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FOUNDATIONS CONT DEEP FOUNDATIONS

By- Kokebe Yifru -Adama University Department of Civil Engineering & Arc- 20010/2011

2. DEEP FOUNDATIONS

Deep foundations are those in which the depth of the foundation is very large in comparison to its width. Constructed sufficiently below ground level with artificial arrangements such as piles, wells, etc at their base.

DEEP FOUNDATIONS

Classifications of Deep Foundation:1. 2. 3.

Pile foundations (commonly used) Pier foundation Caisson or Well foundation

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By - Kokebe Yifru -Adama University Department of Civil Engineering & Arc- 2009/2010

DEEP FOUNDATIONS

A pile Foundation is that type of deep foundation in which the loads are taken to a low level by means of a vertical members which may be of timber, concrete or steel or combination of them.

DEEP FOUNDATIONS PILE FOUNDATION

Pile Foundation is Suitable under the following situations:1. When the soil is very soft and solid base is not available at reasonable depth to keep the bearing capacity within the safe limit. 2. The subsoil water level is high so that pumping of water from the open trenches for the shallow foundations is difficult and uneconomical.

DEEP FOUNDATIONS PILE FOUNDATION

Suitability of pile Foundation:3. Where there is large fluctuations in subsoil water level 4. Instead of Mat foundation where no firm bearing strata exists at a reasonable depth and the loading is uneven.

PILE FOUNDATION CONT

Suitability Cont.. 5. When it is necessary to construct a building along the sea shore or a river bed. 6. If deep strip foundation is attempted, timbering of sides is difficult to maintain or retain the soil of sides of the trench, thus pile Foundation can be used.

PILE FOUNDATION CONT


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Classification Based on function


End bearing pile Friction pile Compaction pile Tension pile or uplift pile Anchor pile Fender pile and dolphins Batter pile Sheet pile

PILE FOUNDATION CONT

Classification cont
1. a) b)

2. Based on material and composition


Concrete pile Pre-cast Cast-in-situ i) Driven piles: cased or uncased ii) Board piles: pressure piles, under-reamed piles and board compaction piles 2 . Timber piles 3. Steel piles 4. Composite piles

PILE FOUNDATION CONT

Classification cont
1. a) b)

2. Based on material and composition


Concrete pile Pre-cast Cast-in-situ

E.g.. Raymond Standard Pile

CONCRETE PILE PRE-CAST

Pre-cast concrete piles may be manufactured in almost any desired size or shape. Commonly used section shapes include round, square, and octagonal shapes. Advantage of concrete piles include high strength and resistance to decay. However, a pre-cast concrete pile is usually the heaviest type of pile available for a given pile size.

CONCRETE PILE PRE-CAST CONT

Because their brittleness and lack of tensile strength, they require care in handling and driving to prevent pile damage. Since they have little strength in bending, they may be broken by improper lifting procedures. Cutting requires the use of pneumatic hammers and cutting torches or special saws.

CONCRETE PILE CAST-IN-SITU

Cast-in-place concrete piles are constructed by driving a steel shell into the ground and then filling it with concrete. Usually, a steel mandrel or core attached to the pile driver is placed inside the shell to reduce shell damage during driving. Although straight shells may be pulled as they are filled with concrete, shells are usually left in place and serve as additional reinforcement for the concrete.

CONCRETE PILE CAST-IN-SITU CONT..

shells are light, easy to handle, and easy to cut and splice. Since shells may be damaged during driving, they should be Visually inspected before filling with concrete. Shells driven into expansive soils should be filled with concrete as soon as possible after driving to reduce the possibility of shell damage due to lateral soil pressure.

. The

FOUNDATIONS
Assignment
Enumerate the different types of A-Deep Foundations B- Piles and describe each type and Specify the advantages and disadvantages briefly. 2. Explain briefly the causes of failure of foundation and remedial measures.(max 15 pages)
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Summary By Group 3

Thank You!!