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Major Political Parties of Pakistan

Educational Manifestos
An Analysis

Mujahid Hussain
(Social Researcher)

Supervision:
Zulfqar Bachani
(Senior Social Researcher EDRC)

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Introduction ------------------------------------------------------------- (3)
Back Ground ------------------------------------------------------------- (3)

Record of educational policies of two major political parties -----------(3)

Manifesto researches at national level ------------------------------------------(3)

Education policies of political parties in developed countries -----------(2)
Methodology ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (4)
• Document collection and analysis ---------------------------------------------(4)
• Research Question ---------------------------------------------------------------(4)
• Identification of Themes --------------------------------------------------------(4)

Data Analysis and Presentation------------------------------------------------ (5)

• Findings --------------------------------------------------------------------------------(6)
• Pakistan Muslim League Qualid-e-Azam (PML-Q) ----------------------(6)
• Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians (PPPP) ------------------------(7)
• Jamaat-e-Islami (JI) -------------------------------------------------------------(8)
• Pakistan Muslim League Nawaz (PML-N) ---------------------------------(9)
• Pakistan Tahreeq-e-Insaf (PTI) ----------------------------------------------(10)
• Mutahida Quami Movement (MQM) ---------------------------------------(11)
Comparative analysis------------------------------------------------------- (10)
 Quality education-------------------------------------------------------------(10)
 Curriculum and syllabus---------------------------------- --(11)
 Teacher selection and training------------------------------(12)
 Manifestoes on quality: A critical Review----------------(13)
 Equality--------------------------------------------------------------------------(14)
 Girl education -------------------------------------------------(15)
 Private sector --------------------------------------------------(15)
 Literacy--------------------------------------------------------------------------(16)
 Employment consideration--------------------------------------------------(16)
 Resources allocation-----------------------------------------------------------(17)
 Higher education --------------------------------------------------------------(18)
 Skill development--------------------------------------------------------------(18)
 Management--------------------------------------------------------------------(19)
 Science and Technology education-----------------------------------------(20)
 Student help--------------------------------------------------------------------(20)

Discussion -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (21)


Suggestions------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (23)
Bibliography --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (24)

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Introduction
political parties prepare electoral manifestos which set out both their strategic direction
and outlines of prospective legislation should they win sufficient support in an election to
serve in government. Legislative proposals which are featured in the manifesto of a party
which has won an election are often regarded as having superior legitimacy to other
measures which a governing party may introduce for consideration by the legislature.
Although, in recent decades the status of electoral manifestos in the UK has diminished
somewhat due to a significant tendency for winning parties to, following the election, either
ignore, indefinitely delay, or even outright reject manifesto policies which were popular
with the public.

In Pakistan, manifestos are rarely discussed or debated. Manifestos are generally produced
by the political parties during the period of electioneering. Therefore, very little time is
offered to the electorates and the media to dissect and decipher them through any sort of
deliberative process. Election manifestos were issued very late in the election campaign
-just 10 days or a week before the polling day

Analyses of past electoral trends in Pakistan have revealed that voters are influenced by
electoral messages at the local level that concentrate more on the fulfilment of the civic
needs of the citizen.

Even though Pakistani political parties induce electoral constituencies to support their
parties by offering direct material incentives and symbolic advantages, a number of them
have relied on the tradition of issuing a party manifesto before every election.

After 60 years of independence today in 2007, Pakistan lacks in an equitable education


system. Educational indicators remain alarming, which include low public spending, low
literacy and enrolment levels, high dropout levels, unequal opportunities, poor
infrastructure and lack of trainings for professional development of people engaged in
education sector. According to ’UNDP: Millennium development goals Pakistan” report
2006 Pakistan is not on the right track to achieve it in all levels by 2015 1. This situation
explicitly reflects the state of education in the country. Which may be rooted in the unsuited
policies or not having actual implementation.

Education is a basic human right, in Pakistan free elementary education is the state’s
responsibility2, but unfortunately, it has never been a top national priority. Thus, it did not
1
UNDP:Miliniumdevelopmentgoalspakistanreport2006citedat;http://www.undp.org.pk/publication/PMDGR05.pdf
2
Article 27- 2-a-b

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get serious attention and adequate resources. Today there are 27 million children in the
primary school age bracket (five to nine), of whom 13 million are not enrolled. Approximately
50 per cent of enrolled children drop out before completing primary education.3. A recent
report reveals that in Pakistan there is 36.3 percent literacy rate, 51 percent net primary
enrolment ratio and 50.3 percent adult literacy.4

In parliamentary systems the main stream political parties influence policy making process
whether they form the government or happen to sit in opposition. Political parties form a
link between the state and society, they are involved in determining the particular shape of
the social institutions According to the rules of election commission of Pakistan each party
have to issue its electoral manifesto that explains parties’ policy and position on various
issues including education and country’s overall stature. As political parties declare their
agendas in their manifestoes so it is expected that they will shape their polices according to
these agendas So far nine educational policies have been announced by governments.
Though the major portions of the policies remained the same, however implementation of
the policies varied in nature and spirit depending on the priority of each successive
government. This assumption encourages us to analyze and critically review these
manifestoes.

This study checks out and analyses the manifestoes of six major political parties (Peoples
Party Parliamentarians (PPP-P), Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM), Pakistan Muslim
League (Q), Pakistan Muslim League (N) and Pakistan Tahreeq e Insaf (PTA).) separately,
comparatively and on specified themes in order to get a whole picture about what each
party has to offer and to what extend their promises are clear, similar, different,
operationally define able and planed. The main objective of this study is to open a discussion
on policies of parties in order to increase public awareness may help people in their voting
choice and parties may also construct and reconstruct their policies on the basis of such
criticism and discourses.

3
"Social Development in Pakistan 2002-03: The State of Education", Social Planning and Development Centre, Karachi,
2003. p. 2
4
Pakistan Millennium Development Goals Report 2005 cited at www.undplorg.pk

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Methodology

The research methodology is determined by the purpose means “how you will do depends
on what you will do”. According to the purpose and nature of this study qualitative
framework is used to investigate this issue. In this regard following techniques are utilized
• Document analysis
• Literature Review

Document analysis:
According to the focus of study, manifestoes of all parties were analyzed in accordance to
a thematic framework developed parallel to the review process.

Content analysis:
National and international literature produced on relevant topic was cited.

Selection of Parties
Manifestoes of major political parties were selected as subject of study. Here “major” mean
those parties who got higher proportion of national and provincial assemblies’ seats.
Following this criteria six major political parties were identified namely; Pakistan Peoples
Party Parliamentarian, Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz), Pakistan Muslim League (Quaid-
e-Azam), Jamait-e-Islame, and Mutahida Quami Movement and Pakistan Tahreeq-e-Insaf.
Pakistan Tahreek-e-Insaf is selected due to its emerging popularity and share in political
activities after the election 2002.

Data collection and analysis


The parties were selected on the basis of their merit in the last election and their
manifestoes were collected Some parties have their manifestoes given on their official
websites while others where personally contacted.
Research Question

• What are the agendas of political parties towards education in Pakistan?


