodoftime,buthistoryrecordsthatthey eventuallyvanished.Asweshallseeinchapterten,theydid notvanish.Theyweresimplyknownbynewnamesasthey migratedelsewhere. ThisconcludesourchapterontheScythiansandtheirIsraelite
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heritage.GiventhesubstantialroleandpoweroftheScythians intheancientworld,modernignoranceaboutthemis remarkable.TheScythianinvasionanddefeatoftheAssyrian Empirewasoneofthemajoreventsoftheancientworld.The ScythiansalsocrushedthePersianEmpireintwomajorwars. Indeed,theywipedoutanentirePersianarmyandkilledthe famousPersianemperor,CyrustheGreat.Atonetime, ScythiansinhabitedterritoryfromEasternEuropetoChina.With suchanimpressivehistory,itisremarkablethatmoderntextson ancienthistorycontainlittleornothingaboutthem.Incontrast, theancientGreekhistorian,Herodotus,regardedtheScythians asbeingoneofthemoreimportantnationsoftheancientworld. IfScythiaweretoreceivecoveragecommensuratewithitsrole inhistory,itwouldbeveryhardtomissitsoriginsintheten tribesofIsrael,whichbegsthequestion:Whyhavehistorytexts ignoredtheScythianstosuchadegree? Scythianhistoryhasprobablybeenignoredbecausemankind,in general,doesnotwanttoberemindedoftherealityofGods preeminentandongoingroleinhumanhistory.TheApostlePaul observedthatmansnaturalstateofmindisoneofenmity againstGod(Romans8:7),andthatmankindfrequentlydoes notliketoretainGodintheirknowledge(Romans1:28).If historicaltextsincludedalltheknowledgecontainedinthis chapter,theywouldhavetoacknowledgethatGoddidkeephis promisetovastlymultiplytheIsraelitespopulation(verifying Bibleprophecy),andthatthetentribesofIsraelremaineda majorpowerinworldeventsevenaftertheirmigrationoutof Palestine.So,historytextsaremorecomfortablein deemphasizingallnationsandempiresofIsraeliteorigin,often labelingthemasbarbarians. Aswehaveseen,theCarthaginiansandSacaeScythianswere bothdescendedfromthetentribesofIsrael.However,their
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Israeliteoriginsandtheirmajorrolesinancienthistoryare widelydownplayed.However,thisbookhasnotyetexamined thegreatestancientempireruledbydescendantsoftheten tribesofIsrael.ThatempirewasParthia!Infact,Parthiaand Romeweretwoofthelargestandmostpowerfulempiresthat everexistedontheearth.Sincetheywereconcurrentempires, theybecamerivalsinanancientsuperpowerstrugglewhich lastedforcenturies.ThefascinatinghistoryoftheParthiansand theirgreatrivalrywiththeRomanEmpirewillbediscussedinthe nexttwochapters.

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Endnotes:ChapterSix 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Josephus,Antiquities,XI,V,2 Culican,TheMedesandthePersians,p.46 EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.20,Scythia,p.237 EncyclopediaAmericana,Vol.24,Scythians,p.471 TamaraTalbotRice,TheScythians,pp.1920andp.44 Ibid,pp.104105 Polosmak,SiberianMummyUnearthed,National Geographic,October,1994,pp.8788 8. Ibid,p.95 9. EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.20,Scythia,p.238 10.Ibid,p.238 11.BorisPiotrovsky,LiudmilaGalaninaandNonnaGrach, ScythianArt,plates4950,120121,127129,134,158, 166173,184187,202 12.Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,p.20 13.Culican,p.50 14.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.2,HeadingentitledBabylonia andAssyria,Subhead:SecondAssyrianEmpire,p.857 15.Ibid,p.857 16.Culican,p.51 17.Rice,TheScythians,p.45 18.Gawler,p.9 19.Ragozin,Media,p.414 20.Herodotus,TheHistory,4.17 21.Culican,p.136 22.Rice,p.22 23.Piotrovsky,GalaninaandGrach,ScythianArt,seethe extensiveseriesofphotographsfollowingp.21 24.Herodotus,TheHistory,4.174.20 25.Herodotus,TheHistory,4.46 26.Gawler,p.5 27.Ibid,p.5
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28.Ragozin,Media,p.418 29.Herodotus,TheHistory,7.64 30.Gawler,p.6(citingSharonTurner,AngloSaxons,Vol.1,p. 100) 31.Ibid,p.6 32.YoungsAnalyticalConcordancetotheBible,HebrewLexicon Section,seewordsBayithandBeth,pp.78 33.Bristowe,OldestLettersintheWorld,pp.89 th 34.Hall,H.R.,TheAncientHistoryoftheNearEast,7 Ed.pp. 406407 35.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.11,HebrewReligion, subhead:TheReligiousSignificanceoftheAmarnaAge,p. 364 36.Benjamin,Persia,p.79 37.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.17,Persia,(subhead: Archaeology),p.563 38.EncyclopediaAmericana,Vol.21,Phoenicians,p.950 39.Fell,AmericaB.C.,p.168 40.HarpersBibleDictionary,seeDress,exampleno.9,p.227 41.Herodotus,TheHistory,7.64 42.Ibid,4.63 43.Ibid,4.76 44.Ibid,4.5and4.7 45.Gawler,p.5 46.ColliersEncyclopedia,Vol.17,Scythian,p.434 47.Culican,p.41 48.TheBibleasHistory,pp.272273andRagozin,Assyria,p. 423 49.Keller,p.272 50.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.2,BabyloniaandAssyria, Subhead:ScythianInfluence,p.857 51.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.13,Kalakh(Calah),p.241 52.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.2,BabyloniaandAssyria,
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Subhead:ScythianInfluence,p.857 53.Ibid,p.857 54.Herodotus,TheHistory,1.106 55.Keller,p.273 56.Herodotus,TheHistory,1.104 57.Ibid,1.105 58.Keller,p.273 59.Herodotus,TheHistory,4.76 60.Herodotus,TheHistory,4.7880 61.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.2,BabyloniaandAssyria,p. 851 62.Herodotus,TheHistory,1.106 63.Ibid,4.76and4.80 64.Rice,TheScythians,p.45 65.Herodotus,TheHistory,4.1and4.118 66.Herodotus,TheHistory,4.8797 67.Herodotus,TheHistory,4.122 68.Ibid,4.131132 69.Ibid,1.201204 70.Ibid,1.201andEncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.17,Persia, p.566 71.Herodotus,TheHistory,1.215 72.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.17,Persia,Subhead:The EmpireoftheAchaemenids,p.567 73.Herodotus,TheHistory,1.201 74.Ibid,1.206 75.Ibid,1.212 76.Ibid,1.214 77.Ibid,4.87and7.60 78.Benjamin,Persia,p.96 79.Rice,TheScythians,p.42 80.Ibid,mapsonpp.4041and104105 81.Keller,p.244
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82.YoungsAnalyticalConcordancetotheBible,seeBarbarian, p.70 83.Ibid,seewordScythian,p.844

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7.ParthiaAnIsraeliteEmpireRisesinAsia Manyreadersmaywonder,uponseeingthetitleofthischapter, WhoorwhatwasParthia?Itisatestimonytothewoefullack ofhistoricalknowledgeinthemodernworldthatsuchaquestion couldbeasked.Parthiawasavastancientempirewhichruled overAsianterritoryatthesametimethattheRomanEmpire ruledovertheMediterraneanregion.AlthoughRomelaunched manywarsofaggressionagainstParthia,nonesucceededin theiraimsofsubjugatingtheParthians.Infact,Parthia administeredmanycrushingdefeatstoRomanarmiesasthese twoancientsuperpowersopposedeachotherforcenturies.In spiteofthefactthatmuchisknownaboutParthiashistory,itis almosttotallyignoredinhistorytexts.Howaccurateapictureof ancienthistorywouldwehaveiftextbooksneglectedtomention theRomanEmpire?Itwouldyieldaverydistortedviewof ancienthistory,wouldntit?Yetwenowhaveanequally distortedviewofworldhistoryasaresultofParthiasomission fromtextsonancienthistory. Afamousnineteenthcenturyhistorian,GeorgeRawlinson,wrote twobooksextensivelydocumentingthehistoryoftheParthian Empire.TheywereentitledParthiaandTheSixthGreatOriental Monarchy.TheGrecoRomanclassicalwritersrecordeda voluminousamountofinformationaboutParthia,andRawlinson extensivelycitestheclassicalwritersinhishistoriesofthe Parthians.HeintroducesTheSixthGreatOrientalMonarchywith thesewords: ...thepictureoftheworldduringtheRoman periodputbeforestudentsinHistoriesof Rome,wasdefective,nottosayfalse,inits omissiontorecognisetherealpositionof Parthia...asacounterpoisetothepowerof Rome,asecondfigureinthepicturenotmuch
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inferiortothefirst,arivalstatedividingwith Rometheattentionofmankindandthe sovereigntyoftheknownearth.Writersof Romanhistoryhavebeentoomuchinthe habitofrepresenting[Rome]as...aUniversal Monarchy,aPowerunchecked...havingno otherlimitsthanthoseofthecivilised world...thetruthseemstobethat...fromthe firsttothelast...therewasalwaysinthe worldaSecondPower,civilisedorsemi civilised,whichinatruesensebalanced Rome,actedasacounterpoiseanda check...Thispowerfornearlythreecenturies (B.C.64 A.D.225)wasParthia.1 TheconceptthatRomehadequalrivalsintheancientworldwill comeasasurprisetomostreaders.Thischapter(andchapter eight)willattempttorestoreabalancedperspectivetoourview ofancienthistorybyathoroughdiscussionoftheoriginsand historyofParthia.Chapterninewillincludepreviouslyunknown informationontheconsiderableroleplayedbyParthianRoman geopoliticsinthelifeandministryofJesusChrist. ThelackofinformationonParthialikelyresultsfromthefactthat historyhasbeentaughtalmostexclusivelyfromaGrecoRoman perspective.ThispreoccupationwithGrecoRomanhistoryhas ledtomajormisunderstandingsabouttherealityoftheancient world.Inearlierchapterswelearnedthatignoranceof PhoenicianandCarthaginianhistoryhasledtomodernmans unawarenessoftheroleofNorthAmericainancienthistory.This wasduetothePhoenician/CarthaginianmonopolyofGibraltar which,forcenturies,deniedtheGrecoRomansanymaritime accesstolandsbeyondtheMediterraneanSea.Asaresult, GreeceandRomewerefarlessadvancedthanthePhoenicians
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andCarthaginiansinunderstandingworldgeography.Also,we learnedinchaptersixthatScythians(theSacaeScythians)were civilizedpeople,andthattheirpowerwassogreatthatthey devastatedtheAssyrianEmpireandtwicedefeatedthePersian Empire.Yetwereadorhearalmostnothingaboutthem. ThischapterstitleindicatesthattheParthianswereIsraelites whodescendedfromthetentribesofIsraelaftertheirrelocation toAsia.Thischapterwillpresentevidencesupportingthis assertion,andchaptereightwilldiscussthefascinating(and ignored)historyoftheParthianEmpire. WhothenweretheParthians?Thereisnorecordoftheir presenceinAsiaatalluntilthePersiansrefertotheminthe sixthcenturyB.C.,andthereisnomentionofthemintheOld Testament,orintheAssyrianinscriptions,orinthe Zendavesta.2 ThisindicatestheywerenotpresentinAsiauntil somewhatpriortothemiddleofthefirstmillenniumB.C.The PersianscalledthemtheParthva,andnamedthemasa 3 subjectpeopleinvolvedinarevolt. Whiletheyare 4 acknowledgedasnotbeingAryaninorigin, theyareclearly identifiedashavingacommonoriginwiththeScythians. Rawlinsonstates,therewasastrongconvictiononthepartof thosewhocameincontactwiththeParthians,thattheywere Scyths,5 andaddsthattheScythiccharacteroftheParthiansis assertedinthestrongesttermsbytheancientwriters.6 RawlinsoncitestheclassicalhistoriansStrabo,JustinandArrian instating: ThemannersoftheParthianshad,theytell us,muchthatwasScythicinthem.Their languagewashalfScythic,halfMedian.They armedthemselvesintheScythicfashion. Theywere,infact,Scythsindescent,in habits,incharacter.7
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ThisScythianoriginoftheParthiansisfurtherconfirmedbythe factthatmanytimesintheirhistory,oustedParthiankings soughtrefugeamongtheSacaetribesoftheScythiansor replenishedtheirarmieswithsoldiersfromScythiantribes.This recurrentParthianrelianceontheSacaetribesofScythiain timesoftroubleindicatesthattheParthiansandScythianswere naturalallies. ThereisarecordfromDiodorus,aGreekhistorianofthefirst centuryB.C.,thattheParthianshadpassedfromthedominion oftheAssyrianstothatoftheMedes...toasimilarpositionunder thePersians.8 Rawlinsonalsonotesthatearlyhistorians regardedtheParthianstobeexiles.9 Thesestatementsare verysignificant.Weknowfrompreviouschaptersthattwowaves ofIsraelitecaptiveswereexiledintoAsiabytheAssyrians,and thatsomeofthemwerelocatedinthecitiesoftheMedes.After thefallofAssyriasempire,itislogicalthattheAsianIsraelites wouldcomeunderthedominionoftheMedesandPersians. SincetheParthianswererelatedtotheSacaeScythians(who borethenameofIsaac),andsincethereisnorecordofany ParthiansbeinginAsiauntilaftertheIsraeliteswerebrought there,itseemsevidentthattheParthianswereexiledmembers ofthetentribesofIsrael.Supportingthisviewisthefactthat theParthianswereregardedasexiles,anaptdescriptionfor thedisplacedIsraelites. Apparently,theParthianswerenothappytobeothernations subjects.RawlinsoncitesanaccountofDiodorusthatthey revoltedfromtheMedesandplacedthemselvesunderScythian protection.10 WhileRawlinsonoffersthisinformation,hestates thatDiodorusbaseditonasourcewhichRawlinsondoesnot trust.Nevertheless,itiscitedbecauseitindicatesthatthe ParthianslookedtotheScythiansastheirprotectorsand liberators.ThisfurthersupportstheassertionthattheParthians
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andScythianswerefellowtribesmen. TheEncyclopediaBritannicarecordsthat: ThealphabetsinuseinPersia,atleastfrom thetimeoftheArsaciddynastyonwards,are basedupontheAramaic...Theearliest recordsofAramaicgobacktoabout800B.C. andwerefoundinnorthernSyria...Other developmentsofAramaicaremodern squareHebrew...11 (Emphasisadded.) TheArsaciddynastywas,asweshallsee,thedynastyofthe Parthians.ThattheParthiansutilizedanAramaicalphabet(and imposeditwithintheirempire)powerfullyindicatesthatthe ParthiansoriginatedintheregionofSyriaandPalestinewhere theAramaiclanguageoriginated.ThefactthattheParthians usedaSemiticalphabetclearlyindicatesthattheirnative languageandracialoriginwereSemitic!Also,sinceearly historiansstronglymaintainthattheParthianswereaScythic people,theSemiticnatureofParthiaslanguagefurtherargues foraSemiticoriginfortheScythians.ThattheParthianlanguage wasrelatedtotheHebrewlanguagealsoindicatesthatthe Parthianswereamongthedescendantsofthetentribesof Israel,alargemassofSemiteswhoweretransplantedintoMedia andotherAsianregions. WhatlittleispreservedoftheParthianlanguagealsoindicatesa SemiticoriginfortheParthians.RawlinsonstatestheParthian wordforcitywaskartaorkerta.12 Inchapterfive,the Semitic/IsraeliteoriginofCarthagewasexamined,anditwas notedthattheoriginalSemiticnameofCarthagewasKirjath Hadeschath.TheoriginalSemiticnameofCarthageisalso renderedasKartHadasht,meaningnewcity.13 TheSemitic originofCarthageiswellestablished,andtheyusedtheword kirjathorkart(ashortenedversionofkirjath)forcity.The
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Parthiansusedthesameword(karta)forcity,indicatingthat theCarthaginiansandtheParthianshadacommonSemitic origin.WeshallalsolaterexaminetheroleoftheParthian Magi,aninfluentialportionofParthiasrulingclasses.Anearly CarthaginianrulerwasnamedMago,14 againindicatinga commonlinguisticheritagewiththeParthians.


15 AprominentfamilyofParthianswascalledtheSurenfamily, andoneoftheirhereditaryrightswastocrowneachnewly 16 electedking. ThewordSuren(italsoappearsassurenaor surenas)isaHebrewcompositeword.TheHebrewwordsur includesthemeaningreignormakeprinces.17 TheHebrew worden(orayin)includesthemeaningface,eye,sight orpresence.18 TheParthiannamesurenisHebrewfora personwhosepresencemakesprincesorreigninhis (eye)sight.TheParthianSurendidexactlywhattheHebrew wordssignify,showingaparallelbetweentheHebrewandthe Parthianlanguages.WhatlittleispreservedabouttheParthian languageindicatesthatitoriginatedintheSemitic/Hebrew familyoflanguages.Weshallalsoseethatmanyofthepersonal andplacenamesoftheParthianswerenotjustSemitic,butwere specifically,Israeliteinnature.

AfterthePersianEmpiresfall,Parthianterritoryfellintothe handsoftheGreeksunderAlexandertheGreat.Inthedivisionof Alexanderskingdomathisdeath,Parthiawasruledbythe SeleucidGreekEmpire.Inapproximately256B.C.,theprovinces ofParthiaandBactriarevoltedagainstSeleucidGreekrule,and declaredtheirindependence.Thereissomedifferenceofopinion 19 whethertheyrevoltedinthesameyearorinproximateyears, butthereisaconsensusthatthedevelopmentandindependence 20 ofParthiaandBactriawereintertwined. Somehistoriansrecord thatArsaces,thefirstkingoftheParthians,wasaBactrian,but mostaccountsagreethathewasthechieftainofaScythiantribe
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(theDahanites)whoslewtheGreeksatrapandliberatedhis 21 Parthiankinsmen. ItshouldalsobenotedthatArsaces,the ScythianfounderofParthiasdynasty,includedthenameof IsaacandtheSacaeScythiansinhispersonalname(Arsac es). Hosea1:610recordedapromisefromGodthathewouldmake theIsraelitestoonumeroustocountafterhesenttheminto captivity.TheJewishhistorianJosephusconfirmedthatthishad happenedbythefirstcenturyA.D.Giventheirhugepopulation, itislogicalthattheIsraeliteswouldalsohavebecome knownbythenamesoftheirsubtribesinadditiontothe namesoftheirprincipaltribes.Manyareawarethatsome partsoftheBiblerecordgenealogiesofthetribesofIsrael,and manypeopleregardthemasthemostboringpartsoftheBible. However,forhistoricalresearch,thesesectionscanbe invaluable.Amongotherthings,theyindicatethenamesofthe individualclansofthetribesofIsrael,andsomeofthesenames canbelocatedingeographicandpropernamesinthepostexilic period. Forexample,Numbers26:3536recordsthatsubtribes(or clans)oftheIsraelitetribeofEphraimwerenamedthe Bachrites,theEranites,andtheTahanites.TheoldSeleucid provinceofBactria,whichgrewupinconjunctionwithParthia, bearsthenameofoneofthesubtribesofEphraimina Hellenizedform.AnIsraeliteoriginforBactriaissupportedby theindicationthattheBactrianlanguage...wasrelatedtoSaka, oratleastunderwentstronginfluencesfromSakatongues.22 TherecordthattheBactrianswelcomedaScythianrulerwho freedthemfromaGreeksatrap,andthefurtherindicationthat theBactrianssharedalinguisticheritagewiththeParthians arguesthattheBactrianswerealsoSacae(orSaka)whohad descendedfromthetentribesofIsrael.HenryRawlinson,inhis
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bookBactria,states:thereseemstobeverylittledoubtthatthe populationofBactriawaslargelyScythian...(andcitesJustin,a classicalauthor,whowrote)...TheBactrianEmpirewasfounded bytheScythians.23 Numbers26:36alsonotesthatanotherclanofthetribeof EphraimdescendedfromEranandwasknownasthe Eranites.AgroupofpeopleknownastheEranianswere 24 presentintheregionofancientPersiaandParthia. Itis significantthatAssyriatransplantedthedefendersofSamaria (anEphraimitecity)intothecitiesoftheMedes.Therefore,we wouldexpectthereaftertonoticesomeEphraimitenamesinthe MedoPersianregion.TheEraniansboretheexactHebrew nameofoneoftheclansofEphraimintheareaof Persia/Parthia.Thisnamesurvivestodayinthemodernnamefor theterritoryofancientPersia:Iran.Indeed,theEncyclopaedia Britannica,inreferencingEraninitsIndexsection,simply statesEran:seeIran.25 ThemoderncapitalofIranisnamed Teheran,alsopreservingthenameofthisEphraimiteclan,This bookinnowaymaintainsorimpliesthatthemodern IraniansareIsraelitesasitisveryclearfromsubsequent historythatthemodernIraniansareprincipallyMedo Persianinracialorigins.However,thenameIranapparently doescomefromthenameofoneoftheclansofEphraim,which wasplacedinMedoPersianterritorybytheAssyriansandlived thereformanycenturies. ThereisevidenceofconsiderableSemiticinfluenceinancient Persia.IncommentingontheancientPehlevi(Pahlavi)Persian language,ZenaideRagozinstates: Pehlevi...doesnotseemtobePersianatall, butratherSemitic.Thatis,anenormous proportionofthewordsnouns,pronouns, verbs,adverbs,prepositions,conjunctions
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areSemitic,whilethegrammarand constructionareEranian...[andquestions howthiscouldhavehappened]...ifnotby constantcontactwitholdSemiticnations.26 TheobviousreasonwhyPehlevi,anoldPersiantongue,hadsuch astrongSemiticcharacteristhatalargeportionofthetentribes ofIsrael(aSemiticnation)wasforciblyresettledinMedoPersian areasbytheAssyrians.Additionally,largenumbersofJewswere settledinMesopotamiawhenJudahfelltotheBabylonians.The descendantsofallthosecaptiveIsraeliteswerelaterabsorbed intothePersianEmpire.Indeed,manyJews(Daniel,Esther, Mordechai,Nehemiah,Ezra,etc.hadveryhighgovernmental positionsinthePersianEmpire).SincetheJewswereSemites, theyalsoinfluencedthelanguageofPersiainaSemiticdirection. Later,whentheParthians(descendantsofthetentribesof Israel)ruledthewholeregionforcenturies,theirSemitic languagewouldhavegreatlyimpactedthelanguageofPersia. TheEncyclopaediaBritannicaalsonotestheSemiticnatureofthe PersianPahlavilanguage: Thename[PahlaviorPehlevi],whichmeans Parthian,canbetracedbackformany centuries...Thegreatpeculiarityofthe languageisthatthoughitisIranian,itisfull ofSemitic(Aramaic)words...27 Giventheinformationcontainedinthisbook,itisnotatall peculiarthatthisPersianlanguageshouldhavesuchastrong Semiticbackground.VariousofficialsoftheAchaemenidPersian EmpirewerefromtheIsraelitetribeofJudah,andtheParthians werethemselvesdescendantsofthetentribesofIsrael.The termIrancomesfromtheEphraimiteclannamedafterEran, andeventhetermPahlaviorPehlevicontainsthenameof theIsraelitetribeofLevi!
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Asmentionedabove,theScythianclanoftheDahaniteshada majorroleintheoriginsofParthiasindependence.Itispossible thattheywerefromathirdmajorbranchoftheEphraimites mentionedinNumbers26:35...theTahanites.Ifthe DahanitesweretheTahanitesofEphraim(dandtare linguisticallysimilarconsonants),itwouldmeanthatParthian independencebeganasaresultofthreeseparateclansofthe tribeofEphraimactinginconcert.TheBactrians,Eraniansand DahanitesweremostlikelytheEphraimiteclansoftheBachrites, theEranites,andtheTahanites,andtheirmutualcooperation wouldhavebeenthebackboneofParthiasstrength.The subsequentstabilityofParthiaarguesthatitscomponentclans werecloselyrelatedandhadmuchincommon.Thisstabilityis understandableiftheaboveclanswereallpartofthetribeof Ephraim.WhilethenameDahanitesalsoseemssimilartothe tribeofDan,itisdoubtfultheywereDanites.ThetribeofDan traditionallydidnotactinconcertwith(orconsult)theother tribesaboutitsactions.Joshua19:47recordstheDanites undertookawarwithoutadviseorcooperationfromtheother tribes,andEzekiel27:1719showstheDaniteshaddeveloped anidentitycompletelyapartfromtheothertribes.Sincethe DaniteswerehistoricallylonersamongthetribesofIsrael,itis likelytheScythianDahanitesweretheTahanitesofEphraim. SinceEphraimitenamespredominateinParthiasorigin,and sincetheMassagetaewereoneoftheforemosttribesoftheir Scythiankinsmen,itindicatesthatEphraimandManasseh(the majortribesofthetentribedkingdomofIsrael,andinheritorsof thebirthrightpromiseofGenesis48thatincludednational greatness)werethedominanttribesoftheParthiansand Scythians,respectively.Nowonderthathistoryrecordsavery closerelationshipbetweentheScythiansandtheParthians. However,eventhoughtheParthianswerekinsmento(and frequentlyalliedto)theScythians,theywerenotalways
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peaceablewithoneanother(asweshallseeinthenextchapter). AsfurtherevidenceoftheIsraeliteoriginsoftheParthians,some ParthiancitiesweregivenHebrewnames.Anearlycapitalofthe 28 ParthianswasnamedDara, whichistheexactnameofoneof theearlyforebearsofthetribeofJudah(IChronicles2:36). GodhadpromisedthatthetribeofJudahwouldproducekings andrulers(thesceptrepromiseofGenesis49:10),andKing Davidwaspromisedthathewouldalwayshavedescendants rulingovertheHouseofIsrael(Jeremiah33:17).Jeremiahs prophecywasmadeaftertherelocationoftheHouseofIsrael (thenortherntentribes)intoAsia.Therefore,becauseofthe timingofJeremiahsprophecy,weshouldexpecttofind descendantsofKingDavidrulingoverthetentribesofIsrael aftertheymovedtoAsia. However,theJewishforebearnamedDarawasofthesubtribe ofZerah,notthePharesbranchoftheJewswhichproducedboth KingDavidandJesusChrist.ThisreferencetotheZerahbranch ofJudahisrareinParthianannals,buttherearemanyParthian kingswithnamescontainingtherootwordPhares(indicating Davidsroyalbloodline).FromtheeasternedgeofParthianrule andinfluencetothewesternedge,Parthiankingsregularly includedthePharesname.AParthiankingwhoruledinthe 29 areaofWestIndiawasnamedGondophares, andseveral kingsrulingovertheCaucasusmountainkingdomofIberia 30 werenamedPharasmanes. ChapterfournotedthatthetermIberiaisanamederivedfrom therootwordEber,thefatheroftheHebrews.Straborecords 31 thattheIberianswerethekinsmenoftheScythians, whose Israeliteoriginhasalreadybeendemonstrated.Theabove examplesaloneshowthatDavidsdescendantsoftheHouseof Phareswererulingoverseparategroupsofthetentribesof IsraelfromtheCaucasusMountainstotheterritoryofmodern
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India.Also,manykingsofParthiaitselfhadnamesindicating thattheywerealsoroyalmembersoftheDavidiclineofJudah. SuchnamesincludethekeyconsonantsofPHRSinHellenized formsoftheirParthiannames(suchParthianroyalnamesas Phraates,Phraortes,andPhraatacesareexamples).Overthe centuriesGodkepthispromisetoDavidbycausingDavids descendantstoruleovermanyIsraelitenationsinAsia. HowdidDavidsdescendants(fromthedefunctkingdomof Judah)evercometoruleoverthedescendantsofthetentribes inAsia?WhileGodcaneasilyinterveneinworldaffairstokeep hispromises,theBiblesuggestshowthismighthavehappened. InIIKings24:815,wereadthatoneofthelastkingsofJudah, Jehoiachin,wascarriedcaptivetoBabylonbyNebuchadnezzar. Wasthistheendofhim?Hardly!IIKings25:2730showsthat after37yearsofcaptivity,alaterkingofBabylon: ...didliftuptheheadofJehoiachinkingof Judahoutofprisonandhespakekindlyto him,andsethisthroneabovethethrones ofthekingsthatwerewithhimin Babylon...(KJV) ThekingofBabylonwassupremeovertheBabylonianEmpire, buthewasservedbymanysubordinaterulers,whowerevassal kingsoverassignedareas.ThataBabyloniankinggave JehoiachinathroneindicatesthatJehoiachinwasmadeavassal ruleroverpartoftheBabylonianEmpire.Indeed,theaccount statesthathewassetabovetheothervassalkings!Since thereweremanydescendantsofthetentribesofIsraelwho weresubordinatetotheBabylonianEmpire(whichinherited themwhenitconqueredAssyria),itismostlikelythatJehoiachin wasmadearulerovertheIsraelitesinBabylonsEmpire.Since JehoiachinwasadescendantofKingDavid(ofthePharesline), hisdescendantsapparentlyestablishedadynastywhich
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continuedtoruleoverdescendantsofthetentribeswhenthey regainedtheirindependence.IChronicles3:1624recordsthat theroyalfamilyofJudahdidnotdieout,butproducedmany descendantsduringthegenerationsafterthefallofJerusalem. TherewasnoshortageofroyalprincesofDavidsHousetoplace onthronesoverthedescendantsofthetentribes.Sincethe BabyloniankingmadeJehoiachinafavoredvassalking,hemay havesetsomeofJehoiachinsrelativesinpositionsofpoweras well.PerhapstheBabyloniansfeltthatthecaptivenationsofthe Assyrians(whomtheyinheritedassubjects)wouldexhibitless rebelliousnessiftheyweregiventheirownhereditaryrulersas vassalkings.AsearchwouldhavefoundJehoiachin,ahereditary Israeliteruler,aliveinadungeon.Theyearsinprisonlikely madeJehoiachinaverygratefulvassalking,indeed! RoyalLineofKingDavid Israel/Judah: Iberia/Scythia: Parthian/Saka: (India) Parthia/Sacae: Judah Phares David

KingPharesmenes KingGondophares

KingsPhraates,Phraortes,Phraataces David JesusChrist

ChristsLineage: Phares

However,thisisnottheonlysourceofDavidicrulersoverthe tentribesofIsrael.ThekingsofIberia(namedPharasmanes)in theCaucasusregionneartheBlackSeawerenotcaptivesof AssyriaorBabylon.HowdidDavidsdescendantscometorulein thatregion?Inchapterfouranaccountwascitedthatalarge portionofthetentribeswhoescapedAssyriancaptivityby


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migratingnorthwardintotheCaucasuswereledbyachiefor princewhomtheyappointed.32 Thisindicatesthattheymadea cleanbreakwithwhateverdynastywasrulingIsraelinitslast days,andthatanewleaderwasappointedbytheescaping Israelites.Thesubsequentevidencethattheirrulersincludedthe nameofPharesarguesthatthisgroupofthetentribespicked aprinceofDavidsroyallineastheirnewleader.They migratedinapproximately724721B.C.,andby653B.C.a leaderofaScythianCimmerianMedianallianceagainstAssyria wasledbyapersonnamedPhraortes.33 ThenamePhraortes includestherootwordPHRS(Phraortes),indicatingalikely linktotheDavidicroyallineofPhares.Phraortesisoften regardedasaMede,buthisnameissimilartothenamesof laterParthiankings(PhraatesorPhraataces).Thisindicates thatPhraorteswasaScythianbearingaParthianroyalname eventhoughParthiawouldnotexistforanother400years!It isapparentthatDavidicrulersofthelineofPhareswererulingin ScythicIberiaacenturybeforeJehoiachinwasmadeavassal kingoftheBabyloniansinapproximately563B.C. WhileDavidsdescendantswereruling,literally,alloverAsia amongthescattereddescendantsofthetentribesofIsrael,the readershouldnotassumethattheirreignswereallenlightened orcooperative.Davidwasgiventheblessingthathisseedwould alwaysberulersoverthetentribesofIsraelhowever,Davids descendantswerealsounderacurse.AfterDavidcommitted adulterywithBathshebaandalsoarrangedthedeathofher husband,Uriah,NathantheprophetwassentbyGodtodelivera curse(IISamuel12:10)thattheswordshallneverdepartfrom thinehouse.Theswordsymbolizesthatdeathbyviolenceand murderwouldbecommonamongDavidsdescendants.This happenedinDavidslifetimeasAmnon,Davidseldestson,was killedbyAbsalom,DavidsfavoritesonAbsalomwasthenkilled duringarebellionagainstDavid,andanotherofDavidssons
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(Adonijah)waskilledbyKingSolomon(Davidssonvia Bathsheba).ThiscursealsoclungtotherulinghouseofParthia. Asweshallseeinchaptereight,ParthiasArsacidsregularly foughtamongthemselvesoverthethroneofParthia,andthe morebrutalrulerskilledmanyoftheirownrelativesinorderto eliminaterivalstothethrone.Yet,nomatterhowbrutalor vicioustheArsacidswereamongthemselves,theParthians alwaysinsistedthattheirrulershadtobebloodmembersofthe Arsacidfamily.


34 AnotherprominentcityofParthiawasnamedAsaak, where Arsaceswascrownedking,whichclearlyrepresentsaformofthe nameIsaac.ThenameofIsaachadalsobeenattachedto geographicalareasinAsialongbeforeParthiaeverbecame independent.StraborecordsthatAlexandertheGreatnoteda regionnamedAsaacanuswhichwastraversedinAlexanders 35 expeditiontoIndia.

TheParthianprovinceofMediaAtropatenewaslocated southwestoftheCaspianSea.Thenotedhistorian,George Rawlinson,recordsthat(inParthiantimes)Itschiefcitywas Gaza.36 Thiscitywasapparentlynamedafterthefamousold Palestiniancityofthesamename,arguingitsinhabitantshad comefromPalestine.GiventhefactthatIIKings17:6records thattheAssyrianconquerorsofoldIsraelhadtransported IsraelitecaptivestothecitiesoftheMedes,itisnotsurprising thatwelaterfindacityoftheMedesbearingaPalestinianname. IntheParthianprovinceofHyrcania(locatedonthesoutheast shoresoftheCaspianSea),wefindthattwoofitschiefcities werenamedSamarianeandCarta.37 Thesenamesareclear evidenceofthepresenceofIsraelitesfromtheformertentribed kingdomofIsrael.IsraelscapitalcitywasnamedSamaria,and IIKings17:67recordsthatitsinhabitants,afterathreeyear siege,weretransplantedbytheAssyriansintoAsiaafterthecity
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fell.Centurieslater,wefindaParthiancity,Samariane,bearing thenameofthecapitalcityoftheoldKingdomofIsrael.Itis logicalthatIsraelitecaptiveswouldlatermovetoaplaceoftheir choosing(aftertheAssyrianEmpiredisintegrated),andname oneoftheirnewcitiesinhonoroftheirancestralcapital.Thecity namedCartabearsthesameSemiticrootwordwhichis presentinthenameCarthage(aswasdiscussedearlierinthis chapter). ThereisadditionalevidencetosupporttheIsraeliteoriginsofthe Parthians.WhileinitialParthiancoinswereinscribedinGreek, 38 laterParthiancoinsbearSemiticinscriptions. TheParthian monarchs,whosefacesareshownontheircoins,clearlyexhibit facialfeaturesofthewhiterace,supportingaSemiticoriginfor 39 theParthiannation. Whetherwelookattheirlanguage,their namesortheirfaces,allhardevidenceindicatesaSemiticorigin fortheParthians,debunkingspeculationthattheParthianswere aMongoloid(Oriental)racefromtheinteriorofAsia. DuringJesusChristsministry,Matthew10:6statesthathesent histwelveapostlestothelostsheepoftheHouseofIsrael. BiblicalreferencestotheHouseofIsraelidentifythetentribesof Israel,nottheJews(whowerecalledtheHouseofJudah).Since JesusChristcommissionedhisapostlestogotothe descendantsofthetentribesofIsrael,itisclearthat JesusknewthattheIsraelitescouldbefoundinspecific homelandsatthattime.Also,theapostlesexpressedno surpriseatthiscommissionasnotoneofthemsaid:Noone knowswherethetentribesare!orTheywerealllostlong ago! JosephusandJesusChristdidnotconsiderthetentribestobe lostatall,butratherlivinginknowngeographicallocations.It issignificantthattheApostlePeterwrotethebookofIPeter fromthecityofBabylon(IPeter5:13).SinceBabylonwasacity
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oftheParthianEmpireatthattime,itindicatesthatPeterhad heededJesusChristsinstructionsbytravelingtoterritoryruled bythetentribes.HistoricalaccountsalsoassertthattheApostle ThomastraveledwithinParthia.Indeed,theearlychurch historianEusebiusidentifiedThomasastheapostlesenttothe 40 Parthians. TherearehistoricalrecordswhichlinktheApostle ThomastotheParthiankingGondophares(mentionedearlier), 41 whoreignedinancientIndia. Thepresenceoftheapostlesof JesusChristinParthianterritoryshowstheirrecognitionthatthe ParthianswereIsraelites. ItisalsosignificantthattherewereParthianbelieversintheGod ofIsraelwhomadepilgrimagestoJerusalemfortheannualHoly DaysofGod.Acts2:110statesthatParthianswerepresentat thePentecostDaywhentheHolySpiritwaspouredouttothe Apostles.TheMedes,ElamitesanddwellersinMesopotamia mentionedinActs2:9hadallcomefromParthianprovinces. SincepartofthetentribeshadbeensettledinMedia(IIKings 17:6),itislikelythattheMedeswhomadeareligious pilgrimagetoJerusalemwereIsraelitesfromthetentribes. SomeofthesepilgrimswerecertainlyJewslivinginParthia,but manywerenotJews.Verse10indicatesthatthesepilgrimswere Jewsandproselytes(nonJews).SinceIsraelitesfromtheten tribeswerenonJews,thetermproselytescouldapplytothem aswellasgentiles.TheHolyDaywhichtheapostlesanddevout pilgrimswerekeeping(latercalledPentecost)wastheFeastof Weeks(Leviticus23:1521). Intheprecedingchapter,itwasshownthattheoldPhoenician/ Hebrewtraitofwearingapointedhat(ormiter)wascontinuedin theScythiantribes.Parthiancoinsshowthatthewearingofa 42 pointedhatormiterwasalsoacustomoftheParthiankings. OnemoreitemofevidenceconcerningtheIsraelitenatureofthe ParthianEmpirewillbepresented,andthenchaptereightwill
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examineitsfascinating,albeitobscure,history.Thefinalpieceof evidenceconcernsthenameParthiaitself.Inchapterthreeit waspointedoutthattheHebrewwordforcovenant,(BRTor BRTH)wascommonlyusedwherevertheempireofIsraelwas dominant.ThisHebrewwordformedthebasisforregions colonizedbyIsrael(BritonandBrittany)orformigrating groupsofIsraelites(BrythonicCelts)Wehaveseenthatthe Phoenician/HebrewEmpireandCarthageplacedtheHebrew wordBRTontheircoins.Howdoesthisallpertaintothe Parthians? Intheancientworld,thelettersBandPwere interchangeable(botharephoneticlabialsounds).Inhisbook, PhoenicianOriginofBritons,ScotsandAngloSaxons,L.A. WaddellpointsoutthatthePhoeniciansinterchangedtheBs andPsinvariousformsofthewordBRT.Helistsmanyancient formsinwhichtherootwordBRTwasexpressed.Wordssuch asBarat,Prat,Britannia,andPiritumarejustafew samplesofwordsbasedontheHebrewwordforcovenant.43 TheAncientBritishChroniclesrecordthatthefirstkingofBriton wasnamedBrutus,whosenamewasalsoformedbytheBRT consonantsoftheHebrewwordforcovenant.44 Waddellnotes thatthePhoeniciansinterchangedtheBsandPsinthe Mediterraneanworld,andaddsthatthePhoeniciansofCilicia calledthecityofTarsusParthenia45 (Emphasisadded.)The GreeksalsointerchangedPsandBs,astheGreekexplorer PytheasreferredtotheBritishIslesbythetermPretanic(using aP)whileAristotlereferstothembythewordBritannic(using 46 aB). SincetheGreeksinterchangedPsandBsandtheywroteofthe Parthians,thewordParthiacouldjustaseasilyhavebeen writtenasBarthiaorBrithia.IntheseformstheHebrewword forcovenantBRTorBRTH,isclearlyevident.Infact,if
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thereaderwillconsultabiblicalconcordance,theHebrewword forcovenantwilllikelybeBerith(withtheconsonantsBR 47 TH). RepresentingtheBasaPtheconsonantsbecomePR TH,theexactconsonantsofthewordParthia!Theidentityof theParthiansisnolongeramystery.Theywerethecovenant peopleofthetentribesofIsraelwhowerethenlivinginAsia theirverynamedeclaredtotheworldthattheywerethe covenantpeople.Indeed,anearlykingoftheirScythian kinsmennamedPartatua(circa626B.C.)includedthePRTroot wordwhichforeshadowedthelatername:Parthia.48 TheinterchangeabilityofthePsandBsintheancientworldhas alsobeennotedbyamodernepigrapher,Dr.BarryFell.Hegives thenamePCeltstoagroupofCeltswhousedPandB interchangeably.ThesePCeltsweretheBrythonicCelts,and theygavebirthtotheBreton,WelshandCornishlanguagesas wellastheancientGaulishlanguagesofcentralandeastern Europe.49 ThePCeltswereIsraeliteswho,retainingthe designationasthecovenantpeople,migratedwestwardtoward theBritishIslesandEuroperatherthannorthwardandeastward intoAsiaasdidtheIsraeliteswhobecametheIberians,the SacaeScythiansandtheParthians. ThearrivalofthePCeltsinBritonrepresentedanotherinfusion ofIsraelitepeopleintoapopulationwhichwasalreadylargelya productofIsraelitecolonization.Infact,thedominantIsraelite presenceinBritainisconfirmedinthefactthattheBritishIsles havebeenknownbyvariantsoftheHebrewwordforcovenant (BRT)eversincethereignsofKingsDavidandSolomon.

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ISRAELITES:THECOVENANTPEOPLE TheBiblerecordsthatthetribesofIsrael,underMoses,madea covenantwithGod.TheIsraelitesretainedtheuniqueawareness thattheywerethecovenantpeopleasanenduringpartoftheir culture.TheHebrewwordforcovenant(BRTorBRTH)was placedonpeople,placesandPhoenician/Carthaginiancoins.The presenceoftheHebrewwordforcovenantonancientpeoplesor placesisastrongidentifierforlocatingwherethetentribesofIsrael migratedafterleavingPalestine.Listedbelowareimportant examples. HEBREWWORDFORCOVENANT WithoutVowels:BRT,BRTH WithVowels:BERITH,BARAT,BRYTH,BRIT,BRITH,etc. TRIBAL/PLACENAMESASSOCIATEDWITHMIGRATINGISRAELITES: BRITON,BRETON,BRITTANY,BRYTHONICCELTS,etc. SomeancientculturesinterchangedthelettersPandB(bothare labialconsonantswithsimilarsounds).TheBrythonicCelts,who settledinancientBritain,wereknownasPCeltsbecauseofthistrait. TheancientGreeksalsomanifestedthistrait,usingtheterm PretanicIslandsforBrittanicIslands.SincethetermParthiahas alsocometousfromearlyGreekwriters,substitutingaBforthe initialPofthiswordresultsinBARTHIAorBRTHIA,aclear proclamationbytheParthiansthattheyweredescendedfromthe covenantpeopleofthetentribesofIsrael. PlaceName GreekName

BRITANNICISLANDS = PRETANICISLANDS BRITHIAorBRITHIA = PARTHIA

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Inconclusion,letusbrieflyreviewtheoverwhelmingevidence thattheParthianswereIsraelitesofthetentribesofIsraelwho hadmigratedtoAsia.TheParthianswereneverrecordedas beinginAsiauntilafterthetentribesofIsraelrelocatedtoAsia. TheBiblerecordsthatthesetribeswereplacedinthecitiesof theMedes,andParthiashomelandadjoinedtheterritoryofthe Medes.HistoryrecordstheParthianswerefirstunderthe dominionoftheAssyrians,andthatwasalsothefateofthose IsraelitestakencaptivebytheAssyrians.Wecanseethenames ofsubtribesofEphraimintheParthianhomelands,andhistory isclearthattheParthianswerethekinsmenoftheScythian Saka/Sacae(showingthattheParthianswerealsoknownas descendantsofIsaac). TheParthiansandScythiansarethepeoplewrittenaboutby Josephusastheextremelynumerousdescendantsoftheten tribesofIsrael.Josephus,wholivedinthefirstcenturyA.D., wrotethefollowingaboutthetentribesofIsrael: ...thetentribesarebeyondEuphratestill now,andareanimmensemultitude,andnot tobeestimatedbynumbers.50 (Emphasisadded.) AtthetimethatJosephuswrote,theEuphratesRiverhadlong beentherecognizedborderbetweentheRomanandParthian Empires.ForJosephustowrite(fromhisperspectivewithinthe RomanEmpire)thatthetentribeswerebeyondtheEuphrates Riverwasanotherwayofsayingthetentribeswerein Parthia,evenasmanyAmericanswouldrecognizethephrase beyondtheRioGrandeasaeuphemismforinMexico. TheParthiancitiesofAsaak,DaraandSamarianeweregiven Hebrewnames.ManygroupsfromtheParthianEmpirewere amongtheworshippersoftheGodofIsraelwhowerein
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JerusalemforaHolyDayofGod(thefirstPentecost).The ParthianshadHebrew/Semiticwordsintheirlanguage,and placedSemiticinscriptionsontheircoins.TheParthianArsacid dynastyincludedthenameofIsaacandmanyindividualkings hadnameswhichincludedthetermPhares,fulfillingGods promisetoDavidthathisdescendantswouldcontinuetohave rulersovertheHouseofIsrael.TheverynameParthia preservestheHebrewwordBRTH(withtheBshownasa P),proclaimingthattheywerethecovenantpeople.Thefacts areclear.TheParthianEmpirewasanempireofIsraeliteswho, havingthrownoffthedominionoftheircaptors,werenowruling overtheirpreviousmasters. WhileRomedominatedtheMediterraneanregionandmuchof Europe,theParthianEmpiredominatedtheterritorybetweenthe EuphratesandIndusRiversandbetweenthePersianGulftothe RussiansteppesoftheScythiantribes.TheParthianEmpire stretchedapproximately1900milesfromeasttowestand1000 51 milesfromnorthtosouth. ParthiaandRomeinteractedonequalterms,yetfewinthe modernworldhaveeverheardaboutParthia.RomeandParthia hadmajorwars(theresultofRomanaggression),majorsummit conferencesandevenaperiodofdetente.Parthiawasa monarchywiththebeginningsofabicameralgovernmentandits ownIndependenceDay.Itofferedhomeruletomanyofits cities,andruleditssubjectsinafarmorebenevolentmanner thandidRome. Therarelydiscussed,buttruestoryofthisancient,Israelite empirewillnowberevealedinchaptereight.

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Endnotes:ChapterSeven 1. Rawlinson,TheSixthGreatOrientalMonarchy,Preface,pp. vvi 2. Rawlinson,Parthia,p.27 3. Rawlinson,TheSixthGreatOrientalMonarchy,p.15 4. Rawlinson,TheSixthGreatOrientalMonarchy,p.22 5. Ibid,p.19 6. Ibid,p.20 7. Ibid,p.19 8. Ibid,p.26 9. Ibid,p.19 10.Ibid,seefootnote1,p.15 11.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.1,Alphabet,pp.683684 12.Rawlinson,TheSixthGreatOrientalMonarchy,p.23 13.CharlesPicard,DailyLifeinCarthage,p.27 14.Church,Carthage,p.13 15.Frye,TheHeritageofPersia,pp.58,213,220,and238 16.Rawlinson,TheSixthGreatOrientalMonarchy,p.159 17.YoungsAnalyticalConcordancetotheBible,HebrewLexicon, wordSur,p.48 18.Ibid,wordAyin(=En),thirdmeaning,p.6 19.Rawlinson,TheSixthGreatOrientalMonarchy,p.44 20.Frye,TheHeritageofPersia,p.208 andRawlinson,Parthia,p.10 21.Rawlinson,TheSixthGreatOrientalMonarchy,pp.4244 andEncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.17,Parthia,p.344 22.Frye,TheHeritageofPersia,p.198199 23.Rawlinson,Henry,Bactria,p.12 24.Ragozin,Medi,app.1521 25.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.24,IndexSection, seeEran,p.580 26.Ragozin,Media,p.2022 27.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.17,PahlaviorPehlevi,p.30
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28.Frye,p.210andEncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.17, Parthia,p.345 29.Frye,p.201andEncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.17,Persia, p.577 30.Rawlinson,TheSixthGreatOrientalMonarchy,pp.231233, 263,320321 31.Strabo,Geography,11,3,3 32.Gawler,p.9 33.Culican,TheMedesandPersians,p.50 34.Frye,p.211andEncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.17, Parthia,pp.344345 35.Strabo,Geography,15,1,27 36.Rawlinson,AncientHistory,p.474 37.Ibid,p.475 38.Rawlinson,TheSixthGreatOrientalMonarchy,pp.297and 318 39.Ibid,pp.63,69,91,220,228,250,269,294,296and320 40.Eusebius,TheHistoryoftheChurch,III,1 41.Frye,p.201andEncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.17Persia, p.577 42.Rawlinson,TheSixthGreatOrientalMonarchy,pp.68and91 43.Waddell,pp.5259 44.Ibid,pp.150159 45.Ibid,p.54 46.Ibid,pp.54and146 47.YoungsAnalyticalConcordancetotheBible,HebrewLexicon, wordBerith,p.8 48.Rice,TheScythians,p.45 49.Fell,AmericaB.C.,pp.4142 50.Josephus,AntiquitiesoftheJews,XI,V,2 51.Rawlinson,AncientHistory,p.472

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8.ParthiaTheForgottenAncientSuperpower Thischapterwillofferreadersanarrativeofthehistoryofthe ParthianEmpire,anancientsuperpoweraboutwhichlittleis knowninthemodernworld.InthenineteenthcenturyBritish historian,GeorgeRawlinson,lamentedthewidespreadlackof awarenessconcerningParthiasgreatnessA.D.Thischapterwill beginbyrepeatinghisquotewhichbeganchapterseven: thepictureoftheworldduringtheRoman period...putbeforestudentsinHistoriesof Rome,wasdefective,nottosayfalse,inits omissiontorecognizetherealpositionof Parthiaasacounterpoisetothepowerof Rome,asecondfigureinthepicturenotmuch inferiortothefirst,arivalstatedividingwith Rometheattentionofmankindandthe sovereigntyoftheknownearth.Writersof Romanhistoryhavebeentoomuchinthe habitofrepresenting[Rome]...asaUniversal Monarchy...havingnootherlimitsthanthose ofthecivilisedworld...Tothepresentwriter thetruthseemstobethatfromfirstto last...therewasalwaysintheworldaSecond Power...whichinatruesensebalancedRome, actedasacounterpoiseandacheck...This powerfornearlythreecenturies(B.C.64 A.D.225)wasParthia...Inthehopeof graduallyvindicatingtoParthiahertrueplace intheworldshistory,theAuthorhas...put forth[thehistoryofParthia].1 InneglectingthehistoryoftheParthianEmpire,modern historiansarecommittinganomissionsimilartowhatfuture historianswouldbedoingiftheydiscussedthehistoriesofthe
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twentiethcenturyentirelyfromthestandpointofRussia,and mentionedtheUnitedStatesonlyasafootnote.Whileagreat dealisknownaboutParthia,verylittleaboutParthiaisever taught.RawlinsonsbooksaboutParthiaarebasedonthe historiesoftheGrecoRomanclassicalwriters(suchasJustin, DioCassius,Strabo,PlinyandHerodian),whowroteextensively aboutthehistoryofParthia.Itisveryodd,indeed,thatalthough theclassicalwritersdeemedParthiaworthyofmuchattention, modernhistorytextsvirtuallyignorethisancientworldempire. RawlinsonbeginsParthiasperiodasRomesequalin64B.C.In fact,Parthiawasagreatempirelongbeforethatdate,buthad littlecontactwithRomeinitsearlyperiod.Parthiasfirstgreat opponentwastheSeleucidGreekEmpire,whichwasheirto muchoftheconquestsofAlexandertheGreat,includingtheland oftheParthians. Parthia,aprovinceoftheSeleucidEmpire,waslocatedsoutheast oftheCaspianSeaanddeclareditsindependencefromthe SeleucidGreekEmpirein256250B.C.Tohelpmodernreaders relatetotheiraction,theParthianactionwassimilartothatof theAmericancoloniesin1776whodeclaredtheirindependence fromtheBritishEmpire.JustastheAmericancolonieshadbeen ruledbythelargeandpowerfulBritishEmpire,theParthians wereruledbythelargeandpowerfulSeleucidGreekEmpire. LiketheAmericans,theParthianshadtofightfortheir independencebeforeitbecameareality. WhiletheParthianshadbeenadistinct,Semiticpeopleever sincetheirancestorsweretransplantedfromancientIsraelto Asia,theyhadbeensubjectsoftheAssyrians,theMedo Persians,andthentheSeleucidGreeks.Thefirstindependent kingofParthiawasknownasArsaces,andhistoryrecordsthat hecametoParthiafromScythiaorBactria.SincetheBactrians wereverylikelytheBachritesofthetribeofEphraim(Numbers
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26:35),andwere,therefore,relativesoftheScythianSacae, ArsacescametoParthiafromtheterritoryofotherdescendants ofthetentribesofIsrael. RawlinsoncommentsthattheParthiankingdomwasthoroughly antiHellenic,2 andrevoltedfromtheSeleucidsatatimewhen theSeleucidswereweakenedbywarfarewiththeEgyptian Ptolemies. Letusexaminetheregionspoliticalsituationatthetimeof Parthiasefforttobecomeindependent.Afterthedeathof AlexandertheGreat,hisempirehadbeendividedintofour separatekingdoms,thestrongestofwhichbecametheSeleucid EmpireofAsiaandthePtolemaicEmpireofEgypt.Thefourway divisionofAlexandersEmpirewasafulfillmentofDaniels prophecyinDaniel11:14aboutamightyGreciankingwho wouldsupplantthePersianEmpire,dieinhisprimeandhavehis kingdomdividedintofoursections.AccordingtoJosephus, AlexandertheGreatwasshown(bytheJewishHighPriest) DanielsprophecyconcerninghimselfwhenAlexanderwasin 3 Jerusalem. Danielsprophecywasgiveninthesixthcentury B.C.,andAlexandertheGreatfulfilleditinthefourthcentury B.C.indicatingthattheGodoftheBiblecancontrolworldevents tofulfillhisprophecies. TheGreekSeleucidsandtheEgyptianPtolemiesthenfoughta seriesofwars,oneofwhichmadeitpossibleforParthiatorevolt inapproximately250B.C.withoutanimmediateresponsefrom theSeleucids.WiththeSeleucidsweakenedbywarfare,the ParthianswereemboldenedtoannexanotherSeleucidprovince. TheSeleucidkingthenattackedanddefeatedtheupstart Parthians,causingArsacestofleetohiskinsmen(theScythians) toseekrefugeandreinforcements.Parthiankings(throughout Parthiashistory)soughtrefugeormilitarysupportfromthe SacaeScythiantribesduringtimesofcrisis,underscoringtheir
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commonheritagewiththeSacae.TheSacaegavetheParthian kingmilitarysupport,asdidtheBactrians.Thisalliancedefeated thearmyoftheSeleucidEmpireinacriticalbattlewhichmade theindependenceoftheParthiansareality.Itwasanhistoric turningpoint,andRawlinsonrecordsthattheParthianslong observedtheanniversaryofthisbattleasasolemnfestival.4 AmericanreaderscanrelatetothebeginningoftheParthian nation.ThetraditionalParthiancelebrationofanindependence daytocommemoratetheirfreedomfromSeleucidruleis comparabletoAmericanscelebratingtheirIndependenceDay th onJuly4 tocommemoratetheirfreedomfromtheBritish.Also, justastheParthiansneededoutsidehelpfromtheScythiansto obtaintheirindependence,theAmericansneededoutsidehelp fromtheFrenchinordertorealizetheirindependence.Thereare anumberofparallelsbetweentheParthiansoftheancientworld andtheAmericansofthemodernworld.Sincetheydoexist, theywillbenotedperiodicallyinthischapter. ParthiasrisetopowercoincidedwiththewaneofCarthagein thesecondandthirdPunicWars.Itisnoteworthythatwhile RomewasgraduallydefeatingCarthage(anIsraelitepowerin theMediterranean),Parthia(anotherIsraelitepowerinAsia)was graduallyrisingtoempirestatus.BythetimeCarthagefell, Parthiahadalreadybecomeagreatpowerandwasdestinedto becomeoneofRomesgreatestenemies. WhenArsacesdied,hewasreplacedbyhisbrotherTiridates, wholedtheParthiansintheirgreatvictoryovertheSeleucids. HealsobuiltamountainfortresscitynamedDara.Daraisa Hebrewname(IChronicles2:6),asdiscussedearlier.Because DarawasthenameofapatriarchofthetribeofJudah,King TiridatesnamingacityinhonorofDarasupportstheconclusion thattheArsaciddynastywasJewish.SincetheearlyParthian cityofAsaak(namedafterIsaac)alsobearsaHebrewname,the
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IsraelitenatureoftheParthianEmpirewasapparentfromits inception.Itneedstobestressed,however,thatalthoughthe rulingdynastyoftheParthiansweredescendantsofJudahsKing David,theParthiansthemselvesweredescendantsoftheten tribesofIsrael.ThisperfectlyfulfilledtheprophecyofJeremiah 33:17thatthedescendantsofKingDavidwouldruleoverthe nonJewishdescendantsofthetentribes(theHouseofIsrael). AnotherwarwiththeSeleucidsoccurredalmostfortyyearsafter Parthiasoriginaldeclarationofindependence.Althoughthe morepowerfulSeleucidstemporarilycapturedtheParthian capitalcity,thewarendedwithapeacetreatycallingforthe Seleucidswithdrawalin206B.C.andParthiaremaining 5 independent. Thisresultsinanotherstrikingparalleltotheearly Americannation.HavingwonitsfreedomfromBritain,America hadtoagainfighttheBritishinthewarof1812.Init,theBritish temporarilycapturedWashington,D.C.,theAmericancapital, buthadtowithdrawastheAmericansmaintainedtheir independence.TheWarof1812endedwithapeacetreatyand occurredalmostfortyyearsafterAmericasoriginaldeclarationof Independence. JustasAmericasWarof1812wassoonfollowedbyaperiodof manifestdestinyinwhichtheAmericanstatespreadacross NorthAmericatothePacificOcean,Parthiassecondwarwiththe Seleucidswasfollowedbyaperiodofgreatexpansionwhich extendeditsruleovermuchofsouthcentralAsia.After 6 PhraatesIcapturedtheCaspianGatesforParthia, thenext Parthianmonarch,MithridatesI,expandedParthianpowerto trueempirestatus.RawlinsondescribesMithridates: ...oneofthoserareindividualstowhomit hasbeengiventounitethepowerswhich formtheconquerorwiththosewhich constitutethesuccessfulorganizerofastate.
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Braveandenterprisinginwar...yet...mild, clement,philanthropic,heconciliatedthose whomhesubduedalmostmoreeasilythanhe subduedthem,andbytheeffortsofafew yearssucceededinweldingtogethera dominionwhichlastedwithoutsuffering seriousmutilationfornearlyfourcenturies.7

