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Chapter 29 The Western World (Since 1970) I. Moving Beyond the Cold War i. 1970s: U.S.

-USSR relations entered dtente phase 1. 1972 Antiballistic Missile Treaty: limit ABM launching systems ii. 1975: Helsinki Agreement reduced U.S.-USSR tensions 1. Recognized all European borders established since end of WWII 2. Recognize and protect human rights of citizens iii. Jimmy Carter focused on human rights protection in foreign policy 1. 1979: Soviet invasion of Afghanistan hardened U.S.-USSR relations 2. Carter cancels U.S. participation in Moscow Olympics; places embargo on shipment of U.S. grain to USSR iv. Early Reagan administration witnessed return to harsh rhetoric 1. Reagan begins military buildup, stimulating a renewed arms race 2. 1982: Reagan introduces nuclear-tipped cruise missile 3. Reagan supports Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) 4. Reagan provided military support to Afghan insurgents, ensure USSRs defeat b. The End of the Cold War i. 1985: Accession of Mikhail Gorbachev brought Cold War to dramatic end 1. New Thinking policy brought major changes 2. 1987 INF Treaty: eliminate intermediate-range nuclear weapons with U.S. 3. U.S. and USSR realized large military budgets led to too many problems ii. Gorbachev allowed for greater autonomy in Eastern European Communist nations 1. USSR would no longer militarily support Communist governments facing internal revolt iii. 1990-1991: Persian Gulf War 1. U.S. liberates Kuwait after Iraqi invasion iv. 1991: USSR had disintegration Toward a New Western Order a. The Revolutionary Era in the Soviet Union i. 1964-1982: Brezhnev reluctant to reform 1. Brezhnev: right of USSR to intervene if socialism was threatened in another socialist state ii. Brezhnev benefited from dtente atmosphere 1. Permitted more access to Western culture 2. Dissenters, such as Andrei Sakharov, still punished iii. Brezhnev continued emphasis on heavy industry 1. Complex bureaucracy discouraged efficiency 2. Soviet system bred apathy, complacency, absenteeism 3. mid-1970s: bad harvest forces USSR to buy grain from the West

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iv. 1970s: USSR developed ruling system depending on patronage 1. Party and state leaders granted awards and material privileges v. Decline in morale inspired the emergence of Party reformers 1. 1982: Yuri Andropov succeeds Brezhnev, but unable to make substantive changes vi. The Gorbachev Era 1. March 1985: Mikhail Gorbachev elected Party general secretary 2. 1980s: USSR economic problems were obvious a. Decline in standard of living 3. Perestroika economic policy served as cornerstone of reforms a. Limited free enterprise and some private property b. Glasnost (openness) encouraged people to openly discuss strengths and weaknesses of the government 4. 1988: Gorbachev calls for creation of competitively-elected Congress of Peoples Deputies a. Legalized formation of other parties; struck Article 6 (guaranteed leading role of Communist Party) b. Creates new state presidency (Party-state separation) c. March 1990: Gorbachev becomes USSRs first president 5. Gorbachev released iron grip on ethnic tensions as a by-product of glasnost Gorbachev had not anticipated a. Ethnic groups protest what they perceived as inequalities 6. 1988-1990: nationalist movements in Soviet republics a. Movements in Georgia, Latvia, Estonia, Moldavia, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, and Lithuania called for sovereignty and independence from Russian-based rule vii. The End of the Soviet Union 1. Gorbachev labored to cooperate more closely with Boris Yeltsin (Russian Republic president June 1991) 2. 1991: conservative leaders of traditional Soviet institutions grown increasingly worried about the impending dissolution of USSR a. August 19, 1991: rightists stage coup and arrest Gorbachev b. Gorbachevs persistence and Yeltsin-led resistance caused coup to disintegrate rapidly 3. Soviet republics moved for complete independence a. December 1, 1991: leaders of Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus announced that USSR had ceased to exist; would be replaced by voluntary Commonwealth of Independent States b. December 25, 1991: Gorbachev resigns; turns over responsibilities to Boris Yeltsin 4. New power struggle under Yeltsin a. Yeltsin committed to free market economy b. Economic hardships, social disarray and organized crime led Russians to increasingly support former Communists and hard-line nationalists

c. Yeltsins brutal use of force in Chechnya undermined his support 5. 1999: Yeltsin replaced by Vladimir Putin a. Adopt more assertive role in international affairs b. July 2001 reforms: unrestricted sale/purchase of land; tax cuts aimed at boosting economic growth b. Eastern Europe: The Collapse of the Communist Order i. Poland 1. 1971: Wladyslaw Gomulka replaced by Edward Gierek a. Attempts to solve economic problems by borrowing from the West b. 1980: huge increase in food prices to pay off debt workers protests erupt c. Lech Walesa leads Solidarity (Catholic-affiliated independent labor movement) d. Solidarity able to win a series of concessions e. December 1981: Polish government arrest Walesa, outlaw Solidarity, impose military rule 2. 1988: demonstrations led to free parliamentary elections a. Military regime allowed for Solidarity coalition to form new government b. 1990: Lech Walesa chosen as new Polish president c. Rapid free market reforms led to severe unemployment and popular discontent d. November 1995: Aleksander Kwasniewski (former Communist) becomes new president ii. Hungary 1. Jnos Kdr government enacted economic reforms a. 1980s: legalized small private enterprises b. Even established fairly friendly relations with the West 2. Economy sagged 1989: Kdr fell from power 1989: Hungarian Communist government began reforms due to growing dissatisfaction a. New political parties called for establishment of democratic republic b. March 1990: Democratic Forum (right-wing) wins election; committed to free market economy iii. Czechoslovakia 1. Hard-line government under Gustav Husk a. Purged Party and instituted policy of massive repression b. 1988-1989: mass demonstrations c. November 17, 1989: Civic Forum (opposition) officially recognized d. Husks government collapses Vaclav Havel becomes leader of new non-Communist government 2. Czechs and Slovaks disagreed over makeup of the new state

a. January 1, 1993: Czechoslovakia splits into Czech Republic and Slovakia iv. Romania 1. 1948: Communist Peoples Democratic Front assumed complete power 1965: Nicolae Ceausescu establishes dictatorial regime a. Used secret police force against dissent b. Rejected Gorbachevs reforms c. Despite food shortages, Ceausescu insisted that Romania continue exporting these foods/goods d. Rapid urbanization program bulldozed entire villages, further angering the populace 2. December 1989: crushing of Timisoara demonstration December 21, 1989: army refused to support repression a. December 22, 1989: Ceausescu and wife captured December 25, 1989: tried and executed b. 1990: National Salvation Front wins elections v. Bulgaria 1. 1954: Todor Zhivkov becomes leader of Bulgarian Communist Party a. October 1989: antigovernment demonstrations November 1989: Zhivkov removed from office b. November 1991: new government led by United Democratic Front c. Socialist Party (former Communists) remained potent force in Bulgarian politics vi. Albania 1. Albania remained isolated under Enver Hoxha (1944-1985) and Ramiz Alia a. 1990: antigovernment demonstrations Alia promises reforms b. New parties legalized c. March 1991: first free elections held c. The Reunification of Germany i. 1950s: East Germany under Walter Ulbricht 1. Industrial nationalization, agricultural collectivization 2. East Germans flee to West Germany lack of skilled labor creating economic problems in East Germany 1961: East German government builds Berlin Wall ii.