 How their agendas relate with each other on emerging themes?

Identification of Themes
The educational manifestoes of all parties’ shads more light on higher education, quality
education, teacher selection and qualification, networking, research, innovation modified
curriculum, skills development and employment consideration etc. Given the nature of
manifestoes’ statements, some common themes has been identified i.e. quality education,
higher education, curriculum, teacher selection and training, resources allocation, literacy,
skill development and management.

There was not any pre determined thematic framework to de construct manifestoes in it,
rather; it was develop during the analysis process. By reviewing the manifestoes of major
political parties an analysis framework was continuously developed. Themes and sub
themes extracted during the firs review of the most of the parties directly or indirectly have
to say some thing on these themes. To finally develop analysis framework first of all each

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manifesto was separately analyzed. Manifestoes were braked in to points (statements) at
each statement related themes were mentioned that it talked about. In the second phase data
was distribute in theme wise headings in this way one statement could fall in various
themes. During the further process of shuffling and reshuffling of data some themes were
made border to match all manifestoes. Along with this frame work a matrix of the data
from its emerging themes was developed. Which is also help full in the discussion and
write up of the report. Much of the manifestoes talked about conceptual themes such as
Higher education, quality education, teacher selection and qualification, networking, ,
research, Innovation modified curriculum, skills development and employment
consideration etc and these theme design the thematic frame work of this study.

Data Analysis and Presentation

There was not any pre determined thematic framework to de construct manifestoes in it,
rather; it was develop during the literature review process. By reviewing the manifestoes
of major political parties an analysis framework was developed themes and sub themes
extracted. During the further process of shuffling and reshuffling of data some themes
were made border to match all manifestoes. After thematic matrix development of each
party, findings of each party has been placed. Later on findings of all parties compared
and consolidated.

• Resources allocation
• Quality education
o Curriculum
o Research
• literacy
• Technical, vocational education
• Higher education
• Management
o Public private participation
o Decentralization
o Community participation
• Science and Technology education
• financial help of students
• Teacher Training
• Objectives and goals of education (analytical theme)
o skill development
 employment consideration

Findings

Peoples Party Parliamentarians (PPPP)

In its manifesto, PPPP recognizes education as fundamental right of each and every citizen
of Pakistan. It also pledges to increase budget allocation for education to 4.5% of GDP.
Party has main focus on the increasing literacy rate, it pledges for the universalization of

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basic education, 85% literacy rate and to establish 20,000 literacy centers through home-
based schools. PPP envision secondary and tertiary education as employment and
productivity oriented. Its manifesto emphasizes the education for employment, which
includes computer, technical, vocational education and English language for improving
employability of school and college graduates. Party also pledges to provide incentives to
the private sector for establishment of vocational and technical training institutes,
professional college and universities;
For the professional development of teachers PPPP has a reformatory policy its manifesto
strategize to carry out major reform of teacher training , and curriculum based on modern
scientific pedagogical research. PPPP legislates to provide administrative & financial
autonomy to all public-sector universities and form institutional linkages with trade,
industry, agriculture and finance sectors. PPPP shows it self committed with the quality of
education for which it promises inputs of teacher training, curriculum, computers,
textbooks, testing and evaluation. For the quality improvements PPPP consider revamping
the examination system by establishing independent examination boards in the public and
private sector. PPP wants the changes in educational delivery system in response to the
global trends and advancement in new technologies and sciences. It mention to introduce
new technology subjects such as genetic engineering, bio-genetics, information -
technology, robotics, management system, fiber-optics etc. Considering the professional
gap in various fields PPPP wants to introduce degree programmes with prestigious and
well-renowned foreign universities In management side of the schools, PPPP decides to
devolve authority to district level and to communities for repair, maintenance and
monitoring of school facilities. PPPP commits; if came to power--will provide autonomy
to all nationalized colleges.

PPP has major focus on latest science and technological advancements it decide to
introduce new technology subjects such as genetic engineering, bio-genetics, information -
technology, robotics, management system, fiber-optics; and carry out major reform of
teacher training curriculum based on modern scientific pedagogical research, emphasis on
science and vocational education. Promises for financial help and scholarships are also
phrased in manifesto PPP, in its manifesto recognizes the role of teacher in the provision
of quality education. Party wants to improve teacher status through highest level rewards,
benefits, and professional development programs based on modern pedagogical research

Pakistan Muslim League Nawaz (PML-N)


The Manifesto of the PML-N assures the promotion of literacy and quality of education at
its top most priority and party recognizes the role of teachers’ as important factor in
provision of quality education, party manifesto envisions teachers jobs be made more
attractive with the grant of higher salaries to teachers who possess qualification and
produces better results. It also promised to abolish the elitist education system by creating
equal opportunities. Party has made some temporal targets of literacy, enrollment and
resource allocation for education like universal primary enrollment was planed to be
achieved by 2005, launching a movement to raise literacy rate to 75% by 2010 and to spend
4% of GNP for education by 2007.

PML-N mention to improve quality by interconnecting all universities and providing 10


computers to each government high school and transforming 2000 government high

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schools into Smart Schools. PML-N promises to implement crash teacher training
programmes and reforming training infrastructure to provide high quality teacher training
in each school. Party also mention to introduce inspection system to evaluate
performance of teachers and institutions that will add to the quality of education.
Students-teachers ratio will also be rationalized for which recruitment of teachers through
district based competitive examinations will take place.

PML-N manifesto resolves to break the monopoly of elitist education system and to
create equal education opportunities for all by reviving delivery of quality education in
the public sector. Manifesto promises free education up to primary level.

PML-N wants Urdu the prime medium of instruction. Party has the policy to standardize
and adopt National curricula at all levels to eliminate multi-class system based education
in the country The goal of education to PML-N seems to produce skilled persons, who
possess democratic values and care for their environment. Party mention to provide
demand based technical and vocational education in all government high schools. Ethics
and values based curriculum and teaching systems with a focus on character building to
develop honesty, faith, perseverance, tolerance, justice, accountability, excellence,
discipline, wisdom, innovation, respect, are also some of the characters expected from
scholars.
Party seems to believe in the autonomy of the higher educational institutions in their
academics and professional development. Party also legislate its policy about distance
learning by developing programs of life long learning for improving productivity and
quality of life for different age groups and genders through the distance education. Party’s
legislation about deeni madrassahs is to bring them in mainstream of education through
extension of technical help and resources. The teaching of Quran with translation is
planed to make compulsory for all Muslim students in secondary schools. PML-N show
very tender policy towards private sector. Party mention the expansion of liberal
participation of private sector in education by granting tax rebate,

Pakistan Muslim League Quaid-e-Azam (PML-Q)

In its manifesto, PML-Q places education at its top most priority, it focuses on quality and
promises to raise the education standards to levels that compare favorably with countries of
middle level income. Party mention to introduce new approaches to raise quality of
education for which Education Action Zones are planned to be sat upped with local
partnerships, between schools and the community to develop new and imaginative
approaches to raising school standards, The party has also pledged to establish Excellence
in rural areas by setting up a `School of Excellence' in all districts and major Tehsils.