Bythetimeofhisdeath,MithridatesIhadplacedBactria,Media, Babylonia,Persia,andotherterritoriesunderParthiandominion, rulingfromtheHinduKushtotheEuphrates...adistanceof 1500milesfromeasttowest.8 Onmodernmaps,thisterritory isgenerallyequivalenttotheterritoryfromeasternSyriaand TurkeytowesternPakistan.TheEuphratesRiver,inthesecond centuryB.C.,thusbecamethetraditionalwesternborderof Parthia.VirtuallyallofParthiasexpansioncameattheexpense


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oftheSeleucidGreeks.MithridatesIdiedin136B.C.leavinga largeempireinthehandsofhisson,PhraatesII.Although MithridatesIofParthiawasoneoftheworldsmostremarkable conquerorsandempirebuilders,modernhistorytextsrarely mentionhim. In129B.C.theSeleucidsattackedthenewParthianEmpirewith ahostnumberingapproximately400,000whiletheParthian armynumberedonly120,000.[Scythiantroopsreinforcedthe 9 Parthians,butarrivedtoolatetobedecisive. Itisworthnoting, however,thattheScythianswerethewillingalliesofthe Parthianswheneverthelatterpowerwasinneedofhelp.]The recentlyconqueredprovincesoftheParthiansrevoltedtothe sideoftheiroldrulers,theSeleucids.Threepitchedbattleswere foughtinwhichtheoutnumberedParthiansweredefeatedeach time.TheParthiansexhibitedadoggeddetermination,however, andrefusedtocapitulate.Wintersetin,andtheSeleucidarmy conducteditselfsoarrogantlyintheconqueredcitiesthattheir occupantsprivatelysentwordtotheParthiansthattheywould assistinrestoringParthianruleoverthemifParthiawould liberatethemfromtheoppressiveSeleucids. EventhoughtheSeleucidswerenowingravedanger,they spurnedamercifulofferofpeacefromPhraateswith unacceptabledemandsoftheirown.Thepeopleofthecaptive provincesattackedtheunsuspectingSeleucidtroopswithintheir garrisontowns,andtheParthianregularscrushedtheSeleucid monarchandhisremainingtroopsinafinalbattle.History recordsthattheSeleucidmonarch,Antiochus,perishedalong 10 with300,000ofhishost. Thisbattlewasanotherhistoric turningpointinworldhistory,becauseitbrokethebackofthe SeleucidEmpire,whichgraduallywitheredawaytonothing, trappedbetweenthetwogrowingpowersofRomeonthewest andParthiaontheeast.
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OneresultofParthiashistoricvictorywasthattheJewish Maccabeeswerenowabletoasserttheirindependencefromthe 11 nowmortallywoundedSeleucids. TheJewsevenconqueredthe Idumeans(Edomites),whosubmittedtocircumcisionandJewish laws.JosephusrecordsthattheJudeanJewsandtheconquered 12 Edomitesbecamevirtuallyonepeople. However,Judea(the HouseofJudah)wasabletoassertitsindependencefromthe SeleucidsonlybecauseParthia(theHouseofIsrael)hadcrushed theSeleucids. ConcerningtheconqueredSeleucids,theParthianstreatedthem mercifullyandtheirroyalhouseholdsintermarried. HereinliesanotheruncannyparallelbetweenParthiaandmodern America.EvenasAmericahasbeenamercifulconqueror (buildingupJapanandGermanyafterWorldWarII,rescuingthe GermancapitalfromaRussianblockadeviatheBerlinAirlift, etc.)Parthiawasalsoamercifulrulerofthepeopleitdefeatedin warfare.Itisaclearcommentaryontheenlightenedcharacterof Parthianrulethatthepeopleinthecontestedprovinces(after tastingbothParthianandSeleucidrule)activelyfoughtthe SeleucidsinordertoagainbeplacedunderParthianrule! Atthisjuncture,theParthiansshouldhaveenjoyedtheirtimeof triumph.However,abizarreeventoccurredwhenaScythian armyalliedtotheParthiansarrivedtoolatetoassistinthewar. TheScythiansarrivedjustafterParthiahadcrushedtheSeleucid army,andabattleensuedaftertheParthiansrefusedtoshare anywarbootywiththeScythians.TheScythianswerelikely suspiciousthattheParthianshadjumpedthegunonthewarin ordertodeprivetheScythiansoftheirshareoftheexpected booty.TheParthiansmayhavefeltthatsincetheScythiansdid nofighting,theyshouldnotbepaid.TheParthianking, PhraatesI,renegedonpromisedpaymentstotheScythians,and theScythianarmywasvictoriousinabattlewhichkilledthe
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Parthianking.JustaftercrushingtheSeleucidEmpire,the ParthiansweredefeatedbytheirScythianallieswhohad marchedoutofthenorthtohelpParthia. ThewholeeventisstrikinglysimilartoonedescribedintheBible (Judges1112).Afterwinningagreatvictoryoverthe Ammonites,JephthahandanarmyofGileadites(thetribesof Manasseh,ReubenandGad)wereconfrontedbyanarmyof Ephraimiteswhichwasupsetthatithadnotbeenableto participateinthebattle(andmissedoutonthebooty).The usuallyalliedbrothertribesofEphraimandManassehthen foughteachotherinaneedlessbattleoverwarbooty.The dominanceofthetribesofEphraimandManassehintheParthian andScythianempireshasbeendiscussedearlier,makingthis ParthianScythianbattlearerunofthewarinJudges12. AfterthewarfaretheScythians(satisfiedbytheirpossessionof warbootyandthedeathoftheParthiankingwhocheated them)retiredintotheirownland.ThisconfirmstheScythians hadnoterritorialdesignsagainsttheirParthiankinsmenand werecontentsimplytoteachtheParthiansalesson. Nevertheless,ParthiahadnowreplacedtheSeleucidsasthe dominantpowerinsouthcentralAsia,anditwasonlyamatter oftimebeforeRomeandParthiacameincontactwitheach other.BeforewediscusstheepicstrugglesbetweenParthiaand Rome,wewillexaminethegovernmentalstructureandpolicies oftheParthianstoseewhytheirdominionwassopreferableto thatoftheSeleucidGreeks. WhileParthiawasruledbyadynasty,therewasnocustomof primogeniture(wherebythethronewasinheritedbytheoldest son).Anyrelativeofthekingcouldserveasthenewmonarch. TheParthiansactuallyhadthebeginningsofasystemofchecks andbalancesupontheauthorityofthekingwhichpredatedthe MagnaCartabymorethanamillennium.Strabo,aRomanwho
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livedjustpriortothetimeofChrist,wrote: ThattheCounciloftheParthians...consistsof twogroups,onethatofthekinsmen,andthe otherthatofthewisemenandmagi,from bothofwhichgroupsthekingswere appointed.13 RawlinsonreferstothesetwobodiesastheRoyalHouseand theSenate.TheRoyalHousecontainedthemalerelativesof theking,andtheSenateconsistedoftheWiseMen(prominent secularleaders)andtheMagi(thepriestlycasteofParthia). Thesetwohousesjointlyconstituted:theMegistanes,the nobles...theprivilegedclasswhichtoaconsiderableextent checkedandcontrolledthemonarchy.14 Headds: TheKingwaspermanentlyadvisedby [these]twocouncilsThemonarchywas elective,butonlyinthehouseofthe Arsacidaeandtheconcurrentvoteofboth councilswasnecessaryintheappointmentof anewking.15 Thismeansthatwhilekingswereelectedbyaconcurrentvoteof thetwohouses,anewkinghadtobeamemberoftheRoyal House(malerelativesoftheking).ThefactthattheParthians electedtheirkingsviaabicameralvotemaybeoneofthebest keptsecretsoftheancientworld.Whileonlythemembersofthe twohousesoftheMegistanesvotedinroyalelections,thereare preciousfewancientexamplesofanykindofdeliberativeor electiveprocessesinvolvedintheselectionofmonarchs.Thefact thattheMegistaneswerestandingdeliberativebodiesalsoacted asafurthercheckuponthepowerofaking.Eventhough Parthianmonarchscouldexerciseautocraticpowersonce elected,theexistenceofthisbicameralcouncilcouldprovide
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somerestraintuponthem.Kingscouldevenberecalledifthey sufficientlyoffendedthenobility,thewealthycitizensandthe priesthoodoftheempire.Intheirgovernmentalstructure,the ParthiansmanifestedthebeginningsofaParliament,and foreshadowedtheMagnaCartaofMedievalEnglandwhich enabledthenobilitytocheckthepowerofEnglishkings. TheMagi(thesubjectofChristmasstoriesasthegiversofgold frankincense,andmyrrhtoJesus)wereaveryinfluentialpartof Parthiansociety.RawlinsonstatesthattheMagi: wereapowerfulbody,consistingofan organizedhierarchywhichhadcome downfromancienttimes,andwasfeared andveneratedbyallclassesofpeople.Their numbersatthecloseoftheEmpire,counting malesonlyarereckonedat80,000they possessedconsiderabletractsoffertileland, andwerethesoleinhabitantsofmany largetownsorvillages,whichtheywere permittedtogovernastheypleased.16 (Emphasisadded.) TheMagiparalleledthepriesthoodstructureofancientIsrael. ThetribeofLeviwasthepriestlytribeoftheIsraelites,andthe LawofMoses(Numbers35:15)requiredthattheLevitesdwell inindependentcities.Joshua21recordsthatthepriestlyLevites weregiven48independentcitiestoinhabit.Indoingthesame thingtheParthianswerecarryingonthetraditionoftheLawof Moses.ThattheParthianMagiwereahierarchyofpriestswhich haddescendedfromancienttimesconfirmsthattheMagi wereahereditarybody:anactualtribeofpriests.Sincethe IsraelitenatureoftheParthianshasalreadybeenshown,the ParthianMagiwerelikelytheLevites,Israelshereditarytribeof priests.ApriestoftheParthianMagiisdepictedonabasrelief
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17 wearingaconicalhat, reminiscentofthemiterwornbyHebrew priestsandthetall,pointedcapsofScythianleaders.

WhiletheimageofRomeslegionsbrutallyenforcingobedience inRomesconqueredprovincesisacommonthemeinhistory, whatwasParthiasrulelike?Tobeginwith,ParthiasArsacidking wastheoverallmonarchofParthiasempire,butprovincial vassalkingsorrulersweregivenconsiderableautonomy. Concerningthevassalkings,Rawlinsonstates: solongastheypaidtheirtributeregularlyto theParthianmonarchs,andaidedthemin theirwars...,[they]wereallowedtogovern thepeoplebeneaththeirswayattheir pleasure.18 ThisindicatesthatwhiletheParthiankingsretainedsovereignty overtheirsubjectprovincesonsuchmattersastaxesand nationaldefense,Parthianprovinceswerebasicallyself governingwhenitcametolocalmatters.Parthiassystemof vassalkingsandnobleswhoweresubjecttoanoverallkingwill remindsomereadersofthefeudalsystemutilizedbythe EuropeansintheMiddleAges.EdwardGibbon,theprominent historianwhoauthoredTheRiseandFalloftheRomanEmpire, alsonotedtheparallelsbetweenthefeudalsystemsofthe ParthiansandMedievalEurope.GibbonisquotedbyRawlinsonin thefollowingmanner: Theremarkhasbeenmadeby...Gibbon,that the[Parthian]systemthusestablished exhibitedunderothernames,alively imageofthefeudalsystem,whichhas sinceprevailedinEuropethepointsof resemblancebeingverymainpoints,not fewinnumber,andstriking. 19 (Emphasisadded.)
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TheEncyclopaediaBritannica,alsonotesthefeudalnatureof Parthiasempire: thesenomads[theScythianoriginofthe Parthiansisherenoted]werethemainpillar oftheempire,andfromthemwereobviously derivedthegreatmagnates,withtheirhuge estatesandhostsofserfs,whocomposedthe imperialcouncil,ledthearmies,governedthe provincesandmadeandunmadethe kings.20 Aswewillseeinchapterten,thestrikingsimilaritiesbetween ParthiaandMedievalEuropewerenocoincidence.Itisalso recordedthattheParthianspioneeredtheconceptofmunicipal homeruleprivilegesforsomeofitscities.Forexample: TheGreektowns...inlargenumbers throughoutthe[Parthian]Empire,enjoyeda municipalgovernmentoftheirown,andin somecaseswerealmostindependent communities...Seleucia...itspopulationwas estimatedinthefirstcenturyafterChristat sixhundredthousand...haditsownsenate,or municipalcouncil...electedbythepeopleto rulethem.21 RawlinsonssourcesfortheaboveinformationweretheRoman writers:PlinyandTacitus.TheastoundingfactthatParthias Empireincludedlargehomerulecitieswhichhelddemocratic electionstoelectcitycouncilsshouldbetaughtinevery classroominthemodernwesternworld!Citiesinthewestern worldhaveforcenturiescopiedthisancientParthianpractice, anditisremarkablethatanancientempirealloweditscitizens suchfreedoms.Mostancientempires(fearingrevolts)ruledtheir
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subjectpeoplewithanironhand. TherewasalsoasubstantialJewishpopulationinParthias empire,andtheirpolicytowardtheJewswasvery magnanimous.Rawlinsonrecordsthat:therewerealsoacertain numberofplacestheinhabitantsofwhichwerewhollyJews,and theseenjoyedsimilarprivilegeswiththefreetownsofthe Greeks.22 ThefactthatParthiahadalargeJewishpopulationmerits additionalcomment.Josephuswrotethatthedescendantsofthe tentribesofIsraelwereverynumerous,werebeyondRomes ruleandwerelocatedbeyondEuphrates.Byreferencingthe EuphratesRiver(thecommonborderbetweentheRomanand ParthianEmpires),JosephuswasindicatingthatParthiawas Israeliteterritory.SinceJosephusknewabouttheIsraelite natureoftheParthiansandSacae,itisquitelikelythatmany otherJewspossessedthisknowledgeaswell.Perhapssome Jews,tiredoftheRomanyokeinPalestine,chosetoemigrateto Parthia,whichwasdominatedbythedescendantsoftheten tribesofIsraelandallowedmuchpersonalliberty.Howeverthe mainreasonforasubstantialJewishpopulationinAsiaisthat manyJewsneverdidreturntoPalestinefromtheirBabylonian captivity,andtheirdescendantsstayedinAsia,wherethey flourishedunderParthianrule.Thisishardlysurprisingsincethe ArsacidswhoruledParthiawerethemselvesJewish,descendants ofPharesandKingDavid. WhileRomeimposedaruleofironwithinitsempire,Parthia permittedvastlygreaterindividualfreedoms.Thisfacthasstrong parallelsinthemodernworld,adiscussionofwhichwillenable thereadertorelatetothestrugglesbetweenRomeandParthia. ParthiaandRomewerethetwogreatpowersoftheirday. Parthiahadthebeginningsofabicameralbodywithsomechecks andbalancesuponthepowerofthemonarchy.Itgaveprovinces
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andcitiesconsiderablelocalautonomywhilemaintainingfederal controlofforeignandmilitarymatters,wastolerantofsubject peopleandallowedtheJewsbroadrightsandlocalfreedoms. Rome,howeverruleditssubjectpeoplesinatotalitarian, oppressivemannerwithRomantroopssupportingRomes appointedrulersoverconquerednations. Clearlyinanycomparisonbetween(A)theancientsuperpowers ofRomeandParthiaand(B)themodernsuperpowersofAmerica andtheformerSovietUnion,Parthiasfreedomswouldcompare ittoAmericawhileRomesoppressivenesswouldmakeitan ancientcounterpartoftheSovietUnion.Yetthewesternworldis taughtthehistoryofRomewhileParthiasremarkablepowerand structurearewidelyignored.Wewillseemoreparallelstothe modernerabeforethischapterisconcluded.Whilethese parallelsmayseemrevolutionarytosome,theyarenecessaryto helpundothemodernmyththatRomewascivilizedwhilethe restoftheworldconsistedofbarbarians.Intheremainderof thischapter(andinchapterten),wewillseethatthe governmentalsystemsofthemodernwesternworldareactually basedontheParthiansystem,nottheRomansystem. ThereisoneimportanteventinParthianhistorywhichmustbe discussedbeforeweexamineitshistoricrivalrywithRome.After theSeleucidGreekEmpirehadbeendefeatedbytheParthians, theeasternportionofParthiasempirewasinvadedbya numberofnomadicSacaefromcentralAsia.Infact,this invasiongavetheParthiansamajorinfusionofrelatedSacae (Scythian)people.TheseSacaeenteredtheeasternregionsof theParthianEmpireinthefirstcenturyB.C.aftermigrating southwardoutoftheCaspianSearegion.Besidesbearingthe nameofIsaac,theseScythiantribeshadtribalnameswhichcan belinkedtothenamesofvariousIsraelitetribesorclans.The principalScythiantribewhichresettledintotheParthianEmpire
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wastheMassagetae(thesameScythiantribewhichcrushedan invadingPersianarmyunderKingCyrusseveralcenturies earlier),andtheywereaccompaniedbytheDahae,theTochari, theAsii,theSacaruli,andvariousclanssuchastheParni,Aparni 23 Chorasmii,etc. Rawlinsonopinedthatthisinvasionwasamajor barbaricperilfromAsiahowever,thefactsdonotsupport suchaview.Forexample,theParniandAparniarefrequently citedasbeingtheoriginaltribeofArsaces,thefirstParthian 24 king. AnotherScythiantribewastheDahae,whoperiodically aidedtheParthiansinvariouswars.Theseinvaderswerethe ScythiankinsmenoftheParthians.Historyrecordsthatafter somefightingoverterritories,theScythiantribessettleddown andbecameapartoftheParthianEmpire,withtheirnew homelandbeingnamedSacastane(landoftheSakaor Scyths).25 TheseScythiannewcomers,whonamedtheirnew territoryinhonorofIsaac(anIsraelitepatriarch),hadacommon racialandculturalheritagewiththeParthians.Thereissome disagreementaboutwhethertheseScythianswerepartofthe ParthianEmpireorlivedadjacenttoit,butinamapofParthias empire,RawlinsonshowsSacastanaaspartoftheParthian 26 Empire. ThefactthatIsraelitetribesshouldfightamongthemselvesis notsurprising,giventhattheyhadtofindterritorytocontain theirlargepopulations.Ithasbeenproposedthatthese migratingScythianswerethemselvespushedintoParthiaby 27 tribesofHunswhowereexpandingwithincentralAsia. TheScythiannamesdonotexactlyreflectthenamesof IsraelitestribesastheyarethenameswhichGrecoRoman historiansgavetothemcenturiesafterthesetribesleftPalestine. Evenso,severalnames(inadditiontotheiroverallnameas Sacae)arerecognizableasIsraelite.TheMassagetae,as explainedinchaptersix,weretheIsraelitetribeofManasseh.
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TheDahaemayhavebeenpartofthetribeofDan.TheTochari likelydescendedfromtheIsraelitetribeofIssacharasTolawas oneoftheclansofIssachar(Numbers26:23).Combining syllablesfromthenamesTolaandIssacharresultsinthe termTochari.TheChorasmiimayhavebeenaclanofthe tribeofReuben(descendedfromtheCarmitesofNumbers 26:6).Onthisspecificcaseofancientrootwords,Iwishto acknowledgethehelpofDr.CharlesDorothy,agraduateofthe ClaremontGraduateSchoolforpointingoutthatsucha relationshipispossiblesinceCarmiteofNumbers26usesthe Hebrewcaph,sometimestransliteratedc,ch,k,orkh.On theotherhand,sinceRawlinsonrecordsthattheChorasmiiwere 28 asubdivisionoftheMassagetae, theymayhavebeennamed aftertheMachirites,aclanofthetribeofManasseh(Numbers 26:29). WhilethisinfusionofScythiansintoParthiasempiregreatly increasedParthiasstrength,itneedstobeunderstoodthat ParthiawasnotamonolithicIsraeliteempirejoiningallthe ParthiansandScythian/Sacaetribes.Therewerestillmany ScythiansneartheBlackandCaspianSeaswhowerenotpartof Parthiasempire,andthereweremanysubjectpeoplein ParthiasprovinceswhowerenotIsraelites(Medes,Persians, Babylonians,Elamites,Assyrians,etc.). Anotherlargemassofpeople,theYuechi,wasbeingpushedout ofinnerAsiatowardScythiaandParthia.EarlyChinese chroniclesrecordthattheEphthaliteswereoneofthetribesof 29 theYuechi. TheEphthaliteswerealsocalledWhiteHuns 30 becausetheywerefairskinned(indicatingaSemiticorigin). OthernamesfortheEphthalitesincludetheHephthalitesor Nephthalites,althoughtheEncyclopaediaBritannicaaddsthat theinitialN...isbelievedtobeaclericalerror.31 Itshouldbe easyforanyonewithaknowledgeofbiblicalhistorytoidentify
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thistribeastheIsraelitetribeofNaphtali!Theconsonantsof Ephthali(orNephthali)preciselymatchNaphtali,oneoftheten tribesofIsrael. ItisinterestingthattheEncyclopaediaBritannicaobservedthat theancienthistorianswhorecordedthatthistribesnamebegan withanNarebelieved...[tohavemade]aclericalerror.No evidenceisofferedtosupportaclaimthatitwasaclericalerror, butitisbelievedtobeone.Why?Thereadermustrealizethat establishmenthistorieshaveastrongbiasagainstfindingany ofthelosttentribesofIsrael[doingsowoulddrawinterest towardtheBible].WhilemanyIsraelitetribalnamescanbe foundinAsia,thissimilaritybetweentheNephthalites andanIsraelitetribe(theNaphtalites)isglaringly obvious.ThepresenceofatribeinAsiabearingaHebrewname unchangedfrombiblicaltimesisanacademichotpotato!A beliefthattheNisanancientclericalerrorhelpstoobscure theIsraelitenatureofthistribe.Indeed,ifestablishment historiesweretoexamineScythianorParthianhistoryinmuch depthatall,theiridentityasthetentribesofIsraelwouldbe impossibletomiss.Perhapsthatiswhytheirhistory (prominentlycitedbyGreekandRomanhistorians)ismostly ignoredinthemodernworld. ThefactthattheEphthaliteswerefairskinned(Semiticor Caucasian)furtherverifiestheiridentificationasIsraelites(since theIsraeliteswereoftheSemitic,orwhiterace).Thefactthat theEphthaliteswerecalledWhiteHunsindicatesthatwhile theycameoutofAsia,theyweredifferentiatedfromtherestof theHuns,whowerenotfairskinnedorwhite.Indeed,the EncyclopaediaBritannicaitselfreferstotheSakas(orSacae Scythians),theYueChiandtheEphthalitesasbeingrelated 32 IndoScythiantribes. TheBibleshowsuswhythetribesofNaphtali,theMachiriteclan
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ofManasseh,andpartsofDan,Issachar,AsherorReuben(i.e. theNephthalites,Massagetae,Chorasmi,Dahae,Tochari,etc.) couldbelocatedtogetherasagroupofproximatetribesinAsia. IIKings15:29statesthatabouttwentyyearspriortoSamarias fall,theAssyriansinvadedIsraelandcarriedcaptivetheentire tribeofNaphtali,andtheIsraeliteslivinginGileadandGalilee. Thisoccurredinapproximately740B.C.IChronicles5:26 revealsthatGileadmeansonehalfthetribeofManassehand thetribesofReubenandGad.Numbers26:29furthershowsus thatthehalftribeofManassehwhichlivedinGileadwasthe Machirites.Alookatabiblicalatlaswillrevealthatthetribesof IssacharandAsherandaportionofDanlivednexttoNaphtaliin theregionofGalilee,andthesetribeswouldlikelyhavelostpart oftheirpopulationswhentheirneighbors,theNaphtalites,were takencaptive.TheAssyriansrelocatedthetribesofNaphtali, Gad,Reuben,halfthetribeofManasseh,andportionsofother tribeseastwardintotheirempire.Atthetimeoftheircaptivity, theseIsraelitesweremostlysunworshippers(followersofBaal). TheBookofTobitclaimstorelatetheexperiencesofafamilyof Naphtalites(Tobit1:12)aftertheirAssyriancaptivity,and showsthemmaintainingcontactwitheachotherastheywere resettledinAssyriaandinthecitiesoftheMedes.WhileTobitis anapocryphal(noncanonized)book,itshistoricalcontextmakes itinterestingreadingforthistimeperiod.Tobit1:21parallelsII Kings19:37inmentioningthedeathoftheAssyrianKing Sennacheribatthehandsofhissons,whothenfledtoArarat (Armenia)wheretheysoughtrefuge.Tobit14:1215showsthat NaphtaliteslivedinEcbatanainMediawhenNinevehfell.Thisis consistentwithsecularhistoryasEcbatanaisnamedasacityof theScythianswholivedinMediaduringthefalloftheAssyrian 33 Empire. WhilethebookofTobit,writtenfromanHebrew perspective,callsthesepeopleNaphtalites,secularhistory, writtenfromanonHebrewperspective,callsthesepeople
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Scythians. WhentheAssyrianEmpirefell,manyoftheirformerlysubject peopleswerefreetomigratetonewlocations.Onesuchpeople weretheIsraelites(includingthetribeofNaphtaliaccordingto thebookofTobit)whowereknownasaScythianpeoplethat supplantedtheoldkingdomofEllip(eastofAssyria).Theymust havemigratednortheastwardbeyondtheCaspianSea.Thehalf tribeofManassehlaterbecameknownasthesunworshipping MassagetaewhoannihilatedaPersianarmyunderCyrusthe Greatwhenhetriedtosubjugatethem.ThetribeofNaphtali wentevenfurtherintoAsia,butwerestillcalledtheNephthalites whentheymigratebacktowardParthia.Themigrationsofthe MassagetaeandNephthalitestowardParthiamaynothavebeen acoincidence.IftheywerebeingpushedwestwardoutofAsiaby othernations,itmayhavebeenanattemptontheirpartto retracetheroutestheyhadinitiallyfollowedintoAsia. Theconnectionisclear.TheMassagetae,theSaka(orSacae) andtheEphthaliteswererelatedclansofthetentribesof Israel.WhilemanysettledintheeasternportionoftheParthian Empire,someSakafoundedakingdomoftheirownnearthe IndusRiverandtheEphthalitesapparentlyremainedoutsidethe ParthianEmpire.ItislikelythatthetribeofNaphtaliretainedits exactIsraelitenameovermanycenturiesbecauseitwastaken captiveinoneentiregroup.Theothertribes,whichleftPalestine inapiecemealfashionandindifferentdirections,werelater knownbytheirappropriateclannames. SincetheEphraimiteroleintheformationofParthiawas discussedinchapterseven,thisinfusionofScythianIsraelites meantthattheParthianempirecametoincludeportionsofthe IsraelitetribesofEphraim,Manasseh,Issachar,Asher,Reuben, Naphtali,DanandGad(whileGadisunnamedamongthe Scythians,itwaslikelypresentasGadmigratedintoAsiawith
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thehalftribeofManassehandthetribeofReuben).Sincethere weremanyJewslivinginParthiasterritory,thetribesofJudah andBenjaminwerepresentaswell.ThetribeofLeviwasalsoin ParthiabecausetherewereLevitesamongtheJews(Ezra1:5) andtheParthianMagimayhaveincludedLevites.TheIsraelite characteroftheParthianempireisobvious.Thewarsbetween theRomanandParthianEmpireswillbemuchmoreinteresting toreadwhenitisrealizedthattheParthianEmpirewas composedofthereunitedandrevitalizedtribesofIsraelruling overnativepopulationswhohadpreviouslybeenIsraelscaptors. RomeandParthiadidnotinitiallycomeintocontactwitheach otherasenemies.BetweenthemlaythekingdomofArmenia whichhadalargedomaininAsiaMinor.Romebecameembroiled inawarwithArmeniawhileParthiatriedtoremainneutral. Parthiasneutralpolicyfinallybecameuntenable,andthe ParthiansenteredthewaronthesideoftheRomans.Rome offeredParthiaanalliancewiththepromisethatRomewould respectParthiasrighttohavecertainterritoriesasherportion forassistingtheRomans.AftertheParthianRomanalliancewas successful,theRomansreneged,andresistedtheParthians whentheytriedtooccupytheirpromisedportionofthe conqueredterritory.Rawlinsoncommentsonthisepisodethat Phraates(theParthianmonarch)learntwhatRomanpromises wereworth.34 NotethatthisParthianking(Phraates)hada namethatincludedtheHebrewrootwordforPhares,the dynasticlineofDavidandthekingsofJudah.Fromthisveryfirst ParthianRomancontact(inthefirstcenturyB.C.),theEuphrates 35 Riverbecametheborderbetweentheirtwoempires. Parthiaskingwasthenassassinatedbyhissons,Mithridatesand Orodes,withtheformerthenbanishingthelatter.TheParthian nobles(theWiseMenandMagi)laterdeposedMithridates becauseofhisharshrule,andrecalledOrodesfrombanishment
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36 tobethenewking. [TheWiseMenandMagiwerepowerful enoughatthistime(circa56B.C.)todethroneamonarchthey disliked.Thiswillbecomemoresignificantinthenextchapter.]

Crassus,aprominentRomanConsulinarulingtriumviratewith JuliusCaesarandPompeydecidedtoadvancehiswealthand famebylaunchinganinvasiontosubjugateParthia.His campaignbeganthefirstofmanyRomanParthianwarswhich invariablyoccurredasaresultofRomanaggressionagainst 37 Parthia. Afterhedefeatedafewweakkingdoms,Crassusturnedto lootingthewealthoftheMiddleEast.Fullofavarice,hestoleall thegoldandtreasurethathecouldfind,includinganimmense 38 amountofgoldfromtheTempleofGodinJerusalem. Crassus wasmoreinterestedinlootingtheweakthaninseriously invadingParthia.Parthia,wellpreparedforwarandeagerto teachtheRomansalesson,tauntedCrassuswithamessage whichwasintendedtoinflamehimintoseekingbattle.Parthia sentCrassusthisprovocativemessage: IfthewarwasreallywagedbyRome,itmust befoughttothebitterend.But,if,asthey hadgoodreasontobelieve,Crassus,against thewishofhiscountry,hadattackedParthia andseizedherterritoryforhisownprivate gain,Arsaces[theParthianking]wouldbe moderate.Hewouldhavepityonthe advancedyearsoftheproconsul[Crassus wasasexagenarian],andwouldgivethe Romansbackthosemenoftheirs,whowere notsomuchkeepingwatchinMesopotamia ashavingwatchkeptonthem.Crassus,stung withthetaunt,exclaimedhewouldreturnthe ambassadorsananswerinSeleucia[alarge
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cityneartheParthiancapital].Wagises,the chief[Parthian]ambassadorgladtoheap tauntontaunt,replied,strikingthepalmof onehandwiththefingersoftheother:hairs willgrowhere,Crassus,beforeyousee Seleucia. 39 Infuriated,CrassusinvadedtheParthianEmpire,butwas deceivedintothinkingtheParthianswerefearfulandretreating. Inreality,theParthiankinghadinvadedArmeniawiththe ParthianinfantrytopreventtheArmeniansfromaidingthe RomanswhiletheParthiancavalryremainedtofacetheRomans. ThecavalrywascommandedbySurenas(anobleoftheSuren familywhichcrownedParthianmonarchs).TheRomaninvaders 40 consistedof39,000infantryand4,000cavalry. InordertounderstandwhattheRomanswereupagainst,one mustrealizethenatureoftheParthiancavalry.Thiswasnowild mobfromthesteppes,butadisciplinedandpreparedmilitary force.TheParthiansmaintainedbothaheavycavalryandalight cavalry.Thelightcavalrywascomposedoffleethorseswith ridersarmedwithbowsandarrows.Thesehorsemencouldrain downuponanenemyafairlycontinuousbarrageofarrowsas theycouldrideinshifts,witheachtroopresupplyingitselffrom camelbornearrowcarrierswhentheirsupplybecameexhausted 41 inbattle. Theheavycavalrymusthavebeentrulyfrighteningtothe Romanfootsoldier.Rawlinsondescribestheminthefollowing manner. Thestronghorsesselectedforthisservice werecladalmostwhollyinmail.Their head,neck,chest,eventheirsidesand flanks,wereprotectedbyscalearmour ofbrassorironTheirridershad
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cuirassesandcuisses[breastplatesandleg armor]ofthesamematerials,and helmetsofburnishediron.Foranoffensive weapontheycarriedalong...spearorpike. Theyformedaserriedlineinbattle,bearing downwithgreatweightontheenemywhom theycharged,andstandingfirmasaniron wallagainstthechargesthatweremade againstthem.42 (Emphasisadded.) Inotherwords,theRomanswereopposedbyasuperiorphalanx ofarmoredParthiancavalry.Withtheirarmoredmounts,body armor,andlongspears,theParthianheavycavalrymusthave lookedlikemountedEuropeanLancersfromthemiddleages! AgainweseeanotherparallelbetweentheancientParthiansand theEuropeansofthefeudalperiod.TheParthianheavycavalry soundslikeahugeformationoffeudalknightsarmedforcombat insteadofjousts.Indeed,theEncyclopaediaBritannicaopenly calledtheParthianheavycavalryknights.43 Havingaheavilyarmedandmailcladarmywasatraitofseveral ancientMideastpeoples,includingIsraelitetroops.InII Chronicles26:14,Uzziah(aDavidickingofthelineofPhares), equippedhisarmywithshields,spearsandhelmets,coatsof mail[and]bows...(RSV)PutUzziahstroopsonmounts,and youhaveagooddescriptionoftheParthiancavalry. TheinvadingRomansmettheParthiandefendersatthebattleof Carrhaein53B.C.(nearthemodernborderofSyriaand Turkey).TheRomanssufferedoneoftheworstdefeatsinthe historyoftheRomanEmpirehalfthe40,000manarmy perished,aquarterfled,and10,000Romanswerecaptured. Crassus,amemberofthetriumviraterulingtheRomanEmpire, wasslain.ParthiastreatmentofthecapturedRomanswas unusuallymagnanimous,especiallyconsideringthattheRomans
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weretheaggressors.The10,000capturedRomanswere resettledeastoftheCaspianSea,givenwives,andlatereven 44 servedasParthiansoldiers. Rawlinsoncommentsthatthe Parthians: acquiredbytheiruseofthebowafamelike that[of]theEnglisharchers...atCrecyand Agincourt.TheyforcedthearrogantRomans to...allowthattherewasatleastonenationin theworldwhichcouldmeetthemonequal terms...Theyhenceforthobtainedrecognition fromtheGraecoRomanwritersasthe secondPowerintheworld.45 RichardFryesHeritageofPersiaalsonotesthat,afterthebattle ofCarrhae:theworldwasdividedbetweenRomeandParthia accordingtoGreekandLatinauthors.46 Crassuswasdueonefinal,gristlyinsultatthehandsofthe Parthians.SurenassenttheheadofCrassustotheParthianking inArmenia,whereArmeniahadmadepeacewiththeParthian king.TheParthians,mindfulofCrassusavarice,pouredmolten goldintothemouthofCrassusdecapitatedhead.Thiswasdone inthepresenceoftheArmenians,apparentlytoimpressupon themtheuttersuperiorityoftheParthiansovertheRomans. PerhapsfearingthatthegreatvictoryofSurenaswouldmake himarival,Orodes,theParthianking,hadhissuccessful commanderkilled.ThisillustratesaparadoxinParthianhistory. AlthoughParthianruleoveritssubjectswasgenerallywiseand temperate,theParthianroyalfamily,theArsacids,hadahistory ofmurderous,internecinestruggles.SinceanyArsacidcouldbe king,therewasalwaysahostofpretendersandschemerswith kinglyambitions,causingmanyArsacidstokilleachotherto eliminatepotentialrivals.Thisviolentfamilyhistoryfulfilleda biblicalprophecy(IISamuel12:10)thatthesword[violent
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deaths]wouldneverdepartfromtheprogenyofDavidbecause ofDavidsmurderofUriah. ParthiaretaliatedforRomesinvasionbyattackingRomes territoryin40B.C.TheParthianattackwassosuccessfulthat theyconqueredSyria,Palestine,andAsiaMinor.Emboldenedby Parthiansuccesses,theJewsrevoltedagainstRomeandaJewish prince,Antigonus,ruledPalestineasasatrapoftheParthians 47 until37B.C. TheRomanscounterattacked,recoveredtheirlost territoriesandreestablishedtheEuphratesRiverastheborder betweenthetwoempires.Rawlinsonrecordsthattheshort ParthianruleoftheconqueredRomanprovinceswasmildand just,48 andwaspreferredbythenativesoverRomanrule. Indeed,Antigonus,theParthiansponsoredruler,successfully resistedKingHerod,hisRomansponsoredreplacementfora shorttime. InchaptersixitwasnotedthatwhentheScythianIsraelites reconqueredPalestinearound620B.C.,itresultedinthe descendantsofthetentribesofIsraelagainbrieflyrulingover Palestine.Theystayedonlyafewyears,andleftvoluntarily. WhentheParthianscontrolledPalestine,itwasasecondinstance whenthetentribesofIsraelagaindominatedPalestine.Once more,itlastedonlyafewshortyears. DuringthethreeyearsofParthianruleoverPalestine,there wouldhavebeenaconsiderableexchangeofinformation betweentheJewsandtheParthians.TheJewswouldhave becomeaware(iftheydidnotalreadyknow)thattheParthians weredescendantsofthetentribesofIsrael(theirbrother tribes).UnderParthianruletheJewswouldhaveenjoyed unhinderedcontactswiththelargeJewishcommunitieslivingin theParthianEmpire.Josephus,aprominentJewishhistorian, likelydrewonthisknowledgewhenhelaterdesignatedthe ParthianEmpire(thelandbeyondtheEuphrates)astheregion
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inhabitedbythenumerousdescendantsofthetentribesof 49 Israel. AsofthefirstcenturyA.D.,itisclearthatthelostten tribesofIsraelwerenotlostatall. ThenextParthianking,PhraatesIV,wasamoralwretchwho killedhisbrothers,hisfather(KingOrodes,whohadabdicatedin hissonsfavor),andevensomeoftheMegistanes.Thechaos withinParthiainvitedanotherRomaninvasion.Thisinvasionwas ledbythefamousMarkAntony,whoinvadedParthiain37B.C. 50 withanarmyof113,000soldiers. TheRomansbesiegeda ParthianprovincialcapitalinMedia(northwestIran),butcould notsubdueit.TheParthianarmyarrived,andwipedoutAntonys supplycolumns,killing10,000Romans.Withwinterimminent, Antonyhadtoadmitdefeat,andledhisbeatenarmyback throughArmenia,fightingtheterrain,theweather,hungerand theParthiansthewholeway.Consideringthehardshipsfaced, MarkAntonydidwelltosalvage6070,000Romanssoldiersfrom hisdisastrouscampaign,ashecouldhavelosthiswholearmy andhisownlife.AntonyactedcruellytowardtheArmenians,and thishelpedcreatealastingimpressionamongtheArmenians thatParthianrulewaspreferabletoRomanrule. AperiodofdetentethenoccurredbetweenParthiaandRome 51 whichlastedalmostacentury(36B.C.to58A.D.). Parthiaand Romehadlearnedthattheywereequalsuperpowersinthe ancientworld,withtheEuphratesRivermarkingtheirborder. WhileParthiahadcrushedtwoRomanattemptstoinvadethe ParthianEmpire,RomehadsuccessfullypushedParthianarmies backacrosstheEuphratesafterParthiaoccupiedRomeseastern territoriesforthreeyears.PhraatesIV,theemperorofParthia whohadkilledhisbrothersandfatherafterascendingtothe throne,livedtoreapwhathehadsown.Afterreigningthirty fiveyears,hewasassassinatedbyhiswifeandsonin2B.C. In1A.D.,whenanotherRomaninvasionofParthiaseemed
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imminent,ParthiaandRomeavoidedhostilitiesviaamajor summitconference.Theclassicalwritersrecordedthatthe respectivearmiesoftheRomanandParthianempireslinedupon eachsideoftheEuphratesRiverwhilethenegotiatorsmeton neutralterritory(anislandintheriver).Parthiasemperor, Phraataces,metwithCaiusCaesar,thegrandsonofAugustus 52 Caesarastheynegotiatedanagreement. Whilewarwas averted,theRomansseemtohavewonaslightvictoryatthe conferencetable.WhiletheRomansagreedtowithdrawtheir armies,andthreatenParthianomore,theParthiansagreedto acceptArmeniaasbeingwithinRomessphereofinfluence.This ParthianRomansummitconferenceresultedintheprolongation oftheperiodofdetentebetweenthetwopowers.Itwasduring thistimethatJesusChristwasborn,conductedhisministry,and wascrucified.JesusChristhimselfplayedaroleintheParthian Romanrivalries(asubjectexaminedinchapternine). TheinternecineconflictsoftheArsacidfamilymembersbecame sogreatthatParthiaestablishedthehabitofsendingvarious membersofitsroyalfamilytoRome(perhapsbelievingthemto besafertherethaninParthiaduetotheassassinationsamong theArsacidfamilymembersinParthia).SomeParthiankings weresummonedfromtheArsacidswhohadbeenraisedin Rome,buttheyalienatedtheParthianswiththeirforeignways. SeveraltimestheScythiansbecamearbitersofwhoshouldbe theParthiankingbytheirmilitaryinterventioninbehalfof specificArsacidprinces. GiventheturmoilwithintheroyalhouseoftheArsacids,itis remarkablethatthisonedynastymaintaineditsruleoverParthia throughoutitsexistence.TheprophecyofJeremiah33:17,that Davidsdescendantswouldcontinuallyruleoverthetentribesof Israel,waskeptunbrokenduringParthiasexistence.Whilemany Parthianmonarchswerequitecorruptintheirpersonallives,
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thereisatleastonerecordofaParthianprovincialkingadopting 53 Judaism, indicatingthatsomeParthianrulersdidacknowledge theGodoftheBible.ThepresenceofParthianpilgrimsata Pentecost(FeastofWeeks)celebrationinJerusalem(Acts2:9) confirmsthataportionofParthiaspopulationalsoservedthe GodofIsrael.Sincethisoccurredduringthedetenteperiod betweenRomeandParthia,Parthianswerefreetotravelto JerusalemandparticipateintheHolyDaysobservedbythe Jews. WhileParthianRomanaffairswerecalm,Parthiafought(and lost)awaroverArmeniatoanallianceofIberiansandScythians 54 headedbykingPharasmanesofIberia. Thiswar(3536A.D.) pittedIsraeliteagainstIsraelite.Earlierchaptersdemonstrated thatIsraelitesfleeingAssyriantyrannyhadfledtotheBlackSea regionsnorthofArmeniaandestablishedIberianandScythian kingdoms.KingPharasmanesborethenameoftheroyal Davidicline(theJudaiclineofPhares),andIberiawasnamed afterEber,apatriarchoftheHebrews.AftertheParthianking, Artabanus,lostthiswar,hewasforcedtofleetootherScythians forsanctuary. TheParthianArsacidswereinastateofgreatturmoilwhich endedin51A.D.withthedeathofanextraordinarilycruel emperor,Gotarzes,whosoughttoeliminateallrivalstothe thronebymurderingallthecloseanddistantmalerelativesthat 55 hecouldfind,includingchildrenandevenpregnantwives. In51A.D.,aremarkableamityoccurredbetweenthreebrothers whowereheirstotheParthianthrone.One(VolagasesI) becametheParthianemperor,asecond(Pacorus)became vassalkingofMedia,andthethird(Tiridates)wasappointed kingofArmenia.Thislatterchoiceinvolvedseverepolitical problems.ArmeniawasclaimedbyboththeRomansandthe Parthians.However,Armeniahadbeenrecognizedaspartofthe
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Romansphereofinfluencefordecadesaspartoftheoverall ParthianRomandetente.Indeed,atthattime,Armeniawas ruledbyakingnamedMithridates,thebrotherofKing PharasmanesofIberia.ToassertParthianruleoverArmenia wouldresultinaRomanwar,yetanexternalwarwaslikely preferabletotheinternalcivilwarwhichcouldhaveoccurred withinParthiahadnotthethirdroyalbrotherbeenawardeda prominentprovince. ThisParthianactionresultedinadesultoryParthianRoman conflictoverArmeniauntil62A.D.whenNero,Romesemperor, sentanlargearmytochallengetheParthians.TheRomanswere shockedwhenParthialaunchedawinteroffensiveagainstthem, andtheRomanssufferedanignominiousdefeat.Duringthistime theArmeniansfoughttoliveunderParthianruleratherthan 56 Romanrule. ThiswasunderstandablesinceParthianrule habituallyofferedmorelocalautonomythanRomanrule. Astrangepeacesettlementoccurredthefollowingyearinwhich ParthiawoncontrolofArmeniaandRomewonaconcessionto herimperialvanity(atmassivecosttoRome).Theagreement leftTiridates,thebrotheroftheParthianking,astheundisputed rulerofArmenia(recognizingthestatusquowhichParthiahad wononthebattlefield).However,toassuageRomespride, TiridatesagreedtotraveltoRometoreceivehiscrownfrom Nero(topreservethefacadethatRomewaswillinglygiving rulershipofArmeniatoTiridates).TiridatestraveledtoRome, escortedby3000Parthiancavalrytroops.Romepaidthebillfor allParthiantravelexpenses.(Classicalwritersrecordedthatit costtheRomantreasury800,000sestercesadayfornine 57 months!) ThistreatygavetheParthiansfullcontrolover Armenia,andtheRomanswontherighttogiveover3000 ParthiansanallexpensespaidtriptoRomesoTiridateswould feignsomeobsequiouswordstoNeroinRome.Atanyrate,both
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partiesweresatisfied,andParthianRomanrelationswere amicableforanotherhalfcentury. TowardtheendofthefirstcenturyA.D.,theParthians establishedfriendlyrelationswiththeDacians,apeoplelivingin EasternEuropealongtheDanubeRiver,whoalsodislikedthe 58 Romans. TheestablishmentofParthiangoodwillwiththe 59 Dacians(calledGetaebytheGreeks) willbecomesignificant inchapterten. InthereignofMithridatesIV(107113A.D.),theParthians beganplacingSemiticinscriptionsontheircoins(previouscoins hadcontinuedtheSeleucidpracticeofusingHellenist 60 inscriptions). Thiswasconsistentwiththefactthatthe ParthiansutilizedaSemiticalphabet.TheEncyclopaedia BritannicanotesthefollowingregardingParthiaslanguage: ThealphabetsinuseinPersia,atleastfrom thetimeoftheArsaciddynastyonward[i.e. thetimeoftheParthianEmpire]arebased upontheAramaic.61 (Emphasisadded.) TheParthianuseofanalphabetbasedonAramaic(aSemitic languagecloselyrelatedtoHebrew)supportstheconclusionthat theParthianswerethedescendantsofthetentribesofIsrael.If theParthiansandScythianshadoriginateddeepintheinteriorof Asia,theiralphabetandlanguagewouldnothavebeenSemitic. ThefactthattheParthiansutilizedanalphabetwhichoriginated intheeasternMediterraneanregioninhabitedbytheIsraelites andAramaeansconfirmsthatParthianoriginswereinthe easternMediterranean,theformerhomelandofthetentribesof Israel. TheyearafterthedeathofMithridates,theRomanEmperor Trajanbrokethepeace,andbeganmilitaryhostilities.Trajan,by subterfuge,hadanephewoftheParthianmonarchkilledwho
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hadcometohiminanticipationofapeacefulsettlement.In notingTrajansdeceitfulness,RawlinsondescribesTrajans actionsasdisgracefulandbase.62 Filledwithvanityand pride,TrajansetouttoemulatetheAsianconquestsof AlexandertheGreat. WhilewinteringinAntiochofSyria,Trajanbarelyescapedwith hislifewhenhewasalmostkilledinadestructiveearthquake, whichwasofaviolenceanddurationunexampledinancient times...manyRomansofthehighestrankperished.63 Besides levelingAntioch,itdestroyednineothercitiesinRoman provincesinAsiaMinorandGreece.Wasitaportentofthingsto come?Rawlinsoncommented: itseemedasifProvidencehaddetermined thatthenewglorieswhichRomewasgaining bythetriumphsofherarmsshouldbe obscuredbycalamitiesofakindthatno humanpowercouldavertorcontrol...that [thereignofTrajan]...shouldgodownto posterityasoneofgloom,suffering,and disaster.64 Iftheearthquakeswereadivinewarning,Trajanpaidthemno heed.HeresumedhisinvasionofParthia,andwasalmost unopposedashemarchedthroughMesopotamia,advancingas farasthePersianGulf.Trajanthenindulgedinegomania, regardinghimselfasanotherAlexander,takingapleasure voyagedowntheTigrisRiverintothePersianGulf,and regrettingthathisadvancedyearspreventedhimfrommaking Indiathetermofhislabours.65 TheBiblestatesinProverbs 16:18thatPridegoethbeforedestructionandahaughtyspirit beforeafall.Trajanwasabouttobecomealivingexampleof thetruthofthatproverb. TheParthianshadnotyetfoughtaserious,pitchedbattle.Either
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theywerecaughtunpreparedbyTrajanscampaignorthey sensedthattheusualRomanarrogancewouldsooncausethe conqueredParthianprovincestorealizewhatagoodthingthey hadunderParthianrule.WhileTrajanwasindulginghisegoon thePersianGulf,therecentlyconqueredParthianprovinces rebelledonamassivescale.AlthoughtheRomansburned Seleuciaandothermajorcities,thenativesexactedaheavytoll ontheRomans,andevenexterminatedanentireRomanarmy. TheParthians,meanwhile,riskedlittleastheirformersubjects didthefightingtoremovethehatedRomans.Historywas repeatingitself.Thesesamenativepopulationshadpreviously foughttheSeleucidGreeksinordertoreturntoParthianrule. Trajanwasinadangerouspositionashislineofretreatwasfull ofhostilenations.Additionally,itwasasifnatureitselfbecamea Parthianally.ItisrecordedthattheRomans: sufferedfromtheheat,from...the swarmsofflieswhichdisputedwiththem everymorseloftheirfoodandeverydropof theirdrink,andfinallyfromviolenthailand thunderstorms.66 (Emphasisadded.) Perhapsitwasnocoincidence.TheParthianswereIsraelites, someofwhomworshippedtheGodofIsrael(Acts2:9),atleast oneParthianprovincialkingopenlyworshippedIsraelsGodin theapostolicera,andtheParthianswereplacingSemitic inscriptionsontheircoinage.Thelastfactindicatesthatthe ParthianswereofficiallyidentifyingwiththeirSemitic(i.e. Israelite)roots.Itisalsoquitesignificantthatadelegationof Parthiasnobility(theWiseMenorMagiofMatthew2:112) hadcometoworshipJesusChristasthisindicatesGodwas closelyinvolvedwithportionsoftheleadershipofParthias empire. Giventheabove,itispossiblethatGodhimselfcausedthe
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earthquakes,plaguesofflies,hail,etc.topunishthearrogant Trajan.TheOldTestamentrecordsseveralinstanceswhereGod intervenedinsimilarfashioninbehalfoftheIsraelitetribes. WhileGodgiveshumansalotofrope,theBiblehasmany accountsofGodspersonalinterventiontopunishnationsand nationalleaderswhentheybecometoovain. MostunusualatthistimewasthelackofanymajorParthian militaryactionagainsttheRomans.Inthepasttheyquickly clashedwithinvadingRomans,generallyroutingthemonthe battlefield.WhydidtheynotsoconfrontTrajan?Werethey internallyweakened,orhadtheParthiansbeentoldbyan unnamedprophetofGodnottofightbecausethebattlewasthe Lords? TheParthiansreoccupiedtheirterritoryasitwasabandonedby theretreatingRomans.Trajandiedsoonafterhishumiliating retreat,andthenewRomanemperor(Hadrian)unilaterallygave backtoParthiaallterritorytakenbyTrajan,yieldedArmenia backtoArsacidrule,andpulledallRomanforcesbackontheir sideoftheEuphratesRiver.ItwasveryuncharacteristicofRome toyieldlargeamountsofterritorytoanenemyunderany circumstance,butitwasunprecedentedforRometocedeso muchterritoryabsentanymilitarythreat.SincetheParthians haddonenothingmilitarilytocausetheRomanstofearthem,it islikelythatthepolytheisticRomansfearedParthiasGod,and viewedthepersistentnaturaldisastersvisitedupontheRomans intheeasttobedivinepunishmentuponthem.Nothingelse explainsRomesveryuncharacteristicbehavior. RomeavoidedanyParthianwarsforanotherhalfcentury. Indeed,whenhostilitiesdidseemimminentatonetime,peace ensuedfromanotherSummitConferencein122A.D.between 67 theRomanandParthianemperors,HadrianandChosroes. ThenextParthianemperor,Vologases,continuedtheuseof
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68 Semiticinscriptions(VolgasaMalcha)onhiscoins. Theuseof thewordMalchaforkingissignificant.John18:10showsus thatMalchuswasbeingusedasaHebrewpropernameinthe firstcenturyA.D.TheHebrewwordforkingisrepresentedbythe 69 consonantsMLK, andtheParthiansusedtheconsonantsML CHtodesignatetheSemiticwordkingontheircoins.When oneconsidersthattheCHsymbolcanrepresentthesame phoneticsoundasaK,theoriginofthisSemiticwordisclear. RawlinsonnotedthatSemiticlegendsarefrequentonthecoins ofthelaterParthiankings.70 Onthisspecificissue,Iagain acknowledgethehelpofDr.CharlesDorothy,agraduateofthe ClaremontGraduateSchool,whonotedthattheHebrewcaph maybetransliteratedaseitherchork.

