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Grounding

Resource Person: Rolan S. Mercado, PEE Abstract: More than half of electrocution, electric shocks and electrical problems were caused by poor, inadequate or absence of grounding. As it has been said, grounding is one of the most important but least understood aspects of an electrical system, a good, adequate, properly designed and maintained grounding system will minimize the hazards associated with the use of electricity. Electricity is now always associated with the use of electronics from a small household to a large industry and gives rise to the term functional grounding to denote the importance of grounding not only in terms of safety but also for the proper and reliable operation of any equipment. This is a comprehensive course in Grounding which explains the importance and intricacies of providing grounding for electrical systems and equipment. The minimum requirements of grounding and bonding for safety and the principles in design to come up with an appropriate grounding system based on the electrical systems and equipments need. Lightning and surge protections were also discussed and the practices and standards used in the different areas in the world. Almost all areas of the electrical system from the substation down to the utilization equipment with regards to grounding are covered. 1. Introduction a. History of Grounding b. Why Ground? 2. System Grounding a. Grounding Requirement on Electrical Systems b. Ungrounded Systems c. Disadvantages and Dangers of Ungrounded System 3. Equipment Grounding and Bonding a. Equipment Grounding Requirements b. Bonding Requirements 4. Grounding Standards a. PEC Article 2.50 b. IEEE Standards and Recommended Practices c. European Standard 5. Grounding Components Design and Requirements a. Grounding Electrode Conductor (GEC) b. Ground Electrodes c. Grounded Service Conductor (GSC) d. Equipment Grounding and Bonding Conductors (EGC)

e. The Grounding or Zig-zag transformer 6. Grounding Systems a. Neutral Grounding Methods b. Design Parameters c. The Human Factor d. Industrial Grounding System Design e. Personnel and Equipment Protection f. Grounding of Dwelling Premises g. Residual Ground Devices h. Maintenance of Grounding Systems 7. Lightning Protection System a. Lightning Protection Schemes b. Lightning Protection Components c. Design of Lightning Protections d. Comparative Requirements of International Requirements and Standards 8. Surge Protection a. The Lightning Wave and Test Waves b. Surge Propagation c. Surge Protective Devices d. Safety and Design Requirements e. Surge Protection Design 9. Ground Electrode and Grounding Design a. Ground Electrodes and Resistance b. Ground Measurement Methods and Principles c. Grounding Electrode Systems Design 10. Substation Grounding and Substation Grounding Design a. Design Parameters and Philosophy b. Ground Potential Rise (GPR) c. The Touch and Step Voltage d. Substation Grounding Grid Design e. Other Design Requirements 11. Grounding Electronic Equipment a. Powering Electronic Equipment b. Grounding Schemes c. The Isolated Ground (IG) d. High Frequency Grounding e. Grounding Information Technology (IT) and Communications Equipment 12. Case Studies and Practical Tips

About the Speaker: ROLAN S. MERCADO PEE 2378 Life Member, IIEE Energy Services Specialist, Power Services, MERALCO BSEE Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila (PLM)

Expertise: Power Quality and Electrical Systems Instrumentations, Industrial Electrical Systems Design Powering, Grounding and Protection, Metering Systems Design and Preventive and Predictive Maintenance of Electrical Systems. Experiences includes ten years in Power Quality handling customer concerns in Electromagnetic compatibility and Powering and Grounding of Electrical Systems, Metering and Switchgear design, installation and testing, Grounding and Lightning Protection Systems designs, Electrical Systems Protection Design, testing and maintenance, Substation design and maintenance, and preventive and predictive maintenance of electrical systems. Resource Speaker for IIEE, SPECS, NEA, and PHILRECA sponsored technical