High quality higher education is attached with better qualified faculty for which party has
the policy to exchanges of faculty and students with foreign universities. An ongoing
evaluation and monitoring is envisioned for raising standards of universities. PML-Q is
especially interested in promoting a culture of research. It pledges to encourage research at
all levels of education with especial focus on scientific research (basic and applied). Party
is also legislated to establishing professional network between industry and universities to
enhance research in practical fields.

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PML-Q wants to expand the involvement of local (district and tehsil) education authorities
in delivery of quality education by increasing their participation in enhancing status and
quality of teaching profession, review of the curriculum by updating textbooks.
PML-Q has some what more abstract plans for student support, it pledges for Scholarships
to outstanding students at different levels of education It assure for setting up student
support programs especially for girls in the rural areas and admission of 25% students in
the ‘schools of excellence’—to be established on need basis.

By looking at its manifesto PMLQ also seems interested in professional development of the
teachers it mention to upgrade teachers’ training institutes to compete with the private
sector institution. PML-Q’s stand on resource allocation and national expenditure on
education is very clearly phrased in its manifesto. Party have plan to allocate 4% of GDP
for education over 10 years.

Party is more inclined towards skill development, which seems the goal of education for it.
Manifesto also reflects the interest for public private participation and networking between
educational intuitions and work industry for which party has plan of modem apprenticeship
schemes and national internships program for vocations in collaboration with local industry
to provide skilled persons for trade and industry and a policy of encouraging industries to
network with universities especially for research. It ensures interconnecting learning
networks and education services based on the Internet that will support teaching, learning,
training and administration in school, colleges, universities, libraries, workplaces and
homes and provide an online educational resource for distance learning Manifesto shows
the tender policy of party to wards private sector through tax relief.

PML-Q’s goals of education seem to be more inclined towards development of education


skills and training to build a stable competitive economy with steady growth. Party shows
its commitment to the national learning and literacy targets set for 5-10 years and achieved
in primary, secondary, technical, vocational, college and higher education.

Mutahida Quami Movement (MQM)

In its manifesto, MQM promises quality education on equality basis for which it has a
policy to abolish present dual system of education and to standardize the education system
as in private, grammar schools. MQM assumes public education delivery system extremely
backward in comparison with private, grammar and other elite schools. Party wants to
promote public schools’ standards over these institutions. MQM has a stand for institutional
development on larger scale by setting-up schools and colleges in all towns and villages. To
achieve this goal MQM wants to encourage private sector and NGOs to set up their
educational institutions, it also mention to establish more and more vocational training
centers to produce skilled men and women

Party has a statement in its manifesto to support scientific research and to encourage the
involvement of private sector in it. On the literacy MQM has the policies in its manifesto
to encourage the educated people in general and youth in particular to help and launch a
campaign against illiteracy to ensure education for all. MQM desires to make education
easily available throughout the country by making full use of all the available resources on
an emergency basis and subsidize girls' education in rural areas.

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MQM wants to encourage private sector to ensure their educational standards and by
making legislation but not allow them to become only business houses and profit making
organizations. On the other hand party promises to strive for equalizing the standards of
governments and elites and grammar schools and the has an agenda to abolish this dual
system of education and standardized the education system How this will be achieved to
equalized the standards of present poor conditioned government schools and elite and
grammar schools? these strategical questions are mostly unanswered in manifesto;
moreover the manifesto on one hand promises to abolish dual system of education and on
the other hand it mention such phrases about private sector institutions that show some
serious contradictions;

private sector institution should also be encouraged in


setting up the educational institutions through out the
country and motivate private sector to run institutions,… …
….private institutions need to be encouraged to ensues
their educational standards and by making legislation so as
to upgrade and not allow them to become only business
houses and profit making organizations ….. Special
measures must be taken to develop scientific research. The
private sector should be encouraged in as organized
manner

In its manifesto MQM has also pledged to establish new universities collages and
technological institutions in accordance with increasing [needs of population]. MQM is
interested in involving elected local bodies’ role in education, granting more powers to
them and providing enhanced resources for their increased involvement in education.

Jamaat-e-Islami (JI)
The educational manifesto of JI Titled ‘educational policy’ recognizes education as corner
stone of Islamic system and the pursuit of knowledge as obligatory for Muslim. It
recognizes literacy, compulsory education skill training, and vocational education as some
of the basic themes discussed in its educational policy. JI peruses universal basic education
for all men and women in society and the party has understanding that these goals can be
achieved by adequate resource allocation/mobilization. JI’s goal of education is to produce
people who are inspired with Islamic learning and character and are capable of meeting all
the economic, social, political, technological, physical, intellectual and aesthetic needs of
society.

In its’ policy JI mention to bridge two parallel streams of secular and religious education so
as to provide an Islamic vision for those engaged in education, and to enable them to
reconstruct human thought, in all its forms, on the foundations of Islam JI promises
equality in its manifesto, If not much but to provide education along with other needs
irrespective of their age, sex, color or religion.

Pakistan Tahreeq-e-Insaf (PTI)

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Broadly PTI has policies for the improvement of of quality education, curriculum, teacher
selection process and training, literacy, students’ assessment, dropouts, institutional
development, higher education, need based education, students support, financing
education, public private partnership, community participation and management of
education in its manifesto. PTI manifesto pledges to increase access and improve quality of
education at all levels on emergency basis. PTI mention to expand the network of
institutions and improve their standards through their policy of encouraging grater public
private partner ship.

Manifesto declares to launch national literacy campaign by mobilizing all segments of


society including fresh graduates, unemployed youth, Pakistan army and retired
educationists to achieve 80 percent functional literacy rate in five years.. PTI looks more
conscious about the quality at all levels in its manifesto for this it legislates to create an
autonomous monitoring authority to check and provide feedback on quality education at all
level

PTI has promise of introducing tale-education model schools in which schools will be
connected with the central national library and all people can down load desired material.
What is the significance of such kind of networking in this world of global net working,
more than the provision of net facility?-- is not answered in the manifesto.

PTI has planned to offer tax incentive to the private sector for investment in education
research in public and private universities. PTI seems to believe in equality of quality
education for this it has a stand in its manifesto to abolish educational apartheid by
introducing a common core syllabus for all schools including the madaris. It mention to
achieve universal literacy, introduce community service as a core syllabus subject in
schools. PTI major input for quality education is quality of teaching for which PTI has a
policy to offer market salaries to government teachers at all levels and improve quality of
teaching by raising the standards of teachers’ training institutes to attract the best and make
teaching most sought after profession again. PTI wants community centered, need based
delivery of education for which it decides to introduce community service as a core
syllabus subject in schools.

PTI mention to tackle dropout problem by offering incentives in shape of free text books,
nutrition support and mention to reduce it to 25 percent from the 50 percent in five years at
elementary level.