TheParthianswitchtoSemiticinscriptionsontheircoinsis evidenceofarenewedawarenessoftheirSemiticorigin.This watershedeventhasnotbeenfullyappreciatedinthehistoriesof theParthians,anditdeservesfurthercomment. Acts2:9recordsthatmanypeoplefromParthiaandtheir provinces(Medes,Elamites,Mesopotamians)servedtheGodof IsraelinthefirstcenturyA.D.ThevisitoftheParthianWise Men(orMagi)toworshipandoffergiftstothechild,Jesus Christ,isastrikingevent.ThefactthathighrankingParthian MagicametoworshipJesusChristdocumentsthatGodwasvery personallyinvolvedwithsomeoftheParthiannobilityandhad evenrevealedJesusChristsdivinitytothem.Thetimingoftheir arrivalinJerusalemfurtherindicatesthattheParthianMagiwere familiarwithHebrewpropheciesindicatingthattheMessiahwas dueatthattime.ParthiawasevangelizedbyChristians:Eusebius 71 recordedthattheApostleThomaswassenttoParthia. IPeter 5:13recordsthattheApostlePeterwasinParthianterritory(the cityofBabylon)whenhewrotehisfirstepistle.SinceMatthew 10:6statesthatJesussenthisApostlestothelostsheepofthe
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HouseofIsrael,thepresenceofatleasttwoApostlesin Parthianterritoryconfirmsthattheywereevangelizingtheten tribesofIsraellocatedinParthia.Theirmessagesurelyincluded thetheme:youParthiansarethetentribesofIsrael,andthe Messiah(Jesus)hassentustoyou!SincesomeofParthias rulingclass(theMagi)hadalreadyworshippedJesusChrist,the apostleswereassuredofamuchwarmerreceptionfortheir messageinParthiathaninRomandomains. TheaboverevealsthatParthianRomaneventsofthisperiod mustbeunderstoodinthecontextofwhatwasclearlya significantpenetrationoftheChristianreligionintoParthia (includingtherulingclasses).TheEncyclopaediaBritannica commentsasfollowsregardingthisperiodinParthiashistory: ...Greekculturepracticallyvanishesand givesplacetoAramaicitissignificantthatin [the]futuretheKingsofMesenestamped theircoinagewithAramaiclegends.This Aramaicvictorywaspowerfullyaidedby theeverincreasingprogressof Christianity...[andcites]Edessa,acityin whichthelastkingofOsroene,AbgarIX (179214A.D.),hadbeenconvertedtothe faith72 (Emphasisadded.) AccordingtoHarpersBibleDictionary,Aramaicwas: aSemiticlanguagecloselyrelatedto Hebrew[and]severalpassagesintheOTare writteninOfficialAramaic[citedaretextsin Ezra,Daniel,JeremiahandGenesis].Jesus probablyspokeadialectofWesternAramaic andsomewordsintheNTcomefrom Aramaic,e.g.,TalithaCumi,Maranatha,and Golgotha.73
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TheprominenceofAramaicinParthianlifeduringtheChristian apostolicandpostapostolicperiodwaslinkedtothespreadof ChristianityintoParthiafromtheMideast(whereAramaicwas dominant).AddtothistherecordofJosephus,theJewish historianofthatperiod,whostatedthatthedescendantsofthe tentribesofIsraelwereexceedinglynumerousandliving beyondEuphrates.Asmentionedearlier,thephrasebeyond Euphrateswas,forJosephusaeuphemismwhichmeantin ParthiasempiresincetheEuphrateshadlongbeenthe recognizedborderbetweentheRomanandParthianEmpires.If educatedJewssuchasJosephusrealizedthattheParthianswere thetentribesofIsrael,andsinceregularcommerceand communicationoccurredbetweenJudeaandParthia(asActs2:9 confirms),thenitislogicalthattheParthiansalsorealizedtheir originsatthattime.Indeed,howcouldtheynothaveknownit? ThepresenceinJudeaofhighrankingParthianMagitoworship theyoungJesusarguesthatmanyParthianswereawareoftheir Israeliteheritageandorigins. ThereignofVolagasesII,Parthiasemperorfor19years (130149A.D.),ischaracterizedashavingageneralcharacter oftranquility.74 ThistranquilitywithinParthiasrulinghouse standsinstarkcontrasttothemurderousinternalstrugglesof theArsacidspriortotheChristianapostolicera.AsChristianity penetratedtheParthianEmpire,itwouldseemthatitsbenign doctrinesinfluencedtheconductofParthiasrulersaswell. Predictably,theRomanseventuallyrenegedontheirtreatywith Parthia.DuringTrajansinvasion,theRomanshadcaptureda Parthiangoldenthrone,andhadpromisedtoreturnitaspart ofthepeacesettlement.AfterattemptstosecureRoman 75 compliancewiththetreatyfailed,Parthiawenttowar. Under VolagasesIII,ParthiaconqueredArmenia,andrestoredanative ruleraskingofArmenia.ARomanlegioncrossedtheEuphrates
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andwasdestroyedbytheParthians.TheParthiansthencrossed theEuphratesintoRomanSyriaandPalestine,buttheirpresence wasshortlived.ARomanarmyledbyAvidiusCassiuswona majorbattleagainsttheParthians,whoretreatedacrossthe Euphrates. AvidiusCassiusthenledhisarmyacrosstheEuphrates,and proceededtoreconquerParthianterritoriesoccupiedbriefly duringTrajansinvasion.CassiusburnedSeleucia(havingthen 400,000residents),andcapturedCtesiphon(Parthiaswestern capital).TheRomansmarchedatwillthroughParthiaswestern provinces,andtheParthiansseemedpowerlesstoresist.Just whentheRomansseemedinvinciblehowever,theyweredriven fromParthia,notbyaParthianarmybutbyaterribleplague. OnewondersifthearrogantRomanstauntedtheheavenswith wordslike:whereistheGodoftheParthianswhosupposedly plaguedTrajan?orParthiasGodcantprotectthemfromus! Whethersuchanattitudeprovokedadivineresponse(asitdidin thetimeofKingHezekiahofancientJudahIIKings1819)or whetherGodmerelyallowedtheParthianstocometothepoint ofrealizingtheirdependenceonhim,thisplaguedevastatedthe entireRomanEmpire.Thisplaguewassooverwhelmingthat therewasnodoubtinRomanmindsthattheplaguewas supernaturalinnature.ThepolytheisticRomans,withno awarenessoftheCreatorGod,attributedthedivineplagueto spellsoftheChaldeansunleashedbecauseofRomanexcesses 76 inlootingatempleofApollo. Theplague,ofastrangeandterriblecharacter,77 wasso virulentthatRawlinsonreferstothereturnofthisarmytoRome asamarchofdeaththroughtheprovincesasitspreadthe diseasethroughouttheprovincesoftheRomanEmpire. RawlinsoncitesRomanhistoriansinstating: thepestilenceragedwithspecialforce
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throughoutItaly,andspreadasfarasthe RhineandAtlanticOceanmorethanonehalf oftheentirepopulation,andalmostthewhole Romanarmy,wascarriedoffbyit.78 Thisplaguewasresponsibleforseverelyreducingthenative LatinpopulationofboththeRomanEmpireanditsarmy. Significantly,whilethisplaguedevastatedthewholeRoman Empire,thereisnomentionofitaffectingParthia.Thatthis plaguerescuedParthiaanddevastatedtheirRomaninvaders supportsabeliefthattheplaguewasadivinejudgmentofGod againstRome. TheRomans,rememberingthatthelastRomanarmytoenterso deeplyintoParthiawasalsodevastatedbydivineaction, developedabeliefthatthepreviousreturnofParthianterritory bytheEmperorHadriansprangmorefromprudencethanfrom generosity.79 Whilemodernmanmayscoffatthethoughtof divineinterventionintheaffairsofnations,theancientRomans didnotbelieveittobecoincidentalthatterriblenaturalplagues befellthemeachtimetheypenetrateddeeplyintoParthian territory. Decadeslater,anothermajorRomanParthianwarwasfoughtin approximately194200A.D.inwhichsubjectMesopotamian peoplesmassacredRomangarrisons,aidedbyParthianvassal kings.ThisledtoaRomanParthianwarwhenSeverus,Romes emperor,ledanarmyacrosstheEuphrates.Divertedbyinternal problems,SeverusreturnedtoRome.TheParthiansattacked, routedtheRomansarmies,besiegedNisibis(aRoman headquarters)andcrossedtheEuphratesintoRomanterritory. SeverusreturnedtotheMiddleEast,andsupportedbylocal natives,conqueredhiswaytoCtesiphon,Parthiaswestern capitalontheTigrisRiver.TheRomanarmyperpetratedanorgy ofbloodletting,killingeveryParthianmalecaptive,andcarrying
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80 captiveintoslaveryabout100,000womenandchildren. Short ofsupplies,theRomanswithdrew,butthistimeretainedcontrol ofmostofMesopotamia.Parthiawasinertandfailedtoretaliate, indicatingastateofinternaldeclinewithinParthia.Furthermore, ifthepreviousdefeatsofRomanarmiesunderTrajanand AvidiusCassiusweretheresultofdivineaction,thelackofdivine assistanceinrepulsingthisRomanattackspeaksvolumes.Since GodsassistanceisdependentonobediencetoGodslaws,the lackofanyevidenceofdivineassistancearguesthatParthiawas inastateofmoraldecline.

ThefinalRomanParthianwarbeganwithimmensetreacheryon thepartoftheRomans.In215A.D.,theEmperorCaracallus, developedanelaboratedisinformationcampaigntodupethe Parthiansintolettingdowntheirdefenses.Heproposedapeace settlementwhichwouldbecementedbyamarriagebetween CaracallusandadaughteroftheParthianmonarch.TheRomans evenproposedapoliticalandeconomicunionbetweenParthia 81 andRome. EventhoughRomanpromiseshadneverhadanyworth,the ParthiansbelievedthedeceitfulRomanpeaceinitiative,and allowedtheRomanEmperor(escortedbyahugearmy)to proceedtotheParthiancapitalforthewedding.Itisatestimony tothehumancapacityforselfdelusionthattheParthianswere sogulliblywillingtobelievetheRomansinspiteofevery historicalwarningthatsuchanoffercouldnotbegenuine.They continuedinastateofdenialevenasCaracallusmarchedhis armytoCtesiphon,Parthiaswesterncapital.Parthiasowanted tobelievethatCaraculluswasareformer,anenlightenedmanof peace,differentfromthewarlikeRomansofthepast.The ParthiansreceivedtheRomanswithgenuinehospitality,certain thataNewWorldOrder[toborrowamodernterm]ofpeaceful harmonywasbeginning.
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AccordingtoHerodianshistory,theParthiansweretransported withjoyattheprospectofaneternalpeace...andwerekeeping holiday82 asCaracallusandhisarmyarrived.TheRomansthen droppedtheirpretenseofpeaceandbeganslaughteringthe gullibleParthians.TheParthianmonarchbarelyescapedwithhis life.NotcontentwithhisalreadyheinousbetrayalofParthian trust,theRomansthenaddedmassiveinsulttomassiveinjury bydesecratingtheParthianroyalcemeteryandscatteringthe 83 remainsofthedeceasedParthianemperors. Outraged,theParthiansassembledavastmilitaryforcetotake vengeanceontheRomans.Basedonsubsequentevents,itmay havebeenthelargestarmyParthiaeverassembled.Since Romesarmieshadneverpenetratedthehugeinteriorof Parthiasempire,mostParthianprovinceshadneverexperienced thetreacheryofRomesaggressions.However,allParthians throughouttheempirewereoutragedbytheviolationsofthe tombsandcorpsesoftheirdeademperors! Indeed,RomesarmieshadneverevencomeclosetoParthias homeland,whichwaslocatedsoutheastoftheCaspianSea. Ctesiphon,thewesterncapitalknowntotheRomans,was nowhereneartheactualhomelandoftheParthians.Itispossible thatCtesiphonwasanadministrativecenterforgoverningtheir westernprovinces,butthatothercapitalsexistedeastwardin theirempire.TheScythiannatureoftheParthiansiswellknown, andScythianreverenceforthedeadwasanhistorictrait.When DariusattackedtheScythiansmanycenturiesearliernearthe BlackSea,hewaswarnedthatretributionwouldbemostdireif 84 hedesecratedScythiancemeteries. Giventhehistoric relationshipbetweenParthiaandtheSacaetribesofScythia,itis possiblethatScythiantribesfurnishedtroopsforthisbattleas well. TheRomanheadquartersintheareawasatNisibis(nearthe
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modernborderofSyriaandTurkey).TheenragedParthianarmy headedforNisibistoavengethemselvesontheRomans. Caracallushadbeenassassinatedpriortothearrivalofthe Parthians,andthenewRomanemperor,Macrinus,triedto appeasetheParthiansbyofferingtoreturnParthiancaptivesas partofapeacetreaty.TheParthianemperor,ArtabanusIV, spurnedthisofferashisarmywastheretoexactvengeanceand spillasmuchRomanbloodaspossible. TheParthianandRomanarmies,bothheadedbytheir emperors,clashedinwhatmusthavebeenoneofthe fiercest(andbloodiest)battleseverfoughtintheancient world.Whatoccurredwasnotmerelyabattle,butthedeath struggleoftwomightyempires.Citingtheclassicalwriters, Rawlinsonstates: ThebattleofNisibis...wasthefiercest andbestcontestedwhichwasever foughtbetweentherivalpowers.It lasted...threedays.ThearmyofArtabanus wasnumerousandwellappointed:like almosteveryParthianforce,itwasstrongin cavalryandarchersandithad...anovel additionof...soldiers,cladincomplete armour,andcarryinglongspearsorlances, whoweremountedoncamels...TheRomans sufferedgreatlyfromthebowsofthehorse archers,andfromthelancesofthecorps mountedoncamelsand...astheyretired, theystrewedthegroundwithspikedballsand othercontrivancesforinjuringthefeetof animals.85 (Emphasisadded.) Thiskindoffightingwentonforthreefulldays.Thearmorclad Parthiansmusthavelookedlikemedievalknightsasthey
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chargedtheRomanswithleveledlances.TheRomans,however, wereingeniousincounteringtheseassaultsbymaimingthe Parthiananimals.Thekillingwasawesome.Itisrecordedthat thebodiesofthedeadwere: piledtosuchaheightthatthemanoeuvresof thetroopswereimpededbythem,andatlast thetwocontendinghostscouldscarcelysee oneanother!86 Atthispointofmutualexhaustion,thebattleendedwithaclear Parthianvictory.Macrinus,theRomanemperor,fledthescene andafterwardagreedtorepatriateallParthiancaptivesandto payahugewarindemnitytoParthia.Inhisbook,Persia, publishedin1888,historianS.G.W.Benjaminwritesofthis event: Macrinus...theRomanemperor...wasobliged to...payanindemnityof$50,000,000 denarii...tothegreatrivalofRomealmostin theveryhourwhenthedoomofParthiawas soundingonthegreatbelloftime.Thehero [Artabanus,Parthiasemperor]whowresteda warindemnityfromaRomanemperorwas alsothelastofhisline.87 TheclassicalGrecoRomanhistorianswrotecopiouslyabout ScythianandParthianhistory.Asrecentas1888,ahistorian couldstillrecognizethebattleofNisibisbetweenRomeand Parthiaasoneofthegreatesteventsofworldhistory.Yettoday, theimportanthistoriesofScythiaandParthiahavebeenvirtually erasedfromhistorytexts.Whatcausedthisglaringomission? Duringthenineteenthcentury,thefamoushistorianGeorge RawlinsonwrotebooksabouttheParthianEmpireinanattempt tocounterwhathecalledadefectiveandfalseviewofhistory
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whichomittedthemajorroleoftheParthianEmpireinworld history.Isitonlycoincidentalthatmodernhistorybooks deemphasizeoromitthehistoriesofempiresfoundedbytheten tribesofIsrael(Phoenicia,Carthage,ScythiaandParthia)while waxingeloquentaboutthehistoriesofthenonIsraeliteempires? Inthelatenineteenthandtwentiethcenturies,thedogmaof evolutionbecamethenewreligionofasecularizedworld.Itis nowpoliticallyincorrecttohaverealfaithintheBibleorthe GodofIsrael.Ithardlyseemscoincidentalthattheworlds awarenessofthehistoryofthetentribesofIsrael(animportant biblicaltheme)declinedevenasevolutionbecamethenewgod ofmodern,secularizedculture. TheParthianEmpirehadwonagreatvictoryovertheRoman Empire.OnewouldexpecttheParthianEmpiretobe reinvigoratedbyitstriumph,but,infact,theendofitsempire wasathand.Itisrecordedthat,inthistimeoftrial,Artabanus IV,Parthiasemperor,soughttotheoccultforguidanceandwas 88 toldParthiasempirewasabouttoend. Thisaccountechoes thatofSaul,thefirstIsraeliteking,whoseefforttoseekoccult guidanceviaanancientseance,ledtohisdefeatanddeath(I Samuel28:725).Basedonbiblicalprecedent,itisasymptomof advancedmoraldecayinasocietywhenitsleadersseektothe occult(astrology,channelers,etc.)forguidance.Suchactions notonlyforfeitGodsfavor(viathesinofidolatry),butalso invitehispunishment.IfGodhaddivinelyprotectedParthiain earlierbattles,thissinofArtabanuswasespeciallygrievous. SoonafteroneofParthiasgreatestvictoriesoverRome,Parthia collapsed. In220A.D.,theprovinceofPersiarevolted.Aseriesofthree battleswasfoughtwhichresultedinaPersianvictoryin227 A.D.,costingArtabanusIVhislifeandeffectivelyendingthe ParthianEmpire.TheSassanianPersianEmpirereplacedthe
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ParthianEmpire,andtheParthianswereforcedtomigrateoutof theiroldempiretofleethePersians.Somehistoriesdiscuss ParthianhistoryaspartofPersianhistory,althoughthisis misleading.AlthoughtheParthiansruledtheterritoryofthe previousPersianEmpire,theParthiansandPersiansweretwo separatepeopleinthesameregionoftheworld.TheParthians hadbeenthesubjectsofthePersiansbeforeestablishingtheir ownempire,inwhichthePersianswereasubjectnation.In220 227A.D.,thePersiansthrewoffParthianruleanddrovethe Parthiansoutoftheregion.Wheretheywentandthenewnames bywhichtheycametobeknownwillbediscussedinchapterten. ThediscussionofParthiashistoryhassofarbeendominatedby eventsalongitswesternborders.Thisisunavoidablesince classicalGreekandRomanwritingsarethebasisformuchof whatweknowaboutParthia.Naturally,theseancientwriters wrotemostlyabouttheeventsthatoccurredinthewestern areasofParthiawhereRomesandParthiasspheresofinfluence overlapped.Thewarsandeventsdetailedsofartookplace basicallywithintheterritoriesofmodernSyria,TurkeyandIraq. ParthiasEmpirealsoincludedmodernIran,Afghanistan,a portionofwesternPakistanandthesouthernregionsofthe formerSovietUnion.NoRomanarmyeverpenetratedthese regionsofParthia,andlessisknownoftheirancienthistory. BesidesParthia,portionsofthetentribesofIsraelalsoruleda SakakingdomtotheeastofParthiaintheregionofmodern PakistanandwestIndia.VariousSaka(SacaeorScythian)kings beganrulinginPakistanandNorthwestIndiainthefirstcentury 89 B.C. TheserulerswerelaterreplacedbyPahlavaorIndo ParthianrulerswhohadnamesliketheParthianArsacids. AmongtheserulerswasGondophares,whoexhibitedthename oftheDavidicroyallineofthekingdomofJudah(Phares).The EncyclopediaBritannicastatesthename[Pahlavi]...means
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Parthian.90 TheseSakakingsborethenameofIsaac,and theirkingshadParthiannames.Wedonotknowtowhatextent theParthianemperorsandtheSakakingseithercooperatedor competed.RichardFryewritesthefollowingconcerningParthian Sakaaffairs: IndiansourcesimplythattheSakasandthe Pahlavas[Parthians]werealliesintheir Indianconquestsandthiswouldseemtobe corroboratedbythecoinswithbothSakaand Parthiannames.[However]Theadoptionof thetitlekingofkingsbyGondophares ...wouldimplythattheseIndoParthiankings werecompletelyindependentoftheParthian rulers.91 ThetitlekingofkingswasthestandardtitleofParthian Emperors,andtheIndoParthianuseofthetermconfirmstheir affinitywithParthiaeveniftheyconstitutedaseparatekingdom. WhilelittleisknownofParthiaseasternaffairs,wedoknowthat Parthiandominanceand/orinfluenceextendedintomodern India. WehavealreadyseenthattheParthiansplacedSemiticlegends ontheircoinsduringtheearlyChristianera.However,thereis additionalevidencethattheParthianshadlongspokenaSemitic language.JosephusobservedthatheoriginallywrotehisWarsof theJewsinhisnativeSemitictonguesothatthepeopleof ParthiacouldunderstandwhathappenedintheRomanJewish warofthefirstcenturyA.D.Josephusstated: Ihaveproposed...forthesakeofsuchas liveunderthegovernmentoftheRomans,to translatethosebooksintotheGreektongue, whichIformerlycomposedinthe languageofourowncountry,andsentto
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theUpperBarbarians...[identifiedina footnoteastheParthians,Babylonians, Arabians,andtheJewsbeyond Euphrates...andtheAdiabene.]92 (Emphasisadded.) Josephus,beforewritinginGreektotheRomans,hadwritten WarsoftheJewsinhisownSemiticlanguagesotheParthians andothernationsintheParthianempirecouldreadhisworks. NotethephrasebeyondEuphratesisagainusedasa euphemismtodesignateParthianterritory.Whenhewrotetothe Romans,hewasmindfulofRomansensitivitiesincallingthe ParthiansUpperBarbarians.Rawlinsonstatesthefollowing aboutJosephuscomments: Josephus...regardedtheParthiansas familiarwithHebrew,orSyroChaldaic,and wrotehishistoryoftheJewishWarinhis ownnativetongue,beforeheputouthis Greekversion,forthebenefitespeciallyof theParthians,amongwhomhedeclareshe hadmanyreaders93 (Emphasisadded.) ItisatellingcommentarythattheParthiansweresofamiliar withtheHebrew/AramaiclanguagethattheParthianscouldread whateverJosephuswroteinhisnativetongue.Theobvious conclusionisthattheJewsandParthianssharedacommon nativetongue,andthesimilarityoftheParthianand Hebrew/AramaiclanguagesfurtherindicatesthattheParthians werethedescendantsofthetentribesofIsrael. WhywouldtheParthianshaveaparticularinterestinthewritings ofJosephus,andwhywouldJosephushaveaparticularinterest incommunicatinginformationtothem?Theclearansweristhat boththeParthiansandJosephusrealizedthattheParthianswere
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thedescendantsofthetentribesofIsrael!Nothingelsemakes sense.JosephuswasaproductofthesameJewishculturethat shapedtheconvertsoftheearlyNewTestamentchurch(Acts 10:28).ThatcultureregardednonIsraelitesasuncleanpeople withwhomJewscouldnotfellowship.Josephus,himselfa Pharisee,wouldhavebeenshapedbyantigentileideas,and wouldnothaveregardedtheParthiansasworthyofextensive communicationonhispartunlessherealizedthattheParthians werefellowIsraelitesofthetentribesofIsrael. OnParthiasnorthernborderweretheirScythiankinsmen.While therewerehostilitiesbetweentheParthiansandtheScythians, suchepisodesweretheexceptionratherthantherule.Infact, onmanyoccasions,theParthiansreceivedreinforcementsfrom theScythiantribestostrengthentheirownmilitarypower.In someinstances,variousScythiantribesessentiallydecidedwhich ArsacidwouldruleParthiabyinterveninginbehalfofcertain claimantsindisputesovertheParthianthrone. ParthiamaintainedextensivetraderelationswiththeScythians andotherpeopleontheirnorthernandeasternbordersas indicatedbythepresenceofParthiancoinsbeing: foundontheVolga,intheCaucasus,in ChineseTurkestanandelsewhere...Atthe sametimeParthianChinesecontactsoverland areattestedinChinesesources.94 ParthiaalsohadextensivetraderelationswithRomeduringtheir periodsofdetente.DuringthesetimestheParthianmerchant classimportedmetalsandvariousmanufactureditemsfrom Romeinexchangefortextilesandspicessuppliedbythe 95 Parthians. TheaboveindicatesthattheParthianswere capitalistswhotookadvantageoftheirstrategicpositionas geographicmiddlemenbetweentheRomanworldandtheOrient.
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ConcerningParthiasreligion,weknowthattheirempire containedsunworshippersandotherpaganreligions.As discussedearlier,JudaismwascommoninParthia,and Christianitybecamequitesignificantinthefirstandsecond centuriesA.D.Indeed,Rawlinsonwrotethefollowing: ChristianityalsopenetratedtheParthian provincestoaconsiderableextent,andinone Parthiancountry...seemstohavebecomethe statereligion.ThekingsofOsrhoeneare thoughttohavebeenChristiansfromthetime oftheAntonines...andaflourishingchurch wascertainlyestablishedatEdessabeforethe endofthesecondcentury.96 Parthiaallowedconsiderablefreedomofreligionforits 97 subjects, atolerantattitudenottypicaloftheancientworlds empires.Rawlinsonadds: TheParthianshadmanyliberalusageswhich implyafairlyadvancedcivilisation...inpolitical matterstheyseemtohavebeenfreefromthe narrownesswhichgenerallycharacterizes barbarousnations.Theybehavedwellto prisoners,admittedforeignersfreelytooffices ofhightrust,gaveanasylumtorefugees,and treatedthemwithrespectandkindness,were scrupulousobserversoftheirpledgedword, andeminentlyfaithfultotheirtreaty obligations.98 Additionally,Parthiasempirewasbasedonafeudalsystem whichforeshadowedthefeudalsystemofMedievalEuropebya millennium.TheParthianselectedtheirmonarchsviathe Megistanes,abicameralbodyrepresentingtheroyalty,the
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priestlytribeandthenobility.Theywerecapitalistswhotraded widelywithothernations,andevenwiththeirenemieswhen possible.TheParthianspermittedfreedomofreligion,andgave liberaldispensationsofhomeruletomanynationsandcitiesin theirempire.Giventhefactthatthereweremanyadherentsof JudaismandChristianityintheParthianEmpire,itisnot surprisingthattheirempirewasknownbymanyofthe commendabletraitsofwhatisnowreferredtointhemodern worldastheJudeoChristianethic. Incontrast,theRomanshadareligionofsuperstitious polytheism,launchedmanywarsofaggressionsimplytoexalt theegoofvariousemperorsandcommanders,enslavedother nationswithtightfistedcontrol,oppressedtheJews,persecuted theChristians,regularlyviolatedtreaties,andwatchedgladiators andanimalskilleachotherinthearenasforsport.Yethistories routinelydescribetheRomansascivilized,andcallthe Parthiansbarbarians. Byanystandardofcomparison,whichempirewas civilized,andwhichwasbarbaric?Theansweris obviousitwasfarmorepleasanttoliveunderParthianrulethan underRomes,asthenationscaughtbetweenthetwoempires regularlyaffirmed. Thewesternworldisgenerallytaughtthatitsrootscomefrom ancientRomaninstitutions,andnewgenerationsareforcefed thehistoryofRomewhiletheempireofParthiaisscarcely mentioned.However,itisclearthatthegovernmentaland societalstructureofmedievalEuropeandthemodernwestern worldhavemuchmoreincommonwiththeinstitutionsand practicesoftheParthianEmpirethanthoseoftheRoman Empire.Aswillbeseeninchapterten,thewesternworldhas beentaughtamajorhistoricalerror.EventhoughEuropeand themodernwesternworlddevelopedinthegeographicareaof
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theoldRomanempire,theirsocialandpoliticalinstitutionsare firmlyrootedintheheritageofParthia. BeforeweexaminethehistoryoftheParthianmigrationsoutof Asia,animportantchaptermustbeinserted.Thefollowing chapterwilldiscussthelifeofJesusChristandtheinitialhistory oftheearlyChristianchurchwithinthehistoricalcontextofthe RomanParthianrivalrywhichdominatedtheworldintowhich Jesuswasborn.ThefullstoryofChristslifecannotbe understoodapartfromthisParthianRomancontext.Thecoming oftheMagi(membersofParthiasrulingclass)intoRoman territorytoworshiptheyoungJesusasakinghintsofmany mysteriesinvolvingthelifeofJesusChrist.Thefollowingchapter containsmajorsurprises!

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Endnotes:ChapterEight 1. Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,preface,pp.vvii 2. Rawlinson,Parthia,p.47 3. Josephus,Antiquities,XI,VIII,5 4. Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,pp.4951 5. Ibid,pp.5457 6. Ibid,pp.6367 7. Ibid,pp.9495 8. Ibid,pp.77and79 9. Ibid,p.99 10.Ibid,p.105 11.Ibid,p.105 12.Josephus,Antiquities,XIII,VIII,4,andXIII,IX,1(alsosee footnote) 13.Strabo,TheGeographyofStrabo,translatedbyHorace Jones,11,9,3 14.Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,p.85 15.Ibid,p.85 16.Ibid,p.86 17.Ibid,p.393 18.Ibid,p.87 19.Ibid,pp.8788 20.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.17,Persia,p.578 21.Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,pp.8889 22.Rawlinson,Parthia,p.8283 23.Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,pp.116118 24.Frye,TheHeritageofPersia,pp.207208andthe EncyclopaediaBritannica,Parthia,Vol.17,p.344 25.Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,pp.117118 26.Ibid,seemapafterp.78 27.Ibid,p.115 28.Ibid,p.118 29.EncyclopaediaBritannica,EphthalitesorWhiteHuns,
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Vol.8,p.646 30.Ibid,Vol.8,p.646 31.Ibid,Vol.8,p.646 32.EncyclopaediaBritannica,IndoScythians,Vol.12,p.270 33.Ibid,Vol.2,BabyloniaandAssyria,p.857 34.Rawlinson,Parthia,p.140 35.Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,p.146 36.Ibid,pp.147148 37.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.17,Persia,p.579 38.Josephus,Antiquities,XIV,VII,1 39.Rawlinson,TheSixthGreatOrientalMonarchy,p.154 40.Ibid,pp.155156 41.Ibid,p.160 42.Ibid,p.161 43.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.17,Persia,p.581 44.Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,p.172(seealso footnote#5) 45.Ibid,p.174 46.Frye,TheHeritageofPersia,p.214 47.Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,p.188 48.Ibid,p.190191 49.Josephus,Antiquities,XI,V,2 50.Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,pp.200201 51.Ibid,p.216 52.Ibid,pp.218219 53.Ibid,pp.246247,266 54.Ibid,pp.231234 55.Ibid,p.255 56.Ibid,pp.270,279280 57.Ibid,p.282 58.Ibid,p.294 59.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Dacia,Vol.6,p.969 60.Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,pp.296297
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61.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.1.,Alphabet,pp.683684 62.Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,pp.304305 63.Ibid,p.308 64.Ibid,p.309 65.Ibid,p.312313 66.Ibid,p.315 67.Ibid,p.317 68.Ibid,p.318 69.YoungsAnalyticalConcordancetotheBible,HebrewLexicon, wordMelek,p.26 70.Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy, p.297(footnoteNo.1) 71.Eusebius,TheHistoryoftheChurch(TheEcclesiastical History),Book3,1,1 72.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Persia,Vol.17,p.580 73.HarpersBibleDictionary,Aramaic,p.43 74.Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,p.319 75.Ibid,pp.322325 76.Ibid,p.328 77.Ibid,p.328 78.Ibid,p.329 79.Ibid,p.329 80.Ibid,pp.340341 81.Ibid,p.352 82.Ibid,p.354(footnoteno.1) 83.Ibid,p.356 84.Herodotus,TheHistory,4.127 85.Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,pp.358359 86.Ibid,p.360 87.Benjamin,Persia,p.170 88.Ibid,p.173 89.Frye,TheHeritageofPersia,p.198 90.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Pahlavi,Vol.17,p.30
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91.Frye,TheHeritageofPersia,p.213 92.Josephus,WarsoftheJews,Preface,12 93.Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,p.424 94.Frye,p.224 95.Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,pp.425426 96.Ibid,p.401(seealsofootnotes57) 97.Ibid,pp.400401,426 98.Ibid,p.426

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9.TheLifeofJesusChristTheUntoldStory PartOne:TheChildhoodYears(BirthtoAge12) MuchhasbeenwrittenaboutthelifeofJesusChrist,the historicalpersonwhosenameisattachedtothemanydifferent denominationsofChristianitywhichexisttoday.Infact,somuch hasbeenwrittenthatonemightwonderwhetheranythingtruly newcouldbewrittenaboutthisonelife.Asthereaderwillsee, newinformationaboutthelifeofJesusChristcanbeascertained bycombiningbiblicalandsecularhistoricalaccountsand traditionsaboutthetimeinwhichhelived.Thischapterisnot intendedtobeacompletehistoryofthelifeofJesusChrist.It willcoverthoseaspectsofhislifeandtimeswhichhavenotbeen generallyknown. ThepriorchapterdealingwiththeParthianEmpirediscussed historicaleventswhichshapedtheworldintowhichJesusChrist wasborn.Whensomesurprisinginformationabouthislifeis addedtothehistorycontainedinthepreviouschapter,itcanbe seenthatJesusChristactuallyplayedaroleinthegreatpower politicswhichoccurredbetweentheempiresofParthiaand Rome.Ifhehadchosentodoso,hecouldhavehadamuch largerroleinthepoliticalaffairsofthatera,andtheBiblehints atsuchapossibility. ThischapterwillbeginbyofferingfirmevidencethatJesusChrist wasareal,historicalperson.Josephus,aJewishhistorianofthe firstcenturyA.D.,regardedthelifeofJesusChristasan establishedfact.InAntiquitiesoftheJews,Josephuswrote: therewasaboutthistime[Josephushere referstomattersconcerningPontiusPilate, RomanprocuratorofJudea],Jesus,awise man,ifitbelawfultocallhimaman,forhe wasadoerofwonderfulworks,ateacherof
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suchmenasreceivethetruthwithpleasure. HedrewovertohimbothmanyoftheJews, andmanyoftheGentiles.HewasChristand whenPilate,atthesuggestionoftheprinciple menamongus,hadcondemnedhimtothe cross...heappearedtothemaliveagainthe thirdday,asthedivineprophetshadforetold theseandtenthousandotherwonderful thingsconcerninghimandthetribeof Christians,sonamedfromhim,arenot extinctatthisday.1 Inthisaccount,writtenshortlyafterChristdied,Josephusnot onlygaveusapowerfulwitnessthatJesusChristtrulylived,but alsoprovidedanindependentcorroborationofmanyofthe biblicallydiscussedeventsofhislife.Josephusreferstohimas awiseman,andwonderswhetherhewasmorethanamere manbecauseofthewonderfulworkshedid.Thatanon Christian,Jewishhistorianoftheapostolicerawritesofthe miraclesofJesusasactualfactsoffersproofofhismiracles. JosephusagreeswiththetestamentalwritingsthatJesuswas indeedsentencedtobecrucifiedbyPontiusPilateatthebehest oftheJewishSanhedrin(theprinciplemenamongus). JosephusacknowledgesthatJesusChristfulfilledthemany propheciesoftheHebrewprophetsabouttheMessiah,andeven referstohisresurrectionasahistoricalfact! JosephusreferencetoJesusastheChristacknowledgesthat JesuswastheMessiah(theanointed).SinceanonChristian sourcesoclosetotheactualtimeofChristhasconfirmedthese factsofhislife,themusingsofmodernskepticsquestioning Christsexistencearewithoutmerit.Josephuscouldspeakwith eyewitnessesofJesuslifemodernskepticsarealmosttwo millenniaremovedfromtheevents,andtheirwritingsaremerely
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speculative. RomansecularsourcesalsoagreewithJosephus.Celsus,an antiChristianwriteroftheRomanEmpireinthesecondcentury A.D.,wrote:Itwasbymagicthathe[Jesus]wasabletodothe miracleswhichheappearedtohavedone.2 Inthisstatement, anantagonistofChristianitygrudginglyacknowledgesthereality ofChristsmiracles.However,Quadratus,writingin approximately117134A.D.urgedpeopletobelieveinJesus becausetheeffectofhismiraclescontinueduptothepresent peoplehadbeencuredandraisedfromthedead,andsomeof them...havesurvivedeventoourownday.3 Tacitus,the famousRomanhistorian,writingabouttheChristiansseveral decadesafterthedeathofChrist,stated:theiroriginator, Christ,hadbeenexecutedinTiberiusreignbythegovernorof Judea,PontiusPilate.4 Clearly,RomanrecordsconfirmthatJesusChristlived,andthat hewasexecutedinJudeaduringtheadministrationofPontius Pilate.EvenhisdetractorsandnonChristianwriters acknowledgedthatheperformedsupernaturaldeeds,andone writerrecordedthatsomepreviouslydeadpersonswereknown tobealiveasaresultofbeingresurrectedbyJesusChrist. WhateveronethinksaboutJesusChrist,webeginwiththefact thatheindeedlivedanddiedwhentheBiblestatesthathelived anddied,thatheperformedmarvelousdeeds,andthathemade amajorimpressiononthecivilizationofhisday. LetusnowreviewthehistoricalsettingintowhichJesusChrist wasborn.TheRomanandParthianEmpireswerebothpowerful, wellestablishedsuperpowerrivalsatthetimeJesuswasborn. RomeruledtheMediterraneanregion,andParthiaruledAsian landsfrommodernSyriatoIndia.Palestinewaslocatedwithin theRomanEmpire,butwasclosetotheParthianborder(the EuphratesRiver).
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InthedecadesprevioustothebirthofJesus,RomeandParthia foughtseveralbattleswithonebeingfoughtnearAntiochof 5 Syria(veryclosetoPalestine). Inabout40B.C.,theParthians launchedamajorassaultwhichswepttheRomansoutofAsiafor ashorttime.Forthreeyears(4037B.C.)Palestinewaswithin theParthianEmpireandwasruledbyaJewishvassalkingofthe ParthiansnamedAntigonus.AtthattimeKingHerod(theRoman kingofJudea)fledfromtheParthiansinfearofhislife.Whilethe ParthiansponsoredruleofAntigonuswasbrief,itwasapparently popularwiththeJews.WhentheParthianswithdrewacrossthe Euphrates,Antigonus,withJewishsupport,attemptedto maintainhimselfaskingoftheJews,butwasdefeatedbyHerod. MarkAntony(theRomanleaderfamousforhisdalliancewith Cleopatra)orderedAntigonusbeheaded,andJosephusrecords thatthiswasdonetocompeltheJewstoreacceptthehated 6 Herodastheirking. MarkAntonythenledamassiveinvasionof Parthiain3736B.C.,buthisarmywasutterlydefeatedbythe 7 Parthians. Tohelpmodernreadersgainaframeofreferenceforthese ancientevents,theseRomanParthianwarsweremorerecent eventsforthepeopleintheperiodwhenJesuswasbornthan WorldWarIIandtheKoreanWararetomodernreaders. ParthianruleoverPalestinewas,therefore,vividlyremembered bymanyinJewishsocietyasbeingpreferabletoRomanrule. MarkAntonysdefeatledtoalongperiodofdetentebetween thetwoempires,withtheEuphratesRiverservingastheborder betweentheirtwovastempires.Thisprolongedperiodof 8 peacefulrelationslastedfrom36B.C.until58A.D., including notonlyallofJesusChristslife,butalsotheearlyperiodofthe Apostolicchurchaswell.Rawlinsonrecordsthatitwasan establishedRomanpolicynottoprovokeaParthianwarduring thatperiodoftimesolongasbothempiresagreedtocoexiston
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separatebanksoftheEuphratesRiver.Rawlinsoncommentson thispeacefulinterludeasfollows: ItisawellknownfactthatAugustusleftitas aprincipleofpolicytohissuccessorsthatthe RomanEmpirehadreacheditsproperlimits, andcouldnotwithadvantagebeextended further.Thisprinciple,followedwiththe utmoststrictnessbyTiberius,wasacceptedas arulebyalltheearlierCaesars...9 Obviously,aslongastheCaesarswantedpeacewithParthia, RomanofficialsalongParthiasborder(suchasKingHerodand PontiusPilate)knewtheywouldrisktheirpositionsandlivesif theyentangledRomeinanunwantedwarwithParthia. WithoutthisperiodofParthianRomandetente,itwouldhave beenwellnighimpossibleforsomeoftheeventsofJesus Christslifetohaveoccurred,asweshallsee.Thefirstsuch eventwasthecomingoftheMagi,orWiseMentopayhomage toJesus.WereadofthiseventinMatthew2:112,which becomesmoreimportantwhenconsideredintheoverallcontext ofRomanParthianrelations. TheMagiwerepowerfulmembersofoneofthetwoassemblies whichelectedParthianmonarchsandwieldedgreatinfluence withintheempire.Oneassemblywascomposedofmembersof theroyalfamily(theArsacids),andtheotherconsistedofthe priests(theMagi)andinfluentialParthiansofnonroyalblood (theWiseMen).TheMagiandWiseMenwerejointlyknownas 10 theMegistanes. TheKingJamesVersionoftheBiblestatesin Matthew2:1thatwisemenfromtheeastcametoworship Jesus.ThetermWiseMen,canbeseenasthepropertitleof ParthianMegistanes.TheGreekwordtranslatedwisemenis magian,literallymeaningPersianastronomerorpriest.11 ParthiahadlonggovernedallPersianterritoryatthetimeof
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Christ,andtheWiseMencitedintheBiblewereclearly membersoftheMegistanes,veryhighParthianofficials.While traditionalChristianaccountsofthisepisodecelebratethe comingofthethreewisemen,theBibledoesnotlimitthe numberofvisitingMagi/WiseMentothreemen.Indeed, Biblicaleventsandtherealitiesofthattimearguefora muchlargercontingentofParthianMagi. SincewesawinpreviouschaptersthattheParthianswere descendedfromthetentribesofIsraelandthattheirpriests werelikelydescendedfromthetribeofLevi,thisdelegationof MagiconsistedofleadingmembersofthetentribesofIsrael. SincetherewerenumerousmembersofthetribeofJudahin Parthiasempire,theymayhavebeenrepresentedaswell. Consequently,thedelegationofMagicouldeasilyhaveconsisted ofatleasttenortwelvemenrepresentingthevarioustribesof Israel. Also,theBibleshowsthattheMagididnotvisittheyoungJesus inthemangeratBethlehem(asmostnativityscenesdepict),but rathervisitedJesusinahousesomewhatafterhisbirth.Matthew 2:11statesthatthisvisitoftheMagitookplaceinahouse(not atthemanger)whenJesuswasoldenoughtobecalledayoung child(nolongeraninfantinswaddlingclothes).Lukesversion ofChristsbirth(Luke2:840)mentionstheshepherdsarrivalat themanger,butmakesnomentionofanyMagivisitingChristat thattime. Matthew2:8addsthatHerodsenttheMagitoBethlehemafter conferringwiththeJewishhierarchyabouttheprophesied locationoftheMessiahsbirth.TheycitedMicah5:2thatthe MessiahwouldoriginateinBethlehem,andtheywerelikely familiarwithDaniel9:2526whichpredictedthatthearrivalof theMessiahwasdueatthattime.Armedwiththisinformation, HerodthenprivatelymetwiththeParthiandelegation,and
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enquiredwhenthestarwhichtheyfollowedhadfirstappeared. Heapparentlylearnedthatthisperiodoftimewasalmosttwo yearsbecausehekilledallmalechildreninBethlehemundertwo yearsofageinanattempttokilltheMessiah(whomheregarded asacompetitorforhispositionaskingoftheJews). AlthoughtheBibletellsusthatthestarappearedtotheWise Menalmosttwoyearspriortohisbirth,thisoffersinexact informationindetermininghowoldJesuswaswhentheWise Mencametohim.SincetheWiseMenwereprominentpeoplein Parthiaatthetimeofthearrivalofthestar,theyhadtomake averytimeconsumingjourneytoreachJudea.Also,ittooktime topreparethecostlygiftstopresenttotheMessiah,settheir affairsinorderforalongabsence,organizeacaravan(andlikely obtainanarmedescortforprotection)andmakethelengthy journeytoJudea,ajourneywhichmovedatthespeedofthe slowestpackanimalinthecaravan.Sincethestarmayhave appearedtotheWiseMenpriortoJesusbirth,Jesusmayhave beenafewmonths(oruptotwoyears)oldatthetimeofthe Magisarrival.ConsideralsothatMatthew2:13states: NowwhenJesuswasborninBethlehemof JudeainthedaysofHerodtheking,behold, therecamewisemenfromtheeastto Jerusalem.Saying,whereishethatisborn KingoftheJews?forwehaveseenhisstar intheeast,andarecometoworshiphim. WhenHerodthekingheardthesethings,he wastroubled,andallJerusalemwith him. Thisaccountdoesnotindicatethatthreewisemenfromtheeast quietlyvisitedHerod,thenJesus,andthenjustasquietlyleft JudeatoreturntoParthia.TheirarrivalinJerusalemwasavery publicaffairbecauseallJerusalemwastroubledbytheir
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arrival.ThisindicatesthattheMagi(adelegationofadozenor morehighParthianofficials)cametoJerusaleminacaravan loadedwithcostlytreasuresandescortedbyastrongforceof armedParthiansoldiers!SincetheMagiwerehighofficialsofthe Parthiangovernment,theywouldcustomarilytravelwitha substantialescortofParthiansoldierstoguaranteetheir protection.Sincetheyweretravelingwithmanycostlytreasures topresenttothenewbornMessiah,theirescortmayhavebeen unusuallylarge. Also,thesehighofficialswouldhavetraveledwithalarge entourageofservants,animalhandlers,cooks,etc.onsucha longjourney.TheentourageinthisParthiancaravanmayhave constitutedmanyhundredsofpeople!Giventhefactthatmany highParthianofficialsandveryexpensivetreasureswereinthe caravan,theremayhavebeenmanythousandsofParthian soldiersescortingthecaravan.Thisisnotanoverstatement. Josephusrecordsthattreasurecaravansbringingexpensive offeringstoJerusalemfromJewslivinginParthianterritorydid 12 sowithmanytenthousandmenasescorts. Inancienttimes, travelingwithexpensiveitemswasdangerous.Therewasdanger notonlyfrombrigands,butalsofromlocalsatrapswhomight usetheirarmiestoconqueratreasuretrainpassingthrough theirterritories.IfJewishcommonersfromParthiawereallowed totraveltoJerusalemwiththeequivalentofseveralinfantry divisionsasescorts,wouldanimportantdelegationofParthias rulingclassandatreasuretrainofgiftshavebeenaccompanied byfewerarmedescorts? TheWiseMenwhocametoJesuswerenotbringingjustafew samplesofgoldandotherpreciousthingsthattheycarriedin theirpersonalsaddlebags.Theywerecomingtoworshiphewho wasbornkingoftheJews.ThisParthiandelegationwas offeringtributemoneytoaking,andthereforewouldmore
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likelyhavebroughtawholetrainofpackanimalsloadedwith gold,frankincenseandmyrrh. Theircaravanwassobigthattheirarrivalquicklybecamea causecelebreinJerusalem.Thewholecitywasinanuproar overtheirarrival,andthatarguesforaveryvisibleand impressiveParthiancaravanarrivinginJerusalemnotlongafter JesusbirthinBethlehem.Thesheersizeofthecaravan,its treasuresanditsescortsawedKingHerodandthewhole citytothepointtheywerealltroubled.Thisindicatesthat theParthiancaravanhadsomanyarmedescortsthatmany feareditwasaninvasionforcecomingtobesiegeJerusalem. However,theirannouncedreasonforcomingtovisittheMessiah stunnedacityofJewswhichintenselywantedtheMessiahto comeandfreethemfromRomanrule!ItisclearthattheJewish hierarchyunderstoodtheParthianswerelookingfortheMessiah astheyquicklylookedforMessianicpropheciestolocatethecity ofhisbirth. AftertheirconsultationswithHerodandhighJewishofficials,the ParthiandelegationtraveledtoworshipJesusandpresenttheir giftstohim(bythistime,Matthew2:11statesJesusandMary werelivinginahouse,sotheywerenolongerinthemanger). TheirjourneywouldhavebeencloselyfollowedbyHerodsspies. JosephwasthenwarnedbyGodinadreamtofleeintoEgypt (Matthew2:13)toavoidHerodsimpendingslaughterof Bethlehemsyoungmalechildren.SinceHerodsedictapplied onlytoBethlehem,therewouldhavebeennoneedforJoseph, MaryandJesustofleeunlesstheywerestillinBethlehem.Going toEgypttookthemcompletelyoutofHerodsareaofjurisdiction. HerodmadethemistakeofassumingtheMessiahwouldbeborn toafamilynativetotheBethlehemarea.However,Luke2:4 showsthatalthoughthefamilyintowhichJesuswasborn residedinGalilee,theyhadtojourneytoBethlehematthattime
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tocomplywithataxingedictbecausetheyweredirect descendantsofKingDavid.SinceLuke2:39statesthatJoseph, MaryandJesusreturnedtoGalileenotlongafterJesuswasborn, anddoesntevenmentiontheEgyptiantrip,itseemsapparent thatthestayofJoseph,MaryandJesusinEgyptwasbrief. Indeed,sincehistoryrecordsthatHerod(HerodtheGreat)died 13 in4B.C., andMatthew2:1419statesthatJesusandhis parentsreturnedfromEgyptassoonasHerodwasdead(4 B.C.),Herodmusthavediedsoonafterhegavetheordertoslay themalechildreninBethlehem. SinceHeroddiedin4B.C.andthedateofJesusbirthis acceptedtobearound4B.C.bymanyhistorians,theeventsof hisbirth,thearrivalofthecaravanoftheParthianMagi,the flighttoEgypt,thedeathofHerodandthereturnofJesusfamily fromEgyptoccurredwithinashorttime.SinceLuke2:39 indicatesthatJoseph,MaryandJesusreturnedtoGalileesoon afterJesusbirth,theaboveeventshadtooccurinashortperiod oftime. ItissignificantthatJesusparentswerefaithfultoGodslaw requiringcircumcisionontheeightday(Leviticus12:23),andto JewishcustombymakinganofferingtoGodattheTemplein Jerusalemtoconsecratetheirfirstbornmalechild(Luke2:21 24).ThisisanimportantobservationasitshowsJesuswas raisedandshapedinafamilyenvironmentthatobeyedGodand devoutlyobservedJewishcustoms. HistoryrecordsthatRomanParthianrelationswerepeacefulat thetimethatJesuswasborn.TheBibleconfirmsthiswasthe caseastheParthianMagididnotsneakintoRomanterritoryto lookfortheMessiah,butrathercamedirectlytoKingHerod, quiteopenabouttheirreasonsforbeinginRomanoccupied Palestine.TheyinformedHerodthattheyhadcometoworship hethatisbornkingoftheJews.
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ItisatributetothepowerofCaesarspolicythattheRoman Parthianpeacebemaintainedthatwardidnotresultfromthis statement,forHerodcouldeasilyhaveflownintoarage,and yelledHowdareyouasktoseeanotherkingoftheJews besidesmeIamkingoftheJews!ThatHerodswallowedhis pride,andmeeklyansweredtheParthiansisquitenoteworthy. ThisisatributenotonlytoCaesarspolicytomaintainthe peace,butalsotoHerodsmemorythattheParthianshad militarilycontrolledthethroneofJudeaafewdecadesearlier. Herodsverymeekresponsetothehighlyprovocativequestion oftheParthianofficialsmayalsoindicatethathewasintimidated bythemanyParthiansoldierswhoaccompaniedtheMagi. Indeed,sincethewholecitywastroubledbytheParthians arrival,thepresenceofmanyParthiansoldiersmayhave sparkedrumorsthatanewParthianRomanwarwasimminent. HerodmayevenhavesuspectedthattheParthiansquestionwas designedtoprovokeanincidentwhichwouldleadtoanoutbreak ofhostilitiesandhisremovalfromthethrone. Acommentmustbemadeconcerningthestarwhichledthe MagitoJesus.Somehaveproposedthatthisstarwasacometor acelestialphenomenonalthoughthecontextshowsthatthiswas notpossible.ThebiblicallydescribedstarledtheMagiovera longeasttowestroutefromParthiatoJudea,andMatthew2:9 statesthatitfinallystoodoverwheretheyoungchildwas. Nocometorcelestialphenomenoncouldpinpointasinglecity, muchlessanindividualchildwithinaparticularhouse.TheBible periodicallyusesthewordstartorepresentanangel(Job38:7, Rev.1:20),andthereiseveryreasontobelievethatthisstar whichledadelegationofParthiannoblestoaspecificchildina specifichouseinJudeawasanangelofGod.Nothingelsemakes sense.Onlyanangel(aspiritbeing)couldliterallystandover thebabyJesustodesignateonespecificchildtotheParthian nobles.
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Also,thereisnothinginthebiblicalaccountwhich indicatesthatthisstarwasvisibletoanyoneotherthan theMagi(WiseMen)!Matthew2:2statesthattheMagisaw thestar,butthecontextindicatesnooneelseeversawit. Verse7showsHerodaskingtheMagiwhenthestarappeared tothem,indicatingnooneinJudeawasawareofanysuch star.Iftherehadbeensomeunusualcelestialobjectinthe sky,Herodandhisastrologerswouldalreadyhaveknownthe exactdateonwhichithadappeared. AfterleadingtheParthianstoJudea,theangel(star) disappeared,forcingtheParthianstoaskHerodfordirections. AftertheMagileftHerod,thestaragainappearedtothem,led themdirectly(Mathew2:9),andstoodovertheyoungchild, Jesus,tosethimapartfromallothers.Verse10statestheMagi rejoicedthatthestarwasagainshowingthemthewaythey shouldfollow.Obviously,astarwhichappeared,disappeared andreappearedfortheMagi(butwhichwasapparentlynotseen byanyotherhumans)wasanangel.Supportingthisfactisthat Luke2:815recordsthatthebirthofJesuswasannouncedto shepherdsbyangelsspeakingtothemoutofaheavenlylight whichaccompaniedtheirappearance.SinceGodusedangelsto bringtheshepherdstoJesusmanger,itfollowshealsousedan angeltoleadtheMagitoJesus. HavingfoundJesus,theMagiworshippedhim,offeringrichgifts ofgold,myrrhandfrankincense.TheythenwerewarnedbyGod inadream(Matthew2:12)nottoreturntoHerod,resultingin thepromptexitoftheMagiandtheirescortsfromJudea.When Herodrealizedthathehadbeenfooled,hewrathfullykilledall theyoungmalechildrenofBethleheminavainefforttokillthe Messiah.However,thereisnorecordthathemadeanyattempt toovertakeorpunishtheMagi.AshighParthiannobles,they haddiplomaticimmunity,andHeroddarednotangerCaesarby
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provokingtheParthians.Also,thesizeoftheMagisarmed escortapparentlydissuadedHerodfromattemptingtopursue them. Thereisanotherimportantaspectofthisremarkableepisode. WhileitisnotsurprisingthatJewishleadersduringHerodsreign weresufficientlyfamiliarwiththepropheticwritingstopinpoint forHerodwheretheMessiahwouldbeborn,itissurprising thatGodwasworkingmorecloselywithmembersofthe ParthianrulingclassthanhewaswiththeJewishpriests! Thismakesnobiblicalsenseunless(A)theParthians weredescendedfromtheexiledtribesoftheHouseof Israeland(B)theMagi(Parthianpriests)wereLevites. DuringhisministryJesusChristhimselfassertedthathewasnot senttothegentiles,butonlytothedescendantsoftheIsraelites (Matthew15:2428showsthereluctanceofJesustoassista gentile).ThroughouttheOldTestamentGodworkedalmost exclusivelywiththeHouseofIsraelandtheHouseofJudahhis involvementwithothernationswasincidental(i.e.usingthemto punishhispeoplewhentheysinned).Itwasnotuntilafterthe deathofChristthatgentileswerepermittedunrestrictedaccess totheGodofIsrael.ThefactthatGodwasworkingintimately withtheParthiannobilityconfirmsthattheParthianswerethe HouseofIsraelinAsia,andsupportstheconclusionthatthe ParthianMagi(theirpriests)wereLevites. ThefactthatsomeoftheParthianrulingclasseswere worshippersoftheGodofAbraham,Isaac,andJacobismost revealing.ThatGodhimselfsentanangeltoleadthemtoJesus, andgaveinstructionstotheMagiviadreamsisfurtherrevealing. GodobviouslyconsideredtheseParthianstoberighteousmen underthetermsofhislawsorhewouldnothavebeendealing withthemsopersonally.ThateducatedParthianswerereadyto visitandworshiptheMessiahatthetimeofChristsbirth
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indicatestheywerealsofamiliarwiththepropheciesoftheOld Testament.WhobuttransplantedIsraeliteswouldhavebeen lookingfortheMessiahatthattime? Althoughwearejumpingaheadinthenarrative,considerthe eventsofActs2whichstateParthians(verse9)wereamong thosewhomadepilgrimagestoJerusalemfortheFeastofWeeks (knowntoChristiansasPentecostSunday).Verse9also mentionsMedes,Elamites,anddwellersinMesopotamiaas beingpresentatthisfeast,andalltheseregionswereprovinces oftheParthianEmpire.Weknowthatportionsofthetentribes hadbeenrelocatedtothecitiesoftheMedes,sothepresence ofdevoutvisitorsfromMediacouldeasilydesignatepeoplefrom thetentribesofIsrael.Interestingly,verse9alsomentions dwellers...inAsiawerepresent.ThewordAsiahasclouded origins,buttheEncyclopaediaBritannicastatesthatItis probablethatit[Asia]hasanAssyrianorHebrewroot,andwas usedfirst...withaspecificorrestrictedlocalapplication,amore extendedsignificationhavingeventuallybeengivenit...14
15 OneoftheScythiantribeswascalledtheAsii(orAsiani). SincetheAsianiwereoneoftheScythiantribesbearingthe nameofIsaac(theSacaeorSaka),theBiblesreferenceto AsiansattendingtheFeastofWeekscouldindicatethat ScythianswerealsopresentinJerusalematthattime.This furtherindicatesthattheParthiansandScythianswerethe displacedmembersofthelosttentribesofIsrael.Thegentile populationsofAsiahadnoculturalinterestintheworshipofthe GodofIsraelonlythetentribesofIsraelwouldretainsucha custom.

