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Task A (Half-wave Bridge Rectification) Analysis Data:Vac(A) AC Voltage source Vout(A) Voltage Drop on Load, DC Vmax Maximum read on Oscilloscope Iout(A) Ampere out 99.10 V 42.90 V 136 V 0.45 A

The above data was gain from the measuring procedure we done on the circuit using AC & DC multimeter and also from the oscilloscope. With this data we can prove that our AC to DC converter half wave rectification is successful. Vpeak = 136 V, Vrms =

## Where 96.167 to VAC = 99.10V VDC = ,

Where 43.248 to VDC = 42.90V Also VDC = 0.45VAC, VDC = 0.45(99.10) = 44.495V Where 44.495 to VDC = 42.90V

Result:Waveform produce when the oscilloscope probe is tap after the Diode (on the load)

The waveform gain from this oscilloscope display shows the exact expected result from a half-wave rectifier. The waveform has no negative cycle voltage because the diode is in the reverse-biased thus allowing no negative cycle voltage to complete the circuit thus no negative cycle voltage is detected on the load.

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Task B (Half-wave Bridge Rectification with Freewheeling Diode) Analysis Data: In this task are continuous from previous task where have the inductor and the diode as addition in the circuit. The inductor was connected in series to the existing load while the diode was connected in parallel to the inductive load. From this experiment we found the value of voltage(V) and Current(A) on each RL load are different and the waveform also changing. We analyze the result that has been record and what we can state as following:

For RL 1 The value of Vout changing is caused by the inductor. When an inductor is connected to a circuit with Direct Current (DC) source, two processes which are called storing and decaying energy will happen in specific conditions. As we can see the halfwave rectifier is formed on the oscilloscope. For RL 2 The value of Vout and Iout changing is caused by the Rload and also add to two the inductor. As we can see, the waveform on the oscilloscope likes same as the waveform in diagram 1. But with add another one inductor, the waveform look have the little change and see more storing and decaying energy. From this, that why the value of Vout(B) is decrease while the Iout(B) decrease because have the additional load. If more load is used so the current become more decrease. For RL 2 (FrD) The value of voltage(V) and current(I) are similar to diagram 1. This happen because the both diodes cannot be forward-biased at the same time. So, the result we can see the half-wave rectifier is formed on the oscilloscope.

Result:RL 1 RL 2 RL 2(FrD) VAC(B) 99.10 99.10 99.10 Vout(B) 42.22 40.48 42.74 Vmax 136 136 136 Iout(B) 0.45 0.42 0.45

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## Diagram 1: RL 2(FrD) Half-wave rectifier with the Diode

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Task C (Full-wave Bridge rectifier) Analysis Data: We set up component and equipment as shown in laboratory instruction sheet to produce ouput at the oscilloscope. A diode allows current to flow in one direction but not the other, so while it allows direct current to pass through unhindered, it only allows half of any alternating current to flow. While one set of diodes is forward biased, the other set is reverse biased and effectively eliminated from the circuit. By using four diodes, when the alternating voltage is negative at the north point and positive at the south, the current can flow from north to west but not north to east. From there it flows into the load at the west point, through it, and back into the bridge at the east point. From there it flows south, because the negative voltage at the north repels it and the positive at the south attracts it. From there it returns to the voltage source, completing the circuit. When the voltage source is positive at the north point and negative at the south, the current can flow from south to west but not south to east. From the west it enters the load, runs through it, and reenters the bridge at the east point. This time the negative voltage at the south point repels the current, and the positive voltage attracts it, so it flows north, back into the voltage source, completing the circuit. So at the end of the experiment, the ouput of oscilloscope we achieve are full-wave rectification and we got double value of voltage output and current output at load compare when we used single diode.

## Result of the full Bridge rectifier.

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Conclusion and discussion:For task A we were introduced with the LAB equipment, so that we can familiarize ourselves, reenact past memories on how to handle this equipment with caution and also the advised procedure to handle such equipment. On the introduction we have created the as required from the Lab Sheet provided which bring to the conclusion from the data and result gain from ossiloscope and multimeter we have successfully construct a model of a simple half-wave rectification using a diode. As the conclusion for task B from this experiment, we can state the value of V AC(B) and Vmax are same on each RL load. What the different is the value of Vout(B) and Iout and we have found why have the change of these value. It is because the several factor that is additional of the inductor and also the diode. From this, we can see the shape of waveform on the oscilloscope. The half-wave is formed likes as we see in the result. The half-wave like that happen is caused by the storing and decaying energy by the inductor and forward-biased by the diode. Also in the Task B we find a new electrical called the freewheeling Diode, the freewheeling diode or Dfr is a diode place parallel to the load. This is where the diode change turn for each voltage phase. From 0 to 180 degree the D1 to passthrough the voltage in forward biased and from 180 to 360 the Dfr activate and make sure that the voltage wont go below 0, and therefore prevent the storing and decaying effect from the inductor and resulting in a nice and the expected result from a half-wave bridge rectification. And finally the result from task C the full-wave bridge rectification, the lay-out is a bit different from the half-wave rectification where it contain 4 diode and max 2 for half-wave. The power capability of the rectification also increase in the full-wave bridge where it provide constant power or energy in every phase. Due to this characteristic it efficiency increase to 2 fold from the half-wave. Where the DC produce is equal to 0.9Vac. 0.9(99.10)=89.19V84.3V which proven that our circuit is a success. So AC to DC converter efficiency with full-wave bridge is 90%, while half-wave bridge is 45%.