PTI has decided to launch a campaign to double the annual zakat fund and utilize it almost
for education. PTI has a policy of providing full autonomy to universities to be managed by
boards comprising of educationists philanthropist and eminent citizens and ensure
academic freedom to faculty members. Party has also decentralizing management policy
for primary schools by local councils.

PTI manifesto also covers the employment consideration and economic needs of the
communities for which it legislates to establish a public university tailored to the economic
needs of the area in collaboration with the private sector in each administrative division of
the country. Party wants progressively increase state spending on education to five percent

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of the GDP within three years it also mention to increase zaqat fund from present 5.0
billion to Rs 10 billion in three years and utilize it on education.
Promise
Comparative analysis
Matching manifestoes on popular themes:
In this portion of comparative analysis the policies of major parties are matched with each
other on selected themes. In the first step these themes are defined with literature and then
information of each manifesto in fitted in it to further discuss it comparatively and with the
literature.

Quality education
After years of discussions, debates, dialogues and research there is yet to be an agreed upon
definition of quality of education. Moreover the primary concerns in many developing
countries have been meeting quantitative targets of enrolment and progression, yet there
have been many expressions of concern about the quality of provision, teaching and
learning. These are increasing and will require action on many fronts (EFA, Global
Synthesis, 2000).

According to the EFA, 2000 document in the context of the developing countries, the
quality of the learning experience is not precisely dependent on the richness of the
environment, but there are widely agreed limitations – such as very high student-staff
ratios, ill-educated and untrained teachers, and lack of the most rudimentary classroom
resources for reading and writing (p.56).
Until recently, much discussion of educational quality centered on system inputs, such as
infrastructure and pupil-teacher ratios, and on curricular content. In recent years, however,
more attention has been paid to educational processes - how teachers and administrators
use inputs to frame meaningful learning experiences for students. In developing countries
most connect the quality of education and its measurement with 1. Student achievement, 2.
Teachers, teaching and Assessment methods 3. Curriculum.

Manifestoes of political parties on quality education seem to be very un-explaining in other


words these manifestoes do not manifest as the root word mean.
PML N has mentioned in its manifesto to improve quality by “interconnecting” all
universities but there is no any further description on that matter that how the
interconnection will be made and then how this inter connection will add to the quality?
PMLN has also mentioned to Transform 2000 government high schools in” smart schools”
but with showing any indicator of smart schools. MQM, in its manifesto has written party
will take Special measures to support scientific research and private sector is encouraged
and involved in it. manifesto, if not provides the official policy, but should at least make
statements clear—as the meaning of word—but these special measures of supporting
scientific research for quality improvement are not mentioned in MQM’s manifesto. For
the quality MQM manifesto mentions that schools will be made equivalent to “grammar
schools” jamait-e-Islami in its manifesto Promises equality of education. But it has no any
explanation of that promise.

PTI manifesto has the pledges of improving quality of education at all levels on emergency
basis it wants to expand the network of institutions and improve their standards through
their policy of encouraging grater public private partner ship. PTI mention to create an

12
autonomous monitoring authority to check and provide feedback on quality education at all
level It promises of introducing tale-education model schools in which schools will be
connected with the central national library and all people can down load desired material.
PTI expression looks more promise than a policy.

PPP also shows it self committed with the quality of education for which it promises inputs
of teacher training, curriculum review, provision of computers and textbooks at school level
and introduce new techniques of testing and evaluation—all these lofty ideas has not any
plan of operation or a clear vision of “HOW” in the manifesto
PMLQ mention to introduce new approaches to raise quality of education for which
Education action zones are planed to be sated up with local partnerships between schools and
the community to develop new and imaginative approaches to raising school standards, but
there is no any indication about these ‘new and imaginative’ Education action zones?’
approaches that are to be adopted. Party pledges to establish Excellence in rural areas by
setting up a `School of Excellence' in all districts and major tehsils. These lofty ideas with
any clear cut policy or indication of resources-- not only financial and but cultural and social
– that will make it possible, these policy statement looks like a electoral speech. PMLQ
mention to review of the curriculum by updating textbooks

For the quality improvements PPP decide to revamp the examination system by establishing
Independent Examination Boards in the public and private sector in the PPP has
decentralizing policy and it assure to provide autonomy to all nationalized colleges but it has
not any clear policy for the poor students and curriculum control.

The Manifesto of the PML (Nawaz) assures the quality of education at its top most priority
and party recognizes the role of Teachers’ important in provision of quality education. PML
mention to improve quality by interconnecting all universities and providing 10 computers to
each government high school and transforming 2000 government high schools in smart
schools Students-teachers ratio will also be rationalized for which recruitment of teachers
through district based competitive examinations will take place.

MQM promises quality education on equality basis for which it has a policy to abolish
present dual system of education and to standardize the education system as in private,
grammar schools MQM rationalizes it with its experience of some municipal schools in
Karachi established by MQM at an equal footing with top class. MQM manifesto do not
describe their indicators of quality other than those inspired by “grammar schools” and Party
wants Special measures to support scientific research and private sector be encouraged and
involved in it. This is a vague statement with out any explanation of how where and when
and what are these special measures? , MQM has not any clear policy about curriculum
mentioned in its manifesto

Jamait-i- islame has not any policy on quality education or curriculum it only Promises
equality in its manifesto but how? It is not described

Curriculum and syllabus


Throughout the world there are ongoing debates that present curricula are skilled-based; they
aim to strengthen the economy and technology - the two icons of ‘power’ in present day
societies. This approach is harshly condemned by the critics and educationists who believe

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that if the ultimate purpose of education is to serve society then it should be based on
humanities, as the ‘very concept of society’ entails human relations based on human values.
Now it is very important that while reviewing the curriculum or redesigning it we take
serious notice of the fact that our education does not become a slave of our economy or of
our uninhibited desire to get control of technology.

Undoubtedly in today’s world, economic and technological progress are a necessity, however,
they should not be achieved at the cost of moral and cultural values. To develop such a
curriculum we would have to go through rigorous and critical reflective exercises to decide
what we want to achieve through curriculum. This is the question that needs to be addressed
prior to any endeavor for educational change.5
PMLN Wants curriculum focusing on character building to develop honesty, faith,
perseverance, tolerance, justice, accountability, excellence, discipline, wisdom, innovation,
respect, and team play, as enshrined in Islam, will be introduced at all levels.

Nawaz Party has the policy to standardize and adopt National curricula at all levels to
eliminate multi-class system based education in the country—
Ethics and values based curriculum and teaching systems with a focus on character
building to develop honesty, faith, perseverance, tolerance, justice, accountability,
excellence, discipline, wisdom, innovation, respect, are also some of the characters
expected from schoolers in PMLN manifesto.

PPP wants curriculum based on modern scientific pedagogical research. PMLQ has a policy
that Curriculum shall have to be constantly reviewed especially in the science subjects and
the textbooks modified accordingly and upgrade local (district and tehsil) education
authorities, enhance status and quality of teaching profession, review curriculum by updating
textbooks

PTI Wants to introduce tale-education model for schools in which schools will be connected
with the central national library and all people can down load desired material e.g.
curriculum on their computers. What does PTI means by this tale- education for downloading
curriculum in this era of internet?