ItwasnotunusualforlargepilgrimagesoriginatinginParthiato traveltoJerusalemtoworshiptheGodofIsrael.Wenotedthat Josephuswroteofcaravans(ofofferingstotheGodofIsrael) fromParthianMesopotamianarrivedinJerusalemunderthe


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protectionofmanytenthousandmen.Thesemusthavebeen magnificenttreasuretrainstohavewarrantedtheprotectionofa sizeablearmy.SuchhugeofferingsgoingtoJerusalemfrom ParthiaindicatesthatmanypeoplewithintheParthianEmpire worshippedtheGodofIsrael.Thismeantthat,atthetimeof JesusandHerod,therewasagreatdealoftravelandtrade betweenJudeaandmanyregionsoftheParthianEmpire. InanearlierchapteritwasshownthattheMagiwereloyalto onedynasty(theArsacids),whosememberscontinuouslyruled Parthia.ItwasshownthatmanyrulersofParthian(Saka) kingdomshadnamesincorporatingthewordPharesorthe consonantsoftheHebrewrootwordforthatname(PHRS). ThisindicatesthattheArsacidsweredescendedfromtheseedof David,whowasthefirstkingofthePharesfamily(Matthew1:2 6).IChronicles3:1724revealsthattheroyallineagecontinued toflourishafterJudahscaptivity.Indeed,thisdynastywasgiven highstatusintheBabylonianEmpire(IIKings25:2730).This postexilicelevationoftheDavidicdynastyinAsialikelyledto theirservingasvassalkings(overcaptiveIsraelites)under BabylonianandPersianmasters.Theirlaterelevationtothe throneofParthiafulfilledtheprophecyofJeremiah33:17that Davidsdescendantswouldalwaysruleoverthedescendantsof thetentribesofIsrael.Thismayexplaintheunshakableloyalty oftheParthianstotheArsacids.WiththeParthiansbeing Israelites,andtheArsacidsbeingdescendedfromKingDavid, theArsacidsweretheonlydynastyinAsiathatwasracially, historicallyandculturallyrelatedtotheParthianpeople. SinceMatthew1:317tellsusthatJesusChristwasalsoa descendantofPharesandKingDavid,Jesuswasabloodrelative oftheParthianrulingdynasty,whichalsodescendedfrom Phares.TherelationshipofJesustotheParthianArsacidsserves asafurtherexplanationforthehomagepaidtoJesusbythe
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Parthiannobility.ItwascustomaryfortheParthianMegistanes (theMagiandWiseMen)tokeeptrackofArsacidrelativesin foreignnations.InsomecasestheMegistanessenttoforeign nations(ScythiaandRome)tosummonvariousrelativesofthe ArsacidstocometoParthiatoserveastheirking.Asmentioned inchaptereight,someParthianrulerskilledeverymalerelative theycouldfindinanefforttoeliminatepotentialrivalstotheir throne.ThiscompelledtheMagitolookfordistantindividuals whohadthebloodlineoftheArsacids(thelineageofPharesand KingDavid).AtthetimeofthebirthofJesus,therecentParthian emperor,PhraatesIV(whoreigned372B.C.),hadkilledmany malerelatives,includinghisownfatherandmanyofhis 16 brothers. MaleArsacidsatthetimeofJesusbirthwereinshort supply. WhentheMagiwereledbyanangelofGodtopayhomageto theyoungJesus,theydoubtlessaskedJosephandMary everythingtheycouldthinkofconcerningJesusbackground. TheymusthavelearnedthatJesuswasablooddescendantof PharesandKingDavid.ThisrelationshipmadeJesusan Arsacid,abloodrelativeofParthiaskings.Infact,since ParthiacouldofferthekingshiptoanyArsacid,notjustthe oldestsonorclosestrelativeofthepreviousking,JesusChrist wastechnicallyeligiblefortheParthianthrone.Whilethe BibledoesmentionJesusroyallineage(oftheseedofDavid),it doesnotmentionhisrelationshiptoParthiasdynasty.However, asweshallseelaterinthischapter,theBibletwiceimpliesthat thisrelationshipexisted. SincetheMagiwhoworshippedJesusweremembersofthebody whichselectedthekingsofParthiaandkepttrackofmale Arsacids,theymustbeenecstatictolearnthattheyoungJesus wasanArsacid.WhiletheBibleissilentontheirfuturecontacts, ParthianMagilikelywouldhavestayedincontactwithJesusin
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futureyearsandmonitoredtheeventsofhislife. Wewillnowexaminethepossibilitythatthevisitofinfluential ParthianstotheyoungJesusChristalmostledtoaParthian Romanwar.Recallthatfrom4037B.C.,Parthiahadruled PalestineandSyriabeforetheRomansdrovethembackacross theEuphratesRiver.Thatwarusheredinalongperiodof ParthianRomandetentewhichincludedtheentirelifetimeof JesusChrist.However,agreatParthianRomanwarwasbarely avertedin1A.D.when(asdiscussedinchaptereight)asummit conferencewasheldbetweentheParthianemperor,Phraataces, andCaiusCaesar,thegrandsonofAugustusCaesaronanisland intheEuphratesRiver(i.e.neutralterritory).Romansources recordthat: Thearmiesofthetwochiefsweredrawnup ontheoppositebanksoftheriver[the Euphrates],facingoneanotherandthe chiefsthemselves,accompaniedbyanequal numberofattendants,proceededto deliberateinthesightofbothhosts.17 Thissummitconferenceavertedwar,buthowcouldtheMagis visithavehadaroleinthiscrisis? ScholarshiphasdocumentedthatJesusChristwasapparently borninapproximately4B.C.BibleaccountsoftheMagivisiting JesusceasewhentheMagileftJudeaandreturnedtoParthia, leavingtheimpressionthattheissuewasconcluded.However,if weconsiderthegeopoliticalrealitiesofthattime,thereisnoway thattheMagisexitfromJudeaendedthematter. Matthew2:3recordsthatHerodandallJerusalemwere troubledbythearrivaloftheMagi.Jerusalemwasacommercial cityatthenexusofmajortraderoutes,anditcommonly receivedcaravansofmanyhundredsorthousandsofpeople.
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ThreetiredMagiarrivingfromtheeastwouldnthavemadea rippleinthecityscalm.Forthatmatter,caravansfromParthian territory(asdiscussedinchaptereight)couldarriveinJerusalem withmanythousandsofarmedescorts,andsucheventsdidnot troublethecity.Whatwassingularlydifferentaboutthecaravan thatbroughttheMagi?TheMagi(perhapsten,twelve,ormore ofthem)wereParthiannobilitywhoselectedtherulersof Parthiasempire.Suchavisitwasunprecedentedand unrepeatedinthehistoryofthecityofJerusalem.Such prominentpeopledidnotsneakintotown,butcamewithmany attendantsandperhapsthousandsofregularParthiansoldiersas escorts.ThisoccurredatatimewhenParthiaandRomehada peacetreaty,andnomajorRomanorParthianmilitaryforces hadcrossedtheEuphratesRiverindecades.Thearrivalofa significantParthianmilitaryforceinJerusalemescortinghigh Parthianofficialswasmilitarilyprovocativeandcouldjustifiably beseenbyHerodandtheRomansasatreatyviolation. WhenParthiahadoccupiedPalestine,ithadcrowneditsown vassalking,Antigonus,asrulerofJudea.WhentheMagi (Parthiasofficialkingmakers)cametoJerusalemlookingfora newkingoftheJews,itmusthavesoundedtoHerodandthe RomansthattheParthiansweretheretoreasserttheirclaimto JudeaanddethroneHerod.TheirspeakingdirectlytoHerod(who wasRomeskingoftheJews)aboutwantingtofindanewking oftheJewscouldbeseenbytheRomansasclosetoa declarationofwar,giventheregionshistory.ThefactthatKing HerodbithistongueandmadenorashstatementtotheMagi andtreatedthemwithdeferencearguesthattheParthiansmust havehadanintimidatingnumberoftroopsatJerusalemto compelHerodtobesouncharacteristicallymeek.Sinceamajor RomanParthiantreatyhadbeenineffectforoverthreedecades, Romefeltunthreatenedintheregion,andwould,consequently, havehadasmallgarrisoninJerusalem.
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CaesarsdecreethatnoParthianwarbeprovokedalsoputHerod inanawkwardposition.WhiletheMagiandParthianswerein Judeawithnoharmfulintent,thereisnowaytheRomanscould besurethisvisitwasbenigninnature.AftertheParthiansleft, reportshadtobefiledwithCaesaraboutthishighlyunusual event. HerodwasjustifiablyfearfulofParthianintentionsinthearea. Hadnttheycometoanointareplacementforhimaskingofthe Jews?Hadnttheyalsodeceivedhimbyleavingtheareawithout hisknowledgeorpermission?Herodsmurderousactin BethlehemwouldalsohaveinflamedJewishopinion,andrumors ofrevoltagainstthehatedRomanswouldhaveintensified.Faced withapossibleParthianinvasionand/oraJewishrevolt,Herod neededmoreRomansoldiersintheregion.Inhisreportsto Caesar,Herodundoubtedlyputhimselfinafavorablelight,and warnedCaesarthattheParthianshadcrossedtheEuphrates, madeamilitaryreconnaissancetoJerusalemtospyoutthecitys weaknessandwereopenlytalkingaboutcrowninganewkingof theJews.BecausetheParthiansarrivalinJerusalemhadscared thewholecity,newsofthisextraordinaryeventwouldhave spreadquicklyalongthetraderoutesconnectedtoJerusalem. Also,in2B.C.,RomeandParthiawerefacingapossibleconflict inArmeniaoversuccessiontothethroneofArmenia.Inboth ArmeniaandJudea,theissuewaswhetherRomeorParthia wouldchoosethekingsofthosenations.WhileParthiahadnot forcedthecrisisinArmenia,ParthiasactionsinJudea(the Magisvisit)wereprovocative.Romesresponsewastosenda largearmytotheeasttoprepareforapossibleParthian Romanwar.RawlinsonrecordsthattheRomanarmyarrivedin 1B.C.,delayedbytheretirementofAugustusCaesarspreferred commander,andthatthesituationwasfurthermuddledbythe deathofPhraatesIV,Parthiasemperorduringthevisitofthe
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18 MagitoJerusalem. HerodtheGreathadalsodiedbythetime Romanreinforcementsarrived,soallthemajorprincipalshada freshviewpointbythetimeRomeandParthiahadtheirsummit conferenceattheEuphratesRiver.

HistoricalaccountsdonotmentiontheParthianvisitto Jerusalemasafactorinthisnearconfrontation,butits occurrencecannowbeseenasaddingtoRomanfearsofa Parthianinvasionofitsempire.Althoughthehistoricalaccounts mentiononlytheArmeniandispute,itisworthnotingthatthe ParthianandRomanarmiesdidnotconfronteachotherinthe mountainsofArmeniabutratheralongtheEuphratesRiver(the invasionroutetoSyriaandPalestine).SincetheRomanarmy arrivedin1B.C.,andtheRomanParthianpeaceconferencedid notdefusethesituationuntil1A.D.,therewasatwoyearperiod ofwarfeverintheMideast.Everyoneintheregionbreatheda hugesighofreliefwhenwarwasaverted.Asweshallsoonsee, ifawarhadbeenfought(endingtheParthianRomandetente), muchofJesusChristsministryinJudeacouldnothaveoccurred. VerylittleelseissaidintheBibleconcerningtheearlyyearsof JesusChrist.Luke2:40statesthatJesusgrewupstrongand healthy,andthathewasfilledwithwisdomandfavoredbyGod. Luke2:4150tellsusthatJesus,atagetwelve,amazedthe teachersintheTemplewithhiswisdom.Thispassageshowsthat hewasstillbeingraisedbyhisparentsaccordingtotheLawsof God,ashisfamilyannuallyattendedthePassoverinJerusalem (thelocationoftheTemple).Jesuswouldhavebeenseenby othersasadevout,brilliantsonofatraditionalJewishfamily. LukesaccountmentionsthatJesuswasabsentfromhisfamily forafulldaybeforetheyrealizedhewasmissing,andinitiateda searchwhichlocatedhimintheTemple.HowcouldJesus,a twelveyearoldyouth,beapartfromhisparents,andhis parentsnotknowaboutitforafullday?Howdidamere
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twelveyearoldladevencomeintothepresenceofthe teachersoftheTemple,thereligioushierarchyoftheJewish religion?Thereismoreherethanmeetstheeye. ItwouldhavebeeninappropriateforJosephandMarytohave allowedJesustobewanderingaroundJerusalemunescortedby anadult.ItseemsapparentthatJesuswasbeingescortedbyan adultrelative.ThattheywereunconcernedaboutJesusabsence forafulldaybeforesearchingforhimindicatesthatsuch absenceswerecommonplace.ItisrecordedintheJewishTalmud andinothersourcesthatJosephofArimatheawasthegreat 19 uncleofJesusChrist. ItislikelythatJosephofArimatheawas theadultrelativewhowasservingasJesusmentorandescort. JosephofArimatheawasapowerfulfigureinJewishsociety,and wasapparentlyamemberoftheSanhedrinitself.Yearslater, whentheSanhedrinplottedthedeathofJesus,Luke23:5051 assertsthatJosephofArimatheahadnotconsentedtothe deedthatwasdonetoJesus.ThatJosephhadnotconsentedto theSanhedrinsmurderousplotindicatesthatJosephwasa memberofthebodywiththeinherentrighttoconsentto(or dissentfrom)theactionsoftheSanhedrin. ItisnowclearhowtheyoungJesuscametobeinvolvedina discoursewiththeTemplehierarchy.SinceJesusgreatuncle, JosephofArimathea,hadeasyaccesstothehighestechelonsof Jewishsociety,itislikelythatJesussimplyaccompaniedJoseph ofArimatheatotheTemple,andeventuallyparticipatedina discussionbetweenhisgreatuncleandtheTempleteachers. Apparently,Jesuswaswithhisgreatuncleoftenenoughthat JesusprolongedabsencefromJosephandMaryatthattimewas notauniqueexperience. TheremainderofJesuslifeuntilagethirtyisamystery.While theBibleissilentonthesubject,itdoesgiveusaclue.Thefact thatJesuswas,bytheageoftwelve,spendingmoretimeinthe
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careofJosephofArimatheaandlesstimeinthecareofJoseph andMaryissignificant.Itappearsthatamajortransitionwas occurringinJesuslife.WhenJosephandMaryfoundJesusinthe Templeafterathreedaysearch(Luke2:46),Maryreprovedhim withthewords:Whyhaveyoutreatedusso?Behold,your fatherandIhavebeenlookingforyouanxiously.(RSV)Jesus replied:Howisitthatyousoughtme?DidyounotknowthatI mustbeinmyFathershouse?Jesus,attheageoftwelve, essentiallytoldthem:Whywereyouevenbotheringtolookfor me?ThephraseImustbeinmyFathershouseindicatesthat theSpiritofGodwasnowleadinghimawayfromthehousehold ofhishumanfamilyandintotheworkofhisheavenlyFather. TheBibleaddsthatJesuswentbacktoNazarethwithJosephand Mary,soJesusdidnotyetmakeacleanbreakfromhis childhoodhome.However,theeventattheTempleandJesus ownwordsindicatedhisdeparturewasimminent. PartTwo:TheMissingEighteenYears(Age1230) IsitnotincongruousthatwhileJesusChrististhecentral characteroftheNewTestament,nothingiswrittenconcerning themajorityofhislife?TheBibletellsusalittleabouthisfirst twelveyears,alotabouthislastthreeandonehalfyears,but nothingaboutaneighteenyearspanbetweenagestwelveand thirty. Luke3:23observesthatJesuswasabout30whenhebecame apublicfigureinJudeaduetotheadventofhisministry,but wherehadhebeenandwhathadhedoneintheintervening eighteenyears?SincetheBiblemakesnodirectcommentabout thisperiodoftime,wemustrelyonnonBiblicalsourcesfor informationaboutthesemissingyears. TheNewTestamentssilenceabouttheseeighteenyearsof Jesuslifeissignificant.SinceLuke1:2statesthatthegospel narrativesofJesuslifewereeyewitnessaccounts,itimplies
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thatthegospelwritershadnotwitnessedanyoftheeventsof Jesusadultlifebeforeagethirty.ThisfurtherimpliesthatJesus wasnotevenpresentinJudeaduringthemissingeighteen years.IfhehadbeenlivinginJudeaorGalilee,itwouldhave beenimpossibletohidesuchaprecociousyouthwhohadbeen worshippedbyforeignnobilityasachild,andwhohadawedthe Templesrulerswithhisbrillianceatagetwelve.Didthespiritual powerthatwasmanifestingitselfinJesusatagetwelvego dormantforeighteenyears?DidJesusquenchthespiritatage twelvesohecouldliveasanobscureGalileancarpenterfor eighteenyears?Thatishighlyunlikely.Indeed,theeventatthe TempleindicatesthatJesuswasintheprocessofseparating fromhisparentstopursuethedivinemissionthathehadbeen borntofulfill.Itisthecontentionofthisbookthatsoonafterthe Templeincident,JesusleftPalestinealtogetherforeighteen years.Thereisbiblicalevidencesupportingsuchaconclusion. TheaccountofMatthew13:5456indicatesthatafterthis eighteenyearperiod,Jesuswasscarcelyrememberedin hisownhometown.Whereas,atagetwelve,Jesusisamazing theteachersintheJerusalemTemplewithhiswisdom,the commonfolkinhishometownsynagogueareaskingthemselves eighteenyearslater(afterhearingJesusspeak):Wheredidthis man(Jesus)getthiswisdom?IftheuncommonwisdomofJesus hadbeenpresentinNazarethforthoseeighteenyears,sucha questionwouldhavebeenludicrous.Notealsoverses5556 wherethelistenersask:Isntthisthecarpentersson?isnothis mothercalledMary?andhisbrethrenJames,andJoses,and Simon,andJudas?andhissisters,aretheynotallwithus? Thisindicatesthatthemembersofhishometownsynagogue werestrugglingtoidentifyorrememberwhoJesuswas.Thefact thattheyeasilynamedallhisimmediatefamilymembers,and saidaretheynotallwithus?indicatesthatJesushadnot beenwiththemaswerehisotherfamilymembers.Their
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quizzicalresponsetoJesusindicatesthatwhileJesushadbeen gonefromNazarethforalongtime,hisimmediatefamily membershadremainedthereinthecommunity.Obviously,if JesushadbeenahardworkingcarpenterinNazarethallhislife, thelocalcitizenrywouldhaveeasilyrecognizedhim.Yetthey spokeashavingneverpreviouslywitnessedeitherhiswisdomor power! JesuswisdomhadawedthemostlearnedJewishleadersinthe nationatagetwelve!TobelievethatJesuslivedthenext eighteenyearsinNazarethasahumblecarpenterwhile showingnowisdomatalluntilagethirty,onehastobelievethat foreighteenyearsJesusquenchedtheHolySpiritthatwas burningbrightlyinhimatagetwelve!Christiansareforbiddenin IThessalonians5:19toquenchthespirit.DidJesusdowhat Christiansareforbiddentodo?Hardly!Yettraditionaldogma (thatJesuslivedinconspicuouslyinNazarethuntilagethirty) advocatesjustsuchaview. ThelogicalconclusionisthatJesusdidnotworkasacarpenterin Nazarethduringthemissingeighteenyears.Infact,theBible offersnostatementthatJesuswaseveremployedasacarpenter duringhisadultlife.Matthew13:55referstoJesusasa carpentersson,notasacarpenter.Lukesaccountabout JesusmeetingwiththeTempleeldersatage12recordsJesus declaringthathisfuturewasnotlinkedtotheprofessionofhis physicalfather,butwiththecallingofhisspiritualFatherin heaven.WhenhisparentschidedJesusforbeingintheTemple ratherthanwiththem,JesusrepliedknowyounotthatImust beaboutmyFathersbusiness?ThisdoesnotportrayJesusasa rebelsinceverse51showsthathewasanobedientyouth,but itshowsthatasearlyasagetwelve,GodsSpiritwasdrawing JesusawayfromthecarpenterbusinessofJoseph,andtoward thespiritualbusinessofGod.
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Asachildgrowingupinacarpentershousehold,Jesuswas certainlyfamiliarwithcarpentry,buttheBibledoesnotassert thathewasacarpenterinNazarethduringthemissingyears. MarksaccountofJesusvisittohisoldhomesynagogue(Mark 6:16)doesquotetownsfolkascallingJesusacarpenter. However,thesewerethesametownsfolkwhostruggledto identifyJesus,asthecontextconfirms.NotethattheBibleitself doesnotdeclareJesuswasacarpenter,butratherquotesthe commentsofthosewhodidnotknowhimverywell.Thatsome hometownfolkwouldcallhimacarpenterisconsistentwiththe likelihoodthatJesushadbeenacarpentersapprenticetoJoseph whentheyhadlastseenhim. ThispassagealsodeclaresthatJesushadfourbrothersandat leasttwosisters.Jesuswasanoldestsoninafamilyofatleast sevensiblings.Whateverthenumberofsiblings,itisclearthat MaryhadalargefamilyafterJesuswasborn. TheBiblenevermentionsJoseph,thestepfatherofJesus,after theepisodeofJesusbeingintheTempleatagetwelve.Since Mary,themotherofJesus,andthesiblingsofJesusarecitedas livinginNazarethwhenJesusis30yearsoldandJosephisnot mentioned,itisapparentthatJosephdiedduringthosemissing years.SinceJosephofArimatheawasalreadyspendingalotof timewithJesusatagetwelve,helikelybecameJesusguardian afterJosephdied.JosephofArimatheawassurelyagoodrole modelforJesusasLuke23:50referstohimasgoodand just.GiventhefactthatJosephofArimatheawasamanof prominenceintheJewishcommunity,andJesusprecocious wisdomwasknowntotheTempleeldersinhispreteenyears, howisitpossiblethatnorecordofJesusactivitiesinPalestine existsforthemissingeighteenyearsofJesuslife?Thelogical answeristhathewasnotpresentinPalestineduringthattime! Ordinarily,withthedeathofafather,theoldestson(evena
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youngonelikeJesus)wouldhavebeencompelledtobegin workingforalivingtosupportthefamily.However,sinceJoseph ofArimatheawasawealthyrelative(whocouldguaranteethe economichealthofthefamily),Jesuswasfreetopursuehisreal callinginlife.Also,theParthianMagihadlavishedgiftsofgold, frankincense,andmyrrhuponJesuswhentheyhadvisitedhim shortlyafterhisbirth.Sincethislargesumofwealthwouldhave beenheldintrustforhimbyeitherhisparentsorJosephof Arimathea,Jesuscouldhavetappedthatwealthtoprovidefor hisfamilysneedswithouthavingtoworkasacarpenter. InTheTraditionsofGlastonbury,E.RaymondCaptcites evidencethatJosephofArimatheawasaninternational merchantinvolvedwiththetintradeintheBritishIsles.Earlier chaptersofthisbookdocumentedthattheBritishIsleswere IsraeliteregionssinceatleastthereignofSolomon.Also, chapterfourpresentedevidencethatlargebodiesofthetribesof SimeonandDanenteredBritonandIrelandaround721B.C. whenancientIsraelfelltoAssyria,addingmoreIsraelitestothe populationbaseoftheBritishIsles.Itishardlysurprisingthat JosephofArimathea,aprominentmemberofthetribeofJudah, wouldbetradingwithpeopledescendedfromtheothertribesof Israel. CaptcitestheaccountofGildasBadonicus(anearlyBritish historianofthesixthcenturyA.D.)whichreferstoJosephof Arimatheaasanobilisdecurio.20 Theveryfactthatanearly historianofBritaindiscussesJosephofArimatheaatallgives weighttoaccountsthatJosephwasinvolvedwiththeeventsof earlyBriton.CaptassertsthatJosephsrolewasasfollows: ThesametitleDecurio[appliedtoJosephof Arimathea]isusedbySt.Jeromeinhis translationoftheVulgateofSt.Marks honourablecounsellor(Mark15:43)andSt.
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Lukescounsellor.(Luke23:50)Inthe Romanworld,adecuriodenotedan importantRomanoffice,usuallyconnected withthegeneralmanagementofamining district.TheimplicationisthatJosephwasin chargeofRomesmininginterestsinBritain. SuchapositionwouldrequireJosephtospend aconsiderableamountoftimeawayfromhis homeland.21 Indeed,JosephhadtobeaprominentmanintheRomanworld toreceiveimmediateaccesstoPilate,theRomanadministrator ofJudea,duringtheintensepoliticalturmoilsurroundingthe crucifixion(Mark15:4345).UnlessJosephofArimatheawas bothknowntoandtrustedbyPilateandtheRomanrulersof Judea,hewouldnothavebeenallowedswiftaccesstoPontius Pilateatsosensitiveandcriticalatime.Captalsostatesthat duringthatperiod,bothRomanandJewishlawcalledforthe disposalofthebodiesofcriminalsincommonpitswithall memoryofthemremoved,unlessthebodywaspromptly 22 claimedbyarelative. ThefactthatJosephofArimatheacame forwardtoclaimJesusbodyisconvincingevidencethathewas arelativeofJesus.Thatheobtainedsuchapprovalnotbygoing toanlowerofficial,buttoPilatehimself,indicatesthathewas usedtodoingbusinesswiththehighestRomanofficials. However,whatoftheactivitiesofJosephofArimatheaandJesus duringthemissingeighteenyears?IfJesuswereunderJoseph ofArimatheastutelageduringthoseyears,hewouldhavespent considerabletimetraveling,giventhatJosephsbusiness involvedinternationaltradebetweenthenationsofthatday. Whiletheinformationwhichfollowsisbasedonlegendsand traditions,theyarebuttressedbytheBiblesimplicationthat JesuswasabsentfromPalestineforaprolongedperiodoftime.
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Obviously,Jesuswentsomewhereduringthattime,and legendsandtraditionsoffertheonlyevidencethatexists. ManytraditionsassertthatJosephofArimatheaandJesuswere notonlypresentinBritain,buthadhomesintheareaof Glastonbury,England.Supportingthesetraditions,Captcites evidencethatGlastonburyboretwotitlesfromancienttimes SecretumDominiandDomusDei(LatinforTheSecretofthe 23 Lord,andTheHouseofGod). WilliamSteuartMcBimie,inhis book,TheSearchfortheTwelveApostles,alsowroteconcerning thesetraditions: Therecertainlyisnoothertraditionknown concerningthehistoryofSt.Josephof ArimatheaandsincetheBritishtraditionis vigorousweseenoreasontochallengeit...If inanycountrythereisastrongtradition concerningsomeApostolicfigures,andno countertraditionelsewhere,thenweatleast standonthegroundofpossibilityandeven probability.Soitiswith...St.Joseph.24 CaptalsolistsafifteenthcenturydocumentthatJosephof ArimatheaconvertedKingArviragusoffirstcenturyA.D.Britain totheChristianreligion,andthatthisearlykinginBritaingave Josephandhispartytwelveportionsoftaxfreelandinthearea 25 ofGlastonbury. ThistaxfreelandinGlastonburyisconfirmed intheDomesdayBookofearlyEnglishhistoryunderthetitle DomusDei.26 Thefactthatthereweretwelveportionsofland issignificant.DidGodinspirethissymbolism...oneportionfor eachofthetwelvetribesofIsrael? AnotherfactcitedbyCaptisthattheDruidsworshippeda trinityofgodsknownasBeli,theCreatorasregardsthe pastTaran,thecontrollingprovidenceofthepresent,and Yesu,thecomingsaviourofthefuture.27 ThenameBeli
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28 preservesaHebrewwordforLord, andinitsexpectationofa comingYesusavior,DruidismthusanticipatedChristianityand pointedtothecomingsaviourundertheverynamebywhich Christwascalled.29 ThenameJesusisfromtheGreek,but theHebrewnameofJesuswaslikelyYeshuah,meaning salvation.30 ThepresenceofHebrewwordsinBritainsDruidic religionindicatesthatithadsomerootsinthereligionofthe ancientIsraelites.Thisislogicalgiventhedominantpresenceof IsraelitesinBritainthroughoutthefirstmillenniumB.C.

OtherancientlegendsassertthatJesustraveledasfareastas 31 IndiaandNepal. ThereisabiblicalbasisforlegendsthatJesus couldhavetraveledbothintheBritishIsles,andasfarintoAsia asIndia.InMatthew15:24,Jesussaid:Iamnotsentbut untothelostsheepoftheHouseofIsrael.TheHouseof IsraelreferstothetentribesofIsraelwhohavebeenidentified inearlierchaptersasincludingtheearlyBritons,theSacae/Saka ScythiansandtheParthiansinAsia.Sincetheareaof 32 Parthian/SakadominanceextendedasfarasIndia, groupsof thetentribesofIsraelcouldbefoundthatfarintoAsia.Since Jesussaidhewassenttothosetentribes,itislogical thathetravelledtowherethevarioustribesoftheHouse ofIsraellivedinthefirstcenturyA.D.SincetheBritishIsles andevenportionsofIndia(attheeasternedgeofParthias empire)weretheninhabitedbythetribesofIsrael,Jesus presenceamongthesepeoplewouldbeafulfillmentofthat scripture. Asseenearlier,Jesuslivedduringaperiodofpeacebetween ParthiaandRome.Duringthisperiod,tradeflourishedbetween themerchantsofbothempires.Rawlinsonrecordsthatthistrade wasconsiderable,andthatmerchantsbroughtvariousmetals 33 andnumerousmanufacturedarticlesfromRomeintoParthia. GiventheindicationsthatJosephofArimatheawasinvolvedin
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theRomanmining(metals)trade,andthatJosephshomelandin JudeawasideallylocatedtofacilitateexportsintoParthiaand Asiaviaoverlandtraderoutes,itislikelythatJosephsbusiness includedtheexportofmetalproductsintoParthiaandAsia.As Jesusgrew,helikelybecameatrustedmemberofJosephs internationaltradingbusiness.Whocouldpossiblybebetter suitedthanJesustosuperviseJosephsbusinesstradewith Parthianterritories?Jesushadalreadybeenworshippedby membersoftheMagi,theParthianrulingelite!Jesuswas assuredofaverywarmreceptioninParthiaduetotheMagis favor,andwouldhavebeengivenaccesstoanyportionof Parthiassphereofinfluencethathewishedtovisit.Jesus participationinJosephsinternationaltradingbusinessgavehim anidealopportunitytovisitthoseregionstowhichthetentribes ofIsraelhadmigrated(Briton,Parthia,ScythiaandotherAsian locations).Oneotherpossibilityexists.Earlierchaptershave shownthatboththeIsraelite/PhoenicianandtheCarthaginian EmpiresofthefirstmillenniumB.C.plantedcoloniesofIsraelites inNorthAmerica.ItwasalsoshownthatsomeCarthaginians likelyfledNorthAfricatoseekrefugeintheirNorthAmerican colonyafterthefallofCarthage.Inchapterfivewealsosaw evidencethatthisPuniccolonyinNorthAmericalasteduntil about500A.D.,sotherewasasignificantIsraelitecivilizationin NorthAmericaduringthelifeofChrist.SinceChristwasvisiting theregionsoftheearthinhabitedbythedescendantsoftheten tribes,couldhehavevisitedancientNorthAmericaaswell?The surprisinganswermaybeYes! ConsidertheQuetzalcoatllegendsoftheancientNewWorld. WhileQuetzalcoatlisusuallydepictedasaserpentgod,the legendsrecordthatsomeQuetzalcoatllegendsarequite different. InVoyagestotheNewWorld,NigelDaviesincludesa
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compilationofvariousQuetzalcoatllegends.Theselegends includetheassertionsthatQuetzalcoatlhadawhiteskin and...wastraditionallyexpectedtoreturnbutonceonly,in humanform,thatamidthelamentationsofhispeople, Quetzalcoatlthereaftersetoutonhislongjourneytotheplace intheEastwherehewasdestinedtomeethisend,that herosetoheavenandenteredtherein,andthathe remainedfourdaysinthelandofthedeadand,ontheeighth day,reappearedastheMorningStar.34 (Emphasisadded throughout.)DaviesalsocommentsthatQuetzalcoatlisdepicted asbeingagodinhumanform,andthathewasthecreator God.35 ItisalsosignificantthatthehumanizedQuetzalcoatl legendsappearonlyintheChristianera. ThereareadditionalPeruvianlegendsaboutadeitynamed Viracocha,whodepartedacrossthesea,butwasdestinedto return.36 ViracochaisalsoportrayedinSpanishsourceslike Quetzalcoatlasabenevolentfigurewhotraveledfromplaceto place,preachingrepentanceandperformingmiracles.37 CharlesBolandsbook,TheyAllDiscoveredAmerica,addsthat thefirstQuetzalcoatlissaidtohavesprungfromavirgin birth.38 NewWorldlegendsaboutahumandeitywhowasabenevolent white(Semitic)person,preachedrepentance,performed miracles,wasbothdivineandhumanatthesametime,wasborn ofavirgin,wasfromtheOldWorld,tookalongjourneytothe East(acrosstheAtlantictowardtheOldWorld)onamissionof selfsacrifice,wasdead,butwasresurrectedandrosetoheaven, andwhowouldreturnatafuturetimeunmistakablypointtoone (andonlyone)historicalperson:JesusChrist.Indeed,manyof thedoctrinesaboutthehumanizedQuetzalcoatlparallelChristian teachingsaboutJesusChrist!EvenQuetzelcoatlstitle(the MorningStar),isoneofJesusChristsbiblicaltitles(Revelation
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22:16).ThemanyChristianthemesattachedtotheearly QuetzalcoatlstronglyindicatethatthehumanizedQuetzelcoatl representedJesusChristwhovisitedtheNewWorldduringthe lostyearsofhislife.TheseancientNewWorldlegendseven recordthathereturnedtotheOldWorldawareofthedestinyof selfsacrificewhichwasaheadofhim. ThefancifullegendsdepictingQuetzalcoatlasaserpentgoddo not,ofcourse,applytoJesusChrist.SinceSatanisdepictedasa serpentintheBible(Genesis3:113,Revelation12:915),itis apparentthattheworshipofQuetzalcoatlwassubvertedfrom biblicalthemesintoaformofSatanworship(evenincludingrites ofhumansacrifice).TheseparatelegendaryfigureofViracocha mayalsobebasedonJesusChrist,orevenoneoftheApostles whoweresentbyChristtoallnations(Matthew28:19). EarlierchapterspresentedmuchevidencethatIsraelite civilizationswereestablishedintheNewWorldbytheHebrew Phoenicians,Carthaginians,andIberians.TheseIsraelites,by bringingOldWorldknowledgeandcustomstotheNewWorld, hadalargeroleinthefoundingofNewWorldcivilizations.For example,theCarthaginianswhocolonizedtheNewWorldwere IsraeliteswhopracticedhumansacrificeaspartoftheirBaal worship.ThefactthatancientNewWorldculturespracticed humansacrificeindicatesthisgrislypracticewasplantedinthe NewWorldbytheCarthaginians.SinceCarthaginianswerealso NorthAfricans(familiarwithEgyptspyramids),itisalsolikely thatthepresenceofpyramidsintheMesoAmericancivilizations oftheNewWorldatteststolinkagesbetweenthetworegions. Atthisjuncture,wewilldigresstoexaminethissubject.While thiswillnotdirectlyinvolvethelifeofChrist,itwillsupportthe contentionthatJesusChristwasintheNewWorldby establishingthattheChristianreligionwaspresentintheNew WorldsoonafterthelifetimeofJesusChristdemonstratingthat
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thesearoutetotheNewWorldwasknownduringChrists lifetime.TotheextentpeopleintheNewWorldwereIsraelites,it providesabiblicalbasisforJesusChristtovisittheNewWorldas Matthew15:24recordsthathewassenttothelostsheepofthe houseofIsrael(thetentribes). Matthew15containsapersuasiveargumentonthispoint.In Matthew15:2128,agentilewomanaskedJesustohealher daughter(somethingthatJesusreadilydidforJews).Jesus initiallyrefusedtohelp,statinghewassentonlytothelost sheepofthehouseofIsrael.Onlyviaarepeated,humble approachdidthisgentilewomanmoveJesustohelpher.Jesus reluctancetohelpgentilesinhisownbackyardarguesthathe wouldnothavewastedanytimejourneyingacrosstheAtlanticto visitorevangelizeinhabitantsoftheNewWorldunlessthey wereIsraelites! Wehavealreadyseenmuchevidencedocumentingthatthere wasasubstantialIsraelitepresenceintheNewWorldboth beforeandduringChristslifetime.Thereisalsoevidencethat Israeliteswerepresentwellafterhislifetimeaswell.Someof thisevidencewillbeexaminedtodemonstratethattransatlantic voyageswerepossibleatmanytimesintheChristianera, includingthefirstcenturyA.D. TheTolteccivilizationflourishedinMesoAmericafrom900A.D. until1200A.D.TheEncyclopediaAmericanastates: TheircapitalwasTollan,nowTula...thename Toltecisderivedfromthenameoftheir capital...themostimportantfigureinToltec historywas...Topiltzin.39 OneofthebranchesoftheIsraelitetribeofIssacharwasnamed afterTola(Numbers26:23).Noticethesimilaritybetweenthe IsraelitenameTolaandtherootwordsTollan,Tula,and
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Toltec,indicatingthetribeofIssacharwasinvolvedinfounding theTolteccivilization.[Anintermediatelocationwheretheymay havealsolefttheirtribalnameisfoundinThule,Greenland.]An analysisofTopiltzinsnamepointstoaViking/Scandinavian origin.Hisnameconcludeswiththesyllablezin.Theletters zandsarephoneticallysimilar.Substitutingansforthe zinhisname,wegetTopiltsin,orTopiltson.Thesuffix sonorsenisverycommonattheendsofScandinavian names.TheconsonantsSNorZNattheendofTopiltzins nameargueforaScandinavianoriginforthisman. AnarticlebyLawrenceAthy,Jr.printedintheEpigraphicSociety OccasionalPublications,andentitledForeignInfluencesonthe PriesthoodandNobilityofPreColumbianAmericamaintains thattheOlmecandTolteccivilizationswereruledanddirectedby foreigneliteswhoweretallandbearded.Thisforeignelitewasin sharpcontrasttothesquat,flatnosedandrarelybeardedIndian peasantsoverwhomtheforeignelitesruled.Clearly,theforeign elitesexhibitedcharacteristicsofSemiticpeoplefromtheOld World.AthynotesthatbythetimeofthefoundingoftheToltec civilization,thesetallbeardedeliteshadbeenpresentinthe NewWorldforovertwothousandyears.40 TheToltecrulernamedTopiltzinwasavenerableanddevout person...anoldmanwithalongredbeardturningwhite...who hadcomefromaforeigncountry.41 Athyfurtherrelates: TopiltzinandhisToltecsweregentlepeople, wereopposedbyawickedleaderofmanyof thenativepeople,andwerepersecutedtothe pointthattheToltecsabandonedthiscountry andreturnedtotheirplaceoforigin.Topiltzin calledtogetherthepeopleofTulaexplaining thathewasleavingduetopersecution,and prophesiedthearrivalofstrangerswhowould
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come...fromtheeast...thusthepeoplewere tobepunishedfortheirmistreatmentofthe Toltecs....Topiltzinalsotoldthemthatthe arrivalofthestrangerswouldnotbe witnessedbythem...butwouldbeseenbythe fourthorfifthgeneration.42 TheSpaniardsunderCortezarrivedapproximatelythreehundred yearslaterandfulfilledTopiltzinsprophecyaboutthedestruction oftheAztecculture(whichhadfollowedtheToltecs).Athyadds: Cortezhadarrivedintheyear1Reedinthe Azteccalendar...theyearinwhichTopiltzin hadbeenborntheyearinwhichthereturn ofhissonshadbeenforecast.43 Inchapterfive,itwasnotedthatChristianinscriptionsdating fromthefirsttothethirdcenturiesA.D.werefoundintheMayan ruinsofComalcalco,indicatingChristianityexistedintheNew WorldverysoonafterthelifeofJesusChrist.Thereisfurther evidencethatChristianitywasatonetimewellestablishedand widespreadintheNewWorld,butthatithaddegeneratedover timeasChristiansymbolsandpracticeswereblendedintothe sunworshipreligionofthenativepopulationsfoundbythe Spaniards.Considerthefollowing: ManyoftheCatholicritualstaughttothe Mayawerealreadyfamiliartothem,tothe greatsurpriseoftheearlymissionaries.The Mayapracticedbaptisminwater, confirmation,fasting...Thecrosswasa familiarikon...Whenthefriarsexplainedthat thecrosswasthesignofGod,whohaddied ontheTreeofGoodandEvilandnowlivesin theheavens,theMayaaccepteditasanother
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versionofastorytheyalreadyknew.44 Thecross,inparticular,wasawellknownsymbolintheNew World,especiallyamongtherulingelites.WalterStenderwrote: WhentheSpaniardsconqueredPeru,they wereastonishedandpuzzledtofindcrossesin thetemplesandpalacesoftheroyalInca family...FortheIncastheuseofthecross wasacontinuancefrompreceding cultures...itbecomesevidentthatthe crosshadareligioussignificance.45 (Emphasisadded.) Stenderalsorecordsthefollowing: TheMayasusedit[thecross]...inoneof theirglyphs...Legendsexistfromvarious sitesinSouthAmericathatwhitemencame tothenativestoteachthemabetterway ofsociallife.Asimilarityisobviouswiththe wellknownMesoamericantraditions,where whitemenarrivedandtriedtodevelopthe culturallevelofthenatives...allthesewhite men...werebearded,andanotherfeatureis particularlyremarkable:thegarmentsof thesewhitevisitorshavebeendecorated withwhiteandblackcrossesAtthetime oftheSpanishconquesttherewasabroad awarenessinSouthAmericaofanearly presenceofwhiteresidents...46 (Emphasis added.) Stendersarticledocumentsthatthesymbolofthecrosshad beenpresentintheNewWorldatleastasearlyasthemiddleof thefirstmillennium.Combinedwiththeevidence(fromchapter
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five)thataChristianinscriptionhadbeenplacedatComalcalco inthefirsttothethirdcenturiesA.D.,itcanbeseenthat ChristianityhadbeenpresentintheNewWorldfromvirtuallythe beginningoftheChristianera! DuringtheMiddleAges,therewereChristianNorsemanallied withtheCatholicChurchofRome.TheEpigraphicSociety OccasionalPublicationshasreproducedaseriesoflettersfrom threedifferentpopes,dated1282,1448and1492A.D.,written 47 toNorsebishopsandachurchinGreenland. TheletterofPope MartinIVtoaNorwegianArchbishopin1282A.D.concernedthe tithesoftheGreenlandchurches,andtheletterofPopeNicolaus Vin1448A.D.acknowledgedthatChristiansinGreenlandFor almost600years[had]keptthefaithofChrist...48 This extraordinarypapalletterplacesChristiansinGreenlandinthe ninthcenturyA.D. VikingvoyagestotheNewWorldhadbeentakingplacefor centuriespriortoPopeNicolausVsletter,andIcelandichistory recordsthataCatholicbishopnamedEricGnuppsontravelled 49 fromIcelandtotheNewWorld(Vinland)intheyear1121A.D. Thisconcludestheabovedigressionontheevidenceof ChristianityintheNewWorld.Itwasdeemednecessaryto confirmthatChristianswerevoyagingtotheNewWorldnot onlyinthefirstcenturyA.D.,butatmanyothertimespriorto thearrivalofColumbusorCortez.Whilenotdirectlyrelatingto thelifeofJesusChrist,itdoesprovidebackgroundinformation indicatingthatitisnotsorevolutionaryaproposaltoassertthat JesusChristvisitedtheNewWorldduringtheeighteenyear periodaboutwhichtheBibleissilent.Wewillnowexamine specificevidencethatitwaspossibleforJesusChristtohave madeajourneytotheNewWorldinhislifetime. ThereisnodoubtthatthemeansforJesusChristtotraveltothe NewWorlddidexist.Earlierchaptershaveshownthathuge
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PhoenicianandCarthaginianvesselscrossedtheAtlantic throughoutthefirstmillenniumB.C.,andRomanvesselsalso learnedtheroutesinlatercenturies. RecordsexistthattheRomanshadoceangoingvesselsaslarge as12001600tonsdisplacement,andthatsuchvesselscouldbe 180feetinlength,haveabeamof45feetandacargohold44 50 feetdeep. JosephusrecordsthatherodeinaRomanpassenger 51 shipcarrying600people, andActs27:936recordsthatPaul rodeinaRomanvesselcarrying276peopleinadangerous sailingseason(whenareducedpassengertotalwaslikely). RomanartifactshavealsobeenfoundintheNewWorld.Boland commentsonRomanartifactsfoundontheAmericaneast 52 coast. InSagaAmerica,Dr.FelldocumentsthatRomancoins, artifactsandinscriptionshavebeenfoundintheAmericanstates ofAlabama,Tennessee,NewHampshire,Massachusetts, 53 Connecticut,Georgia,andothers. Dr.Fellscommentson Jewishcoins(secondcenturyA.D.)beingfoundinKentucky,and theMissouriArkansasborderregionconfirmthatsailingroutes fromJudeatoancientNorthAmericawereknowninthe 54 earlyChristianera. Dr.FellalsowroteconcerningaHebrew inscriptionfoundinTennessee: ...theBatCreekstonefromTennessee, supposedbytheSmithsonianfinderstobe Cherokee,butrecognizedbyallHebrew scholarswhohavestudieditasaHebrew textofthefirstcenturyA.D.Dr.Robert StieglitzofNewYorkreadsitasAcometfor theHebrews,withreferencetoHalleys comet,whichhungoverJerusalemlikea flamingswordintheyear69A.D.duringthe firstrevolt...Theevidencesuggeststhat KentuckyandTennesseebecamehavensof
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refugeforpersecutedHebrews...55 (Emphasisadded.) TheabovepieceofevidenceplacesJudeanJewstravelingto ancientNorthAmericainthefirstcenturyA.D.(Justdecades afterJesusChristslifetime).Fromthisevidence,itcanbeseen thattransatlanticroutesexistedduringthelifetimeofJesus Christ.SinceJosephofArimatheawasinvolvedinan internationaltradingfirmwhichnecessitatedlongoceanic voyages,Jesuswouldhavereadyaccesstosailingroutesto NorthAmerica.IfJosephwasalsoaRomanofficial(adecurio), hewouldhavehadprivilegedaccesstoRomesknowledgeof routestoNorthAmerica. ThereisanepisodeintheBiblewhichindicatesthatJesuswas physicallyadaptedtotheeffectsoflongoceanvoyages.Mark 4:3541describesaneventinwhichJesusandhisdiscipleswere crossingtheSeaofGalileeandwerecaughtinastorm.Verse37 states:therearoseagreatstormofwind,andthewavesbeat intotheship,sothatitwasnowfull.Afraidfortheirlives,the disciplesfoundJesusinthehinderpartoftheship,asleepona pillow.Afterbeingforciblyawakenedbythedisciples,Jesus commandedthewindtobestill,andanimmediatecalm prevailed.ApparentlyJesuswassleepinginalowerdeck. Hebrews4:15tellsusthatJesuswasahumanbeingaswellas theSonofGod,andthathewasinallpointstemptedlikeaswe are.IfJesusexperiencedallthesensationswhichhumans experience,hishumanbodywassubjecttoseasicknessand nausea.ThatJesuswasabletosleeponashipthatwasrolling andpitchinginaseverestormindicatesthathishumanbodyhad previouslybecomeadaptedtothebuffetingofwavesandthe movementsofseaswells.HisinvolvementwithJosephof Arimatheasinternationaltradingbusinesswouldhavegivenhim ampletimetogethissealegs.Whilethecontextofthis
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accountshowsthatthisstormwasthemostsevereexperienced bythesefishermenonaninlandlake,itwaslikelylesssevere thanthestormsandseaswellsexperiencedbyJesusontheopen ocean(enablinghimtosleepthroughastormonaninlandlake). AnotherbiblicalaccountalsosupportstheconceptthatJesuswas outsideofPalestineduringthehiddenyears.InJohn10:16, JesushadadiscoursewiththeJewsinwhichhesaid: AndothersheepIhave,whicharenotof thisfold,themalsomustIbring,andthey shallhearmyvoiceandthereshallbeone fold,andoneshepherd. InMatthew10:6and15:24,Jesusreferredtothelostsheepof theHouseofIsrael(thetentribesofIsrael).InMark6:34,Jesus regardedthemultitudeswhofollowedhimassheep,andmost ofthosemultitudeswouldhavebeenJewsofJudea.Sincesheep dwellinfolds,whatwasmeantbyJesusimageryofJohn 10:16thathehadsheepinmorethanonefold?Jesusrefers toJudea(thelandoftheJews)asthisfold,butinformsthem thattheyarenottheonlyfold.Clearly,theotherfoldwas wherethedescendantsofthetentribesofIsraellived.Since JesustoldthemOthersheepIhave[inotherfolds],hisuse ofthepresenttenseindicatesthatitwasalreadyan accomplishedfact:healreadyhadsheep(followers)inafold otherthanJudea.SincethereisnoevidenceofJesusbeingin Judeafromages12to30,hehadplentyoftimetovisitand preachtothedescendantsofthetentribesofIsraelduringthose eighteenyears. TheGospelbooksoftheBible(MatthewJohn)areeyewitness accountsofJesusministrytotheHouseofJudah,whichlasted 3years.NoneofhisministrytotheHouseofIsraelis recordedforusintheBibleeventhoughtheBibleimpliesithad occurredpriortoJesusministryinJudea.ThelifeofJesus,as
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presentedintheBible,islikeabookinwhichonlythefirstand thelastfewchaptersareincluded,withallthemiddlechapters (themajorityofthebook)leftout! TheApostleJohnwrotethattheGospelaccountsdidnotprovide acomprehensiveaccountofthelifeofChrist.John21:25states: therewerealsomanyotherthingswhich Jesusdid,thewhich,iftheyshouldbewritten everyone,Isupposethateventheworld itselfcouldnotcontainthebooksthatshould bewritten. JohnsassertionthatthelifeofJesuswasextraordinarilyactive andeventfulissignificantinlightofthefactthattheBiblesays nothingabouthislifefromage12toage30.Itislogicalthat manyofJesusundescribedactivitiesspokenofbyJohn21:25 werenotdoneinJudea,ortheywouldhavebeendiscussedin theeyewitnessgospels.ManyofJesusunwrittenexploitsmust havebeenperformedoutsideofJudea,andthisisconsistent withlegendsthatJesustraveledtomanypartsoftheancient world. Therearereasonstobelievethattheresponseofthetentribes ofIsraeltoJesuswasfavorable.SincesomeofParthiasruling classworshippedJesuswhenhewasachild,theylikely welcomedhimeagerlyinParthiasAsianempirewhenhewasa youngman.ThepositivelegendsaboutthefirstQuetzalcoatl (whichparallelmanybiblicalfactsaboutJesuslife)indicatethat hemadealasting,favorableimpressionintheNewWorld.The DruidsoftheBritishIslesandNorthwestEuropehadlong expectedasaviornamedYesu(Yeshuah),andthelegendsof earlyBritonrecordawarmresponsetoJosephofArimatheaand otherearlyChristians.ItseemsapparentwhyJesustoldthe Jewshehadsheepinotherfolds.
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TheNewTestamentrecordsthatJesuswaswellreceivedbythe commonpeopleoftheHouseofJudah.(Indeed,whocould respondnegativelytoonewhomiraculouslyhealedsomany people?)ItwastheJewishhierarchywhichreactednegativelyto Jesus.Thereasonissimple.Thenationsofthetentribesof IsraelweresovereignnationsatthetimeJesusvisitedthem. Therefore,theydidntresentthatJesusmissiondidnotinclude physicalsalvationfromoppressors.Theydidntneedany!In sharpcontrast,theHouseofJudah(theportionthatlivedin Judea)washungryforphysicalsalvationfromRoman oppression.Theirrulershadlittleinterestinamessageof spiritualsalvationtheywantedaMessiahbringingphysical salvationfromRome! AsJesusapproachedagethirty,hesaidgoodbyebothtohis greatunclesinternationalminingandtradingbusiness,tohis sheeplivinginthefoldsofthetentribesofIsrael,and returnedtohisnativelandofJudea.Thesatisfyingyearsof internationalresponsibilityandwarmwelcomesamongmany diverseanddistantpeoplewereover.Thedifficultyearsofhis earthlymissionwerenowaheadofhim,andheknewit. TheNewTestamentteachesthatifJesusChristhadfailedinhis mission(toatoneformankindssins)GodtheFather(theMost HighGodoftheOldTestament),wouldnothavepermitteda singlehumanbeingtoevertasteeternallifesincemankind wouldhavehadnoatoningsacrifice.IfJesusfailed,allmankind diedwithhim.Thisyoungman,withtheroyalbloodofKing Davidinhisveins,andfilledwiththeHolySpiritofhisFather (theMostHighGod),musthavehadatremendousloadonhis mindashemadewhatwastobehislasttriphome.Hemust havefeltlikehewascarryingtheworldonhisshouldersashe returnedtoJudea,forsohewas.

