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# Wave Equations

UCF
Wave Equations (I)
likewise
UCF
Wave Equations (II)
UCF
Scalar Wave Equation
equation e scalar wav 1D 0
1

have we , 0 and 0 or only, z on depends that Assume
equation. wave 3D a is This .
1
where
0
1

have we , or or either represent Let
equation. e scalar wav satisfy should field electric of component each Then

s, coordinate r rectangula In
0 : equation ector wave Consider v
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2 2 2
2
2
2
=
c
c

c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
=
= V
V + V + V = V
=
c
c
V
t
u
v z
u
y
u
x
u
u
v
u
v
u
u
t
p
p
p
z y x
z z y y x
c
c
E E E
E E E a a a
x
E
E
E
z
0 , 0 =
c
c
=
c
c
y x
UCF
General Solution to 1D Scalar Wave Equation
solution. a also is ) / ( prove also can we Likewise,
,
1 1
,
1
. 1 and
1
have we , Let
: solution a is ) ( Prove
). ( ) ( ) , ( : is solution general the
0
1
: equation e scalar wav 1D For
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2
p
p p
p
p p
p
p p
p
v z t g
u
t
u
t
u u
v z
u
v z
u
u
t
u
t
u u
v z
u
z
u
t v z v
z
t
v
z
t f
v
z
t g
v
z
t f t z u
t
u
v z
u
+
c
c
=
c
c
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c

c
c
=
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
=

+ + =
=
c
c

c
c

UCF
Physical Understanding of General Solution
) ( Plot
p
v
z
t f
z
) (
p
v
z
f
) (
) (
p
p
p
v
t v z
f
v
z
t f

t v z
p
=
1
0
. ity with veloc direction in g propagatin wave a for stands : ) (
p
p
v z
v
z
t f +
backward wave, or negative wave, or reflected wave
. ity with veloc direction in g propagatin wave a for stands : ) (
p
p
v z
v
z
t g +
forward wave, or positive wave, or incident wave
Likewise:
light of y velocit m/s 10 997 . 2
1 1 1
8
0 0
~ = = = c
c
v
r r r r
p
c c c c
UCF
Sinusoidal Case
) cos( ) cos(
] ) ( cos[ ] ) ( cos[
) , ( ) , ( ) , (
B A
B
p
A
p
kz t B kz t A
v
z
t B
v
z
t A
t z u t z u t z u
| e | e
| e | e
+ + + + =
+ + + + =
+ =
+
frequency. spatial or r wavenumbe is frequency, angular is where
p
v
k
e
e =
In general, we can use plane waves to expand any arbitrary wave which
is the Fourier Transform in both time and spatial domain.
UCF
Period and Wavelength
A
-A

) cos( ) , ( Plot kz t A t z u =
+
e
k
k T T T
t
t
e
t
t e
2
, 2 : length wave
2
, 2 : period = = = =
z
0
UCF
Electromagnetic Spectrum
UCF
Traveling Wave and Standing Wave
) cos( ) cos(
) , ( ) , ( ) , (
B A
kz t B kz t A
t z u t z u t z u
| e | e + + + + =
+ =
+
wave. traveling a is ) , ( wave total the
0, is or if Or wave. traveling a is ) , ( or ) , ( Each
t z u
B A t z u t z u
+
wave. standing a is ) , ( wave total , If t z u B A=
wave. standing - traveling a called is ) , ( Otherwise, t z u
UCF
Standing Wave (1)
A 2
A 2
A 2
0
2 /
2 /

When , 0 and 0, ( , ) [cos( ) cos( )]
2Asin( )sin( )
A B
A B u z t A t kz t kz
t kz
e e
e
= = = = +
=
UCF
Standing Wave (2)
z
) )sin( Asin( 2 ) , ( For kz t t z u e =
0
2 / 2 /

UCF
Phasor Form Representation
) Re( ) Re
) cos( ) cos(
) , ( ) , ( ) , (
t j jkz j t j jkz j
B A
e e Be e e (Ae
kz t B kz t A
t z u t z u t z u
B A
e | e |
| e | e
+ =
+ + + + =
+ =

+
jkz jkz j
jkz jkz j
e U e Be U
e U e Ae U
B
A

+ +
= =
= =
0
0
|
|
(propagating in +z direction)
(propagating in -z direction)
z
0 , 0 =
c
c
=
c
c
y x