Abolish educational apartheid by introducing a common core syllabus for all schools
including the madaris and to Introduce education community service as subjects in
syllabus

PMLQ
Delivery of quality education by increasing their participation in enhancing status and
quality of teaching profession, review of the curriculum by updating textbooks
MQM
Has nothing to say
JI

5
August 2001: “Quality education—perception of stakeholders” Mashood Rizvi and Shakeel

14
Does not specifically mention the term curriculum but it mention its policy to peruse
Islamic learning and character and are capable of meeting all the economic, social,
political, technological, physical, intellectual and aesthetic needs of society.

Teacher selection and training


A serious “decline in teachers’ commitment” towards their responsibilities is the direct
cause of the deteriorating quality of education in the province as well as our country.
Similarly, misuse of training resources and teachers’ negligence. Political appointments in
the education sector, a major source of state employment, further damage public education.
Many teachers, rise through the system despite having any interest and experience in
teaching. Presently education department of sindh announced to fill the vacancies of
primary teachers. Political parties mainly MQM was strictly demanding for the quota of
50% of seats. This behavior destroys the culture of merit.

In Pakistan, there are 90 Colleges of Elementary Education which offer teachers’ training
programs for Primary Teaching Certificate (PTC) and Certificate in Teaching (CT) to
primary school teachers. For secondary school teachers, there are 16 Colleges of Education,
offering graduate degrees in education and there are departments of education in 9
universities which train teachers at the master’s level. There are only 4 institutions which
offer in-service teachers’ training. Besides these, the Allama Iqbal Open University,
Islamabad, offers a very comprehensive teachers’ training program based on distance
learning; its total enrolment is about 10,000 per annum of which 7,000 complete various
courses every year. (Fact & Figures Pakistan, 2002)

PMLN recognizes the role of Teachers’ important in provision of quality education for this
manifesto envisions teachers jobs be made more attractive with the grant of For PTI Major
Input for quality education is quality of teaching for which PTI has a policy to offer market
salaries to government teachers at all levels and improve quality of teaching by raising the
standards of teachers’ training institutes to attract the best and make teaching most sought
after profession again

PPP wants to improve teacher status through highest level rewards, benefits, and
professional development programs based on modern pedagogical research PMLQ also
seems interested in professional development of the teachers it mention to upgraded teachers’
training institutes to compete with the private sector institutes

MQM
Has not any policy about the teachers
PTI
Set up elite education service of Pakistan by offering market salaries to government
teachers at all levels to attract the best and make teaching most sought after profession
again
Improve quality of teaching by raising the standards of teachers’ training institutes and
turning them in t the center of excellence.

PMLQ
Enhance status and quality of teaching profession by;

15
Teacher Training Institutions shall be upgraded to compete with the private teacher training
institutes?? like the Agha khan Institute at Karachi or Ali Teacher Training Institute at
Lahore. The courses of pre and post teacher training institutes shall have to be upgraded.
Promotion shall be linked to passing these courses

University education shall be improved through better qualified faculty, exchanges of


faculty and students with foreign universities.?? An ongoing evaluation and monitoring
system shall have to be put into place for raising standards of universities.' Universities
shall be encouraged to raise standards and seek to develop into institutions of excellence

JI
No any
Manifestoes on quality: A critical Review.

On quality education manifestoes of political parties seem to be very un-explaining in other


words these manifestoes do not ‘manifest’ as the root word mean. for example PTI
manifesto has the pledges of improving quality of education at all levels on emergency
basis it wants to expand the network of institutions and improve their standards through
their policy of encouraging grater public private partner ship but there is no any mention
that how standards will be improved or encouraged to be improved through public private
partnership. PMLQ has similar nuance, it promises new and imaginative “Education action
zones” but there is no any indication that what are these education action zones and what
and how they will work to improve quality of education, manifesto lacks clarity about
indicators, monitoring and administrative control, connections with resources and finally
and most importantly with the provision of quality education of these EAZ’s. Party has also
pledged to establish Excellence in rural areas by setting up a `School of Excellence' in all
districts and major tehsils but same questions are raised again. PML (Q) decides the review
of the curriculum by updating textbooks!

Party has also pledged to establish Excellence in rural areas by setting up a `School of
Excellence' in all districts and major tehsils but same questions are raised again, it mention to
review of the curriculum by updating textbooks!—this is totally inverse thing that is
mentioned in PMLQ’s manifesto. PML N has mentioned in its manifesto to improve quality
by “interconnecting” all universities but there is no any further description on that matter that
how the interconnection will be made and then how this inter connection will add to the
quality? PMLN has also mentioned to Transform 2000 government high schools in” smart
schools” but with showing any indicator of smart schools—all these lofty ideas has not any
plan of operation or a clear vision of “HOW” in the manifesto. MQM, in its manifesto has
written party will take Special measures to support scientific research and private sector is
encouraged and involved in it. manifesto, if not provides the official policy, but should at
least make statements clear—as the meaning of word—but these special measures of
supporting scientific research for quality improvement are not mentioned in MQM’s
manifesto. For the quality MQM manifesto do not discuss any indicators but it only mentions
that schools will be made equivalent to “grammar schools” jamait-e-Islami in its manifesto
Promises equality of education. But it has no any explanation of that promise. PPP, however,
shows it self committed with the quality of education for which it promises inputs of teacher
training, curriculum review, provision of computers and textbooks at school level and
introduce new techniques of testing and evaluation—but all these lofty ideas has not any plan

16
of operation or a clear vision or policy line on these issues in its manifesto. There are also
some serious contradictions found in the manifestoes of the parties for example PML N and
MQM are very against the multi-class based education system, but at the same time they
show very tender policy towards private institutions PML N manifesto, manifests that “Party
has the policy to standardize and adopt National curricula at all levels to eliminate multi-class
system based education in the country” but in the same manifesto it is also written that Party
has the policy to standardize and adopt National curricula at all levels to eliminate multi-class
system based education in the country.

PML N has mentioned in its manifesto to improve quality by “interconnecting” all


universities but there is no any further description on that matter that how the
interconnection will be made and then how this inter connection will add to the quality?
PMLN has also mentioned to Transform 2000 government high schools in” smart schools”
but with showing any indicator of smart schools—all these lofty ideas has not any plan of
operation or a clear vision.