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PartThree:HisMinistryandDeath TheBibleassertsthatJesusChristbeganhisministryattheage ofthirty(Luke3:23).ThisissignificantbecausetheOld Testamentrequiredamantobethirtyyearsoldinordertoserve inthepriesthood(Numbers4:3).JesusChrist,whowasGodin theflesh,wasnotsubjecttothenormalhumanmaturation schedule.HisdiscoursewiththeTempleeldersindicatedthathe wasspirituallymatureattheageoftwelve.However,duetothe sensitivitiesoftheJewishcommunityinJudea,Jesusdidnot entertheircultureinapriestlyroleuntilheattainedtheageof thirty. WhenJesusreturnedtoJudea,oneofhisfirstpublicactswasto bebaptizedbyJohntheBaptistintheJordanRiver(Matthew 3:1316).ThisaffirmedtheministryofJohntheBaptist,andset anexampleforhisfuturefollowersconcerningthenecessityof waterbaptism.SincehewenttotheJordanRivertobebaptized, andMatthew3:16statesJesus,whenhewasbaptizedwent up...outofthewater,itisclearthatJesusbaptismwasby immersion. Afterhisbaptism,Matthew4:111andLuke4:115tellusofa directconfrontationbetweenJesusandSatanthedevil.Satan repeatedlytemptedJesusinanefforttoenticehimintodoing somethingsinfuloridolatrous.IfJesushadfailedthetest,he couldnothaveservedasthesinlessPassoverlambwhich mankindneededforitssalvation.Luke4:2assertsthatJesus fastedfor40daystoprepareforhisspiritualbattlewithSatan. FastingisfrequentlydiscussedintheBibleasameansof drawingnearertoGod. OneofSatanstemptationsinvolvedhisshowingJesusallthe kingdomsoftheworld,andsaying: allthispowerwillIgivethee,andtheglory ofthem:forthatisdelivereduntomeand
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towhomsoeverIwillIgiveit.Ifthou thereforewiltworshipme,allshallbe thine.(Emphasisadded.) Satanclaimedtobetheunseenruleroftheearth,whohadthe authoritytoselectnationalleadersashewished.Furthermore, hewasofferingtemporalpoweroveralltheearthtoJesusifhe choseSatanashislord.Significantly,Jesusdidnotdispute Satansclaimtobeingtheunseenlordofalltheworldsnations, andthathehadthepowertoselecttheirhumanrulers. Jesus,inresistingthesetemptations,wasqualifyingtoreplace Satanastheruleroftheearth,buttheBibleisclearthatthe actualrulershipofChristwillnotoccuruntilhissecondcoming. HisfirstcomingwastoqualifytoreplaceSatanasworldruler, andtobecomeanatonementforallmankindsotheycouldhave eternallife.TheBibleacknowledgesSatanastheprinceofthis world(John12:31and14:30),andacknowledgeshimasthe princeofthisworldevenafterthedeathofChrist(Ephesians 2:2).HewillremaintheprinceofthisworlduntilJesus dethroneshimathissecondcoming,atwhichpointRevelation 20:13statesthatSatanwillbeimprisonedandrestrainedfrom invisiblymanipulatingthenations. ConsiderSatanssweepingofferandJesusresponse.Jesusdid notchallengeSatansrighttogivetheworldrulershipwhichhe offeredhowever,hedeclinedatemporalworldrulershipunder Satansauspicesinfavorofafuture,eternalworldrulership underGod(Revelation19:1116,20:16). Rememberthesefacts:(A)Jesushadalreadybeenworshipped bysomeofthekingmakingMagiofParthia(anancient superpower),andhisstatusasarelativeoftheArsacidsmade himeligibleforParthiasthrone,(B)Jesushadbeenwell receivedinBriton,andhisHebrewnameidentifiedhimasthe promisedMessiah(theYesu)expectedbytheDruids,(C)Jesus
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hadalreadygainedafollowingintheNewWorld,andwaslikely thesubjectofthefirstQuetzalcoatllegends,and(D)theJews wereexpectingtheMessiahduringhislifetimeduetothe timetableofOldTestamentprophecies.Inotherwords,Satans offerwasquitepracticalinhumanterms.Thephysicalconditions werealreadyinplaceforJesustobemadeapowerfulworld leader!Satanwasofferinghisservicestousetheabove circumstancestomakeJesusaworldemperorifhewaswillingto chooseshorttermgaininsteadoflongtermgood.Thankfully, Jesusresistedhisoffer. ItshouldnowbeapparentthatJesusChristwashardlyan obscurecarpenterinGalilee.Atthetimehebeganhisministry, hehadconcludedvisitstothefarflungtentribesofIsrael, utilizinghisexcellentrelationswiththeParthianMagitotravel eastintoAsiaaswellasthetransoceanicroutesavailabletohim viaJosephofArimatheasbusinesstotravelwestwardtoEurope andtheNewWorld.Jesuswouldhavebeenknowntothe influentialclassesoftheParthianEmpire,Briton,theNewWorld, andalsotheRomanofficialsofthecountriesinwhichJosephs miningandtradingcompanyconductedbusiness.Luke2:52 hintsthathewaswelllikedwhereverhewent.Lukewrotethat afterJesusamazedtheteachersintheTemplewithhis precociouswisdomatagetwelve,he: ...increasedinwisdomandstature,andin favorwithGodandman.(Emphasis added.) LukescommentthatJesuswisdomandfavor(fame) continuedtoincreaseafteragetwelvecontradictsthe modernviewpointthatJesuswentdormanttoliveas anobscurecarpenterinGalileeuntilheburstontothe sceneatagethirty.SinceJesuswasunknowninhisJudean hometownatthetimehebeganhisministryatagethirty,itis
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apparentthatthefavorhehadintheeyesofmanoccurredin regionsfarfromJudeaandGalilee. AftertheconfrontationbetweenJesusandSatan,Jesusbegan hisministrywithmiraculouseventsandnumerousappearances insynagogues(Matthew4:2325andLuke4:1415).Hedid mightymiracles,andpeopleglorifiedhim(Luke4:15).Luke 4:1630thendescribeshisvisittothesynagogueinNazareth (hishometown)wheretheytriedtokillhim.Thisevent containedseveralharbingersofthefutureimpactofJesus ministryinJudea. Luke4:16beginsbystatingthatJesuscametoNazareth, wherehehadbeenbroughtup.NoticethatLukedidnotsay NazarethwaswhereJesuslived,butratherthatNazarethis wherehehadbeenbroughtup.Thislanguageindicatesthat JesushadlivedinNazarethonlyduringhisformativeyears. Indeed,theLivingBiblerendersthispassageashecametothe villageofNazareth,hisboyhoodhome.Lukescomment clearlyindicatesthatJesusdidnotliveinNazarethasayoung manoradult! LukethentellsusthatJesusashiscustomwas,wentintothe synagogueontheSabbathDay,andstoodupfortoread. Jesuswasstillloyaltothereligioustraditionstaughthimbyhis parents,anditwascustomaryforJesustoobservetheSabbath Day.Inotherwords,JesuswasactingaswouldanydevoutJew oftheperiod.IfJesushadbeenpresentinhishometown synagoguefromagetwelvetoagethirty,hiswisdomandfame (attestedtobyLuke)wouldhavebeenwellknowntothemas Jesus(evenatagetwelve)wasmakingnoefforttoconcealhis spiritualmaturity.Yetverse22showsthatthecongregation wonderedatthegraciouswordsofJesusandsaidIsntthis Josephsson?Toreiterateanearlierargument,thelocal congregationhadnotexperiencedJesuspowerorwisdomduring
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theinterveningyears,andwerestrugglingtoidentifyhim. Clearly,Jesushadnotbeenthereinmanyyears!IfJesuslivedin Nazareth,onemustalsobelievethatGodsSpirit,whichmoved Jesussopowerfullyatagetwelve,wentcompletelydormantfor eighteenyearsandsuddenlyreawokeinhimafteralonghiatus. Thisauthorfindssuchaviewpointuntenable.Allscriptural examplesshowthatonceGodsSpiritismovingaperson,it eitherwaxesstrongerorisquenched.Itisnotacommodity thatcanstagnateorgodormantforalmosttwodecades.Indeed, intheparableofthetalents(Matthew25),Jesusregardeda servantwhowentdormantwithhisgifttobeworthyof punishment!ItisimpossiblethatJesuswentdormantfor eighteenyears! Jesusthenread(andappliedtohimself)apassagefromIsaiah 61whichstates:thespiritoftheLordisuponmebecausehe [God]hathanointedmetopreachthegospel...Jesusopenly claimedtobetheMessiah,theanointedoneofGodwhenhe stated:thisdayisthisscripturefulfilledinyourears.Inverse 23JesustellsthemYewillsurelysayuntomethisproverb, Physician,healthyself.Jesusisherespeakinginthefuture tense,indicatinghealreadyknewhewouldbemockedduringhis eventualsufferingonthecross. Mark6:4parallelsLukesaccount,andquotesJesusassaying: aprophetisnotwithouthonor,but[except]inhisown country,andamonghisownkin,andinhisownhouse. Thisspeaksvolumes.Jesusaffirmedthathewasaprophet,but predictedthathisownnation(theJews),hisowncommunityand hisownrelativeswouldnotrecognizehimastheMessiah.There isanotherimplicationofthisstatementwhichcouldeasilybe missed.Thisstatementalsoimpliesthatwhilehewouldnotbe honoredinhisowncountryasaprophet,hewouldbehonored outsidehisowncountry,communityandfamily(hewould
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notbewithouthonor). Jesusthenendedhismessagetohishometownfolkby mentioninganaccountinwhichElijahhealedandsavedagentile fromSidonratherthananyofhisowncountrymen.This foreshadowsthehistoricalfactthatwhilebeinggenerally rejectedbyhiscountrymen(theJews),thebenefitsofJesus ministrywouldbereceivedbythoseoutsideofJudea.This happenedwhenPaul,theApostlesandothersspreadthe messagethathewastheMessiahtoalllandswhiletheJews mostlyrejectedhim. Jesusmessageinfuriatedhislisteners.Theyattemptedtokill him,andJesusescapedthislynchmobbypassingthroughthe midstofthem.Thefactthatthosewhosoughttokillhimdid notrecognizehimashepassedthroughtheangrycrowdfurther illustratestwopoints.Itconfirmsthecontentionthathehad beengonefromhishometownalongtime(otherwisethey wouldhaverecognizedhimeasily),anditalsoshowsthatJesus wasanaveragelookingpersonwhodidnotstandoutinacrowd. ThatJesuswasanaveragelookingJewdebunksamodernmyth abouthim.TheaverageJudeanofJesusdaydidnothave hippielengthhair,asJesusisdepictedashavingonmodern pictures.Ifhishairwereinordinatelylong,hewouldhaveeasily beenrecognizedinacrowdofJews.SincePaultheApostle observedinICorinthians11:14thatitisashameforamanto havelonghair,itisevidentthatJesuscouldnothavehadlong hair.Someconfusiononthismattermayresultfroma misunderstandingofthetermsNazariteandNazarene.A Nazaritewasonewho,duringthelengthofavow,refrained fromdrinkingalcoholorcuttinghishair(Numbers6:25).Since growinglonghairwouldseparatethemfromtherestofthemale population,Nazaritescouldeasilybeidentifiedbytheirlonghair. JesuswasaNazarene(indicatingthathewasfromNazareth),
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buthewasnoNazarite,sincehedrankalcohol(Matthew11:19 showsthatJesusdetractorscalledhimawinebibberbecause theythoughthedranktoomuchwine). ThisepisodeisatypicalofJesus!ItshowsJesusgoingtothe synagogueofhisboyhoodhomeandrebukingthemsostrongly thateventhereligiouspeopleofthesynagoguetriedtomurder him!Thiswouldsoundstrangeifitwerenotforseveralhintsin thetext.TheaccountofthisepisodeinMark6:16showsthat thewhilethelocalsvoicednoillfeelingstowardhismotherand siblings,verse3statesthatthetownspeoplewereoffendedat Jesus!Why? ThereisastrongimplicationherethatwhenJesusleftNazareth soonafteragetwelve,hismemoriesofNazarethwerenothappy ones.Indeed,sinceJesushadtheSpiritofGodfrombirth,there aremanywaysinwhichJesuswouldnothavefitinwiththe attitudes,actionsandinterestsoftheotherchildreninthearea. SinceJesuslivedasinlesslife,hewouldhavebeenunwillingto participateintheusualtroublemakingandmischiefthat characterizeyoungboys,makinghimatargetofconsiderable hazingbytheotherchildren.Also,sincehecouldconfoundthe Templeeldersatagetwelve,Jesuswaslightyearsaheadofhis peersinmaturity,andwouldhavehadalmostnothingin commonwithotherboyshisage.Also,thestrangevisitof foreigndignitaries(theMagi)tolavishgiftsonJesusasalittle childwouldhavemadesometownspeoplejealousorsuspicious ofhim.IftheMagicontinuedtosendemissariestohimoverthe years(adistinctpossibility),thisactionwouldhavefurther complicatedhislifeinaruraltownofGalilee. AfterthedeathofJoseph,hisstepfather,hismotherMarymay havethoughtitwasbestforJesustoleavethearea,andbecome anapprenticetohisgreatuncleandinternationalbusinessman, JosephofArimathea.WhenJesuscamebacktohishomearea
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afteraneighteenyearabsence,manyofthepeopleinthat synagoguewerelikelytheveryoneswhohadhazedand ostracizedJesuswhenhewasaboy.Whenheclaimedtobethe Messiah,theirreactionwasOhno,nothim!Theywere offendedwhentheylearnedthatthemarvelousnewteacher wasthesameJesustheyhadhazedandtauntedyearsago.The aboveissupportedbyLuke4:15whichindicatesthatJesuswas glorifiedinallothersynagogues,andrejectedonlyinhisown hometown. AnotherearlyactofJesuswashisselectionoftwelvemento serveastheinitialapostlesofhischurch(John1:3551).Since Jesusknewthateachofthesemenwouldservenotonlyasa contemporaryspiritualleader,butalsoasfuturekingsoverthe tribesofIsraelafterhissecondcoming(Matthew19:28),hewas selectingpeoplewhowouldfitthedistincttemperamentsand needsofeachofthetwelvetribesofIsrael!WherehadJesus gainedaknowledgeoftheuniquepersonalitiesofthevarious tribesofIsraelsohecouldselectasuitablefuturekingforeach ofthem?Heobtainedsuchknowledgeduringhisvisitstothem betweenagestwelveandthirty.Sinceonlytwoofthetribesof IsraelwerepresentinJudeaatthetimeofJesus(afact confirmedbyJosephus),theonlywayhecouldhavegained personalknowledgeofeachtribesneedswasviainternational travel! Beforeproceedingfurther,itisworthrecallingthatJosephus,the JewishhistorianwhowrotesoonafterthedeathofJesus,didnot doubtthatJesuswastheMessiah.Josephusopenlystatedof Jesus,Hewas[the]Christ.56 Healsoaffirmedthedivine miraclesofhislifewiththewordshewasadoerofwonderful works,andconfirmedtheresurrectionofJesusasahistorical factwiththewordsforhe[Jesus]appearedtothem[his followers]aliveagainthethirdday,asthedivineprophets
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hadforetold...57 Josephus,aprominentJewishleaderandhistorianofthattime acknowledgedthatJesuswasthepromisedMessiah,andsince theBiblerecordsthathewaswidelyglorifiedamongthe masses,itwouldseemthatmanyJewsdidperceiveJesustobe thepromisedMessiah.EvensomeJewishreligiousleaders acceptedJesusasonesentbyGod. John3:13statestherewasamanofthePharisees,named Nicodemus,aruleroftheJews[who]cametoJesusbynight, andsaiduntohim,Rabbi,Weknowthatyouareateacher comefromGod:fornomancandothesemiraclesthatyou do,exceptGodbewithhim.Interestingly,Nicodemuscameto Jesusbynight,implyingthathewasonasecretivemission.He wasrepresentingJewishrulers,becausehespokeforagroupin sayingweknow...TheleadersoftheJewswerenotignorant mentheycouldseefromtheOldTestamentpropheciesthatthe Messiahwasdueintheirtimeperiod,theycouldseethatJesus wasdoingmiraclesthatonlysomeonewiththepowerofGod coulddo,andtheycouldseethatJesuswasfulfillingMessianic prophecies.ThewordsofNicodemusmakethatevident.Then whydidtheylaterkillJesuswhentheyknewhewassentfrom God?Therearetwoplausibleanswers. OnepossibleanswerhasbeenofferedbyWilliamSteuart McBirnie,inhisbookTheSearchfortheTwelveApostles.He states: As...historyslongjudgmenthassince confirmed,thegreatestreasonforhis condemnationwasthefactthatJesushad lancedthroughtheswollenhypocrisyofthe Jewishpoliticalandceremonialreligionand thereligiousbureaucracyofprofessional priests,PhariseesandSadducees.Soallthe
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mainJewishleaders,includingtheofficial partyoftheHerodians...consentedtoor soughthisdeath.58 JosephusessentiallyagreedwiththemodernopinionofStuart McBirnieinstating: He[Jesus]wastheChristandwhenPilate, atthesuggestionoftheprincipalmen amongus,hadcondemnedhimtothe cross...59 (Emphasisadded.) ThisisaverycandidstatementbyJosephus.Afterdeclaringthe righteousnessofChristandaffirmingthestatusofJesusasthe Christ(theanointedone),Josephusacknowledgesthatthe principalmenamongus(theJewishleadership)arrangedfor thedeathofChrist.TheJewishreligiousleadersandtheirallies heldmuchpowerovertheJewishpeopleinJudea.Theirconduct clearlyshowedthattheyweremoreinterestedinselfishly clingingtotheirpowerthaninservingthepeoplebyafair administrationofthelawsofGodasgiventhroughMoses. BecauseJesuswasexposingtheirhypocrisyandvenality,the religiousleaderssawJesusasthesymbolofareform movementwhichcouldsweepthemfrompower.TheBible recordsthatJesuswasgenerallyglorifiedintheJewish synagoguesoftheday(Luke4:15),andwasapopularfigure withthegeneralJewishpopulation.Luke5:15recordsthatthe fameofJesusbecamesuchthatgreatmultitudescametogether tohear,andtobehealedbyhim.JosephusagreedwithLuke thatJesuswasverypopularinJudeabystatingthatJesusdrew overtohimmanyoftheJews,andmanyoftheGentiles.60 ThePhariseesweresurelyfamiliarwithpropheciesthatthe Messiahwouldsetupakingdomofhisown.Therefore,itwas cleartothePhariseesthatifJesuswastheMessiahandwas
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destinedtosetupakingdom,hewouldoustthemfromtheir authority.Obsessedbytheirdesiretoclingtotheirtemporal power,theydeterminedtoslayJesustopreventthelossoftheir power...evenifitmeantkillingtheMessiah!Inarrangingthe executionofJesus,theyactuallyfulfilledtheprophecies pertainingtotheMessiahsbetrayalanddeath.Matthew26:15 fulfilledZechariah11:12sprophecyaboutthirtypiecesof silver,andJesusdeathtoredeemmankindfulfilledthe prophecyofDaniel9:26thattheMessiahwouldbecutoff,but notforhimself. ThisfirstpossibleexplanationsuggeststhattheJewishleaders didnotactuallybelievetheBibleorfearGod:thattheyviewed religionasameansofperpetuatingtheirpoweroverthenation. Matthew27:1statesthatthechiefpriestsandelderstook counselagainstJesustoputhimtodeath.Itdoesnotsaythe wholeJewishnationwantedtoslayJesus.Theirmiddleofthe nighttrialandcondemnationofJesuswasdesignedtothwart anyoppositiontotheirplanfromthemasseswhoheldJesusin highesteem. Thereisalsoasecondpossibleanswertothequestionofwhy thePhariseesarrangedthedeathofJesus.Considerthelifeof theJewsundertheRomanyoke.Theyhatedthelossoftheir independence,andkeenlyresentedbeingruledbygentile Romans.ManyJewscouldrecalltherelativefreedomtheyhad enjoyedafewdecadespreviouslywhentheParthianshadbriefly freedthemfromRomanrule.Havinghadatasteoffreedom, theyhungeredformoreofit!TheBiblestressesthehatredthe Jewsfeltforthepublicans,thecollectorsoftheRomantaxes, andLuke13:1referstoaviolentconfrontationinwhichthe RomansexecutedanumberofJews.Josephusconfirmsthatthis wasatimeoftremendousdiscontentonthepartoftheJews withtheirRomanrulers,leadingtobothverbalandviolent
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61 confrontations.

TheJewishleaderswereexpectingaMessiahwhowouldfree themfromRomantyranny.Nodoubtmanywerefamiliarwith suchMessianicpropheciesasZechariah14whichpromisedthat thetribesofIsraelwouldbeexaltedoverthegentilesandthat Jerusalemwouldbecomeaworldcapital.TheJewsmusthave thirstedforthesepropheciestobefulfilledintheirdayandfor theMessiahtoleadtheminagreatwaragainstRome. AsJesusfulfilledmanyMessianicpropheciesandconfirmedhis Messiahshipbymanifestingdivinepowers,itislogicalthatthe JewswouldexpectJesustostartusinghisdivinepoweragainst thehatedRomans!Thisexpectationmusthavegrownlike wildfire,andJesusowndisciplessharedthisexpectation! Afterall,Jesushadpromisedhistwelveclosestdisciplesthat theywouldeachruleoveroneofthetribesofIsraelwhenhe (Jesus)wouldsitinthethroneofhisglory(Matthew19:28). Jesusconsistentlyspokeofthecomingkingdomofheavenin manycommentsandparables.Itwascommonknowledgethat JesuswasadirectdescendantofKingDavidandtheancient Jewishkings(Luke2:4).Therearemanyinstancescitedinthe GospelaccountsofthecommonpeopleaddressingJesusasthe sonofDavid.Also,inMatthew10:34Jesusproclaimedthat hehadcometobringasword,notpeace.Thediscipleseven quarreledaboutwhowouldbethegreatestinthekingdomwhich Jesuswouldrule(Matthew18:1,Mark9:3337).Smallwonder therewasawidespreadexpectationthatJesuswasaboutto establishtheMessianickingdomintheirday. Littledidthepeopleknowthatthedeliverancewhichthe prophesiedMessiahwouldbringintheirdaywouldbeaspiritual deliverancefromtheirsins,notaphysicaldeliverancefrom Rome.WhenJesushadquotedIsaiah61:12inhisrebuketohis homesynagogue,heomittedverses311(thepropheciesabout
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theconqueringMessiah)whenhetoldthemthisdayisthis scripturefulfilledinyourears.Thisdeliberateomissionimplied thatJesuswouldnotfulfillthosemillennialpropheciesduringhis humanministry. ItispossiblethatsomeJewishleadersoftheday,notrealizing thatChristsfirstcomingwastobringspiritualsalvationinstead ofphysicalsalvationfromRome,felttheyhadtoassistor pushJesusintoconfrontingRomeinordertofulfillallthe Messianicpropheciesatthattime.Afterall,didnotEzekiel 37:1528prophecythattheHouseofIsraelandHouseofJudah wouldbeunitedunderDavidtheirKing?SinceJesuswasa directdescendantofDavid,andwasarelativeoftheParthian kings,andhadalreadybeenworshippedbysomeoftheParthian nobilitythatpickedParthiankings,theJewscouldeasilyassume thatJesuswaspoisedtofulfillthisprophecybyunitingParthia (theHouseofIsrael)andtheJews(theHouseofJudah)inawar againstRome!Thoseexpecting(andwanting)suchawarmust havebeenveryfrustratedanddisgustedatwhattheyperceived tobeacozyrelationshipbetweenJesusandtheRomans. Romewasadespoticempirewhichtightlycontrolleditssubjects. YettheentirelifeofJesusexhibitedalackofRomancontrolover hisactivities.Hecouldtravelwherehewanted,whenhewanted andwithwhomhewantedwithoutthesupervisionorpermission ofRomanauthorities.Thisfreedomwaspermittedbythe RomansinspiteofthefactthatJesuswasdrawinghugecrowds andtalkingaboutanewkingdom,amessagethatRomecould easilyhaveseenasencouragingaJewishrevolt.Whydidthe RomansallowfreedomstoJesusthattheyregularly deniedtoothers?ThereareatleastfourreasonsforRomes permissiveattitudetowardJesus. Tobeginwith,itwasdiscussedearlierinthischapterthatJesus wasrelatedtotherulersoftheParthianEmpireatatimewhen
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CaesarwanteddetentewiththeParthians.TheRomanrulersof JudeariskedCaesarswrathiftheyprovokedtheParthiansintoa warCaesardidntwant!TheywerelikelyawarethatJesusChrist wasarelativeofParthiasemperor(anArsacid)becauseofthe widespreadknowledgethatJesuswasoftheroyalseedofDavid. TheRomansmayevenhavebeenawareofJesusspecial relationshipwiththeParthianMagi,whoelectedParthian emperorsfromthemaleArsacids.Romehadgreatinterestin matterswhichcouldaffectthepoliticalrelationshipsbetween RomeandParthia,soRomesactionsregardingJesuscould affectRomanParthianrelations. CouplingJesusspecialrelationshipwiththeParthianswith CaesarsdecreethatgoodrelationswithParthiashouldnotbe disturbed,RomanofficialsinJudeahadtobeverycarefulnotto antagonizetheParthiansbymistreatingJesusChrist!Thereisan historicallegendthatsupportsthecontentionthatParthias rulingclasswascloselywatchingtheaffairsofJesuswhilehe wasinPalestine(confirmingRomesneedtohandlematters involvingJesusChristwithgreatcaution). ThislegendrelatesthataParthianprovincialruler,KingAbgarof Edessa(acityofNorthernMesopotamia)carriedona correspondencewithJesusduringhisministryinPalestine. WilliamSteuartMcBirnierelatesthelegendasfollows: [the]legendhascomedowntousfrom Eusebius...Thislegendtellsofa correspondencebetweenJesusandAbgar, KingofEdessa(inwhatisnowsouthern Russia)...Eusebiusclaimstohaveseenthis correspondenceinthearchivesofEdessaand tohavetranslatedithimselffromtheSyriac language.62 McBirniemisidentifiesEdessaasacityinsouthernRussia
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(apparentlyconfusingitwithOdessa,aRussiancityonthe BlackSea).KingAbgarsEdessawasacityinthenorthern MesopotamianregionofParthiasEmpire.Itwaslocatednearthe EuphratesRiver,almostontheborderwheretheParthianand RomanEmpiresmet.Edessawasruledbyaseriesofkings namedAbgar,whowerevassalsoftheParthianEmperor. EusebiuswasafamousChristianhistorianwholivedfrom260 A.D.until340A.D.TheEncyclopaediaBritannicawrites concerninghim: Eusebiuswasoneofthemostlearnedmenof hisage,andstoodhighinfavourwiththe emperorConstantine...Eusebiusgreatness restsuponhisvasteruditionandhissound judgement.HeisbestknownbyhisHistoryof theChristianChurchcompletedin324or earlyin325A.D.63 Eusebiuswasnotamangiventowildclaims.Letusexaminehis ownwordsabouttheexchangebetweenKingAbgarofEdessa andJesusChrist.Eusebiusbegins: ...whenKingAbgar,thebrilliantlysuccessful monarchofthepeoplesofMesopotamia,who wasdyingfromaterriblephysicaldisorder whichnohumanpowercouldheal,heard continualmentionofthenameofJesusand unanimoustributetoHismiracles,hesenta humblerequesttoHimbyalettercarrier, beggingrelieffromhisdisease.64 ThisrecordthatnewsofJesusmiracleswascommonlyheardin Parthiaswesternprovincesconfirmsthatthetraderoutesmust havebeenfullofnewsaboutJesusexploits.Thefollowing excerptfromKingAbgarslettertoJesusistakenfromEusebius
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account: Abgar...toJesus,whohasappearedasa gracioussaviourintheregionofJerusalem greeting. Ihaveheardaboutyouandaboutthecures youperform...Ifthereportistrue,youmake theblindseeagainandthelamewalkabout youcleanselepers...andraisethedead...I concludedthat...eitheryouareGodandcame downfromheaventodothesethings,oryou areGodsSondoingthem.AccordinglyIam writingyoutobegyoutocometome, whatevertheinconvenience,andcurethe disorderfromwhichIsuffer.ImayaddthatI understandtheJewsaretreatingyouwith contemptanddesiretoinjureyou:mycityis verysmall,buthighlyesteemed,adequatefor bothofus.65 ThereportsheardbyAbgarcloselyparallelthenarrativesinthe GospelaccountsaboutthemiraclesofJesus.KingAbgar professeshisfaithinJesus,isdesperateforJesustocome,and offershimrefugeinEdessafromtherisksfacedbyJesusin Jerusalem.ItisremarkablethatEusebiuspreservedforus arecordthatJesuswasgivenanofficialofferofsanctuary inParthianterritoryfromthedangershefacedin Jerusalem.AccordingtoEusebius,thefollowingreplywassent byJesusChristhimselftoKingAbgarbyacouriernamed Ananias. Happyareyouwhobelievedinmewithout havingseenme!Foritiswrittenofmethat thosewhohaveseenmewillnotbelievein
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me,andthosewhohavenotseenmewill believeandlive.AstoyourrequestthatI shouldcometoyou,ImustcompleteallthatI wassenttodohere,andoncompletingit mustatoncebetakenuptotheOnewhosent me.WhenIhavebeentakenupIwillsend youoneofmydisciplestocureyourdisorder andbringlifetoyouandthosewithyou.66 ThisletterattributedtoJesuswouldhavebeenaboutthree hundredyearsoldwhenEusebiusreaditintheRoyalRecordsof Edessa,anditreflectsadoctrineandattitudeentirelycompatible withthatexpressedbyJesusintheGospelaccounts.Jesus wordsgivetheimpressionthathiscrucifixionmayhavebeen imminent.Significantly,whileJesuswasreluctanttoperforma healingforanonIsraeliteinPalestine(Matthew15:2128),he readilyagreedtosendsomeonetohealKingAbgar.Thisargues thatKingAbgarandhisParthiansubjectswereIsraelitesfrom oneofthetentribesofIsrael.IfJesushadtraveledinParthias empireduringhismissingeighteenyears,hewouldhaveknown thistobetruefrompersonalexperienceand,therefore,he exhibitednoreluctancetohealKingAbgar. Thereismoretothestory.AccordingtoEusebius,thearchivesof EdessarecordedthatafterJesusdeathandresurrection, Thaddaeus(mentionedinMark3:18)wassentbytheApostle ThomastoEdessa.Oncethere,henotonlyhealedmanyofKing Abgarssubjects,butalsolaidhandsonKingAbgarhimselfand healedtheking.KingAbgarorderedhissubjectstoassemble andhearthepreachingofThaddaeus,andofferedhimsilverand gold(whichThaddaeusrefused).KingAbgarisquotedasstating toThaddaeus: IbelievedinHim(Jesus)sostronglythatI wantedtotakeanarmyanddestroytheJews
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whocrucifiedHim,ifIhadnotbeenprevented bytheimperialpowerofRomefromdoing so.67 Remarkable!HereisarecordofaParthianvassalking wishingtomountamilitarycampaigntopunishthose responsibleforcrucifyingJesusChrist!However,Abgar acknowledgesthathealonedidnothavethepowertochallenge theRomanarmyinJudea(theParthianEmperorwouldhaveto massthearmiesofmanyofhisfeudalkings,likeAbgar,tofight theRomans).ThisaccountconfirmsthatJesushadstrong supporterswithintheParthianEmpire,justifyingRomes reluctancetointerferewithhislife. ThesecondreasonforamicablerelationsbetweenJesusandthe RomansisthatJesuswaslikelywellknowntoRomanofficials whohadmethimthroughcontactswithJosephofArimatheas company.IfJosephwasaRomanDecurio,aRomanmining official,whotraveledbetweenJudeaandBriton,peopleaffiliated withJosephscompanycameincontactwithRomanofficialsona constantbasis.ThiswouldhaveoccurredinBriton,the Mediterraneanregion,andwhereverthegoodsofJosephs companywereshippedandtransportedwithintheRoman Empire.ItislikelythatJesusassistedinJosephsbusinessashe traveledunderJosephstutelage.Atanyrate,itwouldhavebeen wellknownthatJosephwasthementorofJesus.Duringthose yearsJesusmusthavedevelopedapersonalrapportwitha numberofRomanofficials.Indeed,whilemostoftheJewish communityrecoiledfrompersonalcontactswithRomansas uncleangentiles,Jesushadnoreluctanceindealingwith Romans.TheexampleofJesuswillingnesstousemiraculous powertohealtheservantofaRomancenturion(Matthew8)is suchanexample.WhilethissurelywonforJesusgoodwillwith theRomans,itmusthaveinfuriatedtheJewishleaderswho
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wantedtheirMessiahtofighttheRomans,nothealthem! IfJosephofArimatheawasaRomanDecurio,hecertainly possessedRomancitizenship.SinceJesuswasabloodrelative andyouthfulprotgofJosephofArimathea,itisalsovery possiblethatJesusChristobtainedRomancitizenship duringhislosteighteenyears!IfJosephofArimatheaand JesusChristpossessedRomancitizenship,itfurtherexplainswhy (A)JosephwasgivenquickaccesstoPilate,theRoman governor,afterJesuswascrucifiedand(B)whyJesuscameand wentashepleased!IfJesuswasaRomancitizen,hehadthe righttotravelashewishedwithintheRomanEmpire!Itwasnot unusualforJewsofthatperiodtobeRomancitizens.Theapostle Paul(firstnamedSaul)wasalsoaRomancitizen(Acts16:3738, 22:2229). AthirdreasonthatenabledJesustogowhereverhewishedand dowhateverhepleasedwasthefactthatJesuswaswealthy!The ParthianMagihadgivenJesuscostlygiftsofgold,myrrh,and frankincense.Wearenottoldhowmuchgoldandcostlyspices weregiventoJesus,butitwasnodoubtasubstantialamount. TheParthiansregardedJesusasroyalty,anditwastheancient customtogivearoyalpersonageatrulyworthygiftwhen comingintohispresence.SincetheParthianMagiweredirected toJesusbyanangelofGod,theirsenseofawelikelyresultedin unusuallylargegiftsbeinggiventoJesus.Thisgoldwaslikely heldintrustforhimuntilhewasolder(firstbyhisphysical father,andthenbyJosephofArimatheaafterhisfathersdeath). Whenhereachedlegaladulthood,Jesuscontrolledit.Also,since Jesusmentor,JosephofArimathea,wasalsowealthy,onecan besureJesussharedinthatwealth.Inallculturesandtimes, wealthcanopenalotofdoors. Jesusfinancialresourceswereconfirmedbythefactthatheand hisbandofdisciplestraveledforyearswithoutanyvisiblemeans
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ofsupport!InspiteoftheiritinerantlifestylesJesusbandhad monetaryresources.(John13:29showsJudasIscariotwastheir treasurerinchargeofdisbursements.)John12:36revealsthat peoplearoundJesuscouldaffordexpensivepurchasesandthat Judas,thetreasurer,wasanembezzler.Judaswas,therefore, handlingsumsofmoneylargeenoughforhimtothinkhis embezzlingwouldnotbenoticed.JudascommentinJohn12:5 alsoindicatesthatJesusgroupwasinthehabitofmaking donationstothepoor.ThefactthatJesusandhisgroupnever hadtoaskfordonationsfromthemultitudes,butrathergave moneytothepoorconfirmsthatJesustraveledwithplentyof financialresourcestotakecareofhisfollowers. ThefourthreasonwhyRomeallowedJesustotravelandspeak ashedidisthatRomehadreasontobelievethatpartofhis messageactuallyservedRomaninterests.TheRomanrulers, knowingaboutJesusconnectiontoParthianroyaltyandseeing hisdivinepowers,werelikelyquiterelievedtohearJesus preachingamessagewhichdidnotincludeinflammatory remarkstowardRome. Forexample,Matthew22:1522recordsoneattemptbyJewish leaderstopushJesusintoaconfrontationwithRome.The PhariseeswantedtoentangleJesusonthesubjectofthehated Romantaxes,andtheymadesuretheHerodians(Roman sympathizers)weretheretolisten.TheyaskedJesuswhetherit waslawfulfortheJewstopayRomantaxes?Theyapparently expectedJesustoanswerno,andwantedtheRoman sympathizerstohearhisanswer,hopingtobringJesusand Romeintoconflict.However,Jesusdeclinedtheroleoftax protester,andsaidrenderuntoCaesarthethingsthatare Caesars,andtoGodthethingsthatareGods.HearingJesus response,theHerodians(andRomans)hadtobepleasedwith hisanswer.ThenonconfrontationalrelationshipofJesusandthe
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RomanscontinuedtothechagrinoftheJewishleaders. Indeed,whentheJewishleadersurgedPilatetocrucifyJesus, someofthemmayhaveseenitasafinalattempttomakeJesus usehisdivinepowersagainstRometosavehimself.Since similardesiresforwarexistedamongthedisciplesofJesus,an alliancebetweentheSanhedrinandoneofJesusdisciples (Judas)tobringaboutthisconfrontationisunderstandable.They mayhaveassumedthatifJesusownlifewereputatrisk,he wouldusehismiraculouspowerstosavehislifeandfightthe Romans. SupportforthispossibilityisfoundintheactionsofJudasafter JesusChristallowedhimselftobecrucified.Judaswasso shockedatJesusdeaththathehangedhimself(Matthew 27:35).Clearly,Judashadnotexpectedthattheoutcomeofhis actionswouldbethedeathofJesus.PerhapsJudasalsoassumed thatJesuswould,whenpushedtothepointofdeath,finally opposetheRomanswithhisdivinepowers.Ifso,thishopewasa resultofwishfulthinkingandflawedpropheticunderstanding. Daniel9:26hadprophesiedthattheMessiahwouldbekilled,and Jesushadtriedtopreparehisfollowersforthisevent,telling themhewouldbeburiedforthreedaysandthreenights (Matthew12:40).Also,theangelwhohadannouncedthebirth ofJesustoJosephinMatthew1:21hadsaidonlythatheshall savehispeoplefromtheirsins(theangeldidnotsayheshall savehispeoplefromtheRomans.)However,mostJewswerent interestedinbeingsavedfromtheirsinstheywantedaMessiah whowouldsavethemfromRome! Letusexaminethepoliticalpressuresontheparticipantswho wereinvolvedinthetrialandexecutionofJesustolearnmore aboutwhatreallywashappening. Jesuswasnotonlyawareofhisprophesieddeath,butalso seemedtorealizethemannerinwhichitwouldoccur.Hetoldhis
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listenersthathisdeathwouldinvolvealiftingupfromthe earth(John12:3233),whichoccurredwhenhewasliftedupon across.ThePharisees,notrealizing(ornotaccepting)thatthe Messiahhadtodie,becametheinstrumentsoffulfillingDaniels prophecythattheMessiahwouldbecutoff.Itneveroccurred tothePhariseesthattheconqueringMessiahprophecieswould havetowaitforasecondcomingoftheMessiah. ItshouldbepointedoutthattheJewishrace,asawhole,isnot collectivelyresponsibleforthedeathofChrist.Asnotedearlier, JosephusconfirmedthatitwastheJewishleaders(notthewhole nation)whocausedhisdeathatthehandsoftheRomans.Those JewswhocriedouttoPilatecrucifyhim,andlethisbloodbe uponus,andonourchildren(Matthew27:2225)werean infinitesimallysmallfractionoftheJewishraceatthetime.The JewscryingforthebloodofJesustobespilledandplacedon theirprogenyweresubornedagentsoftheSanhedrininaplotto engineerthedeathofChrist.EvenifGodplacedacurseonthe offspringofthosewhoparticipatedinthiskangaroocourt (whichispossible!),itexcusesthe99.9+%oftheJewishrace whodidnotparticipateinthemurderofJesusanddidnoteven knowaboutituntilitwasover.ThevastmajorityoftheJews livinginJudeawerenotawareofJesuscrucifixionuntilwellafter theevent.ThemanyJewslivinginParthianprovinceswerealso oblivioustothecrucifixionasitoccurred.Onecanhardlyblame thesemultitudesofJews(ortheirdescendants)forcausingthe deathofJesusChrist. Considernowtheextremelydelicatepositioninwhichthis conspiracyagainstJesusplacedtheRomanrulersofPalestine. ThefirstpriorityforPontiusPilateandtheRomanswastocarry outthewillofCaesar.Whatpleasedthenativepopulationwas secondary.RememberthatthelifeofChristoccurredduringa periodofstabilitybetweentheempiresofRomeandParthia,a
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stabilitywhichCaesarwantedtomaintain.Therefore,itwasa toppriorityforPilatetoavoidincidentswhichcouldbringabouta confrontationwiththeParthianEmpire.Pilatealsoknewthat whenRomehadprovokedParthiaseveraldecadespriortothat time,ParthiahaddriventheRomansoutofPalestineand controlleditforthreeyears. Romelikelyhadgoodintelligenceaboutmattersinvolvingthe politicalactivitiesofpeopleintheirprovinces,andwasaware thatJesusChristwasaspecialfavoriteofhighParthianofficials. Romewasalsolikelyawarethatcommunicationstookplace betweenJesusChristandParthianofficials,includingatleastone Parthianvassal(KingAbgar).RomesurelyknewthatJesus ChristwasadistantrelativeoftheParthianemperor(an ArsacidviathePharesbloodlineofKingDavid),andhadto treadlightlywhereJesuswasconcerned.Romealsofavoredthe nonrevolutionarymessageofJesus,andhadnodesireto executehim.SinceJesusespousedthepaymentofRomantaxes, fomentednorevolts,andwaspopularwiththemasses,the Romansviewedhimasacounterweighttotherevolutionary zealotsamongtheJews. JesuswasalsoverylikelyapersonalfriendofsomeRoman officialsasaresultofJesusrelationshipwithRomansduringhis associationwithJosephofArimatheasinternationalbusiness. Additionally,Romanspieshadundoubtedlywitnessedsomeof themiraclesofJesusandhadreportedtheseeventstoRoman leaders. SinceJesuswasclosetotherulingelitesofParthiaandwas likelyseenasastabilizinginfluenceforRomaninterestsin Palestine,RomewasdisinclinedtoharmJesus.Inviewofhis miraculouspowers,thepolytheisticRomanswerelikelyalso aversetoharmingsomeonewhowassoclosetothegods. WhentheJewishreligiousleadersdemandedthatJesusbe
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crucified,Pilatewasinaterriblequandary.Hehadcompelling politicalreasonsfornotharmingJesus,yethealsowantedto handlethesituationinamannerthatdidnotprecipitateaJewish rebellion.Anotherfactorwhichmusthaveconcernedhimwas whetherhewasbeingsetupbytheJewishleaderstodo somethingwhichwouldprecipitateawarnotonlywiththeJews butwithParthia.Afterall,thereweremanyParthianswho servedthesameGodoftheJews,andtheywerepresentinlarge numbersinJerusalemduringtheannualHolyDays(Acts2:9). SinceJesuswascrucifiedduringthePassoverseason,Parthians weresurelypresentinJerusalematthattime.Pilatecouldhave wonderedwhethertheJewswereplottingwiththeParthiansto provokeanincident(i.e.crucifyinganArsacid)whichcould precipitateaParthianJewishwarversusRome.Thiswouldanger Caesar,soPilatehadtoavoidthatpossibilityatallcosts. Matthew27:18andMark15:10recordthatPilateknewthe JewishleadershadframedJesus.Pilatesbehaviorshowedthat hedidnotwanttocrucifyJesusChrist,andhefreelyoffered Jesusanopportunitytodefendhimself(Matthew27:1114). PilatemarveledgreatlywhenJesustooknoactiontoavail himselfofPilatesoffer(ordinarily,anyonewoulddoanythingto avoidthehideousfateofcrucifixion!)Theimplicationisthatif Jesushadmadeanyeffortwhatsoevertodefendhimself, PilatewouldhavereleasedJesus.Knowingthisandknowing thathiscentralmissionwastosacrificehimselfformankind, JesussilenceactuallythwartedPilatesefforttofreehim. PilategrewexasperatedwithJesusrefusaltodefendhimself, andsaidprivatelytoJesus:Youwillnotspeaktome?Doyou notknowthatIhavepowertoreleaseyou,andpowertocrucify you?(John19:10).Inmodernwords,Pilatewassayingto Jesus:Cmon,getwithitJesus,playballwithme,andIllset youfree.
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EventhoughJesusrefusedtodefendhimself,Pilatewasstill determinedtokeepJesusalive.HenextofferedtofreeJesusas partofaPassovertradition,givingthepublicachoicebetween JesusandaprisonernamedBarabbas(Matthew27:1523). Pilatewaslikelyagaintakenabackwhenthecrowdrequested freedomforBarabbasinsteadofJesus.Pilatedidnotrealizethat theSanhedrinhadstackedthedeckagainstJesusbyhaving onlytheirfollowersinthecrowd(verse20).Pilatesownwife thenpressuredhimnottoharmJesus,sayingshewashaving nightmaresaboutthesituation,andaddingherviewthatJesus wasajustman(Matthew27:19). PilatetriedathirdploytokeepJesusalivebyanoutright declarationofhisinnocence.Luke23:4quotesPilateastelling theJewishleadersandtheirmobIfindnofaultinthisman. WhenthemobcalledforthecrucifixionofJesus,Pilatepublicly defendedJesus,sayingWhy,whatevilhashedone?(Matthew 27:23).PilatewasrelievedtohearthatJesuswasaGalilean becauseitgavehimafourthoptionforkeepingJesusalive:a delayingtacticbygivingthewholemesstoHerod(whohad jurisdictionoverGalilee).Herod,however,gavethishotpotato rightbacktoPilate(Luke23:511). MostpeoplehavefailedtoappreciatethatPilate,the Romangovernor,triedrepeatedlytokeepJesusalive! WhenRomanswantedtoexecutesomeone,theydidntworry aboutdueprocess,yethereweseePilatepursuingseveral optionstopreventorstallthecrucifixionofJesusinspiteof considerablepressuretothecontrary.Luke23:20openly declaresthatPilatewaswillingtoreleaseJesus. Finally,Pilaterealizedhewasoutofoptions.AsMatthew27:24 putsit:Pilatesawthathecouldprevailnothing,butratherthat atumultwasmade...Themobscenewasreadytoturnintoa riot.ThePassovercelebrationwasoneofthebiggestoftheyear,
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andaviolentriotatthattimecoulddevelopintoarevolution. So,eventhoughheknewJesuswasinnocent,hefinallyagreed tocrucifyJesustoforestallthemostimmediatethreattoRoman interests.EvenincondemningJesus,Pilateengagedinpolitical posturingtokeepthiseventfromturningintoaconfrontation withParthia.Washinghishandsbeforethemultitude,he proclaimedhimselfinnocentofthebloodofthisjustperson (Matthew27:24).Indoingthis,PilatewasdisassociatingRome fromthekillingofacelebritywhowaspopularwithpowerful Parthians.Pilatewanteditpubliclyobviousthattheresponsibility forthiscrucifixionlaywiththeJewishhierarchy,notwithRome. InJohn18:3337,PilateaskedJesusifhewasreallyaking(his askingaboutJesusroyalstatusimpliesheknewaboutJesus royalArsacidbloodline).Jesusreplied:Mykingdomisnotof thisworldifmykingshipwereofthisworld,myservants wouldfight,thatImightnotbehandedovertotheJews... Jesusadded:YousaythatIamaKing,ForthisIwasborn, andforthisIhavecomeintotheworld...Jesus acknowledgedthathewasbornaking,thathiskingdomwas notofthisworld(thefirstcenturyA.D.),butthathewould becomeakinginthefuture.Jesusalsostated(verse11):You wouldhavenopowerovermeunlessithadbeengivenyoufrom above.JesusmeantthatunlessJesusdeathwasaccordingto thewillofGod,notemporalgovernmentcouldhavehadany poweroverhim. ThisisaffirmedbyacommentofJesusChristinMatthew26:52 54.WhenoneofhisdisciplestriedtoresistthetakingofJesus byattemptingtokillawouldbecaptor,Jesustoldhimnotto resistwiththewords: DoyouthinkthatIcannotappealtomy Father,andhewillatoncesendmemore thantwelvelegionsofangels?Buthowthen
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shouldthescripturesbefulfilled,thatitmust beso? Hiscommentrevealsthathewasvoluntarilyrefusingtouse divinepowertosavehimselfinordertofulfillscriptures(suchas Daniel9:26).However,itisverysoberingtorealizethatJesus affirmedthatifhewerebuttoask,theFatherwouldatonce sendtwelvelegionsofangelstorescuehim.Thisstatement showsthatwhileitwastheFatherswilltosavemankind,the finaldecisiontogothroughwithitbelongedtoJesus,thatifhe chosenottogothroughwithit,theFatherwouldhavehonored thatchoiceandsentthousandsofangelstoslayallwho threatenedhim!IfJesushadmadethatchoice,mankindwould havehadnosacrifice,andthedoorwayofsalvationwouldhave beenclosed.Jesusknewthestakes,andputmankindslong termgoodaheadofhisshorttermsafety.Indeed,ifJesushad refusedtogothroughwithit,thewholeplanofsalvation (whichrequiredasinless,sacrificedsaviorformankindssins) wouldhavebeencancelled.Thisbringsupasoberingpossibility. IfJesushadoptedoutofbeingasacrifice(terminatingtheplan ofsalvation),thelegionsofangelsmighthavedestroyednotjust Jesustormentorsbutallmankindsincetheveryexistenceof mankindwouldhavebecomemoot.Iftherewerenosaviorto ransommankind,therewouldhavebeennopurposeina continuedexistenceformankinditself.Jesusmaywellhaveseen legionsofdeathangelspoisedinthespiritworldtoterminate mankindifJesuschosenottoimplementtheplanofsalvationfor mankind.Ifso,Jesushadaverystarkchoicesetbeforehimthat nohumanbeingcouldsee.IfJesuscalledontheFatherto rescuehimandstopthecrucifixion,mankindwoulddie,butif Jesuschosetosacrificehimself,mankindwouldlive.Itwasupto Jesus. Jesusknewthatifheaskedforangelicrescue,noneofhis
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humanfriendscouldeverbesaved.Sohegaveuphislife,and madesalvationavailablefornotonlyhisbelovedfriends,butall humanity.Ifthepeopleatthecrucifixionscenehadrealizedthe awesomechoicebeforeJesus,theywouldhaveallfallen tremblingathisfeet.Jesuschosetoletmankindliveevenasit tortured,mockedandreviledhim(Matthew27:3944). WhenJesusdied,manysupernaturaleventsoccurredtoconfirm thatJesuswasthedivinesonofaveryrealGod(theMost High)whohadwatchedtheentireepisodefromheaven. Matthew27:5154recordsthat: theveilofthetemplewastornintwo,from toptothebottomandtheearthdidquake, andtherockswerebrokenapartAndthe graveswereopenedandmanybodiesofthe saintswhichslept[weredead]arose.And cameoutofthegraves...andwentintothe holycityandappearedtomany. Thetearingofthecurtaininthetemple,whichhadsealedoffthe HolyofHolies,signifiedthatthedeathofJesusChristmeantthat therewerenolongeranylimitationsonhumanaccesstoGod, andtheconcurrentresurrectionsofmanypeoplebothtestified thatJesushadtriumphedoverdeathandforeshadowedthat therewouldbeafutureresurrectionasaresultofJesusdeath. ThekeyquestionconcerningthedeathofJesusChristisDidhe reallyrisefromthedead?Heforetoldthathewouldriseagain afteraperiodofthreedays(Matthew12:40),andmany eyewitnessaccountsareincludedintheBiblethathefulfilledhis promise.Whetherthereaderbelieveshisresurrectiontobea factdependson:(A)thefaiththereaderplacesintheeye witnessaccountsintheBible,(B)thecredibilityoftheBible (basedonfulfilledprophecies,theunityoftheBiblewiththe recordofancienthistory,etc.),and(C)theevidenceofanswered
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prayer(offeredinthenameofJesus)inthepersonalexperience ofthereader.However,wealsohavethecontemporary affirmationofJosephus,aJewishhistorianwholivedshortlyafter thetimeofChrist,thathe[Jesus]appearedtothemaliveagain thethirdday.68 Thischapterhasprovidedinformationwhichpermitsthelifeof JesusChristtobeviewedinamuchbroaderperspectivethan waspreviouslypossible.Itisclearfromtheevidencepresented inthischapterthatJesusChristwasnotonlyarealhistorical figure,butalsoaprominentpersonalityofhistimewhosefame extendedfarbeyondthebordersofJudea.Theevidenceisvery strongthathewastheSonofGod,andpropheciesdeclarethat hissecondcomingwillseehimcrownedkingoverallnations (Acts1:911,Revelation19:1120:6). Revelation19:16prophesiesthatwhenJesusChristreturns,he willbearthetitleKingofKings.Modernsocietyhaslosttrack oftherealsignificanceofthisphrase.GeorgeRawlinson,inhis epichistoryofParthiaentitled,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy, observedthatParthiasempirewasorganizedasafeudalsystem withmanyvassalkingsowingtheirallegiancetotheoverall Parthianemperor.InviewofParthiasfeudalsystem,headded: ...ParthianmonarchstookthetitleofKingof Kings,sofrequentupontheircoins...69 Rawlinsonalsorecordedanincidentthatconfirmsthistitlewas usedbyParthiasemperorsduringthetimeofChrist.Discussing eventswhichledtotheParthianRomanSummitConferencein 1A.D.,afewyearsafterJesusbirth,herecords Phraataces[Parthiasemperor]...responded toAugustus,despatchingtohimaletter whereinhetooktohimselfthefavorite Parthiantitleofkingofkings,and
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addressedtheRomanEmperorsimplyas Caesar.70 ThebookofRevelationsclaimthatJesuswillruleforeveras KingofKingsnowcarriesnewmeaning!Readersinthefirst centuryA.D.couldrecognizethatthisprophecypredictedthat JesusChristwouldinheritthetitleofParthiasEmperorsathis secondcoming.JesuswasroutinelycalledthesonofDavidin hislifetime,anditwasalsoprophesiedbeforehisbirththatJesus wouldeventuallyinheritthethroneofhisfatherDavid,andhe shallreignoverthehouseofJacobforever(Luke1:3233). Obviously,Jesusdidnotinheritsuchathroneinhishuman lifetime,andnohumanthronecouldlastforever.However, Jesuscanruleforeverontheearthafterhissecondcomingas KingofKings.Healsowillinheritthethroneofhisfather Davidwhenheinheritsthetitle(andthrone)oftheParthian Emperors.ThisprophecynotonlyconfirmsthatParthias emperorsliterallysatinDavidsthrone,butitalsoverifiesthat JesusChristwashimselfanArsacid,abloodrelativeofParthias rulingdynasty! Also,themissionsofthetwelveapostlesconfirmthatthe ScythiansandParthiansweredescendantsofthetentribesof Israel.InMatthew10:56,Jesusgavethetwelveapostlesthis mission: ThesetwelveJesussentforth...saying,Go notintothewayoftheGentiles...Butgo rathertothelostsheepofthehouseof Israel.(Emphasisadded.) ThetentribesofIsrael(thehouseofIsrael)werespiritually, (notphysically)lostatthattime.Theapostlesstayedwith Jesusduringhisministry,buttheyobeyedthiscommandmentof JesustogotothetentribesofIsraelafterJesusdied.Just
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beforeheroseintoheaven,JesustoldhisapostlesinActs1:8: Youshallbewitnessesuntomebothin Jerusalem,andinallJudea,andinSamaria, anduntotheuttermostpartsofthe earth.(Emphasisadded.) SinceJesushadearliersentthemtothetentribesofIsrael,and latersaidtheywouldgototheuttermostpartsoftheearth,it isclearthatatthattimeatleastsomeofthedescendantsofthe tentribesofIsraellivedintheuttermostpartsoftheearth(in otherwords:averygreatdistancefromJudea). ThebookofActsnamesonlyafewoftheapostlesasbeing presentinJudeaforverylongafterJesusascension,indicating manyofthemsoondepartedJudeatoevangelizethetentribes ofIsrael.Manylegendsexistaboutthenationsoftheearth visitedbytheapostles.Wehavealreadyseentheaccountthat ThaddaeuswassenttonorthernMesopotamiatohealthe Parthianvassalking,Abgar,andevangelizehispeople.Eusebius alsorecorded: Meanwhile,theholyapostles...were scatteredoverthewholeworld.Thomas, traditiontellsus,waschosenforParthia, AndrewforScythia,JohnforAsia...71 TheEncyclopaediaBritannicawritesconcerningThomas: Accordingtothetradition,St.Thomas foundedtheChristianchurchesinMalabar [India],andthencrossedtoMylapur,nowa suburbofMadras,wheretheshrineofhis martyrdomstillstandsonMt.St.Thomas, whereacrossisshownwithaPahlavi [Parthian]inscription.72
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Chaptereightdocumentedthatportionsofthetentribes establishedSakakingdomsinIndia(totheeastofParthia),so ThomaspresenceinIndiaisconsistentwithChristschargethat theygotothetentribesofIsrael. PeterwrotetheepistleofIPeterwhileinBabylon(IPeter5:13), whichwasthenwithintheParthianEmpire.Somehaveasserted thatPetersuseofBabylonsymbolizedRomebutthereis nothinginthetexttosupportthatview.Peterunderstoodthe differencebetweenthecitiesofBabylonandRome,andhewasa simplefishermannotgiventoliteraryorscholarlydevices.When PetersaidBabylon,hemeantthecityofBabylon. VariouslegendsstatethattheapostlesThaddeus,Matthias, Andrew,Bartholomew,andSimontheCanaanite(orZealot)all 73 evangelized(orpassedthrough)Armenia. Armeniawassettled byportionsofthetentribesafterthefallofSamaria(asnotedin chapterfour),andwasfrequentlyaprovinceoftheParthian Empire(thoughoftendisputedwithRome).Armeniawasa gatewaytoScythiaviatheCaucasusMountains,soitislikely thatotherapostlesbesidesAndrewpassedthroughArmeniaon theirwaytoScythia. IntheCommentaryontheWholeBiblebyJamieson,Faussetand Brown,thefollowingobservationsaremadeintheIntroduction toIJohn: Augustine...saysthisepistle[IJohn]was writtentotheParthians.Bedesaysthat Athanasiusatteststhesame.BytheParthians maybemeanttheChristianslivingbeyond theEuphratesintheParthianterritory...in Johnsprolongedlife,wecannotdogmatically assertthathedidnotvisittheParthian Christians.74
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ThiscommentaryconfirmshowdeeplyChristianityhadtaken holdinParthia,indicatingseveralapostlesmusthavebeenthere. Alsonotethatthiscommentaryusesthesamephraseas Josephus(i.e.beyondtheEuphrates)inreferringtoParthian territory. OneaccountplacesJudeinnorthernPersia(withinParthias 75 Empire). SimontheZealotisrecordedastakingamissionary journeythroughNorthAfrica(includingtheoldPuniccitiesnear 76 Carthage),continuingontotheBritishIsles wherehe reportedlyperished.Earlier,weexaminedthelegendof Viracocha,whoperformedmiraclesandpreachedrepentancein ancientAmerica.WasViracochaoneoftheapostlesofJesus Christwhoreallydidtraveltotheuttermostpartsoftheearth? Therearemanymorelegendsaboutthelandsvisitedbythe twelveapostles,buttheabovewillsufficeforthischapter.Allthe regionsandnationsdiscussedearlierinthisbookasbeingplaces inhabitedbythetentribesofIsraelarealsocitedasregionsand nationsvisitedbyoneormoreofthetwelveapostles.Since JesushadsenthisapostlestothetentribesofIsrael,these legendsfurtherconfirmthatthelostsheepofthetentribesof IsraelwerelocatedinParthia,Scythia,Armenia,theNorth AfricanPunicregions,theBritishIsles,theSakakingdomsof IndiaandperhapseventheancientAmericas. ThischapterhasillustratedhowthelifeofJesusChristinvolved relationshipsbetweentheempiresofRomeandParthia.To returntothethemeofthisbook(thehistoryofthetentribesof Israel),thenextchapterwillresumethenarrativewherechapter eightconcluded,examiningthemigrationsofthetentribesof IsraelaftertheParthianEmpirefellinthethirdcenturyA.D.

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Endnotes:ChapterNine 1. Josephus,AntiquitiesoftheJews,XVIII,III,3 2. Wilken,TheChristiansastheRomansSawThem,p.98 3. Ibid,99100 4. Ibid,p.49 5. Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,pp.178181 6. Josephus,AntiquitiesoftheJews,XV,I,2 7. Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,pp.199205 8. Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,p.216 9. Ibid,p.210 10.Ibid,p.85 11.YoungsAnalyticalConcordancetotheBible,seeword Wise,subhead8,p.1060 12.Josephus,AntiquitiesoftheJews,XVIII,IX,1 13.HarpersBibleDictionary,Herod,p.385 14.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Asia,Vol.2,p.512 15.Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,pp.117118 16.Ibid,pp.195198 17.Ibid,pp.218219 18.Ibid,pp.213215 19.Capt,TheTraditionsofGlastonbury,p.19 20.Capt,Ibid,p.22 21.Capt,Ibid,p.22 22.Ibid,p.20 23.Ibid,p.10 24.McBirnie,TheSearchfortheTwelveApostles,p.230 25.Capt,pp.3941 26.Ibid,p.41 27.Ibid,p.9 28.YoungsAnalyticalConcordancetotheBible,seeLord, subhead3,pp.616617 29.Capt,p.9 30.YoungsAnalyticalConcordancetotheBible,HebrewLexicon,
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wordYeshuah,p.55 31.Capt,TheTraditionsofGlastonbury,p.7 32.Frye,TheHeritageofPersia,pp.200201 33.Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,p.425 34.Davies,VoyagerstotheNewWorld,pp.125126 35.Ibid,p.131 36.Ibid,pp.126127 37.Ibid,p.136 38.Boland,TheyAllDiscoveredAmerica,p.303 39.EncyclopediaAmericana,Vol.26,Toltec,p.829 40.Athy,ForeignInfluencesonthePriesthoodandNobilityof PreColumbianAmerica,EpigraphicSocietyOccasional Publications,Vol.17,1988,p.114 41.Ibid,p.114 42.Ibid,p.115(AthycitesBookoftheGodsandRitesandthe AncientCalendarbyFrayDiegoDuran) 43.Ibid,p.115 44.Morris,Walter,LivingMaya(ascitedinEpigraphicSociety OccasionalPublications,Vol.17,1988,p.196 45.Stender,TheCrossoftheInca,EpigraphicSociety OccasionalPublications,Vol.17,1988,pp.179181 46.Ibid,pp.181183 47.EpigraphicSocietyOccasionalPublications,Vol.17,1988,pp. 255266 48.Ibid,p.261 49.Boland,pp.277280 50.Casson,TheAncientMariners,pp.174,215,235236 51.Ibid,p.236 52.Boland,pp.5478 53.Fell,SagaAmerica,pp.3135,124132,153 54.Ibid,p.168 55.Ibid,p.168 56.Josephus,AntiquitiesoftheJews,XVIII,III,3
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57.Ibid,XVIII,III,3 58.McBirnie,TheSearchfortheTwelveApostles,p.36 59.Josephus,AntiquitiesoftheJews,XVIII,III,3 60.Ibid,XVIII,III,3 61.Ibid,XVIII,III,12 62.McBirnie,p.203 63.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.8,EusebiusofCaesarea,p. 892 64.Eusebius,TheHistoryoftheChurch,I,13 65.Ibid,I,13 66.Ibid,I,13 67.Ibid,I,13 68.Josephus,AntiquitiesoftheJews,XVIII,III,3 69.Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,p.88 70.Ibid,p.218 71.Eusebius,TheHistoryoftheChurch,III,1 72.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.22,Thomas,St.,p.143 73.McBirnie,TheSearchfortheTwelveApostles,pp.199202, 243 74.Jamieson,FaussetandBrown,CommentaryontheWhole Bible,IntroductiontoIJohn,p.1495 75.Ibid,p.206 76.Ibid,pp.207211

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10.IsraeliteMigrationsfromAsiaafterParthiasFall ChaptereightconcludedwiththefalloftheParthianempirein 226A.D.whenitwasoverthrownbytheSassanianPersians. Afterthisdate,theParthiansvirtuallydisappearfromhistory. Clearly,sonumerousandwidespreadapeopledidnotsimply vanishfromtheearth.Theirrapiddisappearancefromtheirold homelandindicatesthattheParthiansquicklyabandonedtheir homelandinAsiaandmigratedtonewareas.Thepurposeofthis chapterisbothtolocatetheirnewhomelands,andtoexamine thehistoryofParthiasdescendantsastheymigrated.However, theyquicklylostthenameParthian.Itistypicalofmigrating populationsthattheylosetheiroldidentity,andassumeanew oneastheybecomeidentifiedwithnewhomelands.Tolocatethe migratingParthians,weneedtolookformassesofpeople possessingsimilarracialandculturaltraitswhoappearedsoon aftertheParthiansdisappeared. WhileParthiaspopulationwasverylarge,theirmilitaryage maleswereseverelydepletedbytwoverycostlywars.The ParthianRomanwarof216217A.D.tookaveryheavytolleven thoughitendedinaParthianvictory.Withinanotherdecadethe ParthianswereinvolvedinanunsuccessfulwarwiththePersians, whorebelledagainsttheirParthianrulers.Parthiaslossesinthe ParthianRomanwarlikelytemptedthePersianstorevoltwhen theydid.ParthianPersianhostilitiesbeganasearlyas220A.D., buttheoutcomewasnotfinalizeduntil226A.D.whenaseriesof 1 threebattlesdecidedtheissueinfavoroftherebellingPersians. TheSassanianPersiansactedquicklytoexpelParthiansfromthe region,therebyeliminatinganypossibilityofaParthian comeback.ThetransitiontoPersianrulewasabloodyone.In additiontothemassivelossoflifeintheParthianPersian battles,thePersiansexecutedasmanyoftheArsacidsasthey couldfind,andtheydestroyedatleastonemajorcity(Hatra)
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2 whichdidnotwanttorecognizePersianrule. Therefore,those opposingPersianrulehadeveryreasontofearfortheirlives.

WiththeParthianempirecollapsingandgiventhePersian massacresoftheirrivals,aspeedymigrationoutoftheregion becamethebestsurvivaloptionfortheParthiansandtheirallies. IftheParthianscouldnotstaywheretheywere,wherecould theygo?TothewestwastheRomanEmpire,tothesouthlay theArabiandesertandtheArabianSea,andtotheeastand northeastweretheexpandingorientalpopulationswhichhad driventheMassagetaeandotherScythianswestwardintoParthia centuriesago. TheonlysafedirectionfortheParthianstofleewastothe northwest.TheParthianscouldexpecttofindrefugeinthat directionsincetheirkinsmen,theScythians,livedthere.Also, ParthianrulershadestablishedgoodrelationswiththeDacians 3 ofeasternEuropeattheendofthefirstcenturyA.D. The ancientDaciansalsowereenemiesofRome,andtheyinhabited aregionroughlyequivalenttomodernRomaniaandportionsof Hungary.ThisgavetheParthianstwoverygoodreasonsto migratetowardtheBlackSeaandEurope.However,thegreatest reasonforParthianmigrationtothenorthwestwasthatone Parthianprovince,inthenorthwestportionofParthiasold empire,successfullyresistedthePersiansinbattle,retaining boththeirindependenceandtheirArsacidruler.Thatprovince wasArmenia.GeorgeRawlinsonsbook.TheSixthOriental Monarchy,describestheseevents: TheArmenianmonarch,whohadbeenset onhisthronebyArtabanus[theParthianking defeatedbythePersians],andwasuncleto theyoungprinces[ofParthia],was especiallyanxioustomaintainthe Arsacidsinpower:hegavethemarefuge
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inArmenia,collectedanarmyontheir behalf,andengagingArtaxerxes[thenew Persianmonarch],isevensaidtohave defeatedhiminabattle.4 (Emphasisadded.) TheEncyclopaediaBritannicaadds: ThemembersoftheArsacidlinewhofellinto thehandsofthevictor[thePersians]were puttodeathanumberoftheprinces[of Parthia]foundrefugeinArmenia,wherethe Arsaciddynastymaintaineditselftill A.D.429.5 (Emphasisadded.) TheserecordsdocumentthattheimmediatereactionofParthian ArsacidsseekingsafetyfromthePersianswastomigrate northwestwardfromtheiroldempire(towardArmeniaandthe BlackSea).ParthiancitizensseekingsafetyfromthePersians alsohadeveryreasontofleeinthesamedirection.Since ArmeniaresistedPersianrule,remainedParthianinnature,and perpetuatedtheArsaciddynasty,itwouldbecomeamagnetfor allParthiansfleeingPersiandomination.Armeniaalsooffereda culturalhavenfortheParthians.Sinceithadbeenunder Parthianruleand/orinfluenceforcenturies,lifeinArmeniawould involveminimalcultureshockformigratingParthians.Also, sinceArmeniawasstillruledbytheParthianArsacids,Parthians couldretaintheirtraditionalfealtytoamonarchofthisdynasty. DuringthisfirstphaseofParthianmigrationtothenorthwest,it isstillpossibletorecognizetheParthiansbytheirownidentity, duetothepreservationoftheArsaciddynastyinArmenia. ThereisanotherfactorinthePersianwarupontheParthians thatbearsdiscussion.Inpreviouschaptersevidencewas presentedthatChristianityhadmademanyconvertswithinthe ParthianEmpire.TheEncyclopaediaBritannicarecordsthat
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Semiticliteratureandlanguagewasexpandingitsinfluence withinParthia,andthat: thisAramaicvictorywaspowerfullyaidedby theeverincreasingprogressofChristianity, whichsooncreated,asiswellknown,an Aramaicliteratureofwhichthelanguagewas thedialectofEdessa,acityinwhichthelast kingofOsroene,AbgarIX(179214),had beenconvertedtothefaith.6 EusebiuswrotethatanearlierKingAbgarofEdessa(circa30 A.D.)hadexchangedcorrespondencewithJesusChristandhad welcomedChristianity.Judaism,theolderSemiticreligion,was alsocommonintheParthianEmpire,duetothelargenumbers ofJewsresidinginit.OneregionalrulerinParthia,Izates,issaid 7 tohaveconvertedtoJudaism. Anearlierchapterdocumented theplacementofSemiticslogansonParthiancoinsduringthe apostolicera.Acts2:9showsthatParthians,Medes,Elamites, MesopotamiansandAsians(allfromParthiasdomain)were presentinJerusalemworshippingtheGodofIsraelonabiblical HolyDay.AdelegationofParthianMagihadworshippedJesus Christ,andthewritingsofJosephuswerewidelyreadbythe 8 ParthiansinthenativeSemiticlanguageofJosephus. Clearly. Semiticculture,religion,andlanguagewerebecomingdominant intheParthianEmpire.Sincechapterssixandseven demonstratedthattheParthiansandtheirScythian/Sacae kinsmenwerethedescendantsofthetentribesofIsrael,itis easilyunderstoodwhySemiticwaysweresowellreceivedin Parthiasempire:theParthiansandtheirkinsmenwereSemites! However,manyofthepeopleruledbytheParthiansdidnot sharetheseracialandculturalorigins,andresentedthesurgeof Semiticcultureandreligionwashingaroundthem.Onesuch peoplewerethenonSemiticPersians.
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ThePersianswereZoroastrians,andregardedtheParthiansas hereticsforslippingawayfromZoroastrianism.AllParthianfaiths (includingChristianityandJudaism)wereconsideredidolatry bytheZoroastrianPersians.Ofcourse,tomanyParthians,the Zoroastriansweretherealidolaters.ThePersianParthianconflict wasalsoareligiouswar,asonePersianhistoriansoobserves: ThePersianstookoffenseatthereligious practicesoftheParthiansthiswas probablyoneofthereasonsthatledthem finallytorevolt.9 (Emphasisadded.) ThePersiansmovedquicklytoreestablishZoroastrianismasthe statereligionundertheirfirstruler,Ardashir.RichardFryes, TheHeritageofPersia,states: LaterSassaniantradition...tracesthe beginningsofallinstitutionsofchurchand statebacktoArdashir.Heistherulerwho reinstatedorresurrectedtheOldPersian empirewithitsvariousinstitutionsaswellas thereligionofZoroasterwhichhadbeen ineclipseunder...theParthians.10 (Emphasisadded.) ThePersiansquicklyinstalledPersianrulersoverallthe conqueredprovincesoftheParthianEmpire,includingtheold 11 Parthianhomelanditself. PersianzealforZoroastrianismasastatereligionwouldhave madelifeuntenableforthosewhopracticedotherreligions (Christianity,Judaism,etc.).ThenewPersianrulerquickly: devotedhisattentiontothe...strengthening ofthenationalreligion.Hecausedtheidols oftheParthianstobedestroyedandordered ageneralrestorationofthedoctrinesof
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Zoroasterthroughouttheempire.12 (Emphasisadded.) GonewastheoldParthiancustomofreligioustolerance.Inits placeZoroastrianismwasimposedasastatereligion.Sincethe PersiansregardedSemiticreligionsandcultureasathreatto theirrule,thelogicalassumptionisthattheysoughttokill, harassorbanishSemiticpopulations.Inthisregardthewarof thenonSemiticPersiansagainsttheSemiticParthianswasa racewaraswellasareligiouswar,aPersian/ZoroastrianJihad againstParthian/Semiticinfluences. TheParthianswerenottheonlytargetofthePersianzealots.It isrecordedthatPersiabeganitsrebellionagainstParthia,notby attackingtheParthians,butbyattackingtwoParthianprovinces: 13 Carmania(orKerman)andMedia. TheKermanswerealso 14 calledtheGermanii, andwerelocatedclosetoPersia.Many SemiticpeoplelivedinMediaascaptivesfromthetentribesof IsraelhadbeensettledinthecitiesoftheMedesbythe AssyriansintheeighthcenturyB.C.(IIKings17:6).Inattacking KermanandMedia,thePersiansweresecuringtheirflanks beforedirectlyengagingtheParthians. DuetotheracialandreligiousfactorsmotivatingthePersian revolt,KermanandMediawouldnothavebeenattackedunless theywereregardedbyPersiaasnaturalracialandreligiousallies ofParthia.TheEncyclopaediaBritannicaalsoshowsthat Sakastan(namedafterSakasettlers)wasalsosubjugatedbythe 15 Persians. TheSakawereScythiankinsmenoftheParthians, furtherconfirmingthatthePersianattacksweredirectedagainst allSemiticpeople,notjusttheParthians.Forthisreason,many SemiticpeoplethroughouttheoldParthianEmpirehadreasonto seekrefugeinArmenia,thesurvivingredoubtoftheArsacids. Armeniamusthavereceivedlargenumbersofdisplaced Parthians,Kermans,Saka,Jews,etc.SincethePersianswere
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expungingSemiticreligionandculturefromtheirnewempire, SemiticpeoplewereunwelcomeinthenewPersian/Zoroastrian Empire.ThesethreatenedSemiticpopulationshadlittlechoice buttofleenorthwestwardtowardtheCaucasusMountainsof Armeniainahumantidalwave. Above,itwasnotedthattheArsacidrulerofArmeniawasableto resistthePersians(whilenootherformerprovinceofParthiawas abletodoso).ThisfurtherindicatesthattheArmenianarmyhad beenreinforcedbymanyParthianandSemiticrefugeesfleeing fromoldParthianhomelands.UnlessArmeniasarmywas swollenbyreinforcementsfromimmigratingParthians,itis unlikelythatthissingleprovincecouldhavewithstoodthe PersianattackswhichoverwhelmedallotherformerParthian provinces. ArmeniahadalreadybeenevangelizedbyChristianity.The previouschapterobservedthatfiveapostles(Bartholomew, Thaddaeus,SimontheCanaanite,AndrewandMatthias)had 16 evangelizedArmenia. Itisalsorecordedthat:...allChristian churchesacceptthetraditionthatChristianitywaspreachedin ArmeniabytheApostlesThaddeusandBartholomewinthefirst halfofthefirstcentury...Armeniawasamongthefirsttorespond tothecallofChristsoearly.17 ArmeniasreceptivitytoChristianityofferedanotherreasonfor theChristiansofParthiasempiretoregardArmeniaasaplaceof refugefromZoroastrianPersians.However,nonChristian ParthianswouldstillhavereasontomigratetoArmeniaasitwas thelastindependentportionofParthiasempire.NonChristian SemiteswereawareofParthiaslongtraditionofreligious freedom.ManynonChristianslogicallysawanArsacidArmenia asbeingtolerantwhereas,theZoroastrianPersianswereareal threattoallSemiticpeople.RefugeescomingtoArmeniawere motivatedbyanumberofconsiderations,andtheirranks
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includedbothChristiansandnonChristians.Armeniabecamea magnetformanySemiticpeopleseekingrefugefromthe Persians. ChapterssixthrougheightdemonstratedthattheSacae/ ScythiansandtheParthianswerebothdescendantsoftheten tribesofIsrael.Therefore,thismigrationofpeopleoutofParthia intoArmeniawascomposedprimarilyofrefugeeIsraelites. However,therewereotherSemiticpeoplewiththemaswell. Atthisjuncture,thetermSemiteneedsclarification.Afterthe floodinthedaysofNoah,theearthwasrepopulatedviaNoahs family.HisthreesonswerenamedShem,HamandJapheth (Genesis10:1).Allmodernracesaredescendedfromthese threesonsofNoah.ShemssonswerenamedElam,Asshur, Arphaxad,LudandAram(Genesis10:22).ElamandAsshur foundedthenationsofElamandAssyria,bothwellknownin ancienthistory.AramsdescendantsweretheAramaeanpeople whosenamewasattachedtotheSemiticlanguageknownas Aramaic.TheIsraelitesdescendedfromArphaxadthroughAbram (Genesis10:2211:26),whosenamewaschangedtoAbraham. AbrahambecamethepatriarchoftheHebrewsthroughIsaacand Jacob(whosenamewaschangedtoIsrael).Abrahamhadmany otherdescendantsbesidestheIsraelites,however. AbrahamalsofatheredtheIshmaelites,namedafterIshmael, theeldestsonofAbraham.TheIshmaeliteshadlongbeen identifiedwiththeArabianPeninsula,andtheyremainedsouthof therebornPersianEmpirewhenotherSemitesflednorthwestto Armenia.Tothisday,theArabshaveastrongtraditionofbeing 18 descendedfromShemandIshmael. ThetermSemiticproperlydescribesallnationsdescendedfrom theprogenyofShem.Thisincludedmanynationslivingwithin theboundariesoftheParthianEmpirewhenitfell.Besidesthe innumerabledescendantsofthetribesofIsraeliteswho
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dominatedParthiasempire,theAssyrians,Elamites,Aramaeans, etc.werealsoSemiticpeople.Inmoderntimes,theterm SemitichasbecomeasynonymforthewordJew.For example,thetermantiSemiticisunderstoodtomeananti Jewish.However,thisobscuresthefactthatmanymodern nationsaredescendedfromShem.(Indeed,sincethetermJew isusedbothinaracialandreligioussense,apersoncanbea religiousJewwithoutbeingaracialSemite).Thevastmajorityof SemitesintheworldarenotJews,sincetheJewsaremerelyone smallbranchoftheoverallSemiticfamilyofnations. ThePersians,ontheotherhand,weredescendedfromJapheth. OneofJaphethssonswasMadai(Genesis10:2),whofounded thenationoftheMedes,oneofthepartnersintheearlier MedoPersianempire.OneBibletranslation(TheNewJerusalem Bible)translatesMadaiastheMedes.TheMedoPersians (andotherpeopledescendedfromJapheth)hadchafedunder centuriesofSemiticruleadministeredbytheParthians(the Israelites).WhenthePersianssuccessfullyrevoltedagainstthe Parthians,centuriesofpentupresentmentsagainsttheSemites wereviolentlyexpressedinthepogromsofthePersiansagainst theParthiansandotherSemiticpeople. HistoryindicatesthatonegroupofSemiteswaslessthreatened bythePersianpurge.Ironically(fromamodernviewpoint),this groupwastheJews.WhenPersiaruledthisregionpriortothe Parthians,Jewsweretrustedmembersofthegovernmentand evenjoinedtheroyalfamily.Estherbecameaqueenofthe PersianEmpire(Esther2:1618),Mordechaiapparentlybecame aprimeminister(Esther9:4,10:13),andEzraandNehemiah weretrustedofficialsofPersiankings(Ezra7:1114,Nehemiah 2:19).SinceJewishPersianamitypredatedtheParthian Empire,itisprobablethatitalsosurvivedthefallofParthia.This isconfirmedbythefactthatJewishscholarsdevelopedthe
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TalmudinBabyloniaduringtheperiodwhenitwasruledbythe 19 SassanianPersians. SincemanyParthiansandSemitesfleeingtoArmeniawere Christians,itisnotsurprisingthatArmeniadevelopedastrong earlytraditionofChristianity.TheEncyclopaediaBritannica statesregardingKingTiridatesofArmenia: KingTiridates(c.A.D.238314)hadalready beenbaptized[asaChristian]sometime after261...20 WilliamMcBirnieaddsthat: ArmeniabecamethefirstChristiannationin theworld.Christianitywasofficially proclaimedin301A.D.asthenationalreligion ofArmenia.KingTiridates,togetherwiththe nobilityofhiscountry,werebaptizedbySt. GregorytheIlluminator.21 ThenameofArmeniasking(Tiridates)wasacommonname amongtheParthianArsacids,andseveralParthianEmperors borethisveryname.ThisconfirmsthatArmeniasroyaltywere stillArsacids.GiventhefactthatArsacidprinceshadfledto ArmeniawhenParthiafell,itisquitelikelythatatthetime ArmeniaadoptedChristianity,manyofArmeniasnobilitywere alsoArsacids. ItisacommonmistaketoassumethatRome,under Constantine,wasthefirsttoformallyadoptChristianity.Portions ofParthiahadbeenheavilyChristianizedcenturiesbefore Constantinewasborn.WhentheArsacidkingofArmenia adoptedChristianity,itwaswiththefirmsupportofhisnobility andpeople.However,whenConstantinelaterdeclaredfor Christianity,hehadtomovehiscapitaltoConstantinopledueto RomanresistancetoChristianity.
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TheEncyclopaediaBritannicastates: Itisprobablethatthisstep[movingthe capital]wasconnectedwithConstantines decisiontomakeChristianitytheofficial religionoftheempire.Romewasnaturally thestrongholdofpaganism,towhichthe greatmajorityoftheSenateclungwith ferventdevotion.22 (Emphasisadded.) WhileConstantinewasattemptingtoimposealargelyunwanted ChristianityontheRomanEmpire,KingTiridatesofArmenia was,ineffect,simplyrecognizingthatArmeniaspeoplewere principallyChristians.However,mostRomanswantednopartof ChristianitywhenConstantineadoptedit.Inmovinghiscapitalto theeast,Constantinewasactuallymovinghisseatofpower towardtheregionofChristianpoliticalstrength. TheArsacids,Parthiasdynasty,ruledinArmeniauntil429A.D., twocenturiesafterthefallofParthia.Duringthemajorityofthis time,theypresidedoveraChristiankingdom. InanearlierchapteritwasshownthatParthiasArsacidswere descendedfromKingDavid,fulfillingGodspromisethatDavids descendantswouldperpetuallyhaverulersovertheHouseof Israel.SincetheParthianIsraeliteshadfledtoArmenia,and werestillruledbythesameParthianArsacids,thispromiseof GodwasstillbeingkeptinspiteofthefalloftheParthian Empire. DidalloftheParthiansandtheirSemiticalliesfleeingthe PersiansstopinArmenia?Theanswerisno.TheParthian EmpirehadextendedfromtheEuphratesRiveronthewestto modernPakistanontheeastfromtheArabianSeaonthesouth tosouthernRussiaonthenorth.Furthermore,therewere variousSakakingdomsinIndia.Thereisnowaythat
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mountainousArmenia,withlimitedarablesoil,couldhave supportedthegreatmassofParthianrefugeesseekinganew homeland.Asmentionedearlier,theBlackSearegionnorthwest ofArmeniahadlongbeenoccupiedbytheIberiansandthe Scythian/Sacae(bothofwhomwerekinsmenoftheParthians). SincetheParthianswerekinsmenoftheScythiansandIberians, theregionaroundtheBlackSeawasahospitableplaceforthem toseekrefugeanditofferedmuchmorelivingspacethan Armenia.Indeed,sincetheScythianshadbeenlivinginareasof EasternEuropeformanycenturies,thehordesofParthian refugeescouldspreadoutasfaraseasternEurope.One historianstates: Scythianinfluencefirstmadeitsmarkin Hungaryroundabouttheyear500B.C.when theforemostwaveofScythianspenetratedto thearea.23 ARussianhistoryoftheScythianscommentsthattheScythian presenceintheUkrainedatestothelateseventhandsixth centuriesB.C.24 BythefifthcenturyB.C.,theScythianshad penetratedintoEuropeasfarasmodernBulgaria,Romania, 25 PrussiaandtheBalkans. Theterritorynorthandwestofthe BlackSeacouldholdanimmensenumberofrefugees.Thatit hadhistoricallybeenoccupiedbytheirScythiankinsmenmadeit anattractiverefugeforthelargenumbersofParthianrefugees whocouldnotpossiblyfindenoughroominArmenia.Parthian refugeescould,therefore,resettleinfriendlyterritoryasfaras easternEurope. GiventheimmensenumberofParthianrefugees,somelikely migratedtotheBlackSea EasternEuropeareaviaanorthward routearoundtheCaspianSeaandnorthoftheCaucasus mountains.TheEncyclopaediaBritannicastates: ThemainmovementfromAsiainto
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EuropewhichwentnorthoftheCaucasus wasinearlytimesthatoftheScythians.26 (Emphasisadded.) SinceitisawellestablishedfactthattheParthiansand Scythianswererelatedtribes,theScythianmigrationinto EuropewouldhaveincludedmassesofParthianrefugees(during thethirdcenturyA.D.andafterward).WhiletheParthian dynastyretaineditsArsacididentityinArmeniafortwo centuriesafterParthiasfall,theParthianrefugees,separated fromtheirhomeland,quicklylostthenameParthian. ChaptersixnotedthatlargenumbersofIsraelitesfledtothe northofArmeniawhenthekingdomofIsraelfellin724721 B.C.,andwerecalledtheGauthei.TheGreekslatercalledthem GetaeorScythians.L.A.Waddell,citingLivesoftheSaints, byS.BaringGould,notesthat: St.Andrew,theapostle...,isreportedto havetraveledinhismissiontotheScythsor Getae,theGrecoRomanformofthe name.27 Andrew,theapostle,livedinthefirstcenturyA.D.indicatingthat theScythianshadalsobeencalledGetaelongbeforethefallof Parthiasempire.SinceScythianshadlongbeencalledGetaein easternEuropean,Parthianrefugeessettlingamongtheir ScythiankinsmenineasternEuropewouldalsobeknown asGetae. TheregionnorthoftheBlackSeahadbeenoccupiedbypeople descendedfromthetentribesofIsraelforalmostamillennium bythetimetheParthiansfledinthatdirection.TheParthians hadalsohadfriendlyrelationswiththeDaciansofEastern Europe,soParthianrefugeeshadmanyoptionswhensettlingin easternEurope.TheDacianswerealsoknownasGetae,28
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indicatingthattheywereaScythiantribewhichhadearlier settledineasternEurope. SincethefallofIsraelandJudah,theIsraelitetribesinAsiahad beenscatteredfromEasternEuropetosouthernRussiaand westernIndia,andwereknownasScythians,Sacae,Saka, Getae,Parthians,Massagetae,etc.TheeasternmostIsraelites hadbeenpushedsouthwestwardwhentheMassagetaeandother SacaemigratedoutofcentralAsiaintoParthia.Withthefallof Parthia,andtheflightofitsSemiticpeopleintoArmenia,the descendantsofthetentribesofIsraelwerecompressedintoa regiontheshapeofacrescent(fromArmenia,betweenthe CaspianandBlackSeas,aroundtheBlackSeaonthenorthand southeastwardtowardmodernRomaniaandeasternHungary). ForthefirsttimesincethefalloftheoldkingdomofIsrael,the tentribesofIsraelwhohadscatteredintoAsiawerenowmostly togetheragain. Wasthismerecoincidence,orwasitthehandofGodinworld eventstoherdhislostsheep(Matthew10:6)inthedirection thathewishedthemtogo?Genesis49prophesiedthatthe tribesofIsraelwouldeventuallysettleinlocationswithspecific characteristicsbythetimeofthelatterdays(theselocations willbeanalyzedinchaptereleven).AtsomepointGodhadto begincompellingthemtomigratetowardtheregionsthathehad selectedfortheireventualsettlement. ThemigrationoftheParthiansandtheirallies,inturn,dislodged otherpeoples.Indeed,themigrationofmassesofParthian refugeesinthedirectionofEuropeinitiatedaperiodoftime (lastingforcenturies)inwhichwavesofdisplacedtribes(many ofthemraciallyrelated)begantosurgeintoEuropeseekingnew homelands.Onetribewoulddisplaceanothertribe,whowould, inturn,displaceanotherastheyjostledeachotherwestward. Whathasnotbeenrealizedisthatthegreatmigrationsoftribes
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andnationsspillingviolentlyandchaoticallyintoEuropewas triggeredbyonesingularevent:thefallofthehugeParthian Empire.Parthiasfallresultedinwholetribesandnationsof SemiticpeoplespillingwestwardthroughtheCaucasus MountainsandBlackSearegionstowardEuropeastheyfledthe Persiansandsoughtnewhomelands.Josephusrecordsthat,in hislifetime,the[Semitic]populationofthetentribesofIsrael hadexpandedsogreatlyintheParthianEmpirethattheywere toonumeroustocount!AfterJosephuspennedthatobservation, theIsraelitetribesfurtherexpandedtheirpopulationsforovera centurybeforetheirParthianEmpirecollapsed.Nowthisteeming massofpeoplewerebeingpropelledbycircumstancestoward EuropeviatheCaucasusMountainsandaroundthenorthern shoresoftheBlackSea. Theserefugeetribescametobeknownbythenameofthe region(theCaucasus)throughwhichtheypassed.Their descendantsbecameknownasCaucasians,orCaucasoids. WebstersNewWorldDictionaryoftheAmericanLanguage definesthetermCaucasoid(orCaucasian)as: ...looselycalledthewhiterace,although skincolorvaries.29 (Emphasisadded.) ThetermCaucasianisatraditional,historicnamecommonly appliedtothewhiterace.Thedictionarydefinitionindicatesthat itisatraditionalterm,notascientificone.Itisimportantto realize,however,thatthetermCaucasianwassoclosely linkedtothewhiteracebecausesomanywhitespouredinto EuropeviatheCaucasusmountainregion.TheParthiansand Scythiansweremembersofthewhiterace,aconclusion invariablysupportedbytheevidenceandtheirownself portrayalsoncoinsandartwork.Theirforcedmigrationsoutof ParthiatowardEuropewasoneofthegreatestmigrations,in termsofthesheernumberofpeopleinvolved,intheentiretyof
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humanhistory! ThetermIndoEuropeanhasalsobeenusedtodescribethis CaucasianmigrationtowardEurope,butthetermsCaucasian andIndoEuropeanhavefallenoutoffavorastheanti religious,evolutionarymovementcametodominateacademia. ThosewhohaveanenmitytowardGodandtheBiblehave reinventedhistoryinawaythatsuppressesthehistoryofthe tribesofIsrael.Theyhavealmostcompletelycensoredthe historyoftheParthianEmpirefromacademicoreducational awarenessnosmallfeatbecauseParthiawasoneofthe greatestandlargestempiresintheancientworld!Tounderstand thedepthofintellectualdishonestynowpresentinmodern academia,considertheviolencethatwouldbedonetothetruth ifallinformationontheRomanEmpirewasdeletedfromhistory texts!Yetthatiswhatacademiahasdonebyignoringthehistory ofParthiasempire,whichwasaspowerfulastheRomanEmpire! AsaresultofignoringParthiashistory,fewcomprehendwhyan almostendlessstreamofwhitetribesandnationscamespilling outofAsiaintoEuropeasrefugees,beginninginthethird centuryA.D.Thereasonforthismassmigrationwasthefallof theParthianEmpireinthethirdcenturyA.D.!Yethistorytexts recoilfromidentifyingtheAsiansourceofallthesemigrating nationsasifmakingsuchanidentificationwereanintellectual taboo.Theserefugeenationsandtribesdidnotcomefrom Siberiaorfromthemistsofhistory.TheycamefromParthia andScythia!Asaresultofthisincrediblehistoricalomission, millionsofmodernCaucasiansdonotrealizethattheirancestors originatedintheancientParthianEmpire.Nowbacktoour narrative. TheScythianshadbeenpresentinEasternEuropeformany centuries.Onehistorianhasrecordedthatasearlyas500B.C., Scythianadvanceguardsreach[ed]E.Germany,Hungaryand
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Bulgaria,andaddedthatfrom400300B.C.,theScythians establish[ed]outpostsintheBalkans.30 Parthiadidnotfalluntil 226A.D.sotheScythianshadinhabitedsouthRussiaand portionsofeasternEuropeforoverhalfamillenniumbythetime Parthianrefugeescameintotheirterritorieslookingforrefuge. SincetheParthianshadaScythianculture,itisnotsurprising thatrefugeeParthianswouldblendeasilywiththeirScythian kinsmen,losingtheiridentityasParthians. In256A.D.,GothictribescrossedtheCarpathiansanddrove theRomansfromDacia.31 Inotherwords,theGothsleftthe regionnorthoftheBlackSea,crossedtheCarpathianmountains andenteredBalkanEuropeinformidablenumbers.TheGoths homelandwasalsotheScythianhomeland.Itbegsthequestion ofwhethertheGothsandtheScythianswerethesamepeople. SincewehaveseenthattheScythianslivingineasternEurope werealsocalledGetae,theanswerisyesiftheGetaeandthe Gothswerethesamepeople. Etymologicallythewordsareverysimilarwiththeconsonantsof GetaeandGothbeingGTandGTH.HenryBradley,ahistorian oftheGoths,notesthefollowingabouttherelationshipofthe Getae(orGetes)andtheGoths: Inancienttimesthecountriesnorthofthe Danubemouthswereinhabitedbyapeople calledGetes(inLatinGetae)...Nowinthe thirdcenturyafterChristtheGothscame anddweltinthelandoftheGetes,and... mingledwiththenativeinhabitantsandso theRomanscametothinkthatGothsand Geteswereonlytwonamesforthesame people,orrathertwodifferentwaysof pronouncingthesameword.Eventhe historianJordanes,himselfaGoth,actually
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callshisbookaGetichistory,andmixesup thetraditionsofhisownpeoplewiththetales whichhehadreadinbooksaboutthe Getes.32 (Emphasisadded.) Mostinteresting!InthethirdcenturyA.D.(thesamecenturyin whichtheParthiansfledtheirfallenempire),amassofpeople (theGoths)cameanddweltinthelandoftheGetes(the Getae).Thattheymingledpeaceablyconfirmsthattheywere closelyrelatedpeoplewithacommonculture.Indeed,the Romansdiscernedscarcelyanydifferencebetweenthem!Evena GothichistorianregardedtheGothsandGetes(theGetae)as relatedtribeswithacommonheritage.SincetheGetaelivedin theBlackSearegionpriortothearrivalofthecloselyrelated Goths,theconclusionseemsinescapablethattheGetaewere Scythianswhohadlivedforcenturiesintheregionandthe newlyarrivedGothswereParthianrefugeesfleeingAsiain searchofhomelandsamongtheirScythiankinsmen.BothRoman andGothicsourcesregardedtheGetes(Getae)andGothsas separatebranchesofacommonpeoplewhounitedwhenthe GothsmigratedintotheterritoryoftheGetes(orGetae). TherecordthattheGothspeaceablysettled(andmingled)with theGetaestronglysupportstheviewthattheywererelated tribeswithacommoncultureandlanguage.IftheGetaehad beeninvadedbyatribewithadifferentrace,cultureor language,commonsensedictatestherewouldhavebeen determinedwarfaretoresisttheminsteadofthepeaceable assimilationwhichoccurred.SincetheGetaewereknowntobe Scythians,andsincetheGothsandGetaehadapeaceful merger,itindicatesthattheGothswerepredominantlyParthian refugeeswhoweremergingwiththeirScythianbrothers.Since theScythiansassistedtheParthiansonmanyoccasionsintimes ofwarfare,itislogicalthattheywouldalsoofferrefugetothe
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Parthianswhentheyweredrivenoutoftheirformerhomelands bythePersians. ModernsecondguessingofRomanandGothicwritershas resultedinaspeculationthattheGothsoriginatedinSweden (Gotland).However,sinceweknowthatmanyIsraelitesfleeing theAssyrianshadmigratedintotheBlackSearegionandcalled themselvestheGauthei,33 thetermGauthorGothhad beenpresentintheBlackSearegionsincetheseventhcentury B.C.Therefore,theBlackSearegionisthelogicalhomelandof theGoths.TheParthianandScythianrefugeeswhomigratedinto EuropefromtheenvironsoftheBlackSeasimplyinfusedthe ranksof(andcametobeknownas)Goths. Col.GawlercitesclassicalwriterssuchasPliny,Stephanus, Iornandes(Jordanes)andHerodotusasregardingtheterms Dacian,Getae,Getes,GothiandScythiantoalldenotethe 34 samepeople, whoseknownhomelandwasneartheBlackSea. Indeed,itislikelythatGothiccolonistsfromtheBlackSea colonizedScandinavia,bringingthenameGotlandtothatarea. TheGothsexhibitedScythianculturaltraitswhentheymigrated intoEuropeingreatnumbers.TamaraTalbotRicesbook,The Scythians,commentsthatFleeingGothsspread(the)Scytho SarmatianstylethroughCentralandSouthernEuropein200 35 300A.D., confirmingtheScythiannatureoftheGoths.Indeed, wehavenowreachedthepointinhistorywheretheterms ParthianandScythiandisappear,andthetribesformerly knownbythosenamesareknownasGoths(andothernames asweshallsoondocument)whentheyinvadeEurope. ItwasknownthatParthiasArsacidsfledtoArmeniaand sustainedthemselvestherefortwomorecenturies.TheParthian masseswouldlogicallyhavefollowedtheArsacidroyaltyto whomtheyhadbeenunfailinglyloyalforfivecenturies.The directionofthismigration(whenfollowedonamap)leads
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directlytotheBlackSearegionandeasternEurope.Theirneed forlivingspaceledtotheGothicinvasionsoftheRoman Empire.TheconnectionbetweenmassiveParthianmigrationsto thenorthwesttowardEurope,soonfollowedbymassive migrationsofGothsintoEuropeisclear. ThefactthattheGothsarrivedinthearea,mergedwiththe GetaeandquicklyinvadedaRomanprovincesoonaftertheir arrivalbeginsaninterestingnewchapterinRomanParthian confrontations.However,theParthianrefugeesarenowcalled GothsinsteadofParthians. TheDacians(Getae)wereunwillingsubjectsoftheRoman Empire.Parthiasrefugees,nowcalledGoths,wouldhavebeen vehementlyantiRomanassomeofthemlivedthrough(andall ofthemknewabout)theRomantreacheryunderEmperor CaraculluswhichledtosuchacostlywarthatthePersianswere abletorevoltanddestroytheParthianempire.Thecombination ofthenativeGetaeandthenewlyarrivedmassesofParthian refugeesresultedinaverypowerfulforceofGoths.TheseGoths theninvadedRomanterritoryandwrestedtheprovinceofDacia fromtheRomanEmpirein256A.D.(barelythirtyyearsafterthe fallofParthia).ThattheGothsspecificallychosetoattack Romanterritory(eventhoughRomewasthestrongestmilitary powerinthearea)furtherindicatesthatthenewcomerswere motivatedbyaspecialhostilitytowardRome(atraitonewould expectinParthianrefugees). NotallofthemigratingParthiansandScythianscametobe knownasGoths.ManyoftheCaucasianpeopleentering EuropeinthecenturiesafterthefallofParthiawereknownas Teutons,Germans,Vandals,Saxons,etc.The Scythian/ParthianpeoplehadbeenknownastheSacaeforover amillennium.Thisnamewasretainedbysomeofthemigrating refugeeswhowerecalledSaxonsbytheRomans.Phonetically,
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SaxonsisthesamewordasSacssons(i.e.theSonsof Isaac).WhiletheEnglishwordSaxonhasaLatinx,the GermanwordforSaxonisSachsischorSachse.36 The GermanwordsforSaxonpreservethenameoftheSacaeas theymigratedintoEuropefromAsia.SincetheSacaewere ParthiansandScythiansinAsia,theSaxons(orSachse)were noneotherthanScythian/ParthianrefugeesenteringEurope. TheBibleprophesiedinGenesis48:1416thatthenameof IsaacwouldspecificallybeplacedontheIsraelitetribes ofEphraimandManasseh.SincetheSaxonsstillborethe nameofIsaacastheymigratedintoEurope,itindicatesthatthe SaxonswereprimarilytheIsraelitetribesofEphraimand Manasseh. TheRomanshadacustomofnamingleadersaftertheenemies theyfought.ThusoneRomanleaderwasnamedGermanicus becausehefoughttheGermans.Anothertookthename ParthicusbecausehefoughttheParthians.OneRomangeneral whofought(withoutsuccess)againsttheParthianscalledhimself DecidiusSaxa.37 SincetheSacae(Saka)werepartofthe ParthianEmpire,thisRomangeneralhadapparentlytakenthe nameSacae(orSaka),andrepresenteditinaLatinformas Saxa.SincethiswasdonebeforeParthiafell,theRomans apparentlyreferredtotheParthianSacaeastheSaxaeeven beforetheymigratedtoEurope(theLatinpluralisae,and Saxaisasingularform).Itisnotsurprisingthenthatthe descendantsoftheSacaewouldbecalledtheSaxonswhenthey latermigratedtoEurope.Col.Gawleralsonotesthatthe classicalwriterPtolemyiscitedas: mentioningaScythianpeoplesprung fromtheSakainamedSaxones.38 (Emphasisadded.) ThelinkbetweentheScythian/ParthiansandtheSaxonsiswell
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established.R.H.Hodgkin,inHistoryoftheAngloSaxons, elaboratesfurtheronPtolemyscommentontheSaxones.He states: AfterPtolemysstatementthattheSaxons weretobefoundontheneckoftheCimbric Peninsula,wehavetowaitformorethana hundredyearsbeforewehearofthemagain. Thenabout286A.D.theyarementioned alongwiththeFranks,firstaspirateswho infestthecoastsofGaulandlaterasalliesof Carausius,theRomanadmiralwhorevolted andestablishedhimselfinBritain.39 ItisnoteworthythattheSaxonswerefirstrecordedasbeingon theneckoftheCimbricPeninsula[modernDenmark]overa centurypriorto286A.D.SincetheScythianSacaewerewell establishedineasternEuropebythattime,itishardlysurprising thatagroupofScythians(calledSaxonesbyPtolemy)would havetraveledintoCentralEuropeasfarasmodernDenmark. ThesewerelikelyasmalladvanceguardofScythians(explorers ortraders)whohadnotarrivedinlargenumbers.Afterthefallof Parthia,greatmassesofSacaepouredintoEuropeasrefugeesin searchofhomelands.ItissignificantthattheSaxonswerenever presentinlargenumbersinEuropeuntilafterthefallofthe ParthianEmpire.However,by286A.D.,largenumbersof SaxonsandFranksarefoundaspiratesinNorthernEurope,just sixdecadesafterParthiasfall.Theconclusionisinescapablethat massesofrefugeeParthians(Sacae)hadmigratedtoNorthern Europe,andwerecalledSaxonsbytheRomans.Thatthey resortedtopiracyindicatestheywerenomadsnotyetableto supportthemselvesbytraditionalmeans(agriculture,trade, etc.),andweresupportingtheirfamiliesinanywaypossible. Thislifestylewouldbeappropriateforalargemassofarriving
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refugees.RefugeeSacaewouldalsobeexpectedtobeanti Roman,whichtheseSaxonswere.TheypreyedonRoman shippingandalliedthemselveswithaRomanadmiralwhowas willingtoopposeRome. AlfredChurchwroteinEarlyBritainthatthepiratetribeswho alliedthemselvestoCarausiusweretheFranks,Saxons,Danes andNormans,andthatCarausiuswasnotactuallyaRoman,but wasanativeofthecountrynowknownasHolland.40 This indicatesthattheFranks,Saxons,DanesandNormanswereall relatedtribeswhojointlymigratedintotheareafromasimilar location.ManyofthesetribeswereoftencalledGermanictribes bytheRomans.WhiletheSaxonsborethenameofIsaac,the DanesborethenameoftheIsraelitetribeofDan(whichhad attacheditsnametothemajorriversenteringtheBlackSea duringScythiantimes). R.H.HodgkinrecordedthattheSaxons: begantomolesttheIsland(Briton)some timeinthelatterhalfofthethird century...After250A.D.theImperial authoritiesbegantoconstructdefensesalong thecoast...theSaxonraidersarenot mentioned...tillthelastquarterofthe thirdcentury.41 Thesedatesareextremelysignificant.TheParthianEmpirefellin 226A.D.,precipitatingamassivemigrationofSacaetothe northwest,throughArmenia,southRussiaandthenacross Europe.ItisacknowledgedthattheSaxonsweremigratingout oftheeastinawestwarddirectionwhentheirmigrations 42 broughtthemintoEurope. Inthetimeframe250300A.D.,the SaxonsandrelatedtribesarerecognizedascomingintoEurope ingreatnumbers.Couldanythingbeclearer?Thehomeless SaxonswerenoneotherthantheSacaewhohadbeendislodged
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fromtheirhomelandsbythefallofParthiajustdecadesprevious totheirappearanceinEurope.WhiletheGothsstruckdirectlyat Rome,theSaxonsandtheiralliedtribesmigratedintoEurope aroundthenorthernedgeofRomesEuropeanEmpire,insearch ofanewhomeland. RomesholdonBritaingrewsteadilyweaker,andRome eventuallyhadtoabandonBritainaltogether.ThenativeBritons atfirstinvitedSaxonsfromtheEuropeanmainlandtoassist themasmercenaries,buttheSaxonsbegantodisplacethe nativeBritons. ThearmamentsoftheSaxonsincludedspears(pikes),bowsand 43 arrows,anddefensivearmor(mailcoatsandhelmets). Thefact thattheyworemetalarmorontheirbodiesindicatesthatthe Saxonswereapeopleskilledinmetallurgy,notignorantnomads. Theiruseofthebowandarrowandpikesforoffensiveweapons, andtheiruseofmailarmorfordefenseatteststotheirParthian origin.InchaptereighttheParthiansweredescribedashavinga lightcavalrywhichfoughttheRomanswithbowsandarrows, andaheavycavalrywhichchargedwithlongpikes(spears).The heavycavalry(andtheirhorses)werecladwithmailarmorand metalhelmets.TheSaxons,whileretainingtraditionalParthian weaponry,hadtofightonfootinsteadofonhorseback.The horseswereneededforhaulingtheirfamiliesandpossessions, andmayhavebeeneatenduringtheprivationsofmigration.The initialSaxondependenceonpiracyorhiringoutasmercenaries indicatesameasureofdesperationontheirparttosupportand feedtheirfamilies(typicalofamigratingnation). ThemigratoryexperienceofthevariouspeoplesleavingParthia andAsiaforArmeniaandEuropewasnotpleasant.Theywerein direneedofnewhomelandstogrowfood,buildhomes,etc. WhileArmeniaandthehistoricallyScythianareasaroundthe BlackSeawouldhavebeenhospitable,therewasnotnearly
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enoughroominthoseareastosupportthemassesofpeople displacedbythefalloftheParthianEmpire. Thesemigrationstookplaceatthespeedofanoxcart,andtook decadesorcenturiestoaccomplish.Thesemigratingpeople neededtostopperiodicallytogrowcrops,huntgameorsteal fromothernationstofeedtheirfamilies.Undoubtedly,alarge percentageoftheelderlyandtheinfirmdiedalongtheway. Wars(withnativepopulationsoreachother)wouldhavecaused morecasualties.Sincethenumberofmouthstofeedwasat timesgreaterthanthefoodwhichwasavailable,somestarved. Duringsevereshortages,theymayhavehadtoeattheirhorses, livestock,andseedgrains.Anationonthemovehasfew options.Ifitcannotobtainfoodpeacefully,ithasnochoicebut totakeitbywarfareorpiracyfromsomeoneelse.Ifitspeople havesuccessinwarfare,theycanprosperforatime.However,if itdisplacesanothernation,thatothernationmustthenlookfor aweakernationtodisplace.Sometribeshadtoaccept mercenaryservicetoothernationsinordertofeedtheirown people.Atribecouldthinkithadfoundsecurityinanewlocation onlytobedislodgedbyastrongertribemovingintotheirarea.It wasadifficulttime,asmanynationsandtribesweremigrating andjostlingeachotherforlivingspace. WhilesomeGothicoutpostshadlongexistedinNorthern 44 Europe, theGothswereprincipallylocatedintheBlackSea regionwhentheybegantoinvadetheRomanEmpire.Atthe beginningofthethirdcenturyA.D.,theyweredividedintothe Ostrogoths(orEasternGoths)andtheVisigoths(orWestern Goths).ThesetwoGothicgroupslivedoneachsideofthe 45 DniesterRiverontheshoresoftheBlackSea. TheGoths,Germans,Saxons,etc.havebeencollectively referredtoasTeutonicpeople.HenryBradley,whosebook,The Goths,waspublishedinGreatBritaininthelatenineteenth
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century,wrote: TheGothiclanguage...isverymuchlikethe oldestEnglish,thoughitisstillmorelikethe languagethatwasspokenbytheancestorsof theSwedesandNorwegians.Thereislittle doubtthatinthefirstcenturyalltheTeutonic peoplescouldunderstandoneanothers speech,thougheventhentheremusthave somedifferencesofdialect,whichgrewwider astimewenton...theoldTeutonic speech...developedintothedifferent languageswhichwecallEnglish,German, Dutch,SwedishandDanish46 ThesetribesseparatedastheyspreadoverEurope,andtheir Teutonic(Gothic)dialectsdevelopedintodistinctnational languages.TheoriginalTeutonicorGothicspeechgraduallyfell intodisuseandwaslastrecognizableinitsoriginalforminthe Crimeainthesixteenthcentury(theoriginalBlackSearegion 47 fromwhichtheypouredintoEurope). ThereisevidencethatthewordGothcomesfromtheGothic wordGuth,whichmeantGod.48 Theconsonantsofboth GothandGuthareGTH.Bothwordshaveidentical consonants,supportingtheconceptthatwearedealingwiththe samerootword.Also,languagesdescendedfromtheGothic language(i.e.English,German)usewordsdescendedfromthe wordGothorGuthtodescribethedeity(God,Gott). Sincethedescendantwordsstilldirectlyrefertothedeity,there iseveryreasontobelievetheantecedentGothicworddidas well. InchaptersixitwasnotedthatCol.J.C.Gawler,anofficialof theBritishGovernmentinthenineteenthcentury,inquotingan bookbyM.Sailman(writtenin1818)entitledResearchesinthe
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EastanImportantAccountoftheTenTribes,wrote: Itstatesonpage25,thatontheauthorityof severalArmenianhistorians,thetentribes passedintoTartary.ItalsoquotesOrtellius, who,itsays,inhisdescriptionofTartary, notesthekingdomofArsareth,wherethe tentribesretiring...tookthenameof Gautheibecause,hesays,theywere veryjealousofthegloryofGod.49 (Emphasisadded.) ThisrecordthattheIsraelites,whenfleeingintotheBlackSea regionfromtheAssyrians,tookthenameGautheioutofazeal forGodarguesthattheGauthei(orGoths)didnamethemselves afterGod.SincetheGothslivedinthesameregioninwhichthe termGautheioriginated,itfollowsthatthetermGothwasa morerecentformofthewordGauthei.Bradleyalsocites Gothicliteratureinwhichisfoundtheword: Gutthiuda,[meaning]peopleoftheGoths. ThewordthiudaisthesameastheOld Englishtheod,meaningpeople...50 ThereisgoodreasontoconcludethattheGothsconsidered themselvestobethepeopleofGod.Onceitisunderstoodthat theywerethedescendantsofthetentribesofIsrael,this becomesalogicalterminologyastheirancestors(theIsraelites) literallywerethepeopleofGod. TheGothicpeople,accordingtoJordanes(aGothichistorianof thesixthcentury),hadmigratedthroughScythia.Jordanes describeshowtheGothsarrivedinEuropeasfollows: theGoths...andsomeotherkindredpeoples, unitedintoonegreatbody,first wanderedthroughwhatisnowWestern
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Russia,tilltheycametotheshoresofthe BlackSeaandtheSeaofAzov,andthen spreadthemselveswestwardtothenorth bankoftheDanube.51 TheGothicScythianconnectionisalsonotedbythe EncyclopaediaBritannica,whichassertsthattheGoths migratedintoScythia.52 BoththeBritannicaandBradley discusstheassumptionthattheGothsmigratedintoScythia fromthenorth,outofScandinavia.However,theBritannica expressesdoubtsaboutaScandinavianoriginforsomanyGoths inthesewords: Thecredibilityofthestoryofthemigration fromSwedenhasbeenmuchdiscussedby modernauthors...[however]somany populousnationscanhardlyhavesprungfrom theScandinavianpeninsula.53 Howtrue!WhilethereweresomeGothsinEuropepriortothe fallofParthia,theywerenotknownforgreatnumbersor strengthuntiltheirrankswereswelledbythemassesof Parthians,ScythiansandotherSemiticpeoplewhofledfromthe fallenParthianEmpire.SomeGothshadsettledasfarnorthas Scandinavia,butScandinaviawasnottheoriginalhomelandfor themassesofGothswhopressuredtheRomanEmpire.Thereis nohistoricalrecordofmassivepopulationsofGothsin ScandinaviabeforetheirappearanceinEuropeingreatnumbers. ThemainGothichomelandhadbeenParthia,Scythia,andthe regionaroundtheBlackSea. Sincemodernhistoryalmostcompletelyignoresthehistoryof ancientParthiasmassiveempire,itdoesntaddressthepressing historicalquestionofwhereitshordesofSemiticpeoplewent whentheirempirefell.IfmodernhistorygavetheParthian
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Empirethekindofprominentattentionitspositionintheancient worldmerits,theParthianoriginofthemassesofrefugee Semites(Caucasians)pouringintoEuropewouldbeimpossibleto miss.WeknowtheGothswerepartofthewhiterace(Semites) whichmigratedinhugenumbersoutofAsiaintoEurope.We knowtheParthianshadaSemiticculturewhentheyexited Parthia(theirSemiticcultureiswhatdrovethePersianstoexpel them).ParthiancoinsandScythianartworkshowtheirpeople hadwhite(Caucasian)features.OnlyParthiacouldhaveprovided themassesofrefugeeswhichpouredintoEuropesoonafterthe falloftheParthianEmpire.Yethistorytextsseemunwillingto connectthefallofthehugeParthianEmpirewiththearrivalof manytribesofwhiterefugeesarrivinginEuropefromAsia almostrightafterParthiascollapse.Curious,isntit? TheveryfactthattheGothsriskedthelivesoftheir familiestoseeknewhomelandsinEurope(inspiteof militaryopposition)provesthattheyhadnootherchoice! Iftheirformerhomelandshadbeenavailabletothem,they wouldnothaveriskedtheirentirecivilianpopulationinthismass migration.Theonlyrecentlyfallenempirelargeenoughto generatesuchamassofrefugeeswastheParthianEmpire. Thesemigratingnationsincludedthedescendantsofboth IsraelitesandnonIsraelitenationswhohadbeentheirvassalsin theParthianEmpire.ThesenonIsraelitesincludedsuchnations astheoldAssyrians,ElamitesandAramaeans. ThehistoryofthetentribesofIsraelhasbeenobscuredby artificialgapsintheirmigratoryhistory.Thefirstartificialgap occurswiththefallofthetentribedkingdomofIsrael(the PhoenicianEmpire)inabout741721B.C.Historicalaccounts implythattheseIsraelitessuddenlydisappearedintoAsia,or becamelost.YetwehaveScythians,Parthians,Gauthei,and relatedpeoplessuddenlyappearinginAsiawithHebrewnames
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andcustomsjustaftertheIsraelitesmigratedtoAsia.Duringthe earlyChristianera,aneducatedJewishhistoriansuchas JosephusdidnotregardthetentribesofIsraelaseverhaving beenlostordifficulttofind. ThenextartificialgapinIsraelitehistoryoccursinthethird centuryA.D.whenhistorytexts(iftheymentionParthiaatall) depicttheParthiansasdisappearingfromtheirAsianhomelands, althoughtherearerecordstheParthiansfledtothenorthwestin thedirectionofSouthRussiaandtheBlackSea.Justafewyears aftertheParthiancollapse,wefindtheAngloSaxons,Gothsand relatedGermanictribessuddenlyappearinginvastnumbersas theymigrateinsearchofnewhomelands,enteringEuropefrom theregionsofSouthRussiaandtheBlackSea.Isitreallyso hardtomaketheobviousconnectionbetweentheseevents? WhiletheclassicalwritersofGreeceandRomehadmuchtosay aboutParthia,andextensivehistoriesofParthiawerewrittenin thelatenineteenthcentury,twentiethcenturyhistorytextshave increasinglyignoredParthianhistory. Letusnowdocumentsomestrikingcommonalitiesbetweenthe tribeswhichformedancientScythiaandParthiaandthosewho settledinEuropeaftertheParthianEmpirefell.Asnotedearlier, theScythianSacaeandtheSakawhosettledinParthiaalso borethenameofSaxones.AstheymigratedintoEurope,they lefttheirnameonvariousportionsoftheEuropeanmainland, suchasseveralregionsofGermanynamedSaxonyandthe modernFrenchprovinceofAlsace.Also,itwasnotedearlier thattheGermanwordfortheSaxonsisbasedontheSacroot wordthatwasbroughttoEuropebytheSacae.