MQM promises quality education on equality basis for which it has a policy to abolish
present dual system of education and to standardize the education system as in private,
grammar schools MQM rationalizes it with its experience of some municipal schools in
Karachi established by MQM at an equal footing with top class. MQM in its manifesto in
its manifesto has written that party will take Special measures to support scientific research
and private sector is encouraged and involved in it. manifesto, if not provides the official
policy, but should at least make statements clear—as the meaning of word—but these
special measures of supporting scientific research for quality improvement are totally
unmentioned in MQM’s manifesto. For the quality MQM manifesto do not discuss any
indicators but it only mentions that schools will be made equivalent to “grammar schools”

jamait-e-Islami in its manifesto Promises equality of education. But it has no any


explanation of that promise. How ever PPP manifesto talks about similar indicators other
than student achievement but it also lacks clarity for example it mentions to review
curriculum but what will be the basis objectives of that review? These type of question are
questions in PPP’s manifesto. There are also some serious contradictions found in the
manifestoes of the parties for example PML N and MQM are very against the multi-class
based education system, but at the same time they show very tender policy towards private
institutions PML N manifesto, manifests that “Party has the policy to standardize and adopt
National curricula at all levels to eliminate multi-class system based education in the
country” but in the same manifesto it is also written that Party has the policy to standardize
and adopt National curricula at all levels to eliminate multi-class system based education in
the country.

The Manifesto of the PML (Nawaz) assures the quality of education at its top most priority
and party recognizes the role of Teachers’ important in provision of quality education. PML
plans to improve quality by interconnecting all universities. PMLN also mentions to
providing 10 computers to each government high school and transforming 2000
government high schools in smart schools and to implement crash teacher training
programmes and reforming training infrastructure to provide high quality education in each
school. Party also discuss in its manifesto to introduce inspection system to evaluate
performance of teachers and institutions that will add to the quality of education. Students-

17
teachers ratio is also stated to be rationalized for which recruitment of teachers through
district based competitive examinations will take place.

PTI Manifesto has the pledges of improving quality of education at all levels on emergency
basis it wants to expand the network of institutions and improve their standards through
their policy of encouraging grater public private partner ship.PTI plans to create an
autonomous monitoring authority to check and provide feedback on quality education at all
level It promises of introducing tale-education model schools in which schools will be
connected with the central national library and all people can down load desired material.
PTI expression looks more promise than a policy.

PMLQ plans to introduce new approaches to raise quality of education for which Education
action zones are planed to be sated up with local partnerships between schools and the
community to develop new and imaginative approaches to raising school standards, but there
is no any indication about these ‘new and imaginative’ Education action zones?’ approaches
that are to be adopted. Party pledges to establish Excellence in rural areas by setting up a
`School of Excellence' in all districts and major tehsils. PMLQ plans to review of the
curriculum by updating textbooks!

MQM
Promises quality education on equality basis for which it has a policy to abolish present dual
system of education and to standardize the education system as in private, grammar schools
MQM rationalizes it with its experience of some municipal schools in Karachi established by
MQM at an equal footing with top class. MQM manifesto do not describe their indicators of
quality other than those inspired by “grammar schools” and Party wants Special measures to
support scientific research and private sector be encouraged and involved in it.

Employment consideration
PML Q mentions in its manifesto that Government shall fund modem apprenticeship
schemes and national trainee-ships for vocations in collaboration with local industry to
provide skilled persons for trade and industry
Party believes that investment in development of education skills and training is the best
way to build a healthy and vibrant society and a stable competitive economy with steady
growth

MQM wishes to establish new universities collages and technological institutions and other
higher education institutes in accordance with increasing need of population

JI does not have any specified statement on employment consideration in education but a
general statement to produce people who are inspired with Islamic learning and character
and are capable of meeting all the economic, technical needs of society along with social,
intellectual and political needs.

PTI wants to establish a pubic university tailored to the economic needs of the area in
collaboration with the private sector in each administrative division of the country

18
Set up elite education service of Pakistan by offering market salaries to government
teachers at all levels to attract the best and make teaching most sought after profession
again

PPP ensure secondary and tertiary education to be employment and productivity oriented;

Party also mention to provide administrative & financial autonomy to all public-sector
universities and formal institutional linkages with trade, industry, and agriculture and
finance sectors;

For PML (N) education also seems to be the production of skilled persons who possess
democratic values and care for their environment. Party mention to provide demand based
technical and vocational education in all government high schools.

Resources allocation
Education is an enterprise that needs enormous investment of financial, material and
intellectual resources, particularly, in the context of modern schooling system where
education has become conditional to sound infrastructure. Nowadays effective teaching
and learning is in direct proportion to viable physical surroundings. lack of financial and
material resources that have strangulated the process of teaching and learning

PMLN Decides 4% of GNP allocated for education by 2007. PMLQ believe that investment
in development of education skills and training is the best way to build a healthy and vibrant
society and a stable competitive economy with steady growth order for these targets to be
achieved, a minimum amount of funding (3.0% of the GDP in legislation. This amount shall
be increased to 4% of the GDP over 10 years
MQM
Allocation in the budget for education to be increased adequately to achieve these goals
Allocate 5 percent of GNP annually for education6 MQM desires to make education easily
available throughout the country making full use of all the available resources on an
emergency basis.
PPP
Increase allocation to education to 3.0 of GDP by 2000 sector to 4.5% of GDP.
JI has a very general approach to wards the financial policy JI manifesto mentions that
party have understanding that meeting all the economic, social, political, technological,
physical, intellectual and aesthetic needs of society can be achieved by adequate resource
allocation.
In its manifesto party has not any clear citation about ‘what is party’s official stand on how
much state’s speeding on education should be allocated on education’?
MLQ
Resource allocation, national expenditure
A minimum amount of funding 3.0% of the GDP shall be allocated for education.
In legislation. This amount shall be increased to 4% of the GDP over 10 years
100 Education action zones EAZs in all districts shall be set up in the first 2 years for
which funds shall be provided

19
PTI, in its manifesto, has a policy to progressively increase state spending on education to
five percent of the GDP within three years.
Party assures launch a campaign to double the annual zakat fund from the present 5.0
billion to Rs 10 billion in three years and utilize it almost exclusively for education and
health of children

Higher education

For PMLQ high quality higher education is attached with better qualified faculty for which
party has the policy to exchanges of faculty and students with foreign universities.
Manifesto has also planed to establish an on going monitoring and evolution system of
universities for raising their standards but it has not explained that who will be responsible
to whom in that system. Manifesto PML (Q) has also pledged to encourage establishment
of a partnership between universities and the industry especially to support research.

While the PPP resolves to Provide administrative & financial autonomy to all public-sector
universities admissions to higher level institutions to be made on merit; and to Introduce new
technology subjects such as genetic engineering, bio-genetics, information On the on the
hand

PTI want to Make universities fully autonomous to be managed by boards comprising of


educationists philanthropist and eminent citizens and ensure academic freedom to faculty
members and to establish a pubic university tailored to the economic needs of the area in
collaboration with the private sector in each administrative division of the country Pakistan

JI’s policy is also very abstract and general in its manifesto, and it has not any separate
agenda on higher education

PMLN (Pakistan Muslim League Nawaz) has a policy of financing students through research
grant and 100 S&T PhD scholarships/year for studies at world's top five universities to
promote higher education

MQM has not any policy about curriculum

Equality
Here gender and calss disparities are addressed under two different headings of gearl
education and private sector where manifestoes of parties are comparatively analyzed to find
how they have planed to eradicate gender disparity for which the state of Pakistan has
agreed on that global commitment to eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary
education preferably by 2005 and no later than 20157 The Government of Pakistan is
attaching top priority to EFA8.