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OtherParthiannameswerebroughttoEuropeaswell.One ParthianprovincewasnamedCarmania,thehomeofthe Kermans.TheSassanianPersiansattackedthesepeoplealong withtheParthians,sotheKermansalsohadtofleePersian persecution.Indeed,sincetheKermanswereoneofthefirst nationsattackedbytheantiSemiticPersians,itislogicalthat theKermanswereSemites.AstheKermansmigratedinto EuropewiththeParthians,theywerecalledGermans.The nameCarmaniawastransplantedintoEuropeasGermania, ageneralnameusedbytheRomanstodescribemanysimilar, 54 tribes. ThereisanaccountofHerodotuswhichsupportstheconclusion thattheKermansandtheGermanswerethesamepeople. HerodotuscitesthattheGermaniiwereasubjectpeoplein theoldPersianEmpireoftheAchaemenids,whichpredatedthe 55 existenceofeithertheRomanorParthianEmpires. The EncyclopaediaBritannica,incommentingonthispassageof Herodotus,statesthattheGermaniiandtheCarmanians 56 weretwonamesforthesamepeople, linkingtheGermaniito theKermansorCarmaniansintheParthianEmpire.Clearly,the termGermanoriginatedintheregion,andlaterspreadto Europe.Asthereadercansee,theancienttermGermaniiwas virtuallyunchangedasitbecameGermanyorGermaniain Europe. ItisthisbooksopinionthattheGermaniiorKermanswere originallytheAssyrians.WhenAssyriawascrushedbythe Scythians(circa620A.D.),theywereattackedfromthenorth andwest.Theirobviousoptionwastofleetothesouthandeast (towardPersia).TheterritoryoftheKermanswaslocatedtothe southeastoftheterritoryofancientAssyria.Eventoday,the nameKermanisattachedtoacityinsouthernIran.Asthe centuriespassed,thelandofKermanwasdominatedbyPersia,
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AlexandertheGreat,theSeleucidGreeksand,finally,the Parthians.SincetheAssyrianswereSemites,descendedfrom Shemsson,Asshur(Genesis10:22),theyhadaracialbondwith theParthians(fellowSemites)thatdidnotexistwithanyoftheir previousrulers.ThefactthattheSassanianPersiansbegantheir antiSemiticcrusadebyattackingtheKermansisstrong evidencethattheKermanswereSemites. ThereisarecordthattheancientMesopotamiansexploredand settledinEuropeaslongagoas2800B.C.Acuneiformrecord fromapproximately800B.C.wasfoundintheAssyriancapitalof AssurwhichrecordedthatSargonIclaimedtorulethetinland whichliesbeyondtheUpperSea(orMediterranean).57 Ifthe UpperSeaofSargonIwastheMediterranean(whichseems logical),themostfamoustinlandbeyondtheMediterranean SeawasinCornwallofancientBriton.Asseeninearlier chapters,ancientmankindwasquiteabletotravelgreat distancesinmaritimeexpeditions,andvoyagesfromtheeastern MediterraneantonorthwestEuropewereeasilyaccomplished. TheAssyrianscouldeasilyhaveestablishedsettlementsin EuropeduringthetimeofAssyrianpower.However,amore recentoverlandcolonizationisalsopossible. AtitszeniththedominionoftheAssyrianEmpireextendedasfar astheancientterritoryofArmenia.TheAssyriansdefeateda numberofpeopleinthisregion,andfollowingtheusualAssyrian custom,theydeportedgreatnumbersoftheinhabitants...while AramaeansfromBabyloniawerebroughttotaketheirplace.58 TheAramaeanswerealsoSemites(descendedfromAram,the sonofShem),andthisaccountshowsthembeingplacedinthe regionofancientArmenia.Afterward,theregionacquiredthe nameofArmenia.ItislikelythatthenameArmeniaresulted fromeithertheplacementoflargenumbersofAramaeansinthe areabytheAssyrians(compareAramandArmenia)orwas
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namedaftertheCarmaniansthemselves(compareArmenia andCarmania). Iftheaboveiscorrect,itfurtherexplainswhytheParthiansand KermansofCarmaniawouldbothfleetowardArmeniawhen threatenedbyaPersianjihadagainstSemiticpeople.Boththe ParthiansandKermanswouldhaveknownthatArmeniaand EuropecontainedgroupsofrelatedSemiticpeople.Theflightof SemiticpeoplefromthefallenParthianEmpiretowardEurope wasnotanhistoricalaccident.MigrationstowardArmenia,the BlackSeaandEuropeweredeemedthemosthospitable directioninwhichtoseekrefugeandnewhomelands. TheAssyrianswereamilitaristic,warlikenation.Straborecords thattheCarmanians(alsonamedGermaniiorKermans)werea 59 warlikepeople. AlsointerestingisthefactthatStraborecords thatanareaofAsiaMinor(intowhichAssyriahadmovedwhole populations)wasnamedPrusa.60 WhenHannibalthe Carthaginian(inthesecondcenturyB.C.)wasdefeatedbythe Romans,hefledtoArmeniaandwasgivenrefugebyaking Prusias.61 WeretheresidentsofPrusacalledPrusians?Ifwe seeintheirnametheancestorsofthewarlikePrussianswho latersettledineasternGermany,itispossiblethattheywere descendantsofAssyrianswhohadbeensettledthereduring Assyriasperiodofdominanceintheregion. ThetermGermaneventuallycametobeappliedtomanytribes ofpeoplemigratingintoEurope.InthefirstcenturyA.D.,the RomanhistorianPlinywroteconcerningtheScythiansinEurope: thenameoftheScythianshasaltogether beentransferredtotheSarmataeandthe Germans.62 Thisisamostimportanthistoricalobservation.Itconfirms thatmanyScythians,astheymigratedoutofAsiaintoEurope,
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becameknownasGermans.TheEncyclopaediaBritannica notesthattheGreekwritersHerodotusandHippocratesregarded 63 theSarmatae(orSarmatians)asrelatedtotheScythiantribes. TheabovesourcesconfirmthattheScythianswerenotlostin history,butbecameknownasGermanswhentheymigrated intoEurope(wealsohaveseenthatmanySacaeScythianswere alsoknownasSaxonswhentheyenteredEurope).Plinys commentalsoindicatesthattheRomanswerecallingthe ScythiansGermansasearlyasthefirstcenturyA.D.,long beforeParthiafell!Itfollowslogicallythatwhengreatmassesof ParthiansandScythianspouredintoEuropeseekingnew homelands,thetermGermanwouldbeappliedtomanyof themaswell. AstheSaxonsmigratedintoEuropeandtheBritishIsles,they werecloselyalliedtotheJutes.Historyrecordsthataftertheir entryintotheBritishIsles,theysettledinKent,theIsleofWight 64 andpartsofHampshire. TheJuteslefttheirname(Juteland) ontheDanishpeninsulaofJutland.Wheredidtheycomefrom? IsthereevidenceoftheirnameinAsia?Therecertainlyis,and, eventhen,wefindthemcloselyidentifiedwiththeSacae(who becametheSaxons). WhendescribingtheSacaeScythiantribeswhomigratedoutof AsiainthesecondcenturyB.C.tomergewiththeParthian Empire,GeorgeRawlinsonnotesthatthegreatesttribe,the Massagetae,wasalsonamedthegreatJits,orJats.65 These migratingSacae(orSaka)gavetheirnametotheParthian provinceofSacastanandtotheSakakingdomsofNorthwest India.ThetermJathassurvivedasacastenameinNorthwest Indiaintomoderntimes,attestingtotheancientdominanceof theJatsinthatregion.TheEncyclopaediaBritannicagivestheir originasbeingeitherwiththeGetaeofHerodotus...[or] ScythiansorIndoScythians.66 ColliersEncyclopediaaddsthat
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TheyarebelievedtobedescendedfromtheSakaorScythians, whomovedintoIndiainaseriesofmigrationsbetweenthe secondcenturyB.C.andthefifthcenturyA.D.67 Asdiscussedin apreviouschapter,theMassagetaetribeofSacaeweremost likelythedescendantsoftheIsraelitetribeofManasseh,andthe suffixgetaeindicatesacommonoriginwiththeGetaeofthe BlackSearegion. ManyoftheSaka(Sacae)migratingtoEuropebecameknownas Saxons.However,onetriberetainedtheIndoScythianterm JatastheymigratedintoEurope,becomingknownasthe Jutes.SincetheJatswerecloselylinkedtotheSacaeinAsia, wewouldexpecttofindthemcloselylinkedtotheSaxonsafter theymigrateintoEurope.NotethattheconsonantsofJatsand Jutesareidentical:JatandJute. Ascanbeseen,theIndoEuropeanswhomigratedfromAsiainto EuropeintheaftermathofParthiasfallincludedmanydifferent nationsandtribes.AnothersuchtribeweretheAlans(or Alani),whowerefirstrecordedinAsianeartheCaspianSeain 68 thefirstcenturyA.D., andlaterpenetratedtowardtheregionof theCaucasusandtheDanubeRiver.Theyhavebeencalledhalf casteScyths,andmanyAlanifollowedtheVandalsinto 69 Europe. ColliersEncyclopediaobservesthattheAlaniforatime 70 establishedakingdomoftheirowninPortugal. Tosumup,priortothefalloftheParthianEmpire,wefindmany SemitictribeslivingwithinitsbordersandintheScythian regionsofSouthRussia.Manyofthesetribes(theSacae,Saka orSaxa),Kermans(Germanii),Jats,andAlanimigratedout ofAsiaintoEuropeviatheCaucasusandtheBlackSearegionof theGetae(orGauthei)afterParthiasfall.InEurope,manyof thesemigratingtribeswerecalledtheSaxons,Germans, Jutes,AlaniandGoths.TheAsianoriginofthesetribesis readilyapparent.
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Nowletusexaminethehistoricalrecordofhowthesemigrating tribesfromAsiaconqueredEuropeandtheRomanEmpire.As thereaderwillsee,thisperiodofhistoryappearsinamuch differentlightwhentoldfromtheGothic,insteadoftheRoman, viewpoint. SoonafterParthiafellin226A.D.,theGothsneartheBlackSea becameincrediblynumerousandwerecompelledtoexpandtheir territoryinthedirectionofEurope.Clearly,thesuddenincrease inthenumberofGothswasduetomassesofParthianrefugees spillingintotheirregion.ThomasBurns,inAHistoryofthe Ostrogoths,notesthat: Aroundthemiddleofthethird century...thestruggleforhegemonyonthe lowerDanubeproducedthefirstlastingGothic coalition...anearly...Dacianconfederacy, includingsomeGoths,wasgraduallyreplaced byanalliancedominatedbyGoths.71 (Emphasisadded.) BurnsalsonotesthatGothicpowerhadgrownsostrongby238 A.D.thattheRomansbeganmakingcashpaymentstothe Goths.HedescribestheRomanactionasfollows: AlthoughtheGothslivedatsomedistance fromtheRomanfrontierandhadonly infrequentcontactwithit,theirleaderswere importantenoughtoreceiveannualgiftsas earlyas238[A.D.],whenTullius Menophilus...attemptedtodetachtheGoths fromtheCarpicallianceinseparate negotiationswiththeGothsalone.72 Thesecashgiftswereessentiallytributemoniesdesignedto deterGothicattack.Apparently,theRomansdidnotdeemthe
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Gothssufficientlynumerousorthreateningtojustifythese paymentsuntil238A.D.,justtwelveyearsafterthefallof Parthia.AnotherhistorianrecordsthatRomebegancash paymentstotheGothsassoonasabouttwentyyears[priorto] 245A.D.73 ThiswouldbringtheonsetofRomespaymentsto theGothsbacktothetimeframeof226A.D.,theveryyearthe ParthianEmpirefell!Thissupportsthecontentionthattheranks oftheGothshadbeensuddenlyincreasedbymassesofanti Roman,Parthianrefugees. RomanconcernsaboutthegrowingthreatinGothicterritoryled toanattempttobuyofftheGothswithmoney.WhydidRome takethatactioninsteadofusingtheirvauntedmilitarymight againstthesebarbarians?Priorto226238A.D.,theRomans hadseennoneedtopaytributemoneytotheGothstodeter aninvasion. RomelikelyunderstoodthattheGothshadbeenreinforcedby Parthianrefugees.RomewasawareofParthiasfallandtherise ofSassanianPersia.Romanreluctancetofightamassof Parthiansrobbedoftheirempirewasunderstandable.Romehad beendefeatedbytheParthiansinagruesomelybloody,three dayclashatNisibis(seechaptereight)in217A.D.Someofthe GothswereParthianveteransofthebattleofNisibis.This eventwasstillafreshmemoryonbothsides,andRomevery likelyhadnoeagernesstorenewhostilitieswithangryParthians. ItissignificantthatRometriedtobuyoffthenewlypowerful Gothsontheirborder.AfterlosingthebattleofNisibis,Rome hadobtainedpeacebyofferingtheParthiansaverylargesumof money(tribute).ThepaymentoftributemoneytoParthianshad gainedpeacein217A.D.,sobasedonprecedent,Romelikely feltthisactionwouldagainbuypeace.TheRomanswerenotin thehabitofgivingtributemoneytojustanyone(doingso impliedinferiority),soRomespaymentoftributemoneytothe
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Gothsasafirstoptionimpliestheirperceptionofanunusually severedanger. Atfirstitworked.ThedisplacedParthianswereinnomoodfor wareither,andneededtimetoregathertheirstrengthand consolidateitwiththatofthenativeGoths.Themergeroftheir populationswentremarkablysmoothly,giventheircommon cultureandethnicheritage.ThenativeGothsweredescended fromtheGauthei,membersofthetentribesofIsraelwhohad livedinthatregionsincethefallofSamariain721B.C.Other IsraeliteswhohadsettledintheCaucasuswereknownas Iberians,whilemanyoftheParthianandSacaetribesseeking refugeamongtheGothswerealsodescendedfromthetentribes ofIsrael.SincethismergertookplaceinthelandoftheGoths, andthepeoplewereallrelatedtooneanother,theRomans simplycalledthemallGoths.YettheGothswerealsosoclosely relatedtotheGermanicpeoplewhomigratedintoEuropenorth oftheGothsthatThomasBurnsdescribestheGothsasa GermanicsocietyandaGermaniccoalition.74 TheallianceofpeoplewhichtheGothscametodominatewasan antiRomancoalition.75 SinceParthianrefugeeswereswelling theGothicranks,itislogicalthattheiralliancewouldhavean antipathytowardRome(theirhistoricrivals).Also,Roman treacheryunderCaracullushadledtoaseverelossofParthian militarystrength,eventhoughtheParthianswerevictorious. ParthianmilitarylossesallowedthePersianstorevoltanddrive themoutoftheiroldempire.Therefore,theParthianrefugees couldblameRomeforthelossoftheirempire.Theycouldfurther reasonthatiftheirempireandhomelandswerelostdueto Romanperfidy,thentheyshouldobtainnewhomelandsatthe expenseofRome!Romelikelysawthisdangerandtriedto forestallitwithmorepayoffs. WhenRomequitpayingmoneytotheGoths,theGothsinvaded
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theRomanEmpiretoseizelandforthemselves.Between248 and251A.D.,theGothsravagedRomansoil,especiallyDacia andMoesia.76 Burnsstatesthattherewereatleastfour distinctGothicgroupsrovingthecountrysideinsearchofeasy preyandsupplies...[andthat]theGothshadtodisperseinorder tofindfood.Peoplewhoarecomfortableandwellfeddonot hazardtheirlivesinaneedlesswar.Launchingawartofindthe meansofsurvivalistypicalofrefugeepopulations,andthere weresomanyGothsthattheyhadtodispersetofindfood.77 Allowingsometimetopass(fromParthiasfallin226A.D.until 248A.D.whentheGothsattackedRomanterritory)gavethe Parthian/Scythianrefugeestimetoraiseandtrainageneration ofmalestoreplenishtheirmilitaryranks.Parthianrankshad beenbadlydepletedbythebloodyvictoryoverRomeatNisibis in217A.D.andaseriesofdefeats(endingin226A.D.)atthe handsofthePersians.Allowing2030yearstopassfromthose debilitatingbattlesallowedtimeforagenerationofyoungmales togrowoldenoughforanewwarwithRome. InthissametimeperiodanativeGothickingdiedin250A.D., andwassucceededbyanewking(Cniva)whowasnotarelative 78 oftheoldking. ThisnewkingledtheGothsinaninvasionof RomanterritoryandwarfareagainstRomanarmies.Fromwhere hadthisnewkingoriginated?Tobeacceptedaskingovera coalitionofmanyGothictribes,hehadtohaveafirmclaimto royalstatusandleadershiprights.Sincehistoryrecordsthat Parthianprinces(Arsacids)hadflednorthwestoutofParthia alongwiththeirpeople,andsincetheParthianshadbeen uniquelyloyaltotheArsacidsforcenturies,andsincetheGoths werenowdominatedbyParthianrefugees,itislogicalthatthe newkingwholedtheseGothsagainstRomewasaParthian Arsacid.ParthianrefugeescouldeasilyrallyaroundanArsacid leader,whowouldbemotivatedtoprovidevengefulleadership
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againstRome.TheRomanshaddesecratedthegravesofthe ParthianArsacidkingsasrecentlyas216A.D.duringCaracullus invasionofParthia.AnArsacidwould,therefore,likelybe thirstingforachancetospillRomanblood.Indeed,alotof Romanbloodwasabouttobespilled. In249251A.D.,theRomanemperorDeciusledaRomanarmy toopposetheGoths.In251A.D.,heandhisarmywere ambushedbyanarmyofGoths,resultinginthedeathofDecius 79 andtheroutingofhisRomanarmy. ThenewGothickinghad provenskillfulinfightingRomanarmies.SincetheRomanarmy hadfoughtundertheleadershipofitsemperor,itwas particularlymotivatedtodoitsbest.ThattheGothsutterly defeatedadisciplinedRomanarmyledbytheemperorhimselfis evidencethattheGothswerenotmerelyraggedbarbariansin searchofameal.IftheGothsweresimplyahordeof undisciplinednomadsfromthesteppes,theywouldhavebeen thoroughlyoutmatchedbytheRomans.Theirdefeatofa formidableRomanarmyindicatesthattheGothshadastrong militarytraditionoftheirown.Thistraitwouldbeexpectedofan armyledbyParthianrefugeessinceParthiahadalongmilitary traditionofitsown,atraditionbasedoncenturiesoffighting Romanarmies. IndrawingtheRomansintoanunexpectedtrap,theGoths repeatedtheParthiantacticusedtodestroytheRomanarmyof CrassusinthefirstcenturyB.C. Onefinalpointonthisbattle.ThebodyoftheRomanEmperor, Deciuswasneverfound.80 JustpriortothebattleofNisibisin 217A.D.,theRomanshaddesecratedthegravesofParthias emperors,scatteringtheirbones.In251A.D.,thevengeful Parthianrefugees(nowcalledGoths)hadthebodyofaRoman Emperorintheirpossession.ThereasonDeciusbodywasnever foundisthattheGothsprobablyscattereditinsomanypieces
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thattherewerenopieceslargeenoughtofind! OneothereventconfirmsthisGothicarmywasmotivatedbya desireforbittervengeance.TheGothsalsobesiegedand conqueredPhilippopolis,alargeRomancity(locatedinmodern Bulgaria),massacringahundredthousandpersons...[and taking]avastquantityofplunder.81 Thisactionfurther indicatesabloodfeudandthemotiveofrevenge.Thereisno historicbasisforabloodfeudbetweentheRomansandthe nativeGothsoftheBlackSea,buttherewasamplejustification forthistypeofrevengeonthepartofParthianrefugeeswithan Arsacidking. BesidesdesecratingthegravesofParthianEmperorsin217A.D., theRomanshadalsotreacherouslyandmercilesslymassacred thecitizensofCtesiphon,Parthiaswesterncapital.Indeed,since thateventoccurredaboutthirtyfouryearsprevioustothe GothsmassacreofPhilippopolis,someoftheGoths(Parthian refugees)couldhavepersonallyrememberedtheslaughterof ParthianciviliansatCtesiphon.Thisexplainsaclearmotivefor theGothstomercilesslykilltheinhabitantsofthefirstlarge, Romancitytheyconquered.TheirdeathsavengedtheRoman murderofinnocentsatCtesiphon,illustratingtheveracityofthe biblicalproverb:Whatyousow,youshallreap.Romehad soweddeath,destruction,andmassacreintheParthianEmpire whentheParthianshadgulliblytrustedRomespeaceinitiative. ItwasnowRomesturntoreapwhatithadsown,anditsbitter harvesthadonlybegun. ItisimportanttorealizethatGothicinvasionsoftheRoman Empirewerenotanaccidentofhistory.SincemanyoftheGoths wereParthianrefugees,theGothicRomanwarsweresimplya continuationofthelongrivalryoftheRomanandParthian EmpireswhichhadbeeninterruptedbythefallofParthiaandthe migrationofitspeoplefromAsiatowardEurope.Nowthebattle
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becameatruedeathstruggleasthetwopeopleswerebeginning tofightforthesameterritory.Whilethefinaloutcomewas generationsaway,Romewouldultimatelylosethisconflict. ThemassiveRomandefeatin251A.D.openedthedoortoa tidalwaveofGothicattacksagainstpreviouslysafeRoman territory.ThemassacreofPhilippopoliswasonlythebeginning, astheGothsdevastatedRomanlandsforyears.Bradley observesthat:During...fifteenyears[253268A.D.]thehistory oftheGothsisafrightfulstoryofcruelmassacres,andofthe destructionandplunderofwealthyandbeautifulcities.82 In fact,thiswashistoricjustice.WhatRomehadpreviouslydoneto manyParthiancities(andthecitiesofmanyothernations)was nowbeingdonetoRomancities.Thisindicatestwothings:that theinvadersweremotivatedbyintensehatredofRome,andthat theywantedtodepopulatethelandofitsnativeinhabitantsin ordertoobtainahomelandfortheirownnation. AfteroccupyingDaciaandMoesia(roughlymodernRomaniaand Bulgaria),theGothssplitintothreeseparateinvasionforces. OnegroupoccupiedtheCrimeaandsailedacrosstheBlackSea toconquerTrebizond,asecondforceconqueredmuchof Bithynia(inmodernTurkey),andthethirdarmyinvadedGreece, conqueringAthens,Ephesusandothercities.Thisthirdforcewas 83 transportedbyagreatfleetof500ships. Thattheseinvading Gothspossessedtechnicalskillstoconstructandsailahugefleet furtherindicatesthattheycamefromasophisticated background.IlliteratenomadsfromtheinnerrecessesofAsian steppeswouldnotpossesssuchskills.Indeed,theywouldlikely neverhaveseenanoceanorafleetofships!However,Parthian andScythianrefugees,whosedomainshadborderedthePersian Gulf,theIndianOcean,andtheBlackSeawouldhavepossessed suchskills.Indeed,ScythianmarinersfromtheBlackSeawould havebeenfamiliarwiththesearoutestoGreeceasthe
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ScythianshadlongtradedwiththeGreeksviathissame maritimeroute. InEphesustheinvadingGothsburntthemagnificenttempleof DianaoftheEphesians,oneofthesevenwondersoftheancient world.84 Thisistheverytemplewhichhadbeenthesiteofan incidentinthelifeoftheApostlePaulinthefirstcenturyA.D. (Acts19).WhiletheGothsmassacredwholecitiesinthe Balkans,anddestroyedthetempleofDianainEphesus,theydid notburnAthenswhentheyoccupiedit,andsparedmanynoble buildingsandworksofart.85 WhydidtheGothsspareAthens? OnelikelyreasonisthattheAtheniansandtheBlackSea Scythianshadhistoricallybeentradingpartners(seechapter six),soresidualgoodwillsoftenedtheGothswrathasthey enteredAthens. AGreeknamedDexippusdescribedAthenianresistancetothis GothicinvasioninaliteraryworkentitledtheScythica.86 This issignificantsinceitconfirmsthatwhiletheRomans calledtheseinvadersGoths,theGreeksstillcalledthem Scythians.TheEncyclopaediaBritannicaliststheGreek spellingofScythicaasbeginningwiththeconsonantsSk,and states:theScythicawasahistoryofthewarsofRomewiththe Goths(orScythians)inthethirdcentury.87 TheGreeksstillrecognizedtheGothsasbeingSaka(orSacae) Scythians.Inotherwords,theseGothswerestillbearingthe nameofIsaac,aHebrewforebearofthetentribesofIsrael,as weretheSaxons(orSachse)whowereinvadingnorthwest Europe.Genesis21:12and48:16prophesiedthatIsaacs descendantswouldbeknownbyhisname.Thetentribesof Israel,evenafteramillenniuminAsia,werestillbearingthe nameofIsaacastheyinvadedEurope. TheGothssuccesscouldhavebeengreater,buttheirindividual tribeswerenotcohesive.Theyfoughtamongthemselves,and
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onetribeevenswitchedsidesandjoinedtheRomans.Inthe confusionmanyGothswithdrewfromGreece,returningtothe areaoftheDanubeRiver.However,anotherforceofGoths invadedanotherpartofRomesempire(AsiaMinor).Bradley describesitasfollows: ThroughtheBlackSeaandtheHellespont sailedavastfleet,conveyinganarmy numbering300,000warriors, accompaniedbytheirwivesand children.88 (Emphasisadded.) Thatthisarmybroughttheirwivesandchildrenalong confirmsthattheywereanationofrefugeesinsearchofanew homeland.Onlyarefugeearmydeprivedofitshomelandwould bringitsfamiliesalongtoawar.Withfamilymemberscounted, thismassofrefugeescouldhaveeasilynumberedoveramillion people.Thattheyweretransportedbyanavalfleetisa testimonytotheirtechnicalskills,asitwouldtakethousandsof vesselstoaccomplishthetask.EmboldenedbypreviousGothic victoriesovertheRomans,theyexpectedmoreofthesame. Theywouldbebitterlydisappointed.ThismassofGothswere defeatedbytheRomansinaseriesofbattlesintheinteriorof modernTurkey.TheGothslost50,000meninasinglebattle, thousandsmoreweresoldintoslaveryorimpressedintothe 89 Romanarmy,andthesurvivorsretreatedtotheBalkans. Gothsweregenerallyrecordedasbeingtall,blueeyedblondes 90 withfaircomplexions. Clearly,theyweremembersofthewhite (Caucasian)race.WhilethetermCaucasianisnotascientific nameforthewhiteraces,thetermaccuratelyreflectsthe historicfactthatmanytribesofwhitenationsmigratedthrough theCaucasusMountainsastheymovedfromAsiatoEuropein searchofnewhomelands.However,onemajorwhitetribe remainedinAsiaforawhile.TheseholdoutsweretheEphthalites
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(orNephthalites),whoremainedinAsiainconsiderableforce untilatleastthesixthcenturyA.D.WhiletheEphthaliteswere calledHuns,theywerereferredtoastheWhiteHunsbecause 91 theywerefairskinnedpeopleofthewhiterace, notTartarsas 92 weretheotherHuns. Inchaptereight,itwasdocumentedthattheNephthaliteswere undoubtedlytheIsraelitetribeofNaphtaliwhichwentintoAsia in741B.C.ascaptivesoftheAssyrians.Sincethetribeof Naphtalididnotgointocaptivityinapiecemealfashion,but ratherinonecompletemass(IIKings15:29),theyretainedtheir originalIsraelitetribalnamelongerthantheothertribes. TheEphthaliteswagedwarontheSassanianPersians(whichwas naturalsincetheEphthaliteswerekinsmenoftheParthiansand Scythians).Aslateas484A.D.,theEphthalitesdefeatedthe PersiansandextendedtheircontrolintoIndia,establishinga 93 capitalatSakala(whichborethenameofIsaac). The EncyclopaediaBritannicacitestheGreekwriter,Procopius,as statingtheEphthaliteHunswerefarmorecivilizedthanthe HunsofAttila.94 EphthalitepowerinAsiawasnotbrokenuntil557A.D.when theywerebeatenbythePersiansandTurks.Perhapssomewere absorbedbynearbytribes,buttheEphthalites,asawhole, simplydisappearedfromAsia.Wheredidtheygo?Theywere likelypushedtowardEurope,arrivinginalatermigration.This wouldmakethetribeofNaphtalioneofthefirsttogointoAsia andthelasttoleaveit.Wewillattempttoidentifytheirmodern descendantsinchaptereleven. ReturningtotheGoths,theyseemedcontenttocoexistwiththe Romansforatime,buildingalargeempireoftheirownunderan OstrogothkingknownasErmanaric.TheEncyclopaedia BritannicastateshisempirerangedfromtheDanubetothe BalticandfromtheDontotheTheiss.95 Thiswouldincludethe
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regionofEasternEuropefromtheBaltictotheBlackSeaand fromHungaryintosouthernRussia.Hereignedduring350376 A.D.,buthisempirewasshortlivedasitwasoverwhelmedby invadingHunsfromtheeast. WhileErmanaricsbriefempirewashuge,itdidnotincludeall theGoths.ErmanaricruledtheOstrogoths,whileBradley observesthatDuringthistime[Ermanaricsrule],the Visigothsappeartohavebeenpracticallyindependent, dividedintoseparatetribesruledbytheirown judges. 96 TheVisigothscustomofhavingtribalchieftains serveasjudges,isreminiscentofthepredynasticperiodin ancientIsraelwhenthetribesofIsraelwereruledbytribal eldersandwhentheIsraelitesleaderswerecalledjudges. Bradleyalsoaddsthefollowingconcerningthecustomsfor selectingGothickings: Downtothistime,theGothickingsseemto havebeenchosenbyfreeelectionsfromany ofthenoblefamilies...97 Inotherwords,theGothsselectedtheirkingsaccordingtothe Parthiantradition!Asseeninanearlierchapter,Parthiankings wereelectedfromafamilyofnobleswhowereallArsacids.The kingcouldbeelectedfromanyoftheArsacidnobles.Thatthe GothshadcontinuedParthiascustomofelectingakingfrom eligiblenoblesfurthersupportstheiridentificationasParthian refugees.ThisalsowouldillustratethatGodwasstillenforcing hiscovenantwithDavidthathisdescendantswouldalwayshave membersrulingovertheHouseofIsrael(thetentribesof Israel)wherevertheywent. InthefourthcenturyA.D.manyGothsbecameChristiansdueto theeffortsofaGothicmissionarynamedWulfila,whoeven 98 developedaGothicBible. WulfilawasamemberoftheArian
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branchofChristianity,andthefactthattheGothsbecameArian Christianseventuallyledtomorestrifeandwarfarewiththe Romans(whoseChristiansregardedArianChristiansasheretics). In410A.D.,theVisigothsunderAlaricconqueredandoccupied thecityofRome.Manypeoplehavetheimpressionthatthe RomanEmpireatthistimewasthelastredoubtofwestern civilization,andthatRomesconquerorswerealluncivilized barbarians.Asweshallsee,thisversionofhistoryhasresulted fromuncriticallyincorporatingRomanpropagandaintohistory books.Thetruthisconsiderablydifferent. AlaricwasaVisigothnoblefromaprincelyfamily99 whohad originallyservedinRomesarmyleadingGothsinRomes service.WhenanewRomanemperorabrogatedthepay agreementsofapreviousemperor,theseGothsrebelledand Alaricbecametheirking.AlaricconqueredmostofGreece,and theGothsagainsparedAthenswhichpaidthemtributemoney andgaveAlaricabanquet!Alaricwasevenmadeamilitary governorbytheemperoroftheEasternRomanEmpireat Constantinople.AlaricinvadedItalyin400A.D.,butwas repulsedtwoyearslaterwhenhisChristianGothswere observingEasterSundayandfalselyassumedthattheRomans wouldnotattackonthatday. TheRomansthenmade(andquicklybroke)atreatywithAlaric. TheRomansthenexpelled(asheretics)some30,000Gothswho wereArianChristiansfromtheRomanarmywhileRomanmobs 100 massacredthewivesandchildrenoftheseArianGoths. This heinouscrimebytheRomanscompelledthe30,000Goths expelledfromtheRomanarmytojoinAlaricsarmy.Alaric besiegedRomebutleftafterRomepaidhim5,000poundsof gold,30,000poundsofsilverandothercostlyitems.While AlaricsarmywasonRomansoil,itbehavedwithincredible restraint,giventheRomanslaughterofthefamiliesof30,000
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Goths.Itisrecorded: He[Alaric]wascarefultorestrainhis followersfromcommittinganyactsofrapine, andthoseGothswhowereguiltyofinsulting Romancitizenswereseverelypunished.101 Whoweretherealbarbarians?ThemurderousRomansorthe supremelyrestrainedGoths?However,aftermorepolitical intrigueandunfulfilledRomanpromises,AlaricreturnedtoRome andfinallyconqueredit.Manyhistoriesleavetheimpressionthat thesackofRomebytheVisigothswasabrutal,unprovoked aggressiononthepartoftheGothsandotherbarbarians.As theaboveshows,AlaricsGothicoccupationofRomewas provokedbyRomancrimesandtreatybreaking. InspiteofthefactthattheRomanshadrecentlymassacredthe innocentfamiliesof30,000ArianChristians,Alaricdidnotpermit ageneralmassacreoftheRomancitizens.Hisoccupationis describedinthetwofollowingaccounts. AlaricrememberedthathewasaChristian, andhetriedtousehisvictorymercifully.He toldhissoldiersthattheplunderofthecity wastheirs,butthatnomanwastobekilled whowasnotinarmsevenofthesoldiers,all weretobesparedwhotookrefugeinthe churches...allthechurchesandtheirproperty weretobeheldsacred...someoftheRoman writersspeakwithwonderofthemoderation oftheGoths.102 TheGothsshowedthemselvesnotabsolutely ruthlessconquerors,andthereisnoreasonto attributeanyextensivedestructionofthe buildingsofthecitytoAlaricandhisarmy.
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Contemporaryecclesiasticsrecordedwith wondermanyinstancesoftheirclemency:the Christianchurchessavedfromravage protectiongrantedtovastmultitudesbothof pagansandChristianswhotookrefuge therein...103 Sincewarfarewasinvolved,somedeathanddestruction undoubtedlyresulted.Clearly,theremusthavebeenwidespread obediencetoAlaricsordersforRomanrecordstocommenton theirclemency.ThisisremarkablegiventhefactthatAlarics armycontained30,000soldierswhosefamilieshadbeencruelly murderedbythesupposedlyChristianRomans.Alaricwasa Christianwhoactuallyobeyedthebiblicalteachingofmercyand forgiveness.SincehistoryisfullofexamplesofChristiansdoing themostunchristianthingstoothers,Alaricsactionsare exemplary.TheaboveaccountsrevealthatAlaricrespectedthe traditionofsanctuaryinchurches,andthatmultitudesof Romanswerestillpagan.Again,whoweretherealbarbarians? Themerciful,ChristianGothsorthemurderous,treatybreaking Romans? Thehistorian,HenryBradley,alsonoted: ThattheGothicpeoplehadmanynoble qualitieswasfrequentlyacknowledgedeven bytheirenemies...Theywerebrave, generous,patientunderhardshipand privation,andchasteandaffectionateintheir familyrelations...[T]hereisnothingintheir historymoreremarkablethanthehumanity andjusticewhichtheyexercisedtowardsthe nationswhomtheyconqueredandthereare manyinstancesonrecordinwhichRomans weregladtoseekunderthemildersway
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oftheGothsarefugefromthe oppressionsoftheirownrulers...The Romanclergy...wereoftenconstrainedtoown thatthesebarbariansobeyedthe preceptsofthegospelfarbetterthandid theirowncountrymen.104 (Emphasis added.) ThiscommentarythattheGothswerenotedforatolerantand enlightenedruleoversubjectpeopleissignificantastheywere exhibitingtheParthianstyleofrulership.TheParthianswerelong notedforhavingpoliciesoftolerantruleovertheirsubjects, allowingfreedomofreligion,etc.Thischapterhasprovided considerableevidencethattheGothsweredescendedfrom ParthianswhofledinthedirectionofEuropewhentheirempire fell.ThefactthattheGothspracticedtheParthianstyleof tolerantrulershipfurthersupportsthebeliefthattheGothswere theoffspringoftheParthians. TheParthiantraitofreligioustolerancewasalsoaGothictrait. AlaricsmercytowardRomesChristiansandpagansisnotan isolatedexample.Theodoric,akingoftheOstrogothswho conqueredtheRomansafterAlaric,adoptedmercifulpolicies towardtheRomansandshelteredreligiousrefugees.Ithasbeen notedthatreligioustolerancewasacornerstoneinthe restorationofRomansocietyandtheacceptanceofOstrogothic rule.105 TheOstrogothsalsoperpetuatedtheParthiancustomof extendingfavortowardtheJews.FarfromimposingChristianity ontheJews,TheodoricreportedlystatedtotheJewsthatwe cannotimposereligion,andnoonecanbemadetobelievein spiteofhimself.106 ThetolerantGothicpoliciesevenresultedin 107 JewsvolunteeringtofightalongsidetheGoths. TheodorictheOstrogothruledItalyfrom493526A.D.,andthe
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EncyclopaediaBritannicadescribeshisruleasfollows: ThethirtythreeyearsreignofTheodoric wasatimeofunexampledhappinessforItaly. Unbrokenpeacereigned...Thevenalityofthe Romanofficialsandtheturbulenceofthe Gothicnoblesweresternlyrepressed. Marshesweredrained,harboursformed,the burdenoftaxeslightened,andthestateof agriculturesomuchimprovedthat Italy...becameacornexporting country...Theodoric,thoughadheringtothe Ariancreedofhisforefathers,wasduringthe greaterpartofhisreignconspicuously impartialinreligiousmatters.108 DoesTheodorictheOstrogothsoundlikeabarbarian?Hardly! Onthecontrary,thisGothickingcivilizedtheRomans.The Gothswerenotbarbariansrunningamok,butrather enlightenedrulerswhobroughtunexampledhappinessand unbrokenpeacetoItaly!Romanchaoswasreplacedby tranquilityduringthereignofaChristianGothicking.Thathe devotedhimselftoimprovingthenationheconqueredshowsa remarkableattitudeindeed! BeforeTheodoricwasborn,however,twoimportantevents occurred.In428A.D.ArsacidruleinArmeniafinallyended. ArmeniahadbeenaredoubtoftheoldParthiandynastyever sincethefallofParthia.TheendofArsacidruleinArmenia meantthereweremorerefugeesinneedofhomelands.The secondeventwastheHunsinvasionofEurope. AttilatheHunledamassofAsiaticHunsandsubjecttribesdeep intoEurope,butwasstoppedin451A.D.atthebattleofChalons (inmodernFrance).Theforcewhichstoppedhimwasamixed forceofnationsandtribes,ledbyageneralnamedAetius.Aetius
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ledanarmyofRomans(thatis,ofRomanizedGermans)and Visigoths.109 ItisalsorecordedthatsomeAlansfoughtonboth sidesinthisbattle,andthatFranksandSaxonsfoughtonthe 110 sideofAetius. Inoneofhistorysmostimportantbattles,thealliedforcesunder AetiusrepulsedAttilasHuns.Althoughthesealliesarereferred toasaRomanarmy,therewerefew,ifany,ethnicRomansin thealliedarmy.AetiushimselfwasborninMoesia(anonRoman regionnearDacia)andmayhavehadaGothicorGerman 111 lineage. TheGermans,Goths,Alans,andSaxonswhobattled AttilawerethedescendantsoftheKermans,Parthians,Alaniand SacaewhomigratedintoEuropefromScythianandParthian territory(inotherwords,thiswasprimarilyanarmycomposedof thedescendantsofthetentribesofIsrael). AstheGothictribesfoughtnativepopulations(andeachother) forlivingspaceinEurope,onegroupofGothsmigrated completelyacross(andoutof)Europewhentheycrossedthe MediterraneantoNorthAfrica.ThisgroupwastheVandals.In 439A.D.,theVandalscapturedthecityofCarthage,makingita Vandalstronghold.TheVandalsdisplayedaremarkableaptitude formaritimeskills,buildingalargefleetanddominatingthe 112 Mediterraneanforabout30years. ThefactthattheVandals hadexcellentmaritimeskillsindicatesfurtherthattheywerenot barbarians.Obviouslytheyhaddescendedfromanationwhich hadpossessedfairlysophisticatedtechnicalskills. In455A.D.,theVandalsunderGaisericsailedacrossthe MediterraneanandconqueredthecityofRome.Legendsabout theirdestructionofRomehaveledtoourmodernterm vandalism.However,letusexaminetwoaccountsofthe Vandaltriumphtoseewhethertheydeservetheirawful reputation.ThedescriptionofhistorianHenryBradleysounds fearsomeenough:
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...Thecitysufferedfarmoreterriblythanit hadsufferedatthehandsofAlaric.Allthe goldandsilverandvaluablepossessionsof everykind...werecarriedawaytotheshipsof Gaiseric.Amongstthespoiltakenbythe Vandalswasthesevenbranched candlestick,andthesacredvesselsofthe templeofJerusalem,whichhadfallen intothehandsofTituswhenhecaptured thecity.Manythousandsofprisonerswere takentobesoldintoslaveryat Carthage...113 (Emphasisadded.) AsecondaccountfromtheEncyclopediaBritannicasoundsmuch milder: He[Gaiseric]...for14days,inacalmand businesslikemanner,emptiedit[Rome]ofall itsmovablewealth...Theredoesnotseemto beinthestoryofthecaptureofRomebythe Vandalsanyjustificationforthechargeof willfulandobjectlessdestructionofpublic buildingswhichisimpliedbytheword vandalism.Itisprobablethatthecharge grewoutofthefiercepersecutionwhichwas carriedoutbyGaiseric...againsttheCatholic Christians.Thebishopswerealmost universallybanished,andthecongregations wereforbiddentoelecttheirsuccessors.114 WhilethisoccupationofRomebytheVandalswasmorehostile thanthatofAlaricandhisGoths,nomassacrewasinvolved,and thecitywasnotdestroyed.TheVandalswererecordedasbeing ArianChristians,andhadsomereligiousrestraintsonthem(the termArianChristianidentifiedtheVandalsasfollowersof
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BishopArius:thereisnoconnectionbetweenthetermsArian andAryan.)Also,theirbanishingofCatholicbishopswasa verymildformofpersecution.ManynonCatholicChristians andJewsduringtheInquisitionoftheMiddleAgeswouldhave consideredthemselvesluckytohavebeenpersecutedso mildly. Additionally,notearsneedbeweptforRome.Muchofwhatthe VandalstookfromRome,wasinfact,wealththatRomehad stolenfromothernationsduringRomanconquestsinpreceding centuries.ItwasalsopoeticjusticethattheVandalsconquered RomefromtheirbaseinCarthage.PunicCarthagehadfought Romeforgenerations,buttheprizeofoccupyingthecityof Romehadevadedthem.However,whileunderVandalcontrol, anarmyfromCarthagefinallyconqueredRome. Bradleysaccountstatesthatasevenbranchedcandlestickand othersacreditemsfromtheJerusalemTempleweretakenbythe Vandals.RomehadtakenthesevesselsfromtheTempleofGod whenitsarmiesconqueredJerusalemin70A.D.Sincethe VandalswereChristians,itislikelythattheyregardedthese dedicatedtempleobjectsfromtheoldJerusalemTempleas highlysacredobjectsworthyofprotection. TheVandalsruledCarthageforalmostacentury,andthey clearlysawthemselvesaspunishinginstrumentsinthehandsof God.Gaiseric,theVandalleader,reportedlydeclaredthatthe VandalsattackedthedwellingsofthemenwithwhomGodis angry.115 WehavenowdiscussedthreeGothicandoneVandalKing: Alaric,Ermanaric,TheodoricandGaiseric.Noticethatallfour namesconcludewithric,recognizableastheGothic/Germanic rootwordforthemodernGermanwordreich.Sincereich meansempireorkingdom,thisrootwordinthenamesof thesekingsisappropriate.
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ThenameErmanaricappearstocombinethetermsKerman andric,indicatingaKermanempireor(inmodernterms) GermanReich.ThenameAlaricappearstocombinetheold Semitic/HebrewnameforGod(El)withtheGothicwordric. YoungsAnalyticConcordancetotheBiblenotesthattheHebrew wordAlistranslatedastheMostHigh[God]inHosea7:16 116 and11:7. AlaricsnamecouldthenliterallymeantheMost HighskingdomorGodskingdom.TheuseofaSemiticterm forGodinaGothickingsnamefurtherarguesforanIsraelite originfortheGoths.ThenameTheodoricisacombinationofthe GreekwordforGod(Theos),andtheGothicwordric.His name,therefore,alsocanliterallymeanGodskingdom.Thisis particularlyappropriatewhenwerealizethatbothofthese GothickingswereChristianswhoserulewasgentleandbenign. Inabout533A.D.theVandalsweredefeatedandtheir dominanceintheMediterraneancametoanend.Whilesome weretakencaptive,theEncyclopaediaBritannicasaysofthem: theVandalsdisappearedfromhistory.117 Obviously,theseVandalsnomoredisappearedfromtheearth thandidtheIsraelitesin721B.C.,ortheParthian/Sacaein 227A.D.ThefactthattheVandalsdisappearedfromhistory indicatesthattheysimplymigratedsofarawayfromthe Mediterraneanregionthattheywerelosttothehistoriansof theirday.Whatfollowsisaneducatedguessregardingtheir destination. TheVandalsoccupiedCarthageforalmostacentury,possessed remarkablemaritimeskills,andtraveledvialargefleetsofships, dominatingtheMediterraneanfordecades.WhentheVandals migratedfromEuropetoAfrica,they(andtheirfamilies)had 118 traveledonafleetofships. WhentheyconqueredRome,they arrivedinafleetofships.Clearly,theVandalshadan establishedpatternoftravelingandmigratingviaships.
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WhentheirnewhomelandinNorthAfricawasconquered,itis logicalthattheVandalsagainfledviathesea.Thefactthatthey alreadyhadsubstantialfleetssupportsthelikelihoodthatthey choseamaritimeescaperoutetoeludetheirenemies.Thefact thattheydisappearedfromOldWorldannalsarguesthatthey migratedtoalocationfarfromOldWorldnations. ThereisclearevidencethatOldWorldnationsatthattimeknew theroutetotheNewWorld.Romancoinsfromthesecondand fourthcenturiesA.D.havebeenfoundinGeorgia,Texasand MassachusettsoftheUnitedStates,whileathirdcenturyRoman 119 coinwasfoundinNorthCarolina. ABritishCelticcoinwas foundinIllinoiswhich,accordingtoDr.Fell,wasstruckin BritainneartheendoftheRomanoccupationorjustafterthe Romanoccupation.120 RomanoccupationofBritonended around400A.D.,sothiscoincoulddatetomeredecadespriorto theVandaloccupationofRome. InSagaAmerica,Dr.BarryFelldescribesandtranslatesa: fifthcenturyinscriptioninLibyanArabicat FiguigOasis,eastMorocco,recordingthe flighttofindrefugeinNorthAmericaof Christianmonkspersecutedbythe Vandals.121 Theinscriptionstatesthatthisgroupofrefugeessailedfromthe coastofAfricatoalandwherethesunsetsintheevening whichisfaraway,anditdescribestheflightofCatholicNorth AfricanChristianswhowerespecificallyfleeingfromtheVandals. SailingwestwardfromthelatitudeofMoroccotoadistantland willresultinalandfallinNorthAmerica.Theinscriptionincludes thesewords: Wewerestruckbytotalruinintheshapeof theVandals,acontemptibleraceofno
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consequence...They[theenemiesofthe Vandals]decidedtosailawaytoAsqaSamal toseekalivelihoodwherethesunsetsinthe evening...Theyjourneyedon...farawayto thatland...Theyreachedtheirdestinationand intothewildernessventured.Thevoidof surgingwavestheyhadovercomeby adheringtotheirplan.Prayforourfriends, eachone.Blessthem0Jesus!122 Thisinscriptionclaimstheknowledgethattheirfriendshad arrivedsafelyintheNewWorldafteralongmaritimevoyage. Thisindicatesthattherewerereturnand/orfollowupvoyagesas well.ItwascitedabovethattheVandals(whowereArian Christians)hadbanishedCatholicbishopsfromtheirterritory. Therefore,itisnotsurprisingthatCatholicmonkswouldhave fledaswell(eitherfrombanishmentorfear).ThearrivalinNorth AmericaofCatholicsfleeingtheVandalsoffersafurther explanationofhowthecrossandotherChristiansymbolscame tobepresentintheancientAmericasmanycenturiesbeforethe Spaniardsarrived(asdiscussedinchapternine).Interestingly, thisaccountindicatesthatNorthAmericawascalledAsqa SamalinthefifthcenturyA.D. Indeed,ChristianinscriptionsinthissameNorthAfricanscript havebeenfoundinNovaScotiaandCalifornia,confirmingthe arrivalofCatholicChristiansfromNorthAfricainearlyAmerica. Dr.FelltranslatedtheCaliforniainscriptionasspecifically 123 describingtheelementsofaCatholicMassService. Furthermore,aprayerstickwithanengravedinscriptionwas foundamongtheKickapooAlgonquinsofWisconsin.Dr.Fell describesitinthesewords: ...theinscriptionprovestobetheKyrie eleisonoftheancientNorthAfricanChristian
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mass,renderedindextralscriptofthelate PuniclanguageofCarthage...thepresenceof CarthaginiancoinsinAmericansoilatwidely separatedlocalities,andsomePunic inscriptionscutonrock,makeitvirtually certaintheKyriewasimpartedtotheKikapu tribebyCarthaginianChristiansinancient times...thepersecutionsunderDiocletian (284304[A.D.])witnessedChristiansbeing throwntolionsinLeptisMagnawherePunic inscriptionsarenowtobeseen.Perhaps refugeesfromNorthAfricaatthisdatecame tofindpeaceamongtheKickapupeopleof Wisconsin.124 SinceNorthAfricanChristiansknewthesailingroutestotheNew WorldinboththethirdandfifthcenturiesA.D.,itdoesnot stretchtheimaginationtoinferthatthemaritimeVandalsofthe sixthcenturiesA.D.alsocouldhavemadethesamevoyagefrom NorthAfricatotheNewWorldwhenitwastheirturntofleefrom CarthaginianNorthAfrica. ThedogmathatColumbusdiscoveredAmericahasso permeatedAmericaneducationthatancientAmerican inscriptionsandartifactsareroutinelyclassifiedasIndianwith littleornocriticalevaluation,asiftheancestorsofAmerican Indiantribeswerehomogeneous.Infact,theAmericanIndian tribesmanifestedadiversityinphysicalappearance,language andcustomswhichconfirmthattheirancestorsalsohaddiverse origins.Whilethefollowingcommentaryontheculturallinkage ofspecificIndiantribestoOldWorldnationsisadiversionfor thisbook,itshouldproveespeciallyinterestingforAmerican readers. Theabundantphysicalevidencedemonstratingthepresenceof
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Phoenicians,HebrewsandCarthaginians(i.e.Israelites)and othersinancientNorthAmericahasbeenofficiallyignoredby academia.Indeed,someoftheseancientOldWorldSemitic colonieswerequiteextensive,asearlierchaptersdemonstrated. Forexample,anancientinscriptionfromthefirstcenturyA.D., foundonastoneinTennessee,wasassumedtobeCherokeein 125 originuntilitwasproperlyidentifiedasHebrew. Regardingthe TenCommandmentsinscriptionfoundinNewMexico,itwas easilyidentifiedasancientHebrewbyamemberoftheHebrew andMiddleEasternStudiesofHarvardUniversity,whoadded thatanumberofHebrewinscriptionshavebeenfoundin America,chieflyinthesoutheast,inIndiangraves.126 Thefact thatHebrewinscriptionsarefoundinancientAmericangraves indicatesthattheywereactuallyIsraelitegravesinancient AmericawhichareincorrectlyidentifiedasIndian.Inchapter eightitwasnotedthatancienthistoriansreferredtomanyofthe AsiaticSacaeScythiansastheYuechi.Interestingly,the nameYuchiwasattachedtoanIndiantribeoftheAmerican SoutheastwhoreportedlyhadretainedHebrewreligious ceremonies.127 ThecaseoftheChristianprayerstickwithaNorthAfricanPunic inscriptiononitindicatesalinkagebetweentheAlgonquin KickapoosandSemitesfromPunicNorthAfricaintheChristian era.SupportingthislinkageisaphotographofaKickapoo IndianofatribeofAlgonquinsoccupyingnorthernIllinois reproducedinColliersEncyclopediawhichshowsaKickapoo 128 IndianwithdistinctivelySemitic(White)features. TheKickapooswereadivisionoftheSacorSaukIndians,who livedintheAmericanGreatLakesRegion.Noticetheperfect matchofconsonantsbetweentheOldWorldIsraelitesknownas theSacae(orSaka)andtheNewWorldSac(orSauk) Indians.IsitonlycoincidencethatsomeAmericanIndiantribes
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borethenameofIsaac,thenamebornebyIsraelitetribesin theOldWorld?TheirnamesurvivesinsuchmodernAmerican placenamesasSaukCounty,WisconsinSacCounty,Iowa SaukCityandSaukville,WisconsinSaukCenterandSauk Rapids,MinnesotaandSacCity,Iowa.Significantly,the KickapooIndians(whopossessedaprayerstickwithanOld WorldlanguageandhadtribalmemberswithSemiticfeatures) wereoriginallyapartoftheSaukIndiangrouping.Itseems apparentthatOldWorldSacaehadatsomepointmigratedto theAmericanMidwest,mostlikelyasrefugees.Also,Lewisand ClarksfamousIndianguide,Sacajawea,borethenameofIsaac. ShewasbornaShoshone,butwasraisedbyarivaltribe,the Minnetarres,whohadcapturedherandgivenherthename: Tsakakawias.129 (Emphasisadded.) TheMandanIndiansofNorthDakotaalsodeservecomment. Theirname,Mandan,includesthenameofoneoftheten tribesofIsrael(thetribeofDan).TheDaniteshadahabitof namingthingsaftertheirtribalname,bothinbiblicaltimes (Joshua19:47)andduringtheirsojourninScythianterritory(i.e. theDniepr,theDon,theDniestrandDanubeRivers).Their tribalnameintheAmericanMidwestcouldbedismissedas coincidentalifitwerenotfortheresidualpresenceofother distinctlyIsraelitenamesintheMidwest(Sac,Sauk,etc.).As Israelites,theDaniteswouldalsohavebeenSacae. ThetribeofDanpossessedconsiderablemaritimeskillsandwas knownforitsseafaringways(Judges5:17).Onepartofthe tribe,theTuathaDeDanaan,fledtoIrelandviashipswhenthe kingdomofIsraelfelltoAssyria.Anotherpartofthetribe,which wentintoScythia,namedfourriversaftertheirtribalname. WhentheScythiansmigratedintoEuropewiththeParthians,and becameknownasGoths,Saxons,Germans,Vandals,etc.,itwas theVandalswhopossessedmaritimeskills,dominatingthe
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Mediterraneanfordecadeswiththeirfleets(indicatingthatthey mayhavebeenDanites).WhentheVandalsdisappearedfrom NorthAfricaandtheOldWorld,theylikelysailedtotheNew Worldintheirships.IftheVandalswere(orincluded)Danites, theywouldhavebroughttheirtribalnamewiththemintoNorth America.TheMandanIndiansmayhavebeenaremnantof DanitesamongthemaritimeVandalswhodisappearedfrom theOldWorldinthesixthcenturyA.D. However,theMandanIndiansmayhaveoriginatedfroman expeditionoftheDaniteswhosettledinIreland.Hakluyt,a writerofthesixteenthcenturyA.D.,relatedthesagaofaWelch prince,Madoc,whosailedtotheNewWorldinafleetofships fromIrelandin1170A.D.,returnedtotheBritishIsles,and 130 tookasecondfleettotheNewWorldtoreinforcethecolony. MadocscolonistsmayhavebeenDanitesormembersofother IsraelitetribeswhotheninhabitedtheBritishIsles.Atanyrate, MadocsvoyagestellusthatOldWorldcolonistsvoyagedtothe newWorldnotonlyinancienttimes,butalsoduringtheMiddle AgesafewcenturiespriortothearrivalofColumbus. AccordingtoareportpublishedbytheSecretaryofStateof Kentuckyintheearlynineteenthcentury,therewasatribeliving northwardontheMissouriRiver(reportedly,theMandans)which wasdescribedasbeing: anIndiannationwhichwaswhite,orof lightcomplexion,andspoke Welsh...whomtheytooktobewhitemen inIndiandress.131 (Emphasisadded.) ThisreportindicatesthattheMandanweredescendedfromthe twelfthcenturyexpeditionsofPrinceMadocofWales,who apparentlyhaddescendantsoftheIrishTuathadeDanaanwith himashisshipsdepartedIrelandtotheNewWorld.
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Unfortunately,theMandanwereexposedtosmallpoxin1837, which(accordingtotheEncyclopediaAmericana)causedthe deathof95%ofthetribe.132 Interestingly,theMandanwere highlysusceptibletoawhitemansdiseasewhentheywere firstexposedtoit.TheEncyclopediaAmericanaaccounteven mentionsthepossibleconnectionbetweentheMandanIndians andWelchPrinceMadoc,butdubsitamyth.Suchisthe strengthoftheColumbusdiscoveredAmericadogmathatany evidencewhichassertsotherwiseisroutinelylabeledasmyth. [AnotherpossiblelinktothetwelfthcenturyWelchcolonyof PrinceMadocwasthepresenceinOregonofanIndiantribe namedtheModoc.] WhatevertheMandansorigin,theirCaucasianoriginisclearly apparent.Additionally,theplethoraofSacandSauknames intheupperMidwestindicatesthatsomeofthedescendantsof thetentribesofIsraelfoundrefugeinthisareainpast migrations.SinceIsraelitenames(Saka,Sac,andDan)are associatedwithtribeswhomanifestedCaucasian(Semitic) features,anIsraeliteroleintheoriginforthesetribesisclearly indicated. OtherIndiantribesexhibitedevidenceofpastcontactwith(and perhapspartialdescentfrom)othernonIsraelitenationsofthe OldWorld.Dr.BarryFellwrotethatthetraditionalchantsofthe PimaIndiansoftheAmericansouthwestincluderecognizable archaicformsofArabic.Forexample,thePimarainchanttells thestoryofNoahandtheDeluge(inaveryarchaicformof 133 Arabic)astoldintheKoran...nottheBible. WhilemodernPima nolongerunderstoodthearchaicArabic,thechantscontenthad beensofaithfullytransmittedfromgenerationtogenerationthat ArabicscholarsfromNorthAfricahavenodifficultyin recognizingtheArabicoriginoftheseremarkablechants.134 FurtherdocumentingancientOldWorldcontactswiththePima
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aretheexistenceoftwootherPimachantswhichpreserve versionsoftheGreekmythofPersephone,astoryofthe Creation,andAesopsfableofTheFoxandtheCrow.135 Also,thesyllabaryoftheAlgonquinCreeandOjibwaIndiansis traceabletotheBasquelanguageofancientSpainand 136 Portugal. Dr.Fellstranslationbasedonthistransatlantic connectionwassupportedbyImanolAgire,aBasqueepigrapher 137 andlexicographer. However,Americanarchaeologists(blindly devotedtotheColumbusdiscoveredAmericadogma)have dismissedrecognizableOldWorldinscriptionsfoundintheNew Worldasmarksmadebyrootsandplowshares.138 Inthe1990editionoftheEpigraphicSocietyOccasionalPapers, anarticlebyDr.E.MorganKelleyofWilliamandMaryCollege analyzedthelinguisticoriginsandgroupingsoftheNorth AmericanIndiantribes.Henotesthedegreetowhichthe phenomenonofreferringtoonestribeasthepeopleoccurs amongNorthAmericanIndiantribes,[and]thattheTeutonic tribesofEurope,namelytheGermanicandCeltictribes,referred tothemselvesas...thepeopleinvariousfashions.139 Istherea linkbetweentheTeutonic/GermanictribesoftheOldWorldand someNorthAmericanIndiantribes?Ifso,theVandals(a seafaringTeutonic/GermanictribewhichvanishedfromtheOld World)arethemostlikelylink. Dr.Kelleysarticlealsoidentifiedmorphemesinthenamesofthe variousIndiantribes(namesgivenbytheIndianstothemselves) inordertoclassifythemlinguistically.[Amorphemeis essentiallyalowestcommondenominatorinwordstructure.One commonmorphemeidentifiedinAmericanIndiantribalnamesis thesyllableDAN,140 thenameofthetribeofIsraelwhich habituallycarrieditsnamewhereveritwent.Anothercommon morphemeistheHebrew/SemiticwordISH,whichDr.Kelley identifiesastheSemiticmorphemeforhumanbeing. 141
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Indeed,hisarticlenotesthattheNorthDakotaIndiantribe knownastheArikara,combinedthetwomorphemesDANand ISHintheirowntribalname,whichwasTanish.142 Hisarticle identifiesHebreworiginsinthenamesoftheAlibamu,Pawnee andPequotIndians,aLibyanoriginforthePimapeople(who calledthemselvestheAatamwithAtumbeingtheLibyan sungod),andaSemiticoriginfortheChumashIndians 143 (ShamashorChemoshbeingaSemiticnameforthesungod). ToomanyIndiantribesnameshadthemorphemesDanand Ishtomentionhere,buttheTwanatribeoftheSalishanIndian group(theFlatheads)oftheNorthwestcalleditselftheTuadhu, whichDr.KelleytracestotheCelticwordTuatha.144 Thisis worthnotingasTheTuathadeDanaan(theIsraelitetribeof Dan)sailedtoIrelandcirca720B.C.andPrinceMadocsvoyages totheNewWorldoriginatedinIreland.Dr.Kelleyaddsthis comment: ...asubtribeoftheSalishanfamily,the Twana,calledthemselvestheTuadhu...which ispreciselythesameasthegeneralproper nameforFranksandotherTeutonictribes,all ofthesenamesmeaningapproximatelythe people. 145 ThereisanexplanationforhowFrankish/Teutonicnamesarrived inancientAmerica.TheVandalswereaTeutonicnationwhich vanishedfromtheOldWorldinthesixthcenturyA.D.Given theirwelldevelopednauticalskillsandtheirprecedentof migratingviaafleetofships,theabovewordscouldbethe resultoftheVandalsarrivinginancientAmericaabouta millenniumbeforethePilgrims. ThereareevenreportsthatafewnativeIndianscouldspeakOld WorldtonguesatthetimeearlyEnglishcolonistsarrived.Dr. Kelleyadds:
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EarlyreportsfromNorthAmericainclude referencetoSamoset,theWampanoagchief who...greet[ed]thePilgrimsinEnglish,and testimonyfromGaelicandHebrewspeakers whoclaimedtobeabletocommunicatewith thenatives...146 SomeOldWorldexplorersapparentlywerepresentinNorth AmericalongbeforeanyHebrews,PhoeniciansorCarthaginians arrived.TwocuneiformtabletswithancientSumerianinscriptions werefoundinGeorgiaandMontana.Sincethecuneiformtablet foundinGeorgiareferstoahistoricallyknownkingofUrwhile theMontanacuneiformtabletreferstoahistoricallyknownhigh 147 priestessofNanna,theycanbedatedto20422040B.C. The cuneiformtabletfromMontanawasinthepossessionofthe greatNezPerceChiefJosephwhenhesurrenderedtotheU.S. 148 armyin1877. TheaboveaccountsdocumentmanycontactsbetweenOldWorld andNewWorldcivilizationsoveraperiodofmillennia.They demonstratethatiftheVandalsfledtoancientAmerica,they weresimplyoneofmanyOldWorldgroupswhosoughtrefugein theNewWorld.Theiridentitywouldhavebeenlostastheir descendantsweregraduallymergedintovariousAmericanIndian tribes.However,itisclearthatancientAmericawasknownto manyOldWorldcivilizations.WhenColumbusrediscovered Americain1492,hewasmakinganinitialstepinrebuildingthe transatlanticsailingroutesthatweremostlyabandonedandlost duringtheDarkAges. Theabovedigressionisnotmeanttoassertorimplythatall AmericanIndiantribesarethedescendantsofthetentribesof Israel.TheIsraelitemigrationstotheOldWorldhappenedso longagothatIsraelitegenesamongtheIndianswouldbe thoroughlydilutedbynow.Racialcharacteristicsindicatebeyond
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doubtthatmanyIndiantribeshaveaMongoloidancestryin commonwiththeOrientalsofAsia.However,thereisample evidencethatsomeAmerindiantribesoncehadextensive interactionswithSemiticpeopleoftheOldWorld. WiththisourdiscussionoftheSaxon/German/Gothicmigrations largelyconcludes.Itiswellknownthatthesetribeseventually settledmuchofEurope,andtheirdescendantsformedthe populationbaseofmanymodernEuropeannations.Their descendantsundertookwavesofmigrationstotheNewWorld whentheEnglish,French,DutchandSpanishfoundedcoloniesin NorthandSouthAmerica.InNorthAmerica,thesecolonies eventuallydevelopedintothemodernnationsoftheUnited StatesofAmericaandCanada. WhatisworthreviewingabouttheGothic,SaxonandGermanic nationsintheMiddleAgesisthattheyexhibitedagovernmental structureknownasfeudalism,asystemofgovernmentwhich reestablished(anddescendedfrom)theoldParthiansystemof government. Parthiasfeudalsystemfeaturedakingofkingswhoruledover lesserroyaltyandnobleswhowereautonomouswithintheirlocal jurisdictions.ThesamesystemprevailedinpostRoman, medievalEuropewithcentralkingsbeingsupportedbylesser, butlocallyautonomousnobles,dukes,etc.TheParthianking could,intimeofwar,summonallhisvassalrulerstoassemble theirarmiesandsubjectstosupporthiscause.MedievalEurope possessedasimilarsystemwiththearmiesofsubordinaterulers beingcalledupontorallyaroundacentralkingintimeof warfare. InParthia,thenobles,priests,andinfluentialParthiansactedas acheckonthekingspower.Thisissimilartothefeudal structureofEuropewhichenabledsubordinaterulersandnobles toexertsomeinfluenceoverthedecisionsofthecentralking.A
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notablerevivalofthisParthiantraitwastheadoptionofthe MagnaCartainEnglandwhereinthenoblesformallylimitedthe kingspower.ThesimilaritybetweentheParthianEmpireand postRomanEuropehasbeennotedbyprominenthistorians. GibbonsRiseandFalloftheRomanEmpire,notedthatthe Parthiansystemexhibitedunderothernames,alively imageofthefeudalsystem,whichhassinceprevailedin Europe.149 GeorgeRawlinsonobservedthatthesimilarities betweentheParthianandEuropeanfeudalsystemswere:very mainpoints,notfewinnumber,andstriking.150 TheParthiancavalryincludedarmoredhorsesandarmored riderswithlonglances.Thearmored,lanceequippedParthian cavalrymanweretheforerunnersofthejoustingknightsof feudalEurope.ItislikelythatthemigratingParthiansbrought joustingtoEurope,asonehistoriannotesthatParthianmotifs includedsinglecombatbetweenhorsemen.151 Themounted LancersandHussarsofMedievalEuropeparallelthecavalriesof ancientParthia.Parthianswerefamousfortheirarcheryskills,a traitcontinuedbytheEnglishinEurope.Rawlinsonnotesthis parallelasfollows: They[theParthians]acquiredbytheiruseof thebowafamelikethatwhichtheEnglish archersobtainedfortheemploymentofthe sameweaponatCrecyandAgincourt.152 AnotherculturaltraitbroughtbytheScythian/Parthiansto Europewastheirartwork.Scythianartworkhasbeenidentified ashavingamajorimpactontheartworkstylesofthemodern Europeannationsinthebook,TheScythians,byTamaraTalbot Rice.ShedocumentsthatScythiansweresettledineastern Germany,Hungary,BulgariaandtheBalkansasearlyas600 153 300B.C. WhentheScythians(andParthians)latermigrated towardEurope,theyweresimplymigratinginthedirectionof
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fellowtribesmenwhohadprecededthemintoEurope. ShealsonotesthatAlltracesofScythiansdisappearinSouth 154 Russiainthetimeframe200300A.D. Thisdirectly coincideswiththeParthianEmpiresfallin226A.D.,and thesubsequentmassmigrationsofParthianandScythian tribesoutofAsiaintoEurope.Shealsodocumentsthatatthe sametimetheScythiansdisappearedfromAsia,thefleeing GothsspreadtheScythoSarmatianstylethroughCentraland SouthEurope.155 ThemigratingScythianscametobeknownas GothsastheymigratedintoEurope.ThattheseGothsspreada ScythoSarmatianstyleintoEuropeconfirmsthattheywere bringingtheirtraditionalScythianculturewiththem. RicecommentsthataftertheGothswerepushedfromSouth RussiaintoEuropebytheHunsin300400A.D.,thatduring 400700A.D.: ScythoSarmatianstylereflectedinartofthe MigrationperiodinCentralEuropeandGaul. ItalsoinfluencestheVikingartof Scandinavia...[and]theartofmedieval IrelandandEngland.156 Shealsostatesthat: Scythianseventuallyaffectedtheartof muchofwesternEurope,permanently markingitwiththeirownindividual stamp.157 SincetheParthiansandScythianswererelatedtribes,theword ScythianwouldalsoidentifyParthiansfleeingintoEuropewith theirScythiankinsmen.ThatEuropebecamethenewhomeland ofScythianartworkformsismostimportant.Thisculturalbond confirmsthelinkagebetween(A)theScythiansandParthians whodisappearedfromAsiaandSouthRussia,and(B)the
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Goths,GermansandSaxonswhomigratedintoEuropefromAsia andSouthRussia,bringingScythianartformswiththem.Itis knownthatScythianinfluenceaffectedmuchoftheEuropean continent: It[Scythianinfluence]canbeseenina flagondatingfromthefourthorthirdcentury B.C.,found...inLorraine...thebronzehandle intheformofawolfisessentiallyScythianin character...SomewhatsimilarScytho SarmatiantrendspenetratedasfarasBritain. Thestylewas...carriedtohershoresbythe Vikingsand...bythemorecircuitousroute acrossGermany.OnceagainsouthernRussia servedasthestartingpoint,forwhenthe Gothsfled...toattackandoverrunmuchof southwesternEurope,theycarriedwith them...theirScythoSarmatian elements...throughoutmanyoutlyingregions. Inthiswaytheanimalstylewasrevivedfirst inRomania,theninAustria,theninthe Rhineland,whenceittravelled...toEngland. TheScythoSarmatianstylewasparticularly markedincentralEurope...158 NumerousexamplesofScythianinfluenceontheartworkof postRomanEuropeexist,afewofwhicharelistedbelow. TheBalkanburials...providealinkbetween ScythianKerchandMerovingianFranceThe Gothsfondnessforbirdsofpreyplayedits partinpreservingthislargebeaked,round eyedScythianbirdmotif...Thusaveryearly Scythianversion..reappearsinthe Frankishworldmanyyearslateralmost
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unaltered...Oneofthelatest..comesfrom... England,onthepurselidfromthetreasureof SuttonHooinSuffolk.Thetreasureisdated toA.D.655656,andthebird...adheres remarkablycloselytotheScythian originals...AresemblancetoScythianartcan [befound]ontheScythianlookingbeasts decoratingtheclayflaskfoundat Matzhausen,nowinBerlin...butthelikeness appearsatitsmoststrikinginagroupof eleventhcenturySaxonstoneslabs.One ofthese,originallyinSt.Pauls churchyardshowsastagofwholly Scythiancharacter.Itsposehadnot greatlyalteredinthefifteenhundred yearswhichhadelapsedsincethe Scythiansfirstmadethemotiftheir own.159 (Emphasisadded.) NoneoftheaboveissurprisingonceitisrealizedthattheGoths, Saxons,Germans,Jutesandothertribeswhosettledpost RomanEuropewerethedescendantsoftheGauthei,Sacae, Kermans,JatsandotherrelatedtribesfromScythiaandParthia whomigratedintoEuropefromAsia.ThattheseCaucasiantribes broughtScythianartformswiththemfurtherconfirmsthatthey werethedescendantsoftheScythians(andtheirParthian kinsmen). Itisveryunusualthatasingledynasty,theArsacids,ruledover Parthiasempirefrombeginningtoend.Thisstrikingcontinuity occurredbecauseGodwasfaithfullyimplementinghispromise aboutDavidsdescendants.WhenParthiafell,historyrecordsthe Arsacidsflednorthwest(towardEurope)alongwiththerestof Parthiasrefugees.AsParthiasrefugeesdispersedintoEurope,it
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islikelythattheyfollowedArsacidprinces,dispersingtheArsacid bloodlinethroughoutEurope.Overthecenturiesintermarriage amongtherulersandnobilityofEuropeskingdomswouldhave resultedintheArsacidbloodlinebeingpreservedinmanyof Europesdynasties.InthismannerGodhaskepthispromiseinto moderntimesthatDavidsdescendantswouldserveaskings overthetentribesdescendants.WhiletheroleofEuropean royaltyisnowlargelyceremonial,theirpresenceinafewnations stillfulfillsthepromiseofGodthatKingDavidsdescendants wouldremaininroyalpositionsinIsraelitenationsuntilthe Messianickingdomisestablishedonearth(Genesis49:10).As discussedinchapternine,Revelation19:16prophesiesthat JesusChristwillinherittheArsacidthrone(i.e.becomeKingof Kings)athissecondcoming. DiscussedinchapterfourwasthemigrationofabandofJewsto IrelandafterJudahfellinthesixthcenturyB.C.LedbyJeremiah, thisbandofJewsdidnotgointoeasterncaptivity,buttraveled westwardintoEgypt.ItincludedtheprophetJeremiah,his scribe,Baruch,andthekingsdaughters,directdescendantsof KingDavid(Jeremiah43:57).AtleastoneofKingZedekiahs daughtersaccompaniedJeremiahandBaruchtoancientIreland whereshemarriedanIrishking,continuingDavidsbloodline overIsraelitesinIreland.Jeremiahreportedlybroughtanumber ofprominentartifactsfromancientIsraelwithhim,including DavidsHarp,whichbecameprominentintheemblemsand 160 heraldryofIreland. Theoffspringofthisunionincluded dynasticlinesinIreland,ScotlandandGreatBritain,andQueen ElizabethIIofGreatBritainisadirectdescendantofthis dynasticline.AchronologicallistingofalltheDavidickingsfrom KingZedekiahtoQueenElizabethofGreatBritainisfoundinthe 161 book,JacobsPillar, byE.RaymondCapt. Therefore,whenJudahfell,GodspromisethatDavids
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descendantswouldruleoverthedescendantsofthetentribesof IsraelwaskeptinbothEuropeandAsia.Whenthedescendants ofthetentribesofIsraelmigratedintoEurope(ledby descendantsofArsacidrulers),andtheroyalhousesofthe BritishIslesandmainlandEuropeintermarried,thetworoyal bloodlinesofKingDavidwerereunited.ThefactthatGodhas, overthreemillennia,kepthispromiseaboutmaintaining DavidsdynastyoverthetribesofIsraeluntilJesusChrist returns,confirmsthatGodhasguidedhumaneventsinto moderntimestofulfillhispromises.Italsofollowsthat onecanlocatethetentribesofIsraelthroughouthistory bylocatingthosenationswhichhadDavidsdescendants asrulers! WhentheCelticpeopleofEuropeweredisplaced,andabsorbed bySaxons,Germans,andGoths,thiseventactuallyresultedina mergerofthetwobodiesofIsraeliteswhohadbeenseparated foramillennium.TheIsraeliteswhomigratedtoEuropeafterthe fallofParthiawereaccompaniedbyotherSemiticpeople (Assyrians,Elamites,etc.)whohadformerlylivedastheir subjectsintheParthianEmpire.Therefore,theCaucasianswho settledpostRomanEuropewereamixtureofIsraeliteandnon Israelitepeople.ThisfulfilledanotherprophecyinHosea8:8 whichstated: Israelisswallowedup:nowshalltheybe amongtheGentiles... HoseaprophesiedthatthetribesofIsraelwouldbeamongthe Gentilesaswellasgreatlymultipliedinpopulation(Hosea1:10) aftertheircaptivity.ThiswasfulfilledinParthian/Scythiantimes aswellasduringtheirmigrationsintoEuropesincethe descendantsofthetentribesofIsraelweredwellingwithand amongnonIsraelitenations.Indeed,theIsraelites(eventhough theyretainedIsraelitenamesandcustoms)werereckonedby
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manytoactuallybeGentiles. ChapterelevenwillidentifythetribesofIsraelinthemodern world,usingbothbiblicalandsecularevidence.TheBiblehas specificpropheticcluesaboutthecharacteristicsofeachofthe twelvetribesofIsraelinaperiodcalledthelatterdays.In somecases,theseprophecieshavebeenpreciselyfulfilledinour modernworld.Thesedramaticfulfillmentsaffirmthatthereisa LivingGodwhohasactuallyguidedthemigrationsandaffairsof nationsinordertofulfillbiblicalprophecies.

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Endnotes:ChapterTen 1. Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,pp.365366 2. EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.17,Persia,Subhead:The SassanianEmpire,p.580 3. Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,pp.294295 4. Ibid,p.367 5. EncyclopaediaBritannica,Persia,Subhead:TheSassanian Empire,p.580 6. EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.17,Persia,Subhead:The WarswithRome,p.580 7. Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,pp.246247 8. Josephus,WarsoftheJews,Preface,1(seefootnote) 9. Benjamin,Persia,p.172 10.Frye,TheHeritageofPersia,p.239 11.Ibid,p.238 12.Benjamin,p.174 13.Benjamin,p.173 14.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.17,Persis,p.611 15.Ibid,Vol.17,Persia,Subhead:TheSassanianEmpire,p. 580 16.McBirnie,TheSearchfortheTwelveApostles,pp.130,199 202,243 17.Ibid,p.l99 18.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.2,Arabia,Subhead: Population,p.176 19.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.21,Talmud,Subhead: GrowthoftheMishnahandGemara,p.770 20.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.2,ArmenianChurch,p.382 21.McBirnie,p.199 22.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.6,Constantine,p.298 23.Rice,TheScythians,p.189 24.BorisPiotrovsky,LiudmilaGalaninaandNonnaGrach, ScythianArt,p.5
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25.Rice,pp.20,55 26.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.12,IndoEuropeans, Subhead:Migration,p.263 27.Waddell,ThePhoenicianOriginofBritons,ScotsandAnglo Saxons,pp.78 28.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.6,Dacia,p.969 29.WebstersNewWorldDictionaryoftheAmericanLanguage, SecondConciseEdition,seewordCaucasoid,p.119 30.Rice,chartonp.25 31.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.6,Dacia,p.970 32.HenryBradley,TheGoths,p.19 33.Gawler,p.9 34.Ibid,p.7 35.Rice,seechartonpage25 36.LangenscheidtsGermanEnglish/EnglishGermanDictionary, seewordSaxoninEnglishGermansection,p.510 37.Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,pp.187189 38.Gawler,p.6(citingSharonTurnersAngloSaxons,Vol.1,p. 100) 39.R.H.Hodgkin,HistoryoftheAngloSaxons,p.17 40.Church,EarlyBritain,p.8082 41.Ibid,p42 42.Ibid,p.9 43.Ibid,pp.2427 44.Bradley,p.1 45.Ibid,p.5 46.Ibid,p.4 47.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.10,Goths,Subhead:Gothic Language,pp.551552 48.Bradley.p.5 49.Gawler,p.9 50.Bradley,pp.45 51.Ibid,p.23
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52.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.10,EarlyHistory,p.549 53.Ibid,p.549 54.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.19,seemaponp.500 55.Herodotus,TheHistory,1.125 56.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.17,Persis,p.611 57.Waddell,p.160(andAppendixVII,p.413) 58.Ragozin,Assyria,pp.225226 59.Strabo,TheGeographyofStrabo,Vol.7,15.2.14 60.Ibid,Vol.5,12.4.3 61.Church,Carthage,p.269 62.Dilke,GreekandRomanMaps,p.46 63.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.19,Sarmatae,p.1001 64.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.13,Jutland,p.217 65.Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,p.118 66.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.12,Jat,p.970 67.ColliersEncyclopedia,Vol.11,Jats,p.356 68.Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,Vol.11,Jats,p. 357 69.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.1,Alani,p.496 70.ColliersEncyclopedia,Vol.1,Alani,p.310 71.Burns,AHistoryoftheOstrogoths,p.26 72.Ibid,p.26 73.Bradley,TheGoths,p.24 74.Bums,pp.2627 75.Ibid,p.26 76.Ibid,p.27 77.Ibid,p.27 78.Bradley,p.27 79.Burns,p.27 80.Bradley,pp.2829 81.Ibid,p.27 82.Ibid,p.31 83.Ibid,p.32
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84.Ibid,p.32 85.Bradley,p.32 86.Burns,p.29 87.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.7,Dexippus,Publius Herennius,p.299 88.Bradley,p.35 89.Ibid,p.35 90.Ibid,9 91.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.8,EphthalitesorWhite Huns,p.646 92.Bradley,p.45 93.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.8,EphthalitesorWhite Huns,p.646 94.Ibid,p.646 95.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.8,Ermanaric,p.692 96.Bradley,p.44 97.Ibid,p.44 98.Bradley,p.61 99.Ibid,p.85 100. Ibid,pp.91 101. Ibid,p.94 102. Bradley,pp.9697 103. EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.1,Alaric,p.498 104. Bradley,pp.1112 105. Ibid,p.216 106. Ibid,p.159 107. Ibid,p.216 108. EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.22,Theodoric,p.59 109. Ibid,Vol.5,ChalonsSurMarne,p.198 110. Ibid,p.198andHodgkin,AngloSaxons,p.96 111. EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.1,Aetius,p.276 112. EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.22,Vandals,p.971 113. Bradley,p.115
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114. EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.22,Vandals,p.971 115. Ibid,p.971 116. YoungsAnalyticalConcordancetotheBible,seeword High,most,subhead2,p.480 117. EncyclopaediaBritannica,Vol.22,Vandals,p.971 118. Ibid,p.971 119. Fell,SagaAmerica,pp.127and153 120. Ibid,p.153 121. Ibid,pp.169 122. Ibid,p.170172 123. Ibidpp.172and174 124. Ibid,p.174 125. Ibid,p.168 126. CinaidBunche,HebrewInscriptionsinAmerica, EpigraphicSocietyOccasionalPublications,Vol.15(1986), p.25 127. Fell,SagaAmerica,p.168 128. ColliersEncyclopedia,Vol.10,IndianTribes,North American,p.465 129. EncyclopediaAmericana,Vol.24,Sacagawea,p.72 130. Boland,TheyAllDiscoveredAmerica,pp.316318 131. Ibid,p.330 132. EncyclopediaAmericana,Vol.18,MandanIndians,pp. 223224 133. Fell,MediterraneanMythologyinTraditionalPimaChants, EpigraphicSocietyOccasionalPublications,Vol.15,1986, pp.8994 134. Ibid,p.94 135. Ibid,ThePimaMythoflcaros,ThePimamythof Persephone,andAesopsFable(s)oftheFoxandthe Crow[and]TheFoxandtheSeashells,pp.96107 136. Fell,BronzeAgeAmerica,pp.146152 137. Ibid,pp.146and148
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138. Ibid,p.146 139. Dr.E.MorganKelley,NorthAmericanIndianTribal Names,EpigraphicSocietyOccasionalPapers,Vol.19, 1990,pp.8384 140. Ibid,pp.84.8889 141. Ibid,p.88(seefootnotenumber20) 142. Ibid,p.88 143. Ibid,pp.8890 144. Ibid,pp.8990 145. Ibid,p.85 146. Ibid,p.83 147. Farley,Gloria,TheShawneeCreekStoneofOklahoma, EpigraphicSocietyOccasionalPublications,Vol.18,1989, p.260 148. Ibid,p.260 149. Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,p.87(citing Gibbon,DeclineandFall,vol.i.p.339,Smithsedition) 150. Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,p.88 151. Colledge,TheParthians,p.175 152. Rawlinson,TheSixthOrientalMonarchy,p.174 153. Rice,TheScythians,p.25 154. Ibid,p.25 155. Ibid,p.25 156. Ibid,pp.2425 157. Ibid,p.18 158. Ibid,p.188 159. Ibid,pp.190192 160. Capt,JacobsPillar,pp.3132 161. Ibid,pp.9194

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11.TheTribesofIsraelintheModernWorld Thischapterpresentsadoublechallenge.Thefirstchallenge involvesspecificallyidentifyingthetribesofIsraelamongthe nationsofthemodernworld,basedonbiblicalprophecyandthe individualcharacteristicsofmodernnations.Whilethismay seemdauntingenough,theweightofevidencecontainedin precedingchaptersandtheclarityofbiblicalpropheciesabout manyoftheIsraelitetribesinthelatterdaysactuallymakesthis theeasierofthetwochallenges.Thesecondchallengeliesin presentingtheevidenceidentifyingthemoderntribesofIsrael. Whiletruthshouldideallystandonitsownmerits,thefact remainsthattruthmustbepresentedtoaworldwithmany politicalandemotionalsensitivities.Inordertoidentifythetribes ofIsraelinthemodernworld,itisnecessarytoexaminevarious ethnicandnationalcharacteristicsinlightofbiblicalprophecies andnarrativesaboutthetribesofIsrael. ItisimportanttorealizethatidentifyingthetribesofIsraelin themodernworldimpartsnosenseofracialsuperioritytothe nationssoidentified.Thisbookexpresslydisassociatesitself fromanyeffortorintenttoconveyasenseofracialsuperiorityto themodernnationsofthetribesofIsrael.Whileitistruethat GodworkedalmostexclusivelywiththeIsraelitetribesduring OldTestamenttimes,theNewTestamentleveledtheplaying fieldforallracesandethnicgroups.Forexample,Galatians 2:1114recordsthattheApostlePaulopenlychastenedtheearly Galatianchurch(aswellasPeter,hisfellowapostle)fordividing intoraciallyseparatefellowshipgroups. InMatthew28:19JesusChristtoldhisfollowers: Goyoutherefore,andteachallnations, baptizingtheminthenameoftheFather,and oftheSon,andoftheHolySpirit.
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JesusChristclearlypresentedhimselfasanequalopportunity Saviorforallnationsandethnicgroups.Anyattempttousethe Bibletoconstructamessageofracialsuperioritymisrepresents theBible! Havingsaidtheabove,however,therearemanybiblical promisesandprophecieswhichpertainonlytoIsraelitenations. SincetheNewTestamentdidnotannultheseuniqueblessings andprophecies,theyarestillineffect.Indeed,JesusChrist statedinMatthew5:17: Iamnotcometodestroythelaw,orthe prophets. Jesusmadeitveryclearhisministrywouldnotdestroy(or annul)OldTestamentprophecies.Therefore,JesusChrist affirmedthebindingnatureofOldTestamentpropheciesand promisesconcerningthetribesofIsrael. Thosepeople(andnations)whorediscovertheirIsraeliteroots haveeveryrighttoasenseofwholesomeprideintheirheritage andforefathersaccomplishmentsthroughouthistory.The Israeliteheritagethroughhistoryreachesfarbeyondthe accomplishmentsofafewbiblicalheroesintheancientkingdoms ofIsraelandJudah.Asthereadernowknowsfromprevious chapters,thisIsraeliteheritageincludesthehistoriesof Carthage,Parthia,Scythia,theSaxons,theCelts,theGoths,etc. TheBiblehasspecificpropheciesaboutthetribesofIsraelinits propheciesaboutthelatterdays.However,thereareno nationsinthemodernworldcalledManasseh,Ephraim,The HouseofIsrael,Assyria,etc.,yettheBibleusesthosenames todescribenationsinlatterdayprophecies.Therefore,we mustidentifywhichmodernnationshavedescendedfromthose ancientnationsbeforewecanaccuratelyapplybiblical propheciestothemodernworld.Thischapterwillconcludethis
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booksnarrativeaboutthetribesofIsraelbyoffering identificationsforeachtribeinthemodernworld.Thesecond bookintheserieswillexaminelatterdaypropheciesinlightof thischaptersidentificationsoftheIsraelitenations. Itislikelythatmostreadersofthisbookalreadyarepersuaded thatwearenowlivinginthebiblicallyprophesiedlatterdays. Manybooks(byauthorsinmanyChristiandenominations)have beenwrittendocumentingtheevidencethatwearelivinginthe latterdays.However,forthosereadersnotfamiliarwithbiblical propheciesaboutthelatterdays,afewofthemajoroneswillbe brieflydiscussed. OnemajorprophecyisfoundinZephaniah2:17which specificallyprophesiedthataJewishnationwouldbe reestablishedinPalestinejustpriortothedayoftheLord(the timeofGodsinterventioninhumanaffairs).Thisprophecywas fulfilledin1948whenaJewishnationwasformallyestablishedin Palestine.AnothermajorprophecywasgivenbyJesusChrist himselfinMatthew24inresponsetoquestionsfromhisdisciples aboutwhatsignswouldindicatehissecondcomingwas imminent.OneofthemostimportantsignsindicatedbyJesus Christwasthatagravecrisiswouldoccurwhichcouldresultin theextinctionofallfleshonearthunlessdivineintervention stoppedthecrisis(seeverse22).Itwasnotpossibleforany warfareorcrisistoliterallythreatenalllifeonearthuntilnuclear weaponswereinventedatthecloseofWorldWarII.Inthe postWorldWarIIperiod,nuclearweaponshavebecomeso numerousandpowerfulthatnuclearwarfareliterallycould destroyalllifeonearth,fulfillingJesusprophecyaboutthis latterdaypossibility. Also,Daniel12:4predictedthatthetimeofGodsdivine interventionwouldbeprecededbyagreatknowledge explosion,whichhasalsooccurredinthepostWorldWarII
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period.Mankindhasgonefromhorsecarriagestospacevehicles inlessthanacentury.Theinventionofcomputersandother formsofmoderntechnologyhavetransformedhuman institutionsandsocietiesinanunprecedentedmanner.Finally, Revelation9:717prophesiedthathumanweaponryinthelatter dayswouldinclude(A)armorplatedwarmachineswhichwould flylikelocustsandgenerateloudnoisesintheirwings,and (B)armored,landgoingwarmachineswhichwouldissuefire andsmokeoutoftheirmouths.Todaysmodernjetwarplanes andheavytankswereaccuratelyforeseeninthisprophecyfrom thebookofRevelation. Theabovepropheciesconfirmthatthemodern,postWorldWar IIperiodconstitutesthebiblicallyprophesiedlatterdayswhich wouldprecedethesecondcomingofJesusChrist.Withthis introduction,wecanbeginoursearchforthemoderntribesof Israelknowingthatlatterdaypropheciesaboutthemapplyto realnationsinourmodernworld. TheBibleismostemphaticthatIsraelstribeswillbeprominent, identifiablenationsinthelatterdays,anditgivesusmany specificcluestohelplocatethem.Thosewhomaintainthatthe losttentribesofIsraelnolongerexistorcannotbeidentified areactuallydenyingandopposingtheWordofGod.Thesame GodwhofoundedChristianityalsomademanyprophecies concerningthefutureofthetribesofIsrael.Theystandorfall together,sincebothChristianityandpropheciesaboutthetribes ofIsraelarebasedonthetextsofthesameBible.Indeed,if biblicalpropheciesaboutthefuturesofthetentribesofIsrael canbedisproved,thefoundationsofChristianity(andJudaism) crumbleaswellsincethosereligionsarebasedonbeliefsthat theBible(withitspropheciesaboutthetentribes)istheinfallible WordofGod.Conversely,ifGodspropheciesaboutthefutureof Israelstribescanbesubstantiated,itprovidesapowerful
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witnessoftheBiblesdivineauthorship,andconfirmsthatan activeCreatorGodisinvolvedintheworldsaffairs. WheredowebeginlookingforthetribesofIsraelinthemodern world?Earlierchapterstracedthemigrationsofthetentribesof IsraelastheybecameknownasCarthaginians,Parthians,the Sacae,Goths,etc.IsraelitetribesinAsia,suchastheGauthei (Getae),theSacae,theJats(oftheMassagetae),etc.migrated intoEuropeandbecameknownastheGoths,Saxons,Jutes,etc. Obviously,wemustfocusoursearchamongmodernnations whichhavedescendedfromtheIsraelitetribeswhomigrated intoEurope.Also,wecannotoverlooksomeofthenative populationsofEuropeasearlierchaptersdetailedmuchevidence thatmanyIsraelitesmigratedtoEuropein1100700B.C.either ascolonistsorrefugeesinsearchofnewhomelands. AnoverridingguidelineforlocatingIsraelitetribestodayisthe realizationthatallIsraelitetribeshavedescendedfromShem, therefore,theymustbelocatedamongtheSemitic,White,or Caucasiannations.Asevidenceofthisfact,historicalrecords confirmthatoneofthetribesofIsraelinAsia,theEphthalites orNephthalites(i.e.thetribeofNaphtali),wascalledthe WhiteHuns,duetotheirbeingmembersofthewhiterace.The EphthaliteswereoneofmanySacaetribesinAsiawhowere namedafterIsaac.TheirrelatedSacaeorSakatribeswould alsobemembersofthewhite(fairskinned)races. TheGothswhomigratedintoEuropefromAsiaweredescribed bycontemporaryhistoriansasbeingtall...withfaircomplexions, blueeyesandyellowhair.1 ThattheGothswereblueeyed blondesmakespartofouridentificationprocesseasier.Almost everyoneknowswheretheblueeyed,blondesarelocatedin Europetoday.TheyaretheNordicpeopleswhocametoresidein Scandinavia,NorthernEurope,andinothernationsaswell. However,thereadershouldnotassumethatallIsraelitesare
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blueeyedblondes.Tosubstantiatethispoint,weneedto examinetheoriginalnuclearfamilyfromwhichallthetribesof Israeldescended.Anelementaryapplicationofgeneticswillshow thattherewillbevariedcharacteristicsamongtheIsraelite tribes. TheoriginaltribesofIsraelresultedfromthecombinationof severaldifferentbloodlines.Whilethetwelveprogenitorsofthe tribesofIsraelhadthesamefather(JacoborIsrael),they camefromJacobsmatingwithfourdifferentwomen.Sixsons (Reuben,Simeon,Levi,Judah,Issachar,andZebulon)wereborn toJacobandhisfirstwife,Leah.Twosons(Josephand Benjamin)wereborntoJacobviahissecondwife,Rachel.Two sons(GadandAsher)wereborntoJacobandZilpah(Leahs handmaid)whiletwomoresons,DanandNaphtali,wereborn totheunionofJacobandBilhah(Rachelshandmaid).The accountofthesebirthscanbereadinGenesis29and30,with theexceptionofBenjamins,whosebirthasatagalongis recordedinGenesis35:18. ThisformativeIsraelitefamilywasnotonebighappyfamily.It existedinaculturewithcustomsalientoourmodernsociety, someofwhichaccountedforseverestressesinJacobsfamily. ThehistoryofJacobsfamilywillbeexaminedbecausesomeof itsdynamicsandthehereditarytraitsofsomeofhissons resurfaceinthepropheciesaboutthetribesofIsraelinthe modernworld. Jacobwasinitiallyvictimizedbyaculturaltraditionofthetime thattheeldestsisterhadtobemarriedfirst.Hewastrickedinto marryingLeah,theoldersisterofRachel(whomhereallywanted tomarry).Hisprospectivefatherinlawworkedthisdeceptionby gettingJacobsodrunkonhisweddingnightthathecouldnt evenrecognizehiswifeintheirhoneymoontent.Genesis 29:2127statesthatJacobsfatherinlawmadeafeast(no
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doubtwithmuchalcohol)ontheweddingdaybeforeJacobslept withhisnewwife,andverse25addsthatJacobdidnteven realizewhomhehadsleptwithuntilthemorningafter. ImagineJacobsreactionwhenheawokewithafiercehangover, andsawthathehadmarriedLeah,notRachel!Thismarriage wasnobedofrosesforLeaheither,assheknewJacobdidnt desireher.OnewonderswhatwordsLeahheardfromJacobs drunkenlipsontheirweddingnightthatwereintendedfor Rachelsears,notLeahs.Sincepolygamywasaculturalnormin thosedays,JacobmarriedRachelaswell,butthisbuiltsevere stressesintothefamily.Canyouimaginethekindoftensions whichexistedinafamilyinwhichonemanwasmarriedtotwo sisters,onelovedandtheotherunloved? Asecondculturaltraitofthetimewasthatlargefamilieswere prized,andchildlessnesswasastigma.Inviewofthis,thetwo sistersembarkedonacompetitiontoseewhocouldproducethe mostchildren.WhileLeahproducedsixsons,Rachelwasbarren foraperiodoftime.Tocatchupwithhersister,shehad Bilhah,herservant,serveasasurrogatemotherfortwosons whichweredeemedtobeRachelschildren.Leahdecidedtwo couldplayatthatgame,andsoonJacobwasalsosleepingwith Leahsmaid,Zilpah,forthesamepurpose.Eachmaidproduced twosons,andRachelfinallyproducedtwonaturalbornsons. Leahwonthebirthingcontest,eightsonstofour.Genesis 30:1416recordsanepisodeinwhichRachelandLeahare playingletsmakeadealaboutwhowouldsleepwithJacobon aparticularnight.RachelexchangedtherighttosleepwithJacob foraharvestofmandrakes,aplantsupposedtofacilitate 2 pregnancy. SinceRachelwasstillbarrenatthattime,shemade thistradeinanattempttoboostherchancesoffertility. PoorJacobmusthavefeltliketheproverbialpieceofmeat.Not onlydidhehavetwowives,buthealsobegansleepingwithtwo
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otherwomenaswell,attheinsistenceofhiswives!Theprogeny ofthesemultipleunionslikelydividedintocliques,basedontheir maternalorigins.Thereweresomeveryunhappytimesinthis originalIsraelitefamily.Inmodernterminology,itwouldhave beencalledaprofoundlydysfunctionalfamily. ManyreadersarefamiliarwiththeaccountofJosephbeingsold intoslaverybyhisbrothersafterReubenintervenedtokeephim frombeingmurderedbytheotherbrothers(Genesis37:1236). Thisaccountshowstheoffspringofthreeofthewomenganging uponJoseph,theoffspringofthefourthwoman.WhileReuben, theeldest,hadthehonorableintentionoffreeingJoseph altogether,hefailedtofollowthroughwithhisgoodintentions. Reubenhadotherproblemsaswell.Hecommittedincestwith Bilhah,themotherofhistwohalfbrothers,DanandNaphtali (Genesis35:22).Thisactcreatedevengreatertensionsinthe family.TwoofLeahsothersons(SimeonandLevi)were hotheads,massacringallthemalesinavillageandseizing theirwivesandpropertybecausetheymistakenlythoughtoneof themhadrapedtheirsister(Genesis34).TheBibleclearlyshows thattheirsisterwasawillingpartnerinafornication,andthe twowantedtobemarried!SimeonandLevicommittedmass murdertoavengearapethatneveroccurred!Jacobsown actionsmademattersworseasheflagrantlytreatedJosephasa favoriteson,turningJosephshalfbrothersagainsthim. Jacobsfamilywassomessedupthattheirinternalproblems couldserveastheplotofamodernsoapopera. However,forpurposesofdeterminingtheirhereditarytraits,the genesofthetwelvesonsofJacobweredrawnfromfiveseparate genepools(Jacobandthefourmothers).Manyofthesons musthavehadnoresemblancetooneanother,otherthanbeing fairskinned,andhavingphysicalcharacteristicscommonto Semiticpeople.Bythetimethesesonsmaturedenoughtomarry
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andhavetheirownchildren,thehereditarygenepoolofthe Israelitesbecameevenmorediverse.Wearenottoldthe marriagepartnersofallthesons,buteachofthoseunions wouldhaveaddedmoredivergencetothegenepoolsofthe individualtribesofIsrael. Judah,thefourthsonofJacob,marriedaCanaanitewoman,who boreatleastthreesons.Twoofthemweresoabominablethat theBiblerecordsthatGodhimselfexecutedthem(Genesis 38:110).ThisfirstIsraelitefamilyalreadyincludedsuchsinsas incest,fornication,attemptedmurderamongbrothers,mass murder,andsellingonesownbrotherintoslaverytostrangers. NoneofthesesinswerebadenoughtomotivateGodto executeanyone,sowecanonlywonderathowabominablethe firsttwosonsofJudahweretomeritbeingpersonallykilledby God! BesideshavingchildrenviaaCanaanite(likelyadarkerskinned woman),Judahalsobegatchildrenthroughhisdaughterinlaw Tamar(ofunspecifiedrace),sothetribeofJudahcameto includevariedbloodlines(Genesis38:230).Josephmarriedan Egyptianprincess(Genesis41:45),sothetribeofJosephwould havedevelopeddifferentcharacteristicsthantheothertribes, whosefoundershadtakenwivesfromamongthevariousraces livinginPalestineatthattime.Obviously,thedescendantsofthe varioustribesofIsraelintermarriedamongthemselvesandother nonIsraelitepeoplesduringthegenerationsthatfollowed,sothe physicalappearancesandcharacteristicsofthevarioustribesof Israelwouldhavevariedconsiderablyincomplexion,haircolor, physiognomy,etc.Eventually,whentheIsraelitesentered Palestineandlivedinseparatetribalregions,traditionand geographymadeiteasierforpeopletomarrywithintheirown tribe,reinforcingtheuniquetraitsofeachtribe. BasedontheoriginsofthetribesofIsrael,oneshouldnot
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expecttofindalltheIsraelitetribesexhibitingthesamephysical traits.Returningtoamoremoderncontext,itisunderstandable thatwhilemanyGoths(IsraelitesmigratingintoEurope)were describedasblueeyedblondes,thereweremanydarkeyedand darkhairedpeopleamongtheIsraelitetribesaswell.Indeed, sinceblueeyesarearecessivegenetrait,therewouldlogically bemoredarkeyedIsraelitesthanblueeyedIsraelites. ThewholepurposeofexaminingtheinitialIsraelitebloodlinesis tomakeitclearthatwhenwebeginlookingforthetribesof Israeltoday,itisamistaketolookforpeoplethatlookoract alike.ThevariousIsraelitetribeshaveappearedandacted differentlysincetheirverybeginning. ManybiblicalkeystoidentifyingthetribesofIsraelinthe modernworldarefoundinaprophecyinGenesis49.Godgave thisprophecyaboutthemodern(i.e.latterday)Israelites approximately3600yearsagothroughthepatriarch,Jacob.The firstverseofthischapterstates: AndJacobcalleduntohissons,andsaid. Gatheryourselvestogether,thatImaytell youthatwhichshallbefallyouinthelast days. Thephraseinthelastdays(orlatterdays)isanoftrepeated expressionintheBibleforthetimeperiodjustprecedingthe MessianicAge.Asweshallsee,thesecluesdoapplytospecific nationsintheworldtoday,furthersubstantiatingthatwearein thelatterdays,andthatthereisaGodwhoisoverseeing worldeventstoimplementhisprophecies. Reiteratingearlierguidelines,historicalinformationleadsusto lookforthemodernIsraelitetribesinEuropeandthosenations whichwerecolonizedandestablishedbyEuropeannations. However,amodernfactmustbenoted.SinceEuropeandNorth
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America(whichwascolonizedbyEuropeannations)have receivedinfluxesofmillionsofnonEuropeansoverthecenturies, therearemanycitizensinmodernIsraelitenationswhoarenot hereditaryIsraelites.However,aslongastheyresideinIsraelite nations,theirfuturedestinieswillbelinkedtothatoftheirhost Israelitecountry.Therefore,biblicalpropheciesareimportantfor allcitizensinnationsidentifiedasmodernIsraelitenations, regardlessoftheirracialbackground. Wewillbeginwiththeeasiesttribestoidentifyinorderthat subsequentidentificationswillbecomeeasierviatheprocessof elimination.TheoriginaltwelvetribesofIsraelactuallyexpanded tothirteentribeswhenthetribeofJosephwassubdividedinto thetwotribesofEphraimandManasseh.Allthetribeshave biblicallyandhistoricallyrevealedtraitswhichwillbeexamined totheextentnecessarytohelpidentifythem.TheBiblerecords theposit