Girl education
7
This commitment was made at the World Education Forum in Dakar, Senegal in April 2000 and reaffirmed in the Millennium
declaration in New York in September 2000
8
June 2003 Decentralization in the Education System of Pakistan: Policies and Strategies Academy of Educational Planning and
Management Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad

20
Gender disparity in literacy in urban areas stand at 14-16% while in rural areas it register a
rate of 23-30% in the record of 2005-2006. Here we will analyze the agendas of political
parties, in their manifestoes, towards this problem. According to the EFA Global Monitoring
Report 2002, Pakistan is not on track to achieve the Dakar goal of eliminating gender
disparity in primary and secondary education by 2005 and in all levels of education by 2015
"unless highly focused strategies in favor of girls are implemented".9
Most of the parties don’t talks about girl education in particular or eradicating gender
disparity. Only PMLQ has a vague statement: “setup student help programs especially for
girls in rural areas” and in PPP’s manifesto for 1993-1997 uploaded on its official webcied it
mentions about its past tenure successes in following words:

Primary education and literacy and education received 65% of total


education allocation with the largest share of girls education ( here figure is
not given)”PPP manifesto for 1993 to 1997 further claims that PPP
government made provisional and national educational education
foundations operational to establish girls schools with greater public
private partner ship programs.
MQM electoral manifesto issued to media during election campaign 2002 mention about
subsidized girls' education in rural areas10

Private sector
Quality education ‘for all’ should be considered on its own as a matter of social justice, it is
an investment which brings favorable economic and social return. By providing privileges to
private sector the question of equality is raised. In the analysis of manifestoes such policies
of privileging private sector are considered against equality.

The Federal Bureau of Statistics survey (1999-2000) indicates that there are 36,096 private
educational institutions in Pakistan. About 61 percent of the institutions are in urban areas
and 39 percent in rural areas. The percentage share of private sector in enrollment is 18
percent at primary school level, 16 percent at middle school level and 14 percent at high
school level. Private schools select their own curricula and textbooks, which are not in
conformity with public schools. Majority of the schools are “English Medium”.
The present education scenario is full of contradictions. On the one hand, there are dynamic,
fast moving educational institutions charging exorbitant fees, while on the other there are
almost free or very affordable government schools as well as religious seminaries, which are
entirely free. The students of these institutions live in different worlds and operate in
different languages.11

PML (N)
Manifesto resolves to break the monopoly of elitist education system and to create equal
education opportunities for all by reviving delivery of quality education in the public sector
but how the monopoly will be break by reviving public sector or through sate power is
unanswered in manifesto.

9
12: EFA Global Monitoring Report (2002)
10
Cited at www.hrcpelectoralwatch.org/pactyprofilescfm. on 12, feb,2007

11
Tariq Rahman, Education in Pakistan: A Survey, Strengthening Participatory Organisation, Islamabad,
2003.

21
Literacy
PMLQ decides Education up to primary level will be free and the basic right of every child
at least 75% literacy level in the country will be achieved by 2010 through formal and non-
formal education and launching of National Literacy Movement

PMLQ mention hundred percent literacy by 2012 and hundred percent age going attendance
at primary level (Grade I to 8)

MQM wants to mobilize educated people in general and youth in particular encouraging
them to form voluntary organizations to help and launch a campaign against illiteracy to
ensure education for all—this approach looks like gesture the dog to bite enemy! MQM
promise that in five years the rate of literacy could be enhanced to at least seventy percent
how?—is not mentioned

PPP has legislated to achieve universalization of basic education and 85% literacy by 2005
for which 20,000 literacy centers are planed to be stabilized

JI has not any policy about it mentioned in manifesto

Skill development

PMLQ believe that investment in development of education skills and training is the best
way to build a healthy and vibrant society and a stable competitive economy with steady
growth

PPP Emphasize computer, technical, vocational education and English for improving
employability of school and college graduates. It envisions the provision of incentives to the
private sector for establishing vocational and technical training institutes, professional
college and universities

PMLN has no any policy about vocational or technical education in its manifesto it also
looks relatively less considering to the employment ability of the students

MQM decides to open more and more vocational centers so that the younger generation
and women can acquire useful skills. MQM also decides to establish new universities
collages and technological institutions and other higher education institutes in accordance
with increasing need of population how ever the here “needs” are not defined in the MQM
manifesto.

JI manifesto has a collective vision rather an individual approach for the skill development
of the people it legislates More and more Vocational training centers should be established so
that the younger generation and women can acquire useful skills

Management
PMLQ has a decentralizing policy on management of education it mention to upgrade local
(district and tehsil) education authorities, enhance status and quality of teaching profession,
review curriculum by updating textbooks

22
Party is also interested in public private partnership and community partner ship approaches
of managing education.

JI has not any policy about management of education in its manifesto

Pakistan Tahreeq-e-Insaf has decentralizing and community participating approach on


management of education it decides that Primary schools would be managed by the local
councils and universities would be autonomous to be managed by boards comprising of
educationists philanthropist and eminent citizens and ensure academic freedom to faculty
members.
MQM Also favors decentralized management and wants the mublic private partner ship to
be promoted for this party legislates granting more powers and providing enhanced resources
to the elected local bodies, their role in management of education.
PPP Wants the more community participation in management of resources at local level it
has decentralizing policy to Devolve authority to district level and to communities for
repair, maintenance and monitoring of school facilities; PPP also decides to Provide
autonomy to all nationalized colleges.
PML N
Party’s legislation about deeni madrassahs is to brought them in mainstream of education
through extension of technical help and resources. Party seems to believe in the autonomy
of the higher educational institutions in their academics and professional development.

Science and Technology education


MQM Wishes to establish new universities collages and technological institutions and other
higher education institutes in accordance with increasing need of population According to
PMLQ manifesto the Research (Applied and Basic) especially in the scientific disciplines
shall have to be encouraged at all levels of education. The party has also shown its
commitment to promote an online educational resource (a grid) in coordination with
Telecommunications Industry, according to the party which will be an important means of
encouraging and promoting computer literacy. Comprising interconnecting learning
networks and education services based on the Internet, the gird shall support teaching,
learning, training and administration in school, colleges, universities, libraries, workplaces
and homes JI Has mentioned in its manifesto that all the economic, social, political,
technological, physical, intellectual and aesthetic needs of society will be mate. PTI States
in its manifesto that the Schools will be connected with the central national library and all
people can down load desired material e.g. curriculum on their computers. PPP Plans to
Introduce new technology subjects such as genetic engineering, bio-genetics, information -
technology, robotics, management system, fiber-optics PPP also plans to carry out major
reform of teacher training curriculum based on modern scientific pedagogical research,
emphasis on science and vocational Improve quality inputs i.e. teacher training, curriculum,
computers. PML N also plans to provide 10 computers to each government high school

23
Discussion
In democratic societies, political parties represent people and people' wants and wishes and
they form a link between the state and society; hypothetically, by their role, they are
involved in determining the particular shape of the social institutions, but unfortunately this
role is not properly played by the 90 political parties (including about a dozen mainstream
political parties) due to their week position. The week position of political parties is result
of their internal and external problems; internal problems are lack of democracy within the
party structure; politics for power, failure to encourage the growth of alternate leadership
and lack a clear political vision.

Though, parties protest against the dictator ship but they them selves practice same thing
such contradictions hinder the flourishing of normal democratic culture. Even call for
APCs, signing of charters for democracy, and resolutions to resign at different issues,
forming alliances and pledges to be one voice are echoed in the politics but these interest
seeking peoples in the parties are not committed with the philosophies other than their own
interest

Political parties lack internal debate over policy alternatives. Their priorities and
preferences are not an outcome of household debates and discussion. Rather, they are
identified with their leaders. Electoral candidates are relatively strong and do not depend on
their respective parties for funding. It has been observed that politicians frequently change
parties and alliances and even political parties has major role in this lota culture for
increasing vote banks and seat. This situation displays the level to which politics in the
country have been nude of ideology.

It is a general observation that the majority of the literate population doesn’t check
manifestoes for their voting choice. Other than the lack of awareness, the strong cause of
this behavior, among other reasons may be its publicity. parties are seen to be less
interested in their manifestoes or its publicizing -- this fact can be conformed from last
election 2002 campaign in which Election manifestos were issued very late- just 10 days
before the polling day12. political parties promise more and more benefits and privileges to
12
HRCP electoral watch Cited at: www.hrcpelectoralwatch.org/pactyprofilescfm

24
influential person whom they want to nominate on their seat in a way like competing to
purchase a got, and these persons frequently change parties like a new car. Generally, it
requires a level of political will and commitment that prioritizes education and makes the actual
implementation possible that has been lacking in the history of 60 years unfortunately.

It is an interesting finding that Mostly parties have agendas on similar themes like
Resources allocation quality education, literacy, teachers and teachers’ training,
employment consideration, skill development, Vocational education, Private sector,
institutional development, higher education, management ,decentralization, community
participation, science and technology education, examination, adult education,
Scholarships, financial help of students, teachers and teacher training etc. these themes are
also recognized as the major issues by the peoples related with education, but the important
thing is that what the parties has focused under these themes and further more what
solution they have conceived and with what clarity and commitment. Different parties has
placed different issues at the core of their policy and has emphasis with different degree on
different themes mentioned above, but mostly it is found parties’ agendas are vague and
theoretical with little or no details of funding and operational plans in most cases. In other
words, parties promise result in their manifestoes but they rarely recognize the policy line
to answer the “how” questions immediately rising after these promises.

While manifestoes tend to address a long list of problems but they do not go deep to
pledged solutions or plans but they rarely identify resource links and clear plans or policy
lines for carrying out promises. Basically parties are less serious in the manifestoes or
publicity of policy statements as compare to their other means of vote wining.

Looking critically manifestoes are found to be more promising and filled with supercilious
ideas rather than providing clear policy statements and its frameworks. This tone of the
manifestoes enforces the reader to re-search the definition of manifesto in the dictionaries
—if it is policy document of document of beautiful ideas and pledges? These manifestoes
address a long list of problems; but they are not practical and avoid clear solution policies
with specific explanation of resource link of each promise. These sentences and pledges
can easily phrased on paper but the ground realities show dozens of challenges at each step

Manifestoes also display some serious contradictions among pledges for example PML (N)
and MQM are very against of such systems of education that promote class disparities, but
at the same time they show very tender policy towards private institutions in the same line.
MQM manifesto is committed to abolish dual system of education, and by reviewing its
manifesto it looks an over all approach of MQM to eliminate class disparity but at the same
time, on other hand, it assure to encourage private sector in establishment of their
‘institutions’ through out the country. These types of contradictory statements are found in
most of the manifestoes that are mentioned in the chapter of analyses. PTI is also against
class disparity and such king of education which promotes it but at the same time it
mentions in its manifesto; to offer tax incentive to the private sector for investment in
education research in public and private universities, here one can not understand that why
only private sector is planned to engage in research all the government universities already
conduct research and most of them publish their research magazines.
*theme wise discussion under process

25
Suggestions

• In the near future, there will be elections in the country; all political parties
should upload its manifesto on its official party websites, and it should be
publicized in election campaigns.
• Each political party should announce their educational policies in their
manifestoes distinctly. Voters should also pay close attention to the declared
education policies-- which are no less important than economic and foreign
policies--.and should vote accordingly
• All political parties should be required to submit their manifestoes to election
commotion before general elections, And election commission should
formulate an independent review committee comprising of national and
international experts which should review and compare it according to
constitution and state’s pursued goals and its compatibility, clearity and finally
each manifesto should be comparatively analyzed—and the result of this
analysis should be counted as a factor among others while issuing tickets.
• All political parties should make their manifestoes clear, policy document that
should be the official stand of the party and adequate explanation of each
phrase in manifesto should be made and there should be explanation that

26
where the funds for all the promised projects and schemes shall come
from. What are the operational plans of the promises made in manifestoes?
• All the contradictions should be removed no any agenda or plan should be
promised in against the mission, vision, and constitution of the party and for
these promises should have a comparative analysis.

Media should launch live debates on the manifestos before elections. transcripts
of these debates should also be made available on the Internet.

• Each political party should hold intra-party elections, promote internal


democracy and broaden participation in the decision-making process
• Manifestos should be reviewed by the researchers, educations and politicians
of party after five years tenure.

Bibliography

Cited at http://www.unescobkk.org/EFA/EFAcountry/Pakistan.pdf

ICG report reforming education sector Oct 7 2004 page 6

Elections, Democracy and Stability in Pakistan Crisis Group Asia Report N°137, 31 July
2007

Mohammad Waseem, Democratisation in Pakistan: A Study of the 2002 Elections (Karachi,


2006),

Nasir Jalil, "Pakistan's Education: the First Decade", in Pervez Hoodbhoy, ed., Education
and the State: Fifty Years of Pakistan, (Oxford, 1998) p. 35.

See Hassan Askari Rizvi, The Military and Politics 1947-1997 (Lahore, 2000), pp. 57-58.

Constitution of Pakistan cited at :http:en.wikipedia.org/wiki/constitution_of_pakistan

27
HRCP electoral watch Cited at: www.hrcpelectoralwatch.org/pactyprofilescfm

"Social Development in Pakistan 2002-03: The State of Education", Social Planning and
Development Centre, Karachi, 2003. p. 2.

Dec.2000: “Review of the management of education” .DR Muhanammad Memon


Education department sindh govt.

Decentralization in the Education System of, Pakistan: Policies and Strategies Academy of
Educational Planning and Management Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan,
Islamabad June 2003

Kalima Hayat Cited at: www.hrcpelectoralwatch.org/pactyprofilescfm.


Cited at official website of Pakistan People's Party (PPP): http://www.ppp.org